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Nature Governance: A Multimodal View
Nature Governance: A Multimodal View
Abid Mehmood
Introduction

Governance can be seen as an integrated stance towards democratisation of policy, participatory decision-making and collaborative implementation. However, not all governance processes and mechanisms may be as democratic, collaborative and sustainable. As Jordan (2008) argues, frequent and vague use of the concept of governance itself across various disciplines and policy areas has made it more popular. Governance approaches (or modes) are generally grouped into three ideal types: markets, hierarchies and networks (Baker, 2013). Market-based governance mostly relies on the performance-related instruments and incentives such as taxations and subsidies. Hierarchies in governance refer to top-down or bottom-up processes of control, rule setting and regulation. Network governance refers to various forms of flexible collaborations between different ...

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