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Harriet Friedmann

In: The SAGE Handbook of Nature: Three Volume Set

Chapter 66: Metabolism of Global Cities: London, Manchester, Chicago

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Metabolism of Global Cities: London, Manchester, Chicago
Metabolism of Global Cities: London, Manchester, Chicago
Harriet Friedmann

The metabolism of cities is at the heart of urban natures. How do cities emerge, endure and change as they exchange materials and energy with their environments (Barles, 2005; Daviron & Allaire, 2017; Gonzales de Molina & Toledo, 2014, pp. 59–85)? Metabolism is the conversion of energy from outside an organism into its life-sustaining processes. Seen this way, cities in the twenty-first century have inherited multiple intertwined legacies since humans began to settle with willing plants and animals into relatively permanent dwelling places thousands of years ago (Mumford, 1961).

Cities are a useful lens to understand how permanent human settlements are related to near and distant landscapes, that is, to places ...

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