The issue of creativity in cities was pushed towards the forefront of the urban studies agenda thanks to the work of Richard Florida (2002), who suggested that the ‘creative class’ was important in stimulating economic growth. However, the links between urban development and creativity were originally underlined in work done in the late 1980s and 1990s by Charles Landry and his collaborators (Landry and Bianchini, 1995). The basic idea that cities that have more of their population drawn from the creative class have superior growth rates has been supported by subsequent empirical work (e.g. Rutten and Gelissen, 2010). Some studies also suggest that mid-sized cities are now the main creative powerhouses since they can offer a superior lifestyle to the creative ...