The SAGE Handbook of Personality and Individual Differences: Volume I: The Science of Personality and Individual Differences

Handbooks

Edited by: Virgil Zeigler-Hill & Todd K. Shackelford

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Theoretical Perspectives on Personality and Individual Differences

    Part II: Research Strategies for Studying Personality and Individual Differences

    Part III: The Measurement of Personality and Individual Differences

  • Copyright

    Editorial Board

    Robert A. Ackerman, PhD, University of Texas at Dallas

    Jonathan M. Adler, PhD, Olin College of Engineering

    Mathias Allemand, PhD, Universität Zürich

    Jack J. Bauer, PhD, University of Dayton

    Peter Borkenau, PhD, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

    Bradley J. Brummel, PhD, University of Tulsa

    Amy B. Brunell, PhD, The Ohio State University at Mansfield

    Susan T. Charles, PhD, University of California at Irvine

    A. Timothy Church, PhD, Washington State University

    C. Randall Colvin, PhD, Northeastern University

    Anthony D. Hermann, PhD, Bradley University

    Jan Hofer, PhD, Universität Osnabrück

    Christopher J. Holden, PhD, Appalachian State University

    Chris J. Jackson, PhD, University of New South Wales Sydney

    John A. Johnson, PhD, Pennsylvania State University

    Kevin Lanning, PhD, Florida Atlantic University

    Christopher T. Leone, PhD, University of North Florida

    Shanhong Luo, PhD, University of North Carolina Wilmington

    Charlotte N. Markey, PhD, Rutgers University

    Matthew J. W. McLarnon, PhD, Oakland University

    Kate C. McLean, PhD, Western Washington University

    Fred L. Oswald, PhD, Rice University

    Peter J. Rentfrow, PhD, University of Cambridge

    Willibald Ruch, PhD, Universität Zürich

    William G. Shadel, PhD, RAND Corporation

    Jefferson A. Singer, PhD, Connecticut College

    Ashton C. Southard, PhD, Oakland University

    Steven J. Stanton, PhD, Oakland University

    Howard Tennen, PhD, University of Connecticut Health Center

    Todd M. Thrash, PhD, College of William and Mary

    Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, PhD, Oakland University

    Dustin Wood, PhD, Wake Forest University

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Notes on the Editor and Contributors

    The Editors

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill is Professor and the Director of Graduate Training for the Department of Psychology at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. He earned his PhD in social-personality from the University of Oklahoma in 2004 under the guidance of Dr Carolin J. Showers. His primary research interests are in three interrelated areas: (1) dark personality features (e.g., narcissism, spitefulness), (2) self-esteem, and (3) interpersonal relationships. He is the author of more than 180 publications, including edited volumes such as The Dark Side of Personality, Self-Esteem, Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology, and The Evolution of Psychopathology. He is currently an associate editor for the Journal of Personality, Journal of Personality Assessment, and Self and Identity as well as serving as a co-editor for the Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences.

    Todd K. Shackelford received his PhD in Evolutionary Psychology in 1997 from the University of Texas at Austin. Since 2010, he has been Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan, where he is Co-Director of the Evolutionary Psychology Lab. In 2016, he was appointed Distinguished Professor by the Oakland University Board of Trustees. Shackelford has published around 250 journal articles and his work has been cited about 15,000 times. Much of Shackelford's research addresses sexual conflict between men and women, with a special focus on testing hypotheses derived from sperm competition theory. Since 2006, Shackelford has served as editor of the journal Evolutionary Psychology, and in 2014 founded the journal Evolutionary Psychological Science as Editor-in-Chief.

    The Contributors

    Mike H. Allerhand is the Statistician for the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. He earned his PhD in statistical pattern recognition of speech from the University of Cambridge in 1986 under the supervision of Professor Frank Fallside. His primary areas of expertise are statistical modelling, pattern recognition, and machine learning. He is an expert R programmer and author of a successful textbook on R programming.

    Shelby Arnold is a fourth-year student in Drexel University's PhD Program in Clinical Psychology (Forensic Concentration). She graduated from Wesleyan University in 2012 with a double major in Neuroscience and Psychology. After graduating, she worked for two years at a mental health jail diversion program in Queens, NY. Her research interests include community alternatives to incarceration, forensic mental health assessment, and evaluating factors that impact legal decision-making. She is currently co-authoring a book (under contract with Oxford University Press) on problem-solving courts.

    Nicole Barbaro received her MS in Psychology from Oakland University, Michigan, in 2017 under a Graduate Fellowship funded by the King–Chavez–Parks Initiative. She is currently a PhD student in evolutionary psychology at Oakland University (studying under the advisement of Dr Todd K. Shackelford), and serves as the Student Representative of the Executive Council for the Human Behavior and Evolution Society. Her primary research focuses on the evolutionary origins, development, and genetic underpinnings of romantic attachment, sexual conflict, and life history strategies. She has authored more than 30 articles and chapters. For more information please see www.nicolebarbaro.com.

    Sonia Baron is a senior at the Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College at Florida Atlantic University, where she is pursuing a double concentration in psychology and women's studies. As a peer educator on campus, she has become interested in working with outreach programs and local community involvement. During her undergraduate years she has enjoyed learning about the development of theory of mind in early childhood, personality development in children, and structural intersectionality. After graduation, she is planning to complete an EdS in School Psychology. She volunteers for El Sol, Jupiter's neighborhood resource center, in her spare time.

    Christopher T. Barry is Associate Professor in the Psychology Department at Washington State University. He received his PhD in clinical psychology with a child concentration from the University of Alabama in 2003. His primary research interests are in self-perception, including narcissism and self-esteem, as it relates to behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment; the association between social media activity and self-perception; and evidence-based assessment in clinical child and adolescent psychology. His work has been published in outlets such as Journal of Adolescence, Journal of Personality, Psychology of Popular Media Culture, and Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

    Anna Baumert is the Head of the Max-Planck research group ‘moral courage’ at the Max-Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods in Bonn and Professor for Personality and Social Psychology at the Technical University, Munich, School of Education. Her research focuses on personality-congruent information processing as well as the psychology of justice and morality. She relies on multimethod approaches in assessment, including behavioral observations, economic games, and reaction time based measures. Currently, she is associate editor for Social Psychology and elected member of the Executive Committee of the European Association for Personality Psychology. She embraces and promotes the values of openness and transparency in science.

    Jeremy C. Biesanz is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of British Columbia and Director of Quantitative Methodology at the Department of Psychology. A graduate of Cornell University, New York, he received his PhD from Arizona State University and has taught at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He is the recipient of the 2000 J. S. Tanaka Personality dissertation award and the 2006 Cattell early career award for contributions to multivariate experimental psychology. His research has appeared in journals such as Psychological Science, Journal of Personality, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Psychological Methods. His research interests include personality, accuracy, person perception, models for interpersonal perception and quantitative methodology and statistics.

    Gerhard Blickle is Professor at the University of Bonn. Blickle received his PhD from the University of Heidelberg, specializing in organizational psychology. He is a work and organizational psychologist who conducts research concerning job performance, interpersonal influence and social skill in vocational life, and personality features at work. He has authored more than 250 publications during his career which have appeared in outlets such as the Journal of Management, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Vocational Behavior, The Leadership Quarterly, European Journal of Personality, Applied Psychology: An International Review, Personality and Individual Differences, European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Journal of Personality Assessment, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Group & Organization Management, and International Journal of Selection and Assessment. He has served as an associate editor for the Psychologische Rundschau (German Psychologist), the German Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, and as an executive member of the Psychology Board of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – DFG).

    Robert F. Bornstein received his PhD in Clinical Psychology from the State University of New York at Buffalo and is Professor of Psychology at Adelphi University, New York. Dr Bornstein has published widely on personality dynamics and assessment. He wrote The Dependent Personality and The Dependent Patient: A Practitioner's Guide, co-authored (with Mary Languirand) How to Age in Place and Healthy Dependency, co-edited (with Christopher Hopwood) Multimethod Clinical Assessment, and co-edited (with Joseph Masling) seven volumes of the Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Theories series. Dr Bornstein is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, Association for Psychological Science, and Society for Personality Assessment; his research has been funded by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Science Foundation. He received SPA's 1995, 1999, 2002, 2008, and 2012 awards for Distinguished Contributions to the Literature, and the American Psychological Foundation 2005 Theodore Millon Award for Excellence in Personality Research.

    Stephanie Campbell is a PhD student of Clinical Psychology at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario. She received her Bachelor's degree in Psychology from the University of Western Ontario and graduated with distinction. Stephanie is currently the President of the Psi Chi chapter at Lakehead University. Psi Chi is an international honor society that seeks to promote excellence in scholarship, leadership, and in the science and application of psychology. Stephanie has been the recipient of several scholarships and awards including: Ontario Graduate Scholarships, Psi Chi Graduate Scholarship, St. Joseph's Care Group Applied Health Research Award, Queen Elizabeth Aiming for the Top Scholarship, and Western's Scholarship of Excellence. Her research interests include: neurocognitive assessment, dark personality traits, forensic psychology, and safe driving.

    Cindy K. Chung received her PhD in Social and Personality Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, where she held a research position before joining Intel Corporation. Her research is focused on words as reflections of personality, psychological states, and social dynamics using quantitative techniques. As a Senior Research Scientist at Intel, her role is to infuse a social psychological perspective in the development and assessment of computing products and experiences through language and behavioral analyses. Her current work in Talent Intelligence and Analytics in Human Resources (HR) focuses on the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications using natural language processing (NLP) techniques.

    Timothy J. Colton is Morris and Anna Feldberg Professor of Government and Russia Studies at Harvard University, where he served as Director of the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies and as Chair of the Department of Government. He is recognized internationally as an expert in political science, with primary interest in Russian and post-Soviet government and politics. His work has spanned many areas of expertise, including aspects of leadership, elections, and regime change. He is an Elected Fellow (for life) of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is the recipient of many other awards and honors, including the Walter Channing Cabot Fellowship (Harvard University). He has served in many professional capacities, including as Chairman of the International Politics Science Committee of the American Political Science Association, and Vice-Chairman of the National Council for Soviet and East European Research. He received his PhD from Harvard University.

    Brenda L. Connors is Professor at the Naval War College in Newport Rhode Island. She created the ALEADMOVE program and now directs the Movement Science and Leadership Studies Laboratory. Her career as a public servant spans three foreign-affairs agencies: State, Defense and the United States Information Agency (USIA). She holds two degrees in political science from Tufts University, Massachusetts. Her interests include interdisciplinary research within the national security context, human movement analysis and behavior, leadership-decision making style and team building, and infant developmental movement education and its impact on adult behavior. In the 1980s–90s, she worked alongside choreographer Erick Hawkins as a soloist in his modern dance company and as faculty at his Manhattan school. She is certified as an Advanced Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA) Practitioner by the late Warren Lamb through Motus Humanus, and is certified as a Somatic Movement Educator (SME) and Infant Developmental Movement Educator (IDME) by the School of Body–Mind Centering.

    Sindes Dawood is a PhD candidate in the Clinical Psychology program at the Pennsylvania State University under the guidance of Dr Aaron L. Pincus. She earned her Bachelor's degree (Honors) in Psychology from Michigan State University in 2013 and her Master's degree in Psychology from the Pennsylvania State University in 2016. Her primary research is in understanding how personality pathology, particularly pathological narcissism, influences the experience of internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms, self-harm) and externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression) concurrently and over different time periods. Her research and clinical work has also focused on the application of multisurface interpersonal assessment for describing and assessing interpersonal dynamics of patients in different therapeutic contexts, as a means to inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention.

    David DeMatteo is Associate Professor of Psychology and Law at Drexel University, Pennsylvania and Director of Drexel's JD/PhD Program in Law and Psychology. He received a BA in psychology from Rutgers University, New Jersey; an MA and PhD in Clinical Psychology from MCP Hahnemann University, Pennsylvania; and a JD from Villanova Law School, Pennsylvania. His research interests include psychopathic personality, forensic mental health assessment, and offender diversion. He has published more than 100 articles and book chapters, and seven books in his areas of interest. He is an Associate Editor for Law and Human Behavior and on the Editorial Boards of more than ten journals. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, a Fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Psychology, and board certified in forensic psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology. Dr DeMatteo is Past-President of the American Psychology–Law Society (APA Division 41).

    Emily A. Dowgwillo is a doctoral student in the Clinical Psychology program at the Pennsylvania State University under the guidance of Dr Aaron L. Pincus. Her research interests focus primarily on the assessment of pathological personality traits more generally and the assessment of pathological narcissism in particular. She is also interested in the meta-constructs of agency and communion and how perception of these constructs influences a person's interpersonal functioning. Additionally, she is focused on moving beyond static descriptions of these traits and characteristics to better understand how they function dynamically over time and across situations to create an individual's experience.

    Taryn Eaton received her Bachelor's Degree in psychology at the University of New Hampshire. She is currently a Master's student working in the Laboratory of Cognitive Origins at Oakland University, Michigan, under the guidance of Dr Jennifer Vonk. Taryn's research interests include animal cognition and how the cognitive psychology of nonhuman animals can be applied to animal conservation and animal welfare. Her MS thesis involves the study of metacognition in cephalopods and canines.

    John F. Edens is a licensed Psychologist (Texas) and Professor of Psychology at Texas A&M University. He has published over 150 journal articles and book chapters, primarily focused on the interface between the fields of mental health and law. Dr Edens is a former recipient of the Saleem Shah Award for Early Career Contributions to Law and Psychology, awarded by the American Psychology–Law Society, and the Theodore Millon Award in Personality Psychology, awarded by the American Psychological Foundation and the Society of Clinical Psychology. He is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and the American Psychological Association (Division 41). Dr Edens is a former Associate Editor of Psychological Assessment, the Journal of Personality Assessment, and Assessment. He is also the lead author of the Personality Assessment Inventory Computerized Interpretive Report for Correctional Settings.

    Ramzi Fatfouta is an affiliated researcher at the Department of Psychology, Personality Psychology, and Assessment, at the University of Potsdam. He earned his PhD in social-personality/neuroscience from the Freie Universität Berlin in 2015 under the guidance of Professor Dr Hauke Heekeren. His primary research interests are: intra- and interpersonal aspects of conflict resolution, maladaptive personality traits (e.g., narcissism), and social relationships. He is currently a consultant in the field of management diagnostics, focusing on individual and group assessments, management audits, and development centers.

    Michael G. Feeney is a recent graduate of Rutgers University, New Jersey, having earned a BA in both Psychology and Philosophy. Michael has publications in the Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Individual Differences and the Springer Encyclopedia of Personalityand Individual Differences. His research has been presented at the annual Society for Personality and Social Psychology research conference. Michael's research interests include personality research methodology and the philosophy of psychology.

    Nicolas Fieulaine is Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the Institute of Psychology at the University of Lyon, France. He earned his BA, MA, and PhD from Provence University and worked with Phil Zimbardo to develop and structure time perspective research worldwide. He was awarded with several research grants and is the program director of the Master of Applied Social Psychology at the University of Lyon. His earliest research interests dealt with the social roots and psychological implications of time perspective which he studied using quantitative and qualitative methods. He is also interested in applying psychology to social issues through action-research, field experiments, or professional training.

    Gregory Francis is Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University, Indiana. He earned his PhD in Cognitive and Neural Systems from Boston University in 1994. His primary research investigates neural models of dynamic visual perception, including properties of metacontrast masking, visual persistence, afterimages, and crowding. A secondary research area uses models of cognitive psychology to identify systems that optimize human performance for specific tasks. A tertiary research interest is the development of Internet activities for teaching psychology and statistics. Since 2011, he has also investigated statistical issues related to publication bias and excess success. He is a statistical advisor for the journal Psychological Science and serves on the editorial board for the journals Consciousness & Cognition, Neural Networks, Behavior Research Methods, Frontiers in Cognition, and Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance.

    R. Michael Furr is Professor of Psychology at Wake Forest University, North Carolina. His research interests include personality processes, people's interpersonal perceptions, personality pathology, and psychological measurement. His research has appeared in journals such as Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Psychological Methods. In addition, he has authored two books on psychological measurement, including Psychometrics: An Introduction, which has been translated into Russian. He is a Fellow of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, a Fellow of both Division 5 (Quantitative and Qualitative Methods) and Division 8 (Social and Personality Psychology) of the American Psychological Association, and a recipient of WFU's Award for Excellence in Research. He earned a BA from the College of William and Mary, an MS from Villanova University, Pennsylvania, and a PhD from the University of California at Riverside.

    Miranda Giacomin is currently a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Psychology at the University of Toronto, Ontario. She works in the Social Perception and Cognition Lab with Dr Nicholas Rule. In 2016, she earned her PhD in social psychology from Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario, under the guidance of Dr Christian H. Jordan. Her primary research interests include examining the intrapersonal variability in narcissism (e.g., daily fluctuations in people's narcissistic tendencies) and the interpersonal dynamics of narcissism (e.g., how narcissists are perceived by others).

    Gilles E. Gignac is Senior Lecturer in the School of Psychological Science at the University of Western Australia. He earned his PhD from Swinburne University, Melbourne, in 2004, under the guidance of Professor Con Stough, after completing a Master's degree at the University of Western Ontario in 2001 under Tony Vernon. His primary research interests revolve around intelligence: reliability of test scores, factorial validity, convergent validity, and predictive validity. As a teacher of quantitative methods to psychology students, his favorite transformation involves students going from hating statistics to tolerating them. As a researcher, he dislikes transformations as there are almost always more attractive statistical options. He serves on the editorial boards of Intelligence and Psychological Assessment.

    Robert Hogan, President of Hogan Assessment Systems, is an international authority on personality assessment, leadership, and organizational effectiveness. He was McFarlin Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Tulsa, Oklahoma, for 14 years. Prior to that, he was Professor of Psychology and Social Relations at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. He has received a number of research and teaching awards, and is the editor of the Handbook of Personality Psychology and author of the Hogan Personality Inventory. Dr Hogan received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, specializing in personality assessment. Dr Hogan is the author of more than 300 journal articles, chapters, and books. He is widely credited with demonstrating how careful attention to personality factors can influence organizational effectiveness in a variety of areas – ranging from organizational climate and leadership to selection and effective team performance. Dr Hogan is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    Kai T. Horstmann is a PhD student at Humboldt University, Berlin, in the Department of Psychological Diagnostics, supervised by Dr Matthias Ziegler. He received his Master's degree from Humboldt University in 2015 with a focus on methods and statistics. In his research, he focuses on the interplay of situations, affect, and behavior, the application and development of situational taxonomies, the relation of personality states and personality traits, and the identification of the morally exceptional in everyday life.

    Christian H. Jordan is Professor in the Department of Psychology at Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. He earned his PhD in Social Psychology from the University of Waterloo in 2003 under the guidance of Mark Zanna, Steve Spencer, and Ziva Kunda. In his research, he primarily studies the self from a social-cognitive perspective. He is particularly interested in the complex psychological processes associated with self-evaluations, including narcissism, self-esteem, and implicit self-esteem. He served as associate editor of Self & Identity and is currently associate editor at the Journal of Personality.

    Shannon E. Kelley is a PhD candidate in Clinical Psychology at Texas A&M University and is currently completing her predoctoral internship at Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts General Hospital. She graduated from Rice University, Texas, in 2012 with a bachelor's degree in Psychology. Her primary research interests focus on personality assessment, psychopathic personality, and the reliability and validity of mental health evidence in legal settings. She has co-authored 11 peer-reviewed journal publications and two book chapters on these topics. She has also served on the Student Editorial Board for Law and Human Behavior and as an ad-hoc reviewer for five other journal outlets. Her dissertation investigates the assessment and predictive utility of the DSM-5 conceptualization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Robert F. Krueger is Hathaway Distinguished Professor, Distinguished McKnight University Professor, and Director of Clinical Training in the Department of Psychology at the University of Minnesota. He earned his Bachelor's degree and PhD from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and completed his clinical internship at Brown University, Rhode Island. Professor Krueger's major interests lie at the intersection of research on psychopathology, personality disorders, psychometrics, behavior genetics, and physical health. He has received a number of major awards, including the University of Minnesota McKnight Land-Grant Professorship, the American Psychological Association's Award for Early Career Contributions, the award for Early Career Contributions from the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, and an American Psychological Foundation Theodore Millon Mid-Career Award. He is a Fellow of the American Psychopathological Association (APPA) and the Association for Psychological Science (APS), and was inducted into the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology (SMEP). He is also the Editor of the Journal of Personality Disorders.

    Thomas Kubiak is Professor of Health Psychology at Johannes Gutenberg University. He earned his PhD in Psychology from the University of Freiburg in 2002 under the guidance of Professor Dr Jochen Fahrenberg. His research revolves around the topics of self-regulation and emotion in health and disease, with a particular focus on Ambulatory Assessment and real-life methodologies to further our understanding of underlying processes underlying health-relative behavioral phenomena. Recent projects concern the psychosocial and environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and active and healthy ageing. He is thee founding Executive Board member of the Society for Ambulatory Assessment (www.ambulatory-assessment.org).

    Kevin Lanning is Professor of Psychology at the Wilkes Honors College of Florida Atlantic University, where he teaches and supervises undergraduate theses in psychology and data science. Lanning earned his bachelor's and doctoral degrees at UC Berkeley, specializing in personality and measurement, and has served as Editor-in-Chief of Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. Lanning's primary research interest is in assessing personality maturity through text analysis. His work in network science was fostered largely by his experience as a university administrator, where he observed that the traditional structure of colleges and departments/majors mapped poorly onto the nature of scholarship and student interests, attenuating the social and intellectual capital of faculty and students alike. In his spare time, Lanning is an amateur photographer (http://bit.ly/LanningPhotos).

    Joyce H. L. Lui is a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology Program at Washington State University. She is currently completing her predoctoral internship at the Mailman Center for Child Development at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Her research focuses on correlates and outcomes of psychopathic traits (particularly callous-unemotional traits) in youth. She is also interested in exploring the efficacy and effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs for youth with conduct problems and psychopathic traits, as well as understanding factors that promote the dissemination and sustainment of evidence-based practices for this population. Her work has been published in several peer-reviewed journals such as Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Cognition and Emotion, and Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.

    Crista E. Maracic is a doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology at Adelphi University, New York. Her primary scientific interests include personality pathology and classification, and she is examining personality assessment with Dr Robert Bornstein and Dr Gregory Haggerty through an NIH-funded study at Nassau University Medical Center (NUMC), New York. In 2015, Crista presented her research on Domains of Impairment in DSM-5 and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Symptoms at the Association for Psychological Science Annual Convention. Her research has received university funding, and she has been recognized for her doctoral studies. Most recently, Crista is studying the relationship between shame and personality dynamics. She looks forward to the clinical training that lies ahead as she will be learning trauma-focused interventions. Crista is an Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Adelphi University and a student affiliate of various psychological organizations, including the Society for Personality Assessment, in which she holds a leadership position.

    David K. Marcus is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at Washington State University in Pullman, Washington. He earned his PhD in Clinical Psychology from Clark University, Massachusetts, in 1989 under the guidance of Dr Morton Wiener. He is the author of over 80 peer-reviewed journal articles and recently co-edited The Dark Side of Personality (APA books). He is currently the editor of Group Dynamics and serves on the editorial boards of Psychological Assessment, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, and Archives of Scientific Psychology. Much of his research focuses on psychopathy and other dark personality traits.

    Robert R. McCrae received a BA in Philosophy from Michigan State University (1971) and a PhD in Personality Psychology from Boston University (1976). He is retired from the National Institute on Aging, NIH, where he conducted research on personality development, structure, and assessment. With Paul T. Costa, Jr., he is the author of Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor TheoryPerspective and the NEO Inventories. With colleagues from around the world he has conducted cross-cultural research on self-reported and observer rated personality traits in adolescents and adults. He lives in Gloucester, Massachusetts.

    Katrina H. McDougall is a doctoral student in the Clinical Psychology program at Washington State University. She received her BSc in Psychology from the University of Calgary. Her current research is focused on how personality, specifically narcissism and egocentrism, may relate to adolescent aggression, delinquency, and risk-taking behavior. Her primary clinical experiences involve providing evidence-based assessment services to children, adolescents, and adults.

    Carol-Lynne Moore has been involved in the field of movement analysis as a writer, lecturer, and consultant for 40 years. During this time, she worked closely with Warren Lamb, creator of Movement Pattern Analysis, until his death in 2014. Their collaboration has spanned consulting assignments, the development of the next generation of Movement Pattern Analysts, and ongoing research. Dr Moore's publications include Meaning in Motion (2014); The Harmonic Structure of Movement, Music, and Dance According to Rudolf Laban (2009); Movement and Making Decisions (2005); Executives in Action (1982); and, with Kaoru Yamamoto, Beyond Words: Movement Observation and Analysis, 2nd edition (2012). Dr Moore currently directs the MoveScape Center in Denver, Colorado. She has been listed in Who's Who in America since 2013, including their roster of Lifetime Achievement inductees.

    René Mõttus is Lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. He earned his PhD in Psychology in the University of Tartu in 2009. His research interests span various questions related to individual differences, most notably optimal ways of representing human personality and the etiology, development, and real-world consequences of personality. He has published dozens of journal articles on these and related topics, and serves as the associated editor of the European Journal of Personality and the Journal of Personality.

    Adam P. Natoli is a Ronald E. McNair Scholar. He received his MS from Eastern Michigan University and is currently a PhD Candidate in Adelphi University's Clinical Psychology Program. Adam's research interests lie in personality dynamics and assessment, with a focus on multimethod assessment, test score discontinuity, and the process-focused model of personality assessment. His research has been funded by a grant from the Society for Personality Assessment. Adam, a Graduate Student Scholar of Division 39 of the American Psychological Association, received an American Psychoanalytic Association training grant and completed a Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Fellowship at the Michigan Psychoanalytic Institute. He is the recipient of multiple research and academic awards and honors, including Summa Cum Laude Institutional Honors from Rider University, New Jersey. Adam is a Member-At-Large for the SPA Graduate Student Association, and spent two years as Student Representative for the Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Psychology Section of the Canadian Psychological Association.

    Christopher S. Nave is the Associate Director of the Master of Behavioral and Decision Sciences program at the University of Pennsylvania. He was previously an Assistant Professor in Psychology at Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey. His areas of expertise and research interests include personality psychology, behavioral observation, assessment, multi-method designs, and personality judgment. His scholarly publications have appeared in academic journals including the Journal of Research in Personality, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and Social Psychological and Personality Science. In addition, his research has been presented at a number of national and international conferences, including the American Psychological Association, the Association for Research in Personality, the European Conference on Personality, and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Christopher earned his BA in Psychology at Elon University, North Carolina, his MA from Wake Forest University, North Carolina, and his PhD in Social/Personality Psychology from the University of California, Riverside.

    Steffen Nestler is Professor of Psychological Methods at the Department of Psychology at the Universität Leipzig. His primary research interests are in quantitative psychology, where he works on the estimation of structural equation models, the social relations model, social network models, and extensions of growth models. His recent work also includes research on the accuracy of interpersonal judgments and the statistical analysis of judgmental accuracy data.

    Alyssa L. Norris is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine through the Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island, and Lifespan Health System. She earned her PhD in clinical psychology from Washington State University in 2017 under the mentorship of Dr David Marcus. She recently completed her residency in behavioral medicine at Brown University's Clinical Psychology program, where her research and clinical work has focused on the intersection of sexual health and alcohol use, as well as health disparities by sexual orientation.

    James W. Pennebaker is the Regents Centennial Professor of Liberal Arts and Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. His earliest research explored the relationships between people's perceptions of their health and their biological states. Later findings revealed that when people faced traumatic experiences they were much more likely to become sick if they kept the experiences secret than if they spoke about them. This ultimately led to the discovery of expressive writing – a method that found that if people were asked to write about emotional upheavals for as little as 15 minutes a day for 3–4 days, their physical and mental health improved. The writing research helped Pennebaker and his students discover and develop methods to analyze natural language. Pennebaker has published over 300 articles and 10 books and is highly cited in the social and computer sciences.

    Aaron L. Pincus is Professor of Psychology and Director of Clinical Training at the Pennsylvania State University. He received his MS in Personality Psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and his PhD in Clinical Psychology from the University of British Columbia, where he studied under Jerry S. Wiggins. His research interests focus on interpersonal functioning in personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy, personality disorders, and personality assessment. He has authored over 150 publications and co-founded the Society for Interpersonal Theory and Research. He is also the co-developer of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales and the developer of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. He is a Fellow of the Society for Personality Assessment and the recipient of the 2007 Theodore Millon Award for mid-career contributions to personality psychology. He currently serves as Editor-in-Chief of Assessment.

    Martin Quintus is a doctoral candidate in Personality Psychology at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany supervised by Dr Cornelia Wrzus. He uses self-reports, informant ratings, and implicit tests to study processes of personality development across the lifespan. He is especially interested in volitional personality change and examines when and why people want to change their personality characteristics. Furthermore, he is interested in how people can achieve personality changes and how changes can be fostered and maintained. He expects to finish his PhD in 2018.

    John F. Rauthmann is Assistant Professor at the Wake Forest University, North Carolina. He received his diploma from the Leopold-Franzens University, Innsbruck, and his PhD from the Humboldt University, Berlin. He is interested in personality and individual differences, person–situation transactions, and psychological situations.

    Richard Rende is founder and Director of Social Behavioral Research Applications, providing consulting for all aspects of innovative, interdisciplinary research aimed at the intersection of psychological, social, and biological mechanisms in the service of identifying and solving vexing issues with implication for policy and practice. He has received funding as Principal Investigator from four branches of the National Institutes of Health (NIMH, NIDA, NIAAA, NCI) to support a research program in integrated lifespan developmental science, psychopathology, genetic epidemiology, and social psychology. He was appointed as a Standing Member of the Psychosocial Development Risk Prevention Study Section at the NIH Center for Scientific Review and has served on the Editorial Board of six scientific journals. He has received numerous academic awards, including a Research Career Award in Genetic Epidemiology from the National Institute of Mental Health. He received his PhD from Penn State University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University.

    Jessica L. Schleider is a Clinical Psychology doctoral candidate at Harvard University, Massachusetts, currently completing her Doctoral Internship at Yale School of Medicine. The overall objective of her research program is to develop scalable, accessible interventions for youth mental health problems; identify mechanisms of change underlying their effects; and test novel approaches to their dissemination. Supported by grants from the NIMH, the American Psychological Foundation, and the Harvard Center on the Developing Child, Jessica's work focuses on two interconnected targets that might inform the design of such interventions: familial processes, such as parental psychopathology, and youth cognitions, such as beliefs about the malleability of personal traits. Her work has been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals, including Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, and Clinical Psychology Review. Jessica has served as a peer-reviewer for over 20 academic journals in the field.

    Hans S. Schroder is a doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology at Michigan State University, and is currently completing his predoctoral internship at McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School in Belmont, Massachusetts. Hans's research aims to uncover the factors that promote resiliency to errors, setbacks, and adversity. To do this, he draws on cognitive neuroscience methods (EEG/ERP) to study the basic brain processes that happen when people make mistakes and how the brain then coordinates adaptive behavior. Hans is also interested in how mindsets – or beliefs about the malleability of self-attributes – promote resilience to setbacks and challenges. Hans's research has been published in several peer-reviewed journals including Psychological Science, Biological Psychology, and Psychophysiology and has been featured in several media outlets, including Time Magazine, ABC News, The Wall Street Journal, and the BBC's Horizon program.

    Michela Schröder-Abé is Professor of Personality Psychology and Assessment in the Department of Psychology at the University of Potsdam. She earned her PhD in Social-Personality and Psychological Assessment from Chemnitz University in 2006. Her research interest in personality psychology is on the dynamic interplay of personality and social relationships. She focuses on characteristics such as self-esteem, narcissism, and emotion regulation and employs measures beyond self-report such as behavioral observations and physiological measures. Her research interest in psychological assessment is on implicit measures, their psychometric properties, fakeability, and interaction with explicit measures. Michela's research has been published in outlets such as Journal of Research in Personality, European Journal of Personality, Assessment, and European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

    Yael Sela is a postdoctoral researcher and Special Lecturer in Psychology at Oakland University, Michigan, a Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Michigan, Flint, and a part-time faculty member at Washtenaw Community College. She received her MS and PhD in Psychology from Oakland University under the guidance of Todd K. Shackelford in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Her primary research focuses on romantic relationships, sexual behavior, religiosity, and violence, from an evolutionary-psychological perspective. She has authored more than 33 articles and chapters.

    Ryne A. Sherman is the Chief Science Officer at Hogan Assessment Systems and was previously an Associate Professor at Texas Tech University and Florida Atlantic University. He received his PhD at the University of California, Riverside in 2011. He is interested in personality, organizational effectiveness, data analytics, psychological situations, and person -situation transactions in daily life. He was recognized as an APS Rising Star in 2015 and was a recipient of the SAGE Young Scholar Award in 2018. Dr Sherman served as an associate editor for the Journal of Research in Personality from 2016 through 2017 and is on the editorial board at numerous journals including the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and the Journal of Personality.

    Maciej Stolarski is Associate Professor and the Director of the Division for the Study of Intellect of the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Warsaw, where he earned his PhD in individual differences under the guidance of Professor Maria Ledzińska. He is also the founder and current director of the Positive Psychology in Practice post-graduate studies program. His primary research interests include psychology of time (temporal perspectives, chronotypes), psychology of emotions and well-being, and individual differences analyzed at country-level. His articles were published in such journals as Intelligence, Personality and Individual Differences, Journal of Happiness Studies, and Chronobiology International. He edited Time Perspective Theory: Review, Research and Application (Springer, 2015). In 2017 he received the Andrzej Malewski Award for the best young social scientist provided by the President of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

    Jana Uher is Senior Lecturer at the University of Greenwich and a Senior Researcher at the London School of Economics. She received her PhD from Free University Berlin in 2009, where she founded and headed the research group Comparative Differential and Personality Psychology, funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG). Thereafter, she was awarded a Marie Curie Fellowship by the European Commission. Her research is transdisciplinary, focusing on the philosophy-of-science foundations of psychological, behavioral, and social-science research on individuals, their ‘personality', and social relationships reaching across different human cultures and different species. She employs a broad portfolio of quantitative, qualitative, and behavioral methods in studies with human children and adults with different sociocultural backgrounds and various nonhuman primate species. Jana Uher has been working at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVAN) in Leipzig and the Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (ISTC-CNR) in Rome. She is currently a guest editor of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences.

    Beth A. Visser is a Personality Psychologist, and joined the departments of Psychology and Interdisciplinary Studies at Lakehead University, Ontario, in 2016. Previously, she was a member of the Psychology Department at Trent University for five years, also in Canada. Beth received her PhD in social/personality psychology from Brock University in 2011 under the mentorship of Dr Michael Ashton. Since then, she has built a research program around psychopathy and other dark personality traits, particularly as they relate to the HEXACO personality framework. She also conducts research in cognitive abilities, self-sexualization, and scale development. She has over 40 publications in books, encyclopedias, and peer-reviewed journals such as Journal of Personality, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Individual Differences, Journal of Personality Assessment, and Archives of Sexual Behavior.

    Jennifer Vonk is a Comparative/Cognitive Psychologist whose primary research program aims to examine cognitive continuities and discontinuities between humans and other species. She completed her undergraduate degree at McMaster University, Ontario, conducting an honors thesis in behavioral endocrinology, a Master's degree in human memory at Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario, and a doctoral degree on the topic of concept formation in great apes at York University, Ontario. Following her graduate work, she conducted comparative studies on chimpanzees and human children as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Louisiana. Her first faculty appointment was with the University of Southern Mississippi and she is now a full Professor of Psychology at Oakland University, Michigan. She has authored more than 90 peer-reviewed papers and chapters and is the co-editor of two edited volumes and a co-editor in chief for the journal Animal Behavior and Cognition.

    Gregory D. Webster is Associate Professor and the Director of the Social Psychology Program at the Department of Psychology at the University of Florida. He earned master's and doctoral degrees in Psychology from the College of William & Mary and the University of Colorado Boulder respectively. He was an NIMH postdoctoral trainee in quantitative methods at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and spent a sabbatical year at the Kinsey Institute at the University of Indiana Bloomington. He is the recipient of a University of Florida Research Foundation Professorship and an associate editor of Social Psychological and Personality Science. He is also the PI on an NSF grant examining the effects of individual differences on people's decisions to prepare and evacuate for hurricanes. His primary research focuses on cutting-edge statistical modeling, which in turn informs his substantive research programs in personality, aggression, decision-making, and romantic and sexual relationships.

    Mario Wenzel is a Postdoc researcher at the Health Psychology lab at Johannes Gutenberg University, where he conducts research at the intersection of health, personality, and cognitive psychology. Dr Wenzel's main research focus is to deepen the understanding of how self-control-related factors such as motivation, goals, attitudes, and cognitive capacity affect individuals’ behavior and their social networks in daily life. He is also interested in the mechanisms and processes of how mindfulness is associated with well-being and health-related outcomes in daily life. Dr Wenzel's research has been published in several peer-reviewed journals including Social Psychology and Personality Science, Personality and Individual Differences, and Biological Psychology.

    Zara E. Wright is a doctoral candidate under the mentorship of Dr Robert Krueger in the Clinical Science and Psychopathology Research program at the University of Minnesota. Her research interests include delineating models of psychopathology through psychometric and biometric analyses, the cross-section between personality and psychopathology, particularly as it relates to externalizing traits, and using multivariate analysis and measurement techniques to inform dimensional considerations of psychopathology.

    Cornelia Wrzus is Assistant Professor of Personality Psychology and Psychological Assessment at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. Her research focuses on processes of personality development, the generalizability of personality processes across the lifespan, as well as interactions between personality characteristics and social relationships. She combines assessments in daily life and under controlled laboratory conditions using diverse measures such as self-reports, implicit tests, informant ratings, physiological measures, and behavioral assessments. She is currently an associate editor for the European Journal of Personality. Her publications and projects are listed under https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Cornelia_Wrzus

    Leila Z. Wu is a doctoral student in the Clinical Psychology program at the Pennsylvania State University under the guidance of Dr Aaron L. Pincus. She received her BA (Honors) in Psychology from Pennsylvania State University in 2013 and her MS in Psychology from the Pennsylvania State University in 2017. Her primary research interests include personality disorders, personality assessment, and interpersonal problems, particularly how personality disorders and interpersonal dynamics shape the way individuals experience the world and function in life. She is also interested in international extensions of clinical assessment methods for use with Chinese speakers. She is currently an editorial assistant for Assessment.

    Philip G. Zimbardo is Professor Emeritus at Stanford University, California, and creator of The Stanford Prison Experiment. Dr Zimbardo has spent over 50 years teaching and studying psychology, and currently lectures worldwide whilst actively working to promote his non-profit organization The Heroic Imagination Project (www.heroicimagination.org). He has written over 60 books and has over 600 publications. His current research looks at the psychology of heroism; he asks: ‘What pushes some people to become perpetrators of evil, while others act heroically on behalf of those in need?’ Prior to his heroism work, he served as President of the American Psychological Association and designed and narrated the award winning 26-part PBS series, Discovering Psychology. He has published more than 50 books and 400 professional and popular articles and chapters, among them Shyness, The Lucifer Effect, The Time Cure, The Time Paradox, and, most recently, Man, Interrupted.


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