The SAGE Handbook of Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery

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Edited by: Jennifer Bryson Clark & Sasha Poucki

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  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I:   DEFINING CONTEMPORARY SLAVERY  

    Part II:   FORMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND CONTEMPORARY SLAVERY  

    Part III:   THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND CONTEMPORARY SLAVERY  

    Part IV:   INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND CONTEMPORARY SLAVERY  

    Part V:   CASE STUDIES  

    Part VI:   ENDING CONTEMPORARY SLAVERY  

  • Copyright

    Editorial Board

    Roksana Alavi, University of Oklahoma, USA

    Arun Kumar Acharya, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Steve Shone, Spokane Community College, USA

    Ana Sverdlick, South Texas College, USA

    Ayodeji Ogundele, South Texas College, USA

    List of Figures and Tables

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Jennifer Bryson Clark is Associate Professor of Political Science and chair of Women's Studies at South Texas College. Her areas of expertise are forced migration, human trafficking, international political economy and globalization and development. Clark is co-editor of Human Trafficking: A Complex Phenomenon of Globalization and Vulnerability (Routledge, 2015). Her recent research (2015–2016), which was funded by the US Department of State's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, involved working as part of a team to study trafficking in Central America and along Mexico's eastern migration routes. She is a founding board member of the Rio Grande Anti-Human Trafficking Coalition, and she received the 2009 South Texas Civil Rights Project's Emma Tenayuca award for her work bringing to light the forms of trafficking and coercion that affect women. Clark also teaches classes on Human Trafficking at Oklahoma University

    Sasha Poucki holds a PhD in Global Affairs from The Division of Global Affairs at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark and a JD from The University of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. Dr Poucki is the Co-Founder and Co-Director of Azimuth180˚. Before joining Azimuth180˚, Dr Poucki worked as an educator, academic researcher, and consultant. His research interests include the exploration of topics related to the processes of globalization, human trafficking and modern day slavery, human rights, vulnerability of minority groups, business conduct and corporate responsibility, irregular migration, technology and society, cybercrime, and international relations.

    The Contributors

    Arun Kumar Acharya is a Professor and Researcher at Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico. He specializes in research on perspectives and implications of internal and international migration with regard to human trafficking. Currently, he is working as a Professor at Sambalpur University, India. He is founder of the Mexican Centre for Migration and Human Trafficking Studies, Monterrey. Dr. Acharya has published eight books and several journal articles on human trafficking. He also actively participated in the formulation of Mexican anti-trafficking law during 2012 and 2014. His book Perspectives of Human Trafficking in Mexico led most of the states of Mexico to reformulate their local trafficking laws. Recently, the World Bank, Washington DC, invited him to deliver a lecture on ‘The Fragility of the Mexican State and Gender Inequality: the Case of Trafficking in Women'. Currently, he is working as a Professor at Department of Anthropology, Sambalpur University, India.

    Roksana Alavi is an Associate Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies in the College of Professional and Continuing Studies at the University of Oklahoma, where she teaches courses on human trafficking, leadership ethics, and women in leadership positions. She is a core affiliate faculty at the Women and Gender Studies program, Center for Social Justice and the Iranian Studies Program. She received her PhD in Philosophy in May of 2008 from the University of Kansas, as well as a Graduate Certificate in Women's Studies in May of 2004. Alavi's general area of research is social and political philosophy. More specifically, she focuses on race, gender, stereotyping, and oppression. Her most recent research has focused on three main areas: (1) critical race theory, and (2) human trafficking, and (3) leadership. She has recently edited a book on ethics and leadership that was published in 2016.

    Jean Allain is Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, Monash University, Australia, and holds the Chair in International Law with the Wilberforce Institute of the Study of Slavery and Emancipation (WISE) of the University of Hull, UK. Prof Allain is Special Adviser at Anti-Slavery International, the world's oldest human rights organization. He received his PhD from the University of Geneva (HEI) and clerked for the first President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. His recent books include: The Law and Slavery (2015) and Slavery in International Law (2012). Jean Allain is also Extraordinary Professor, Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, South Africa; and Visiting Professor at the School of Law, Beijing Normal University, China (2017–2020).

    Rebecca Berg graduated from the University of Richmond in May 2018 with a BA in Psychology and PPEL (Philosophy, Politics, Economics, and Law), concentrating in Politics. Her work as a research assistant for Dr. Monti Datta in the Political Science department led to extensive research into the plight of modern slavery. She has also worked as a research assistant in the psychology department. She is originally from New York, where she has worked in both politics and advertising. This is her first published work.

    Anette Brunovskis is a sociologist and researcher at Fafo, an independent social science research institute in Norway. Her research has since 2002 focused mainly on human trafficking, including institutional frameworks for services to victims, and also includes other migration-related issues. She has headed and participated in several research projects in Norway and the Balkans, collaborating closely with academic institutions and with practitioners. She has published extensively on human trafficking, irregular migration, services to trafficked persons and research ethics.

    Natividad Gutiérrez Chong is a Senior Researcher at the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales UNAM. She holds a PhD in Sociology from the London School of Economics, University of London. She has conducted research on nationalism, racism, human trafficking, and is a specialist in indigenous peoples’ political issues. Her research includes Mexico, China and Latin America. She is the author of a dozen books and numerous scientific articles on the topics of her specialty. She is the founder of the database HYPERLINK ‘http://www.sicetno.org’ www.sicetno.org. And coordinator of the seminar New Configurations of Nationalisms and Racisms UNAM.

    Sean Columb is a Lecturer in Law at the School of Law and Social Justice, University of Liverpool (UK). His research interests include human trafficking, migration and transnational crime. Sean's current research examines how the organ trade fits into the anti-trafficking framework, its link to organized crime and the wider political economy. He has published numerous articles on this topic, most recently in the British Journal of Criminology (2016) and Law and Society Review (2017).

    Andrew Crane is a Professor of Business and Society, and Director of the Centre for Business, Organisations and Society in the School of Management at the University of Bath, UK. He is a leading author, researcher, educator and commentator on corporate responsibility. He has published more than a dozen books and over 50 journal articles including in the Academy of Management Review, California Management Review, Journal of Management Studies, and Organisation Studies. He is also the co-editor of Business & Society on the editorial board of the Journal of Management Studies. His current research focuses on the business of modern slavery, scandals, cross-sector partnerships, and the role of communication in influencing our understanding of corporate and consumer responsibilities.

    Holly Cullen is an Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Western Australia, having been Professor of Law from 2010–2016. Previously, she was Reader in Law at Durham University and Deputy Director of the Durham European Law Institute from 1998–2006, also serving as Acting Director in 2003–2004. She is the author of The Role of International Law in the Elimination of Child Labor (Brill, 2007) and numerous articles on international human rights, international organizations and theory of international law. She was a member of the International Law Association's research committee on Non-State Actors in International Law and of the Advisory Group for the Child Labor Research Initiative at the University of Iowa Human Rights Center. She is co-editor, with Joanna Harrington and Catherine Renshaw, of Experts, Networks and International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2017).

    Monti Narayan Datta is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Richmond, where he teaches classes on international relations, social science research methods, world public opinion, and human rights and modern slavery. In 2013, Monti helped develop the Global Slavery Index, which assesses the prevalence of human trafficking across the world. In addition to publishing several academic articles on human trafficking, Monti has consulted with anti-human trafficking organizations in the United States, Australia, and Thailand. Some of his current research explores the relationship between slavery and conflict and when countries might use slavery for strategic and tactical purposes during wartime. Monti is also curious about anti-Americanism and is the author of Anti-Americanism and World Opinion: Consequences for the U.S. National Interest. He is developing a study with Giacomo Chiozza on anti-Americanism during and after the Trump presidency.

    Dr. Lucas E. Espinoza is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, Graduate Faculty of Criminal Justice; Affiliate Faculty of Gender & Women's Studies; Affiliate Faculty of Mexican American Studies; and Affiliate Faculty of Environmental Studies at the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. He earned his PhD in Sociology with a minor in Multicultural Women's and Gender Studies from Texas Woman's University. His areas of specialization are Social Organization/Disorganization, Women's/Gender/Sexuality Studies, Mexican American Studies/Chicano Studies/Border Studies, and Social Science Research Methodology. His research areas examine culture and identity; Latino disparities; and social justice rights/issues. At UTRGV he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on criminal justice research methods, statistics, criminology, environmental crime, restorative justice, gender and crime.

    Joanna Ewart-James is Executive Director of Freedom United, the world's largest anti-slavery community. She also sits on the board of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative in London and the Labour Behind the Label Trust, campaigning for workers’ rights in the clothing industry. Joanna previously worked at Anti-Slavery International, where she developed and led their work on business engagement, creating interactive, educational content, establishing the Staff Wanted Initiative, and successfully lobbying for strong anti-slavery laws. Joanna is a contributing author to a book on precarious work in the globalized economy. Her international human rights experience spans the UK diplomatic service, academia, and philanthropy, managing multi-million dollar budgets. Joanna holds a Master's in Understanding and Securing Human Rights from the University of London.

    Amy Farrell is an Associate Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Northeastern University. Her scholarship seeks to understand arrest, adjudication and criminal case disposition practices. Professor Farrell also conducts research on police legitimacy and law enforcement responses to new crimes such as hate crime and human trafficking. Her recent research examines how changes in state human trafficking laws impact the identification and prosecution of human trafficking offenders and evaluates the effectiveness of various responses to child trafficking victimization. Professor Farrell has testified about police identification of human trafficking before the US House of Representatives Judiciary Committee. Professor Farrell was a co-recipient of NIJ's W.E.B. DuBois Fellowship on crime justice and culture in 2006.

    James O. Finckenauer is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus and Professorial Fellow at Rutgers University. His research interests include international and comparative criminal justice, transnational organized crime, and criminal and juvenile justice policy, planning and evaluation. He has authored, co-authored or co-edited a dozen books, as well as numerous articles, chapters and reports. He has been a visiting professor in Australia, China, Germany, Japan, and Russia, and studied or lectured in Europe, Asia, the former Soviet Union, Latin America and the Middle East. From 1998–2002, he was Director of the International Center at the National Institute of Justice of the US Department of Justice; and in 2007 he was a Fulbright Senior Specialist in Hong Kong. Dr. Finckenauer continues to serve Rutgers as a member of the Core Faculty of the Division of Global Affairs, and Co-editor of the Online Journal of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Book Reviews.

    Matthew Fischer-Daly is a PhD candidate at Cornell University's School of Industrial and Labor Relations, studying labour rights in the agriculture sector and global supply chains. He worked at the International Labor Rights Forum (ILRF) as coordinator of the Cotton Campaign, a global coalition of labour, human rights, investor and business organizations coalesced to end forced and child labour in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Previously, he worked for Social Accountability International, with partners in Central America to promote labour rights in the agricultural sector and developing voluntary labour standards. Matthew also conducted research on structural adjustment programmes with The Development Group for Alternative Policies and worked with the local education Library Project of Guatemala (PROBIGUA). He has an MA in International Economic Policy, School of International Service of American University and a BA in Political Science and Spanish Literature, University of Michigan.

    Olivia Gustafson is a recent graduate of the University of Richmond. As an International Studies and French double major with an anthropology minor, she plans to go into a career focused on diplomacy and development, hopefully in a French-speaking country. She is also passionate about the anti-trafficking movement and has worked for Human Trafficking Search, based in Washington, DC. Her senior thesis explored how migrants in the Middle East and Southeast Asia can advocate for their own rights and fight against labor abuses.

    Bodean Hedwards is a Project Manager with Monash University, and recently completed her PhD examining the experience of border control among irregular Tibetan migrants. Most recently, Bodean has worked as a Research Associate with Monash University's Border Crossing Observatory and the Rights Lab at the University of Nottingham conducting research on slavery, slavery-like practices and irregular migration. Prior to this, Bodean was a researcher with the Walk Free Foundation, where she specialized in government responses to slavery in Southeast Asia and spent time with the Australian Institute of Criminology conducting research on a variety of issues, including human trafficking and exploitation in the Australian construction industry.

    Jessica L. Hernandez , LMSW, graduated with a Bachelor of Psychology in 2012 and received a Master of Social Work degree in 2016, from the University of Oklahoma. She is a member of the Phi Alpha Honor Society and Gamma Beta Phi Society. Mrs. Hernandez currently holds an LMSW and will be sitting for the LCSW exam prior to the end of 2018. She has an extensive background in research including refugee issues, human trafficking, cognitive psychology, social perspectives, and industrial psychology. Mrs. Hernandez is currently employed as a Facility Master Social Worker with Fresenius Kidney Care and as a Licensed Behavioral Health Specialist with Multi-County Counseling.

    Charles E. Hounmenou is an Assistant Professor at the Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois (USA). His research areas include human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and human rights of detainees and immigrants. In 2009, Dr. Hounmenou conducted a major study on the input of a statewide coalition in the implementation of human trafficking policy in the United States. In 2013–2014, he was the principal investigator of an international comparative study of child prostitution and its links with child migration in three countries in West Africa. One of his current research projects is a needs assessment of children actively engaged in the sex trade in a major city in the Midwest region of the United States. Dr. Hounmenou, a former Fulbright Scholar, has published a book and several peer-reviewed journal articles on human trafficking. He received the 2018 International Human Trafficking and Social Justice Conference's Influential Scholar Award for his work on trafficking in persons and social justice issues.

    Gioia Kelleher is a recent graduate of the University of Richmond where she studied International Studies with a concentration in World Politics and Diplomacy. Gioia is passionate about exploring the challenges and solutions to human rights issues around the world. Modern slavery, as a hidden crime and relatively young field of research, has been particularly interesting for Gioia to study.

    Chloe Lubin holds a Bachelor of Arts in International Relations and Chinese Language and Culture from the University of Richmond. After completing an independent study research project on the Emerging Routes for Sex Trafficking after the end of the Cold War, she joined Dr. Datta's research team to investigate the methodological reforms needed to better estimate prevalence figures of modern day slavery. She recently joined the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as Account Risk Management (AML/OFAC) Analyst. In the future, she hopes to contribute to the community of scholars researching the economic impact of modern day slavery and human trafficking.

    Gus Martin is a Professor of Criminal Justice Administration at California State University, Dominguez Hills, where he regularly teaches a course on the subject of terrorism and extremism. His current research and professional interests are terrorism and extremism, homeland security, administration of justice, and juvenile justice. Dr. Martin has also served as Associate Vice President for Human Resources Management, Acting Associate Dean of the College of Business Administration and Public Policy, Associate Vice President for Faculty Affairs, and Chair of the Department of Public Administration & Public Policy. He began his academic career as a member of the faculty of the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, where he was an Administration of Justice professor. Dr. Martin is author of several books on the subjects of terrorism and homeland security, including Terrorism: An International Perspective (with Fynnwin Prager); Understanding Homeland Security; Essentials of Terrorism: Concepts and Controversies; Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues; The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Second Edition; Terrorism and Homeland Security; and The New Era of Terrorism: Selected Readings.

    Marika McAdam is an independent legal consultant and adviser on legislative and policy aspects of countering human trafficking and migrant smuggling. She has written several technical publications for the United Nations and other agencies, including the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). In her work on criminal justice and human rights-based responses to trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling, she has carried out extensive research and consultations with state agencies and non-state actors throughout Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and the South Caucasus. Outside of her work on these issues, Marika has also recently published a book titled Freedom from Religion and Human Rights Law: Strengthening the right to freedom of religion and belief for non-religious and atheist rights holders with Routledge.

    Aidan McQuade was CEO of Anti-Slavery International from 2006 to 2017, and prior to that worked extensively in development and humanitarian response for 13 years, including 5 years leading humanitarian operations in response to the civil war in Angola. He is an experienced researcher on business and human rights, with a PhD on the subject of ethics in professional practice. He is also an acknowledged expert on slavery and forced labour, with an honorary OBE for his work on elimination of modern slavery. His work has included extensive and sustained engagement with international businesses on establishing anti-slavery policies and practices in their supply chains, ground breaking work that has exposed the caste and gender aspects of modern slavery, and innovative work, particularly in Myanmar and Bangladesh on slavery as a development and humanitarian issue.

    Carmen Meneses-Falcón is an anthropologist and Professor of Social and Cultural Anthropology at Comillas University in Madrid, Spain. She holds a PhD in Anthropology. Her main research interests are health risk behaviours, gender, prostitution and trafficking. In particular, she has carried out research on risk behaviours related to drug use and unprotected sexual relations. Her publications focus on gender differences in different behaviours.

    Sanja Milivojevic is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. Her research interests are borders and mobility, human trafficking, security technologies, gender and victimization, and human rights. Sanja's most recent research focuses on the use of security technologies in regulating migration in the Western Balkans. She publishes in English and Serbian. Sanja's latest book Sex Trafficking and Modern Slavery: The Absence of Evidence is published by Routledge (with Segrave and Pickering).

    Heather Moore is a specialist in trafficking and slavery and is the Policy and Advocacy Adviser for The Salvation Army Australia. She has been engaged in anti-slavery work as a direct service provider, trainer, consultant and advocate since 2003, when she established the first shelter for trafficked women in the United States. She is now responsible for developing and implementing the Freedom Partnership's national advocacy strategy, state government engagement and domestic workers campaign. Heather holds a Masters of Social Work with a focus in International Social Welfare from Columbia University and has lectured on social welfare policy and advocacy at the University of Southern California School of Social Work.

    David P. Moxley is a member of the faculty and the Director of the School of Social Work, University of Alaska Anchorage. He has served on the faculties of Wayne State University, the University of Oklahoma and Addis Ababa University.

    Diego López Naranjo is a PhD student in Political and Social Sciences at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). His current doctoral dissertation is titled ‘Forced Labour and Involuntary Servitude of Indigenous Women Exploited in the Domestic Sector in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey’ in which he investigates the link between human trafficking, forced labour and domestic work. Besides his research in human trafficking, Lopez Naranjo has published articles regarding poverty: the first one in 2011 (in co-authorship with Alejandro Arreola and Diego Urbina) ‘The Effect of the Liberalisation of Foreign Trade in Some States of Mexico’ in Revista Comercio Exterior, México; the second one recently in 2018 (in co-authorship with José Raul Luyando) ‘The Effects of Oil Pollution on the Development of Ejido Communities: the Case of San Juan River’ in Revista Investigación y Desarrollo, Colombia.

    Andrea Nicholson is a Visiting Research Fellow and Associate Director for the Rights Lab at the University of Nottingham, and Principal Lecturer at Nottingham Law School, Nottingham Trent University. Her field of research is in international human rights, more particularly contemporary slavery and slave narratives. Working with law enforcement, governments, NGOs, and survivors of slavery, her research draws on history, cultures, literature and psychology to interpret the law and frameworks surrounding contemporary slavery, analysing what survivors’ experiences and perceptions mean for the development of legal definition, and the effectiveness of central support mechanisms and government policies and strategies.

    Chie Noyori-Corbett is a member of the faculty of the Anne and Henry Zarrow School of Social Work, University of Oklahoma, USA. Her umbrella research area is women in distress and transition, which covers survival migration involving livelihood, advocacy networks, and humanitarian innovation, as well as female juvenile delinquency. As a social worker, she has assisted populations at risk within a global context, such as refugees and human trafficking victims. Her work connects advocacy and women's issues within a glocal (global to local) context.

    Treena Orchard is an Associate Professor in the School of Health Studies at Western University in London, Ontario. An anthropologist with cultural and medical expertise, she conducts ethnographic research with women and others in sex work, people with HIV/AIDS, and Indigenous populations. Her special research interests include sexuality and sex work, gender, marginalization, and the politics of health. Along with contributing to different academic and community settings through her research and activism, Treena enjoys creative writing and recently had a poem published in Anthropology and Humanism, entitled ‘Arboreal'. She is currently working on on a manuscript that examines how feminist culture, sexuality, and gendered power dynamics are being (re)configured through Bumble, the world's first ‘feminist’ dating app. Treena lives with her two divine cats, Shiva and Mr. Marbles, and enjoys yoga, engaging with the arts, travelling, spending time with family, and finding new ways to experience the world.

    Dr. Roza Pati is a Professor of Law at St. Thomas University School of Law, where she teaches international law and human rights law. Formerly an elected Member of Parliament and a Cabinet Member serving as the Secretary of State for Youth and Women of Albania, Dr. Pati has been involved in anti-trafficking work since the early 1990s. She has a rich experience in public service and academia. She is a prolific scholar, who has written extensively in the field of international law, human rights and human trafficking. A globally published author in multiple languages, she lectures throughout the world. She facilitated the preparation of The Miami Declaration of Principles on Human Trafficking, a set of law and policy recommendations. She holds a Doctor of the Science of Law degree, summa cum laude, from the University of Potsdam, Germany; a Master of Laws, summa cum laude, St. Thomas University; a law degree, cum laude, and a Bachelor's degree summa cum laude, University of Tirana, Albania.

    Rebecca Pfeffer is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Houston – Downtown. Her research focuses generally on the victimization of vulnerable populations, including victims with special needs and victims of human trafficking. Her current research focuses on public policies addressing prostitution, both in terms of the buying and selling of sex, and specifically investigates effective law enforcement response to the problem of prostitution.

    Kam Phung is a PhD candidate in Organization Studies and a Government of Canada Vanier Scholar at the Schulich School of Business, York University in Toronto, Canada. He holds master's degrees from HEC Paris and the Norwegian School of Economics, and a bachelor's degree from the University of Victoria, Canada. His research focuses on social issues in management, the good and the bad, from organizational and management perspectives. Some of his specific research interests include inequality, modern slavery, organizational wrongdoing, deviance, and stigma, as well as social entrepreneurship and social partnerships.

    Rashmi Pramanik is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology, Sambalpur University. She has been teaching both the post-graduate and M.Phil students in the department since 2003. Dr. Pramanik was awarded the degree in Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology by Sambalpur University in 2005. In 1999 she topped the merit list in M.Phil, Anthropology. She was the University Gold Medallist in Anthropology in the year 1998. She was awarded the best graduate medal in Arts in 1996 for obtaining first class first position in Anthropology (Honours). Dr. Pramanik has to her credit more than a dozen articles, published in peer-reviewed journals and edited books and has authored three books. Besides that she has participated in a number of national and International conferences. She was invited to deliver a lecture in a plenary session at the National University of Singapore. She also presented a paper in a workshop at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    Dr. Rosalva Resendiz is an Associate Professor at the Department of Criminal Justice, University of Texas-Rio Grande Valley and earned her PhD in Sociology at Texas Woman's University. Her research interests include Critical Criminology, Chicana feminism/Gender/Women's studies, Mexican American/Border Studies, Organized Crime and Social Justice. She is the co-author of On the Edge of Law: Culture, Labor and Deviance on the South Texas Border (2007) and author of the textbook Gender, Crime & Justice: Critical and Feminist Perspectives (2015). Most recently she co-authored ‘Apache Resistance, 1849–1886’ in 50 Events that Shaped American Indian History: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic and ‘Mestiza/o Discourse: Soldaderas in the Corridos of the Mexican Revolution’ for the Journal of South Texas. She is also producer and co-director of the documentary ‘El Muro/The Wall’ which focuses on the politics of the Texas/Mexico border.

    Maria Elena Sandovici obtained her Ph.D. in Political Science from Binghamton University in 2005. She was an Associate Professor of Political Science at Lamar University in Beaumont, Texas until December 2018. Her research on individual-level political behavior has been published in journals such as Comparative Sociology, Comparative Political Studies, and International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. Her career has led to research stays at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway, the Juan March Institute in Madrid, Spain, Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona, and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands. She left academia in December of 2018 in order to pursue a career as a full-time artist and writer and open her own gallery in Houston, Texas. She is an Escapist Artist in John Ross Palmer's Mentorship Program, Class of 2018. In addition to her scholarly work, Sandovici is a fiction author and has published four novels.

    Marie Segrave is an Associate Professor in Criminology at Monash University. She has published widely on human trafficking and the intersections of regulation, migration, and exploitation. Her most recent research has focused on unlawful migrant labour exploitation in Australia, which was supported by a prestigious ARC DECRA Fellowship, and a major project examining issues pertaining to temporary migration and family violence in Australia. Marie has published widely, including five books, and in a range of academic journals in addition to engaging with policy and the media to encourage public engagement with these issues.

    Steve J. Shone received his PhD from the University of California-Riverside in 1992. He has taught at a number of colleges, including Winona State University, Gonzaga University, and the University of Texas-Rio Grande Valley. He is the author of Lysander Spooner: American Anarchist (Lexington Books, 2010) and American Anarchism (Brill, 2013; paperback edition Haymarket Books, 2014). He is currently finishing off a new book, Women of Liberty, a study of the ideas of ten radical, feminist, and anarchist thinkers: Tennie C. Claflin, Noe Itō, Louise Michel, Rose Pesotta, Margaret Sanger, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Mollie Steimer, Lois Waisbrooker, Mercy Otis Warren, and Victoria C. Woodhull.

    Thomas M. Steinfatt is Professor at the University of Miami School of Communication, and serves as a consultant on executive, organizational, and intercultural communication to corporations, NGOs, and branches of government both in the United States and abroad, and as an expert witness on communicative abilities, propaganda, corporate documents, and interpretations of labels and texts. Dr. Steinfatt is also a Fulbright Scholar working with the Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. His research on trafficking in women and children has been funded by USAID and is used by the U.S. State Department in combating human trafficking in Cambodia and Professor of International Studies at UMiami. He has served as Chair of the Interpersonal Communication Division of the National Communication Association, as Chair of the Intercultural Division of the Southern Communication Association, and has received the Florida Communication Association Scholar of the Year Award and the University of Miami Excellence in Teaching Award. His book Working at the Bar: Sex Work and Health Communication in Thailand (2002) provides a detailed study of motivations, beliefs, and behavior of female SWs in Thailand and their customers.

    Rebecca Surtees is an anthropologist and senior researcher at NEXUS Institute, an independent human rights research centre in Washington focused on human trafficking. She has experience both in implementing anti-trafficking programmes and as a researcher in Asia, Europe, the former Soviet Union and West Africa. Recent research includes a longitudinal study of reintegration of Indonesian trafficking victims, research on trafficking among refugees in Serbia, trafficking of fishers and research into victim identification and assistance in the Balkans and SE Asia.

    Jorge Uroz-Olivares holds a PhD in Sociology and is Professor of Social Policy and of Social Work involving Minors at Comillas University in Madrid. His main lines of research focus on children. In particular, he has performed research and published articles about child abuse and minors in situations of risk.

    Introduction

    Trafficking in persons, often described as modern day slavery, has emerged as one of the most momentous humanitarian issues of the twenty-first century. In the last two decades, the phenomenon has become a global problem of unprecedented proportions, and governments, intergovernmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, scholars, and civil society have struggled to identify, conceptualize, and quantify human trafficking. Modern day slavery is present in global supply chains and in migration routes; it affects every country in the world, regardless of socioeconomic status, history, or political system. In 2016, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reported that 158 states (88 percent of a data set covering 179 states) had introduced laws criminalizing human trafficking or modern slavery, an increase from only 33 countries in 2003 (UNODC, 2016). Over the last two decades the profile of detected trafficking victims has altered; men now make up a large proportion of identified victims. The incidence of domestic trafficking (within a country's borders) has also increased significantly. These trends indicate that the common understanding of trafficking is evolving. Today, there is a greater awareness of the diversity of victims, forms of exploitation, and trafficking flows. Manifestations now include sexual servitude, child sex trafficking, forced labor, bonded labor, domestic servitude, forced child labor, organ trafficking, forced marriage, unlawful recruitment of child soldiers, forced begging, and more recently, compelled labor for criminal activities.

    However, the same UNODC report from 2016 notes that despite the increase in anti-trafficking laws there have been few convictions. Efforts to combat trafficking have done little to quell the numbers and eradicate this insidious, abhorrent, illicit activity. The recent exposure by Cable News Network (CNN) of smugglers in Libya auctioning off migrants from Niger, Nigeria, Mali, and Ghana as slaves outside Tripoli for $400 shocked the world and led to public outcry that the abuse was a crime against humanity (‘People for Sale’). The revelations confirmed an earlier report, documented by the International Organization of Migration (IOM), of slave markets existing along the North African migration routes (IOM, 2017). With an estimated 400,000 to one million people trapped in Libya, held in deplorable conditions, the vulnerability to being sold off as labor in slave auctions continues, and serves as a chilling reminder that we still have a long way to go.

    Governments are complicit in perpetuating modern day slavery through legal, political, economic, and social systems that create conditions enabling and encouraging slave-like settings and trafficking. Global supply chains favor corporations, and businesses regulate the economy in their own interests. In their efforts to drive down costs, corporations subcontract and outsource production to manufacturers in the developing nations which have lower wages, less regulation, minimal protection for workers little better than those in slavery environments, and forced labor on the fringes of their supply chains. Because a key feature of globalization is to increase the movement of people internally and internationally, globalization itself, neo-liberal policies, structural adjustment programs, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) austerity measures each exacerbate vulnerability to trafficking because they displace people on the margins of world markets, forcing them to migrate in search of jobs. However, while globalization has succeeded in enabling the flow of trade and capital, the passage of human beings across borders has become increasingly restricted. According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) in its International Migration Report of 2017, there are an estimated 258 million people living in a nation other than their country of origin, an increase of 49 percent since 2000 (UNDESA, 2017).

    Migration and trafficking are inextricably linked and restrictive immigration policies fuel the profits of smugglers, rendering migrants vulnerable to mistreatment. When faced with problems associated with population resettlement, government responses are typically to stop migration. The underlying forces of racism, xenophobia, and nationalism push governments to create restrictive border policies and enact laws that criminalize irregular transit, reactions that are not based on humanitarian concerns. European governments, for example, have implemented migration control policies that leave thousands of men, women, and children in countries where they are systematically exposed to abuse, exploitation, and vulnerability to trafficking; this results in occurrences such as the slave auctions in Libya. As Amnesty International's Europe Director stated in response to these auctions, calling on the European Union (EU) to end its policies of containment and instead establish safe passage for migrants and refugees, European governments are complicit in the torture and abuse of migrants and refugees (Amnesty International, 2017; Clarke, 2017).

    Levels of violence in the Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras has led to the flight of unprecedented numbers of people, who embark on a dangerous journey along Mexico's eastern migration routes to the United States. Rather than providing safe passage, the United States imposed a series of restrictive immigration measures at the US–Mexico border, deployed troops, built a border wall, and coerced Mexico to seal off the Mexico–Guatemala border through increased militarization and mobile immigration control checkpoints via the Southern Border Plan (Programa Frontera Sur). Such policies push migrants into the hands of smugglers and transnational criminal organizations, exposing them to kidnapping, extortion, ransom, and compelled labor for criminal activity.

    Government-imposed guest worker programs also perpetuate trafficking by subjecting migrant workers to tied visa systems. Governments and corporations allow some people to move for work, but often the terms leave migrants vulnerable to manipulation and trafficking. Tied visas severely limit workers’ options by denying them the right to change employers. They enable companies to dictate where people will be employed, restrict their personnel's freedom of movement, and impose abuses in living conditions that include lower or garnished wages; ultimately, tied visas perpetuate smuggling. Governments have little to no desire to improve the visa systems, while business groups advocate expanding the numbers of guest worker permits. Abuse is prevalent in the current H-2 visa program in the US, a system that provides temporary farm and non-farm labor for numerous industries. Brokers routinely hold workers captive, force them to live in squalid conditions, and subject them to human trafficking. In 2015, a 20 million dollar settlement was won by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) to resolve numerous labor trafficking lawsuits against Alabama-based Signal International for recruiting approximately 500 Indian nationals as guest workers on H-2B visas to repair oil rigs in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, persons who subsequently were defrauded, exploited, and trafficked (SPLC, 2015). Those who do not wish to migrate are left with no choice except to accept precarious and exploitive jobs or bonded forms of labor.

    Poverty, discrimination, inequality, and the lack of economic opportunities are the root causes of exploitation. Global systems create conditions that allow trafficking to flourish and, as such, systemic change is needed. In order to truly address the crisis, governments need to create safer pathways for migration, craft regulations improving employee rights, give migrants work permits that allow them to change employers, support those socially responsible companies who are committed to eradicating slavery in the supply chains, and implement universal basic income (UBI).

    There is also a pressing need for effective cooperation and coordination of research through the utilization of fora by which ideas can be exchanged. The 28 chapters in this Handbook shed some light on the scope and nature of human trafficking, providing insights into methodological approaches, suggestions as to how to obtain more accurate data, and discussion of effective ways to identify trafficking victims and improve their rehabilitation. The contributors to the Handbook hail from many different disciplines and nations. The chapters situate human trafficking in a global context while, at the same time, focusing on particular regional aspects of the phenomenon. Thus The SAGE Handbook of Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery is both timely and important.

    Part 1, Defining Contemporary Slavery, begins with Jean Allain's chapter, ‘Conceptualizing the Exploitation of Human Trafficking', in which the author outlines problems caused by the differing ways that states have modified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (the Palermo Protocol), arguing for defining and standardizing what constitutes exploitation by focusing on the mens rea of the trafficker, rather than listing a range of crimes that might or might not be deemed trafficking. Next, in ‘The International Legal Framework on Human Trafficking: Contemporary Understandings and Continuing Confusions', Marika McAdam explores from the perspective of international law, including the Palermo Protocol, the relationships between human trafficking, forced labor, and the recently constructed but as yet unclear concept of ‘modern day slavery'. ‘Assessing the Global Slavery Index’ is the contribution of Monti Narayan Datta, Olivia Gustafson, Chloe Lubin, Gioia Kelleher, and Rebecca Berg, who discuss the Global Slavery Index (GSI), which attempts to quantify the extent of slavery existing in the world. They describe recent research in the area and make recommendations for improvement. Then Thomas Steinfatt, in ‘Empirical Research on Sex Work and Human Trafficking in SE Asia and a Critique of the Methodologies for Obtaining Estimates of Human Trafficking Numbers', analyzes trafficking for sexual purposes, with particular reference to Cambodia, where many sex workers originate from Vietnam. The author disputes the accuracy of some statistics and methodological approaches employed in research used by the US State Department and the Global Slavery Index.

    Part 2, Forms of Human Trafficking and Contemporary Slavery, contains four chapters, the first of which is Aidan McQuade's ‘Labor Trafficking', which discusses the many ways that, around the world, forced labor – including tied visas, debt bondage, kafalah-governed employment, and child marriage – is still legal, and the underlying contempt for disadvantaged minorities and for workers’ rights that this represents. In ‘Practices of Bonded Labour in India: Forms of Exploitation and Human Rights Violations', Arun Kumar Acharya and Diego López Naranjo describe the widespread presence of debt bondage in agriculture, mining, and other industries in India, particularly among its lower-caste citizens. Although India's government pursues the release and rehabilitation of victims, remedies are inconsistently and inadequately enforced. In ‘The Evolving Concept of Worst Forms of Child Labor', Holly Cullen examines the movement away from focusing on creating a minimum age for employment toward development of the concept of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (WFCL) and discusses its evolution, efficacy, and success as a means for understanding juvenile labor in terms of differing kinds of human rights abuse. Finally, in ‘Organ Trafficking: Transplant Tourism and Trafficking in Persons for the Removal of Organs', Sean Columb presents a meta-research analysis of scholarly studies of organ donation, legitimate and not so legal, noting a number of current problems with the way that organ trafficking is regulated, such as the differences in terms that exist with respect to penalties, difficulties in general with attempting to regulate the practice as a crime, and definitional disparities.

    Part 3 explores The Context of Human Trafficking and Contemporary Slavery. Kam Phung and Andrew Crane address ‘The Business of Modern Slavery: Management and Organizational Perspectives', a contribution that approaches modern slavery as a commercial activity whereby employers take command of victims’ lives in order to make a financial gain for themselves. The authors point out that development of this perspective, which they understand in terms of control, forced work, economic exploitation, dehumanization, and restricted freedom, would benefit from additional research, particularly from approaches that would generate theory-building or which explain the practices in terms of organizational deviance. In ‘Human Trafficking, Sexual Slavery, and Extremism', Augustus ‘Gus’ Martin explores politicized human trafficking as a policy-driven tactic motivated not by profit-making, but instead as something that is directed against an enemy. The author focuses on the Rape of Nanking, the Japanese army's use of comfort women, ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, Boko Haram, and ISIS (Islamic State, Daish), discussing the concept of ‘gendercide’ and its subsequent development and applicability. Then, in ‘Human Trafficking, Modern Day Slavery, and Organized Crime', James Finckenauer asks who is responsible for the majority of human trafficking violations. Analysis of case studies from New York, Atlanta, San Diego, and Toledo, Ohio in the United States, Tijuana in Mexico, and Cambodia show, the author argues, that organized crime is rather less involved in trafficking than is often supposed while, to the extent that it is a factor, its role is more complicated than is often assumed. Lastly, Jennifer Bryson Clark and Steve J. Shone discuss ‘Migration and Trafficking: The Unintended Consequences of Security and Enforcement Frameworks and the Revictimization of Vulnerable Groups', showing how Mexico's 2014 Southern Border Plan (Programa Frontera Sur) has led to the increasing susceptibility of migrants, and in particular, of women, to trafficking. The chapter looks at the local situation in Tapachula, Chiapas, on the Mexico–Guatemala border, and suggests that to combat revictimization of those being trafficked, governments should consider instituting a policy of universal basic income (UBI).

    Part 4 discusses Interdisciplinary Approaches to Human Trafficking and Contemporary Slavery. Andrea Nicholson begins the section with ‘A Survivor-Centric Approach: The Importance of Contemporary Slave Narratives to the Anti-Slavery Agenda', which emphasizes the value of survivors’ own chronicles in delineating the contexts of trafficking. If such narratives were used more, Nicholson points out, the stories could help improve victim self-understanding, raise self-esteem, and facilitate reintegration into regular society, as well as being helpful to researchers and activists. In ‘Trafficking in Human Beings: The Convergence of Criminal Law and Human Rights', Roza Pati reviews various global and regional legislative attempts to combat human slavery. Referring to the European Court of Human Rights’ decision in Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia (2010), she argues that adoption of a human rights approach to the problems of trafficking would be desirable, since the acknowledgment of the dignity of all human beings can allow forward-thinking advances in approach to emerge through judicial decision-making. Then, in ‘Pretty Vacant: Stolen Girls and Girlhoods in Anti-Trafficking Discourses', Treena Orchard finds fault with overbroad definitions of ‘trafficking-related activities’ which, though putatively implemented to combat exploitation, moralistically also include females’ voluntary choice to sell their bodies. She presents the results of her ethnographic study of sex work in London, Ontario, arguing that panicky anti-trafficking approaches have led to young women who are engaging only in normal age-appropriate behaviors being portrayed as ‘at risk’ or as criminals. The Part concludes with Natividad Gutiérrez Chong's ‘Indigenous Women in Trafficking: Links between Race, Ethnicity, and Class'. Arguing that white women are portrayed positively and Native American women negatively, the author provides an analysis of the advertisement of prostitution services in Mexico, Spain, and Russia, and of some stories found in comic books.

    Part 5 presents eight Case Studies. In ‘Identification of Trafficking Victims in Europe and the Former Soviet Union', building on research from Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Moldova, Norway, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine, Anette Brunovskis and Rebecca Surtees discuss how targets of trafficking may not be identified as such, due to error or lack of competency on the part of interviewers, classification differences, the authorities chosen to do the detection, or deliberate obfuscation or denial on the part of the victim, while other people become misidentified as casualties. ‘Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Children in the West African Region’ is the topic of Charles Hounmenou's chapter, which points out that child prostitution and child sex tourism are growing phenomena in West Africa. Hounmenou reports the results of a three-nation interview-based survey to identify connections between paid sex work and the trafficking of children in Djougou and Malanville in Benin, Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, and Niamey in Niger. That is followed by Roksana Alavi's ‘Identifying Human Trafficking Victims Under the Sharia Law in Iran', in which the author points out that the incorporation of Islamic law into Iran's legal system means that girls as young as nine, the age of criminal responsibility for females, can be held criminally accountable for involvement in prostitution, which makes identification of victims difficult; additionally, in giving evidence of trafficking or rape, the testimony of women is considered to be only half that of men. In ‘Impacts of Cultural Practices in Anti-Trafficking Policies in Southeast Asia', Diego López Naranjo and Arun Kumar Acharya present their analysis of trafficking of children and adults in the eleven nations of Southeast Asia, showing how many countries in the region fail to comply with minimum Palermo Protocol requirements, and discussing forced marriage of victims to men from China. Amy Farrell and Rebecca Pfeffer's ‘Human Trafficking in North America’ looks at the differing approaches adopted in relation to labor and sex trafficking in North America by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. ‘Legal Yet Enslaved: The Case of Migrant Farm Workers in the United States’ is the title of Maria Elena Sandovici's chapter, which suggests that, notwithstanding the legal status of some migrant farm workers in the United States, the poor pay and harsh working conditions they endure should be classed as a form of slavery and incorporated into definitions of human trafficking. Then Heather Moore, Marie Segrave, Bodean Hedwards, and Sanja Milivojevic discuss ‘Australia's Response to Human Trafficking Nationally and Regionally: The Question of Impact', presenting a summary of legal and conceptual issues relating to modern slavery regulation in Australia, including the 2013 Slavery Act and the 2013 Vulnerable Witness Act, and the five-year National Action Plan of 2014. The authors emphasize the extent to which human trafficking policies in Australia have often been implemented without obtaining appropriate research evidence to justify them, and have not been systematically applied or adequately funded. ‘Child Workers: An Ugly Face in the Labour Industry’ is the subject of Rashmi Pramanik's chapter, which gives an account of child labor practices worldwide, in India as a whole, and in a particular city, Sambalpur, in India.

    Part 6, Ending Contemporary Slavery, begins with Rosalva Resendiz and Lucas E. Espinoza's contribution, ‘The International Law Enforcement Community: Cooperative Efforts in Combatting Human Trafficking'. The authors discuss the history of international policing in the context of modern human slavery and assess the roles of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Inter-Agency Coordination Group Against Trafficking in Persons, the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, Interpol, Europol, and other agencies attempting to combat trafficking and the related issue of corruption from a global or regional standpoint. Next is ‘Identification, Rescue, and Social Intervention with the Victims of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Spain', by Carmen Meneses-Falcón and Uroz-Olivares. Meneses and Uroz report the results of a survey of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that work with trafficking victims in Spain and of interviews they conducted with sex trafficking victims aged 17–35, whom it was found had origins in many different countries. Intervention is recommended to assist victims in overcoming the mental and physical consequences of their status, as well as to alleviate social isolation and lack of power. Then Chie Noyori-Corbett, Jessica Hernandez, and David Moxley analyze ‘Organizational Configurations in Provision of Social Services and Advocacy to Victims and Survivors of Human Trafficking', explaining how organizations providing assistance to victims of human trafficking on the US border view their own activities as revealed by their websites. The authors include careful consideration of the distinction between ‘survivors’ and ‘victims'. The Part concludes with Joanna Ewart-James and Matthew Fischer-Daly's chapter, ‘Contemporary Social Movements to End Slavery – NGOs and Beyond'. The authors analyze NGOs and contemporary slavery through the prism of social movement theory, and include information about the use of forced labor in Uzbekistan's cotton industry.

    References
    Amnesty International. 2017. Libya's Dark Web of Collusion: Abuses Against Europe Bound Refugees and Migrants. London: Amnesty International. www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/MDE1975612017ENGLISH.PDF [Accessed: 29 April 2018].
    Clarke, Hilary. 2017. ‘EU Governments Complicit in Libya Migrant Abuse, Amnesty International Says'. CNN, 12 December 2017. www.cnn.com/2017/12/12/europe/amnesty-international-libya-migrant-report-intl/index.html [Accessed: 29 April 2018].
    International Organization of Migration (IOM). 2017. ‘IOM Learns of “Slave Market” Conditions Endangering Migrants in North Africa'. International Organization of Migration Press Release, 11 April 2017. www.iom.int/news/iom-learns-slave-market-conditions-endangering-migrants-north-africa [Accessed: 2 May 2018].
    ‘People for Sale: Exposing Migrant Slave Auctions in Libya'. CNN, 13 November 2017. www.cnn.com/videos/world/2017/11/13/libya-migrant-slave-auction-lon-orig-md-ejk.cnn [Accessed: 29 April 2018].
    Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). 2015. ‘$20 Million Settlement Agreement Reached in Labor Trafficking Cases Coordinated by SPLC on Behalf of Exploited Indian Guest Workers'. Southern Poverty Law Center, 13 July 2015. www.splcenter.org/news/2015/07/14/20-million-settlement-agreement-reached-labor-trafficking-cases-coordinated-splc-behalf [Accessed: 29 April 2018].
    United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). 2017. International Migration Report 2017. New York: United Nations. www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrationreport/docs/MigrationReport2017_Highlights.pdf [Accessed: 29 April 2018].
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016. Vienna: United Nations. www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/2016_Global_Report_on_Trafficking_in_Persons.pdf [Accessed: 29 April 2018].

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