The SAGE Handbook of Global Policing

The SAGE Handbook of Global Policing

Handbooks

Ben Bradford, Beatrice Jauregui, Ian Loader & Jonny Steinberg

Abstract

The SAGE Handbook of Global Policing examines and critically retraces the field of policing studies by posing and exploring a series of fundamental questions to do with the concept and institutions of policing and their relation to social and political life in today's globalized world. The volume is structured in the following four parts: Part One: Lenses Part Two: Social and Political Order Part Three: Legacies Part Four: Problems and Problematics. By bringing new lines of vision and new voices to the social analysis of policing, and by clearly demonstrating why policing matters, the Handbook will be an essential tool for anyone in the field.

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  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: LENSES

    Part II: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORDER

    Part III: LEGACIES

    Part IV: PROBLEMS AND PROBLEMATICS

  • Copyright

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    THE EDITORS

    Ben Bradford is Departmental Lecturer in Criminology at the Centre for Criminology, University of Oxford, England. His research focuses primarily on issues of trust and legitimacy, cooperation and compliance as these apply to the police and wider criminal justice system, in terms both of the relationships between criminal justice agencies and the public they serve, and the internal organization and practices of the agencies themselves.

    Beatrice Jauregui is Assistant Professor at the Centre for Criminology & Socio-Legal Studies at the University of Toronto, Canada. Her research is concerned with how the lived experiences of persons working in civil police and military bureaucracies inform understandings of global and local dynamics of authority, security and order. Jauregui's forthcoming book with the working title Provisional Authority: Police, Order and Security in India (University of Chicago Press) is an ethnography of everyday police practices in contemporary northern India. She is also co-editor of Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency (University of Chicago Press, 2014) and author of numerous chapter contributions and research articles published in American Ethnologist, Asian Policing, Conflict and Society, Law and Social Inquiry, Journal of South Asian Studies and Public Culture.

    Ian Loader is Professor of Criminology at the University of Oxford and Professorial Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, England. Ian is the author of six books (most recently, Public Criminology? Routledge, 2010, with R. Sparks) and has published theoretical and empirical papers on policing, private security, public sensibilities towards crime, penal policy and culture, the politics of crime control, and the public roles of criminology. Ian is currently working on a project – termed ‘A Better Politics of Crime’ – concerned with different dimensions of the relationship between crime control and democratic politics. The first strand of work on this project was brought together in Public Criminology? The next key stage will be a monograph with the working title of Crime Control and Political Ideologies which is in the early stages of preparation. The project also includes edited volumes on Democratic Theory and Mass Incarceration (with A. Dzur and R. Sparks, Oxford University Press, 2016) and Justice and Penal Reform (with B. Goldson, S. Farrall and A. Dockley, Routledge, 2016).

    Jonny Steinberg teaches African Studies at Oxford University, England and is a Visiting Professor at the Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research (Wiser) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Among his books are The Number (2004), social history of a South African prison, and Thin Blue (2008) an exploration of the relationship between uniformed police and civilians in the wake of apartheid. He is the author of numerous articles on South African policing published in the British Journal of Criminology, Theoretical Criminology, Policing and Society, African Affairs and Public Culture.

    THE CONTRIBUTORS

    Christopher Lowen Agee is Associate Professor in the History Department at the University of Colorado Denver, USA. He is the author of The Streets of San Francisco: Policing and the Creation of a Cosmopolitan Liberal Politics, 1950–1972 (University of Chicago Press, 2014). His work has also appeared in the Journal of the History of Sexuality. He is currently researching policing, cities, liberalism, and late-twentieth century social and cultural movements.

    Andy Aitchison is Lecturer in Criminology and Director of the MSc in Global Crime, Justice and Security at the School of Law, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. He holds a PhD from Cardiff University (2008). He is author of Making the Transition (Intersentia, 2011), a detailed account of police, court and prison reforms in the context of the first 10 years of post-war state-building in Bosnia and Herzegovina. His current research focuses on making use of testimony and evidence from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia to examine and explain the role of police in atrocity crimes.

    Kıvanç Atak works as a post-doctoral researcher in the Department of Criminology, Stockholm University, Sweden. He works in the field of political sociology focusing on social movements, protest policing and public order policies.

    Vanessa Barker is Docent and Associate Professor of Sociology at Stockholm University, Sweden. She has published on questions of democracy and penal order, the role of trust and penal reform, Nordic exceptionalism and the welfare state, and how border control is challenging the European project. She is the author of The Politics of Imprisonment: How the Democratic Process Shapes the Way America Punishes Offenders (Oxford University Press, 2009).

    Thomas Bierschenk is Professor of Anthropology and Modern African Studies and Dean of the Faculty of Historical and Cultural Studies at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany. He has specialized in the political anthropology of French-speaking Africa and in the anthropological analysis of development. His current research interests are African public services and civil servants, the ethnography of public policies as well as decentralization and the local state in West Africa. After conducting a topical international research project in West Africa, he has recently edited, together with Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan, States at Work in Africa: Dynamics of Public Bureaucracies (Brill, Leiden, 2014).

    David Cole is the Hon. George J. Mitchell Professor of Law and Public Policy at Georgetown Law, USA. He writes for The New York Review of Books, The Nation, The New Yorker, and many other periodicals. He is the author of several books on terrorism and human rights, including Less Safe, Less Free: Why America is Losing the War on Terror (with Jules Lobel, New Press, 2009).

    Graham Denyer Willis is University Lecturer in Development and Latin American Studies and Fellow of Queens’ College, at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. He is author of The Killing Consensus: Police, Organized Crime and the Regulation of Life and Death in Urban Brazil (University of California Press, 2015), among other publications.

    Cécile Fabre is a Professor of Political Philosophy at the University of Oxford, and a Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford, England. She has published extensively on distributive justice, democracy, rights, the ethics of killing, and the ethics of war and peace. Her main works include Social Rights under the Constitution (Oxford University Press, 2000), Whose Body is it Anyway? (Oxford University Press, 2006), and Cosmopolitan War (Oxford University Press, 2012). She has published in Ethics, Law and Philosophy, British Journal of Political Science and Journalof Political Philosophy.

    Katja Franko is Professor of Criminology at the University of Oslo, Norway. She has published widely in globalization, borders, security, and surveillance of everyday life. She is the author of The Borders of Punishment: Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion (co-edited with M. Bosworth; Oxford University Press, 2013), Globalization and Crime (Sage, 2007/2013), Cosmopolitan Justice and its Discontents (co-edited with C. Baillet; Routledge, 2011), Technologies of Insecurity (co-edited with H. O. Gundhus and H. M. Lomell; Routledge, 2009), and Sentencing in the Age of Information (Routledge-Cavendish, 2005). She is currently heading a European Research Council Starting Grant project on ‘Crime Control in the Borderlands of Europe'.

    Catarina Frois is Senior Researcher at the Centre for Anthropology and Professor at the Department of Anthropology at the Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Portugal and co-coordinator of the Governance, Politics and Livelihoods Research Group (CRIA). Since 2013 she is Investigator FCT with the project ‘Security in context: An anthropological study on concepts and practices in 21st century in Portugal'. Besides her research activities, Catarina Frois is the Director of the Summer Course in Anthropology of Crime, and the Specialization Course in Criminality and Deviance. In 2015, Catarina Frois was awarded a Gerda Henkel Foundation Research Project Grant with the project ‘Human Security in Prison – Perspectives, Subjectivities and Experiences. A Contribution to the Anthropology of Security'.

    Phillip Atiba Goff is Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA. He is the co-founder and president of the Center for Policing Equity (CPE), and an expert in contemporary forms of racial bias and discrimination, as well as the intersections of race and gender. Dr Goff has conducted work exploring the ways in which racial prejudice is not a necessary precondition for racial discrimination. That is, despite the normative conceptualization of racial discrimination – that it stems naturally from prejudiced explicit or implicit attitudes – his research demonstrates that contextual factors can facilitate racially unequal outcomes. Most recently, Dr Goff led the CPE in becoming one of three Principal Investigators for the US Department of Justice's National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice. The National Initiative will contribute information to another major project by the CPE, the National Justice Database, the first national database on racial disparities in police stops and use of force. Dr Goff's model of evidence-based approaches to fairness has been supported by the National Science Foundation, Department of Justice, Russell Sage Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Open Society Foundations, Open Society Institute-Baltimore, Atlantic Philanthropies, William T. Grant Foundation, the COPS Office, the Major Cities Chiefs Association, the NAACP LDF, NIMH, SPSSI, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Mellon Foundation among others. Dr Goff was a witness for the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing and has presented before Members of Congress and Congressional Panels, Senate Press Briefings, and White House Advisory Councils.

    Benjamin J. Goold is a Professor at the Peter A. Allard School of Law at the University of British Columbia, Canada. Professor Goold joined the Allard School of Law in January 2010. Prior to this, he was a University Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, University of Oxford and a Fellow in Law at Somerville College, where he taught criminal law, criminology, and torts. His major research interests include privacy rights, the use of surveillance technologies by the police, and the rhetoric and language of human rights. Among Professor Goold's more recent publications are works on the consumption of security, undercover and covert policing practices in the United Kingdom, and the role of privacy enhancing technologies in the regulation of public and private sector surveillance.

    Helene O. I. Gundhus is Professor at Norwegian Police University College, Research Department, and concurrently from 2016, Associate Professor of Criminology at University of Oslo, Norway. As a project member of ‘Crime Control in the Borderlands of Europe', headed by Katja Franko, she has published chapters and articles on policing and globalization. She is author of the book, Technologies of Insecurity (co-edited with H. M. Lomell and K. F. Aas; Routledge, 2009), and has published articles and books on the topic ICT and new knowledge regimes in policing. From 2015 to 2019 she is heading a project financed by Norwegian Research Council, entitled ‘New Trends in Modern Policing'.

    Sarah Hautzinger is Professor and Chair of Anthropology at Colorado College, USA, and earned her PhD (1998) at Johns Hopkins University. Her research emphasizes the institutional processes related to violence at transnational, state, and interpersonal levels. Publications include the books Violence in the City of Women: Police and Batterers in Bahia, Brazil (University of California Press, 2007) and the co-authored Beyond Post-Traumatic Stress: Homefront Struggles with the Wars on Terror (with Jean Scandlyn; Left Coast Press, 2014).

    Steve Herbert is Professor at the University of Washington, USA, with appointments in the Law, Societies, and Justice Program and the Department of Geography. He is the author of Policing Space (University of Minnesota Press, 1996); Citizens, Cops and Power (University of Chicago Press, 2006); and, Banished (with Katherine Beckett; Oxford University Press, 2011).

    Mireille Hildebrandt is a Research Professor on ‘Interfacing Law and Technology’ in the Faculty of Law and Criminology, Free University Brussels, Belgium. She also holds the part-time Chair of ‘Smart Environments, Data Protection and the Rule of Law’ at the Faculty of Science, Radboud University, The Netherlands.

    Cameron Holley is an Associate Professor (DECRA) at the Law Faculty and Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre, UNSW Australia (the University of New South Wales) and member of the Global Risk Governance Programme at the University of Cape Town. He is an interdisciplinary researcher in the fields of environmental law, water law and environmental governance. His most recent book is titled Trans-jurisdictional Water Law and Governance (with Gray and Rayfuse, Earthscan, 2016). Recent distinctions include being appointed a member of The Australian Panel of Experts on Environmental Law and being awarded the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Academy of Environmental Law Junior Scholarship Award.

    Jonathan Jacobs is Professor and Chair of the Department of Philosophy, and Director of the Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics at John Jay College of the City University of New York, USA. He received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1983. He is the author of nine books and over seventy-five articles, mainly on topics in moral philosophy, the history of philosophy, and the intersection of morality, politics, and criminal justice. He has been awarded grants by numerous foundations and has held fellowships and been a visiting professor at several universities in the UK, US, and Hong Kong.

    Kevin G. Karpiak is Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology, Anthropology & Criminology at Eastern Michigan University, USA. His work focuses on policing as a useful nexus for exploring questions in anthropology, politics and ethics. His ethnographic manuscript, The Police Against Itself: Assembling a ‘Post-Social’ Police provides an ethnographic account of the ethical work undertaken by police officers, administrators, educators and citizens as they experiment with new forms of sociality ‘after the social moment’ in France.

    Fangquan Liu is Professor of Law at Fujian Normal University Law School, China. He is a 1993 graduate of Southwest University of Politics and Law, where he received a bachelor's degree in law, and of Sichuan University, where he earned his PhD in 2009. His principal research interests include criminal procedure law, police and society. He is the author of Empirical Study of Criminal Investigation Procedure (China Procuratorial Press, CPP, 2010) and Compulsory Criminal Investigation under the Horizon of the Law (Publishing House of Chinese People's Public Security University, PHCPPSU, 2004).

    Helena Machado is Senior Researcher at the Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra, Portugal and co-coordinator of the Science, Economy and Society Research Group (NECES). Her research interests are centred on sociology of crime and the social studies of forensic genetics, with a main focus on the interrelations between science, technology and the justice system, particularly on the societal, regulatory and ethical issues associated with the use of molecular genetics for crime fighting and criminal investigation purposes. Helena is interested in the role of forensic genetics in contemporary modes of governance. Furthermore, she has explored the impacts of forensic genetics in the construction of individual and collective identities and in the emergent modalities of genetic citizenship, in their articulations with democracy and social control. In 2015, Helena was awarded a Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council (ERC) as leader of the research project ‘EXCHANGE – Forensic Geneticists and the Transnational Exchange of DNA Data in the EU Engaging Science with Social Control, Citizenship and Democracy'.

    Jeffrey T. Martin is Assistant Professor of Anthropology and of East Asian Languages & Cultures at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA. Dr Martin is a sociocultural anthropologist who studies modern policing, with a focus on China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. His research concerns the historical aspects of police culture, and the intersection of technological and institutional change with policing's cultural dimension. Prior to joining the University of Illinois, Dr Martin held teaching positions at the University of Hong Kong, Chang Jung Christian University, and Central Police University.

    Tracey L. Meares is the Walton Hale Hamilton Professor and the Director of the Justice Collaboratory at Yale Law School, USA. Her work focuses on constitutional criminal procedure and criminal law policy with an emphasis on empirical investigation of these topics. She has been particularly interested lately in writing and teaching about communities, police legitimacy, and legal policy and in December 2014 was nominated to serve on President Obama's Task Force on 21st Century Policing.

    Seumas Miller is Professorial Fellow at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at Charles Sturt University, Canberra, Australia and at the 3TU Centre for Ethics and Technology at Delft University of Technology, The Hague, The Netherlands. He is the author or co-author of over 200 academic articles and 15 books, including Ethical Issues in Policing (with John Blackler, 2005), Terrorism and Counter-terrorism (2009). Investigative Ethics (with Ian Gordon, 2014) and Shooting to Kill: The Ethics of Police and Military Use of Lethal Force (2016).

    Rolando Ochoa is Lecturer at the Department of Security Studies and Criminology at Macquarie University, Sydney. He was born in Mexico City and holds a DPhil in Sociology (2012) and a Master's Degree in Latin American Studies (2007), both from the University of Oxford, England. His research interests are broad and span many disciplines but mostly include organized crime, kidnapping and other serious crimes, informal or extra-legal schemes of governance, community reactions to high crime rates under low state protection such as is prevalent in many developing nations, sociological interpretations of crime, qualitative research methodologies, policing, crime prevention and the criminal justice system. He focuses most if his work on the Latin American region, although recently he's been working to integrate the Asia Pacific region into his research.

    Olly Owen is a Research Fellow in the Department of International Development at the University of Oxford, England. He is a political anthropologist with a longstanding interest in policing and governance in Nigeria.

    Robert M. Perito is the Executive Director of the Perito Group LLC, which advises governments on security sector reform, and a Senior Associate at the Security Governance Group. Formerly, he was the Director of the Center of Innovation for Security Sector Governance at the US Institute of Peace and led the US Justice Department's international police assistance program. Perito visited Afghanistan and has written extensively on the police in Afghanistan and Iraq. He was an adviser to the UN Police Division on developing a doctrine for police in peace operations. Perito was a Senior United States Foreign Service Officer with the Department of State and served in the White House as Deputy Executive Secretary of the National Security Council Staff. In 1991, he received a Presidential Meritorious Honor Award for leading the US delegation to the Angola peace talks. Perito was an American Political Science Association Congressional Fellow. He was a Visiting Lecturer at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University; a Diplomat in Residence at the American University; and, an Adjunct Professor at George Mason University. He is the author of Where is the Lone Ranger? America's Search for a Stability Force (2nd edn, 2013); The American Experience with Police in Peace Operations (2002); and co-author of Police in War: Fighting Insurgency, Terrorism and Violent Crime (2010, with David H. Bayley).

    Donatella Della Porta is professor of political science and dean of the Institute for Humanities and the social Sciences at the Scuola Normale Superiore in Florence, where she directs the Center on Social Movement Studies (Cosmos). She directs a major ERC project Mobilizing for Democracy, on civil society participation in democratization processes in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Latin America. Among her very recent publications are: Social Movements in Times of Austerity (Polity 2014), Methodological practices in social movement research (Oxford University Press, 2014); Spreading Protest (ECPR Press 2014, with Alice Mattoni), Participatory Democracy in Southern Europe (Rowman and Littlefield, 2014, with Joan Font and Yves Sintomer); Mobilizing for Democracy (Oxford University Press, 2014); Can Democracy be Saved?, Polity Press, 2013; Clandestine Political Violence, Cambridge University Press, 2013 (with D. Snow, B. Klandermans and D. McAdam (eds.). Blackwell Encyclopedia on Social and Political Movements, Blackwell. 2013; Mobilizing on the Extreme Right (with M. Caiani and C. Wagemann), Oxford University Press, 2012; Meeting Democracy (ed. With D. Rucht), Cambridge University Press, 2012; The Hidden Order of Corruption (with A. Vannucci), Ashgate 2012. In 2011, she was the recipient of the Mattei Dogan Prize for distinguished achievements in the field of political sociology and PhD honoris causa from the universities of Lausanne, Bucharest and Goteborg.

    James Purdon is a Lecturer in English at the University of St Andrews, Scotland. He is the author of Modernist Informatics: Literature, Information, and the State (Oxford University Press, 2016) and an editor of the open-access book series Technographies (Open Humanities Press).

    Clifford Shearing is a Professor in the Griffith Criminology Institute and the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Griffith University, Australia and in the Law Faculty at the University of Cape Town where he also holds a Chair in Climate Change and Law in the African Climate and Development Initiative (ACDI) and is affiliated with the Institute for Humanities in Africa (HUMA). In addition he holds an Adjunct Professorship at the School of Criminology at the University of Montreal. He was formerly Chair of Criminology at the University of Cape Town where he also held the South African National Research Foundation Chair of Security and Justice. In addition to his academic output, Clifford has made policy contributions aimed at reshaping policing and security in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Jamaica, South Africa and the United Kingdom. His recent books include The New Environmental Governance (Holley and Gunningham, Earthscan).

    Jonathan Simon is the Adrian A Kragen Professor of Law at UC Berkeley School of Law, a member of faculty of the Jurisprudence and Social Policy program, and currently serves as faculty director of the Center for the Study of Law & Society. Jonathan's scholarship concerns the role of crime and criminal justice in governing contemporary societies. His past work includes two award winning monographs Poor Discipline: Parole and the Social Control of the Underclass (University of Chicago, 1993, winner of the American Sociological Association's sociology of law book prize, 1994), and Governing through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear (Oxford University Press, 2007, winner of the American Society of Criminology, Hindelang Award, 2010). His most recent books are The SAGE Handbook of Punishment and Society (Sage, 2013; edited with Richard Sparks) and Mass Incarceration on Trial: A Remarkable Court Decision and the Future of Prisons in America (New Press, 2014). Jonathan has served as the editor-in-chief of the journal, Punishment and Society, and is a reviewer for numerous law and society and criminology journals.

    Georgina Sinclair is Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London; an Associate of the Scottish Institute for Police Research, and, a consultant engaged in research and consultancy projects within the wider criminal justice sector with government, police, industry and academic partners in the UK and overseas. She has previously held academic lectureships in history at the Universities of Reading and Leeds, and a research post at The Open University. Her research interests and areas of publication have included British colonial policing; policing Northern Ireland; the internationalization of UK policing post-1945; law enforcement (global); international policing assistance and police–military cooperation within FCAS.

    Máximo Sozzo is Professor of Sociology and Criminology in the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, at the National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina. He is the Director of the MA in Criminology and Director of the Research Program ‘Crime and Society’ at the same university. He is currently an Adjunct Professor in the School of Justice, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. As a visiting professor he has taught graduate courses in criminology at several universities in Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Honduras, Guatemala, Spain, Hungary and Italy. He has been a visiting research fellow at the universities of New York, Bologna, Toronto, Barcelona and Hamburg. His research over the last fifteen years in the field of criminology includes: police violence and accountability, police reform, crime prevention discourses and practices, history of psychiatry and criminal justice, cultural travels of discourses and practices on crime control and the metamorphosis of penality. He has published nine books in Spanish, one in Portuguese and one in English and more than 70 essays in journals and chapters of books in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and English.

    Michelle Stewart is an Associate Professor in Justice Studies and Director of the Community Research Unit at the University of Regina, Canada. As an applied anthropologist, her research focuses on community-engaged projects addressing cognitive disabilities, mental health and racialized health inequalities as they present in the criminal justice system. Her research addresses these social justice issues through policy engagement and working directly with stakeholders to bring about better justice outcomes for all individuals involved in the justice system. As part of this work she facilitates dialogue about the broader structural issues that contribute to inequality in the justice system.

    Forrest Stuart is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago, USA. His research interrogates the causes and consequences of urban poverty. He is the author of Down, Out and Under Arrest: Policing and Everyday Life in Skid Row (University of Chicago Press, 2016).

    Rick Trinkner is an Assistant Professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University, USA specializing in criminal justice policy and reform. He has a PhD in psychology with a strong focus on social psychology and the law. His work explores the dynamics of authority in groups and its influence on the way people are socialized into rule-based social institutions. In particular, this work examines the effect of just and unjust authority behavior on a variety of outcomes, including compliance/rule-violating behavior, internalization of social norms, and attitude development. His work has been published in journals such as Law and Human Behavior, Journal of Adolescence, and Victims and Offenders. Currently, he is studying the process of legal socialization whereby people develop their understanding of the law and their relationship with the legal system.

    Mariana Valverde is Professor of Criminology and Director of the Centre for Criminology & Socio-Legal Studies at the University of Toronto, Canada. She works on law and sexuality and law and urban governance, studying these historically and in the present, and theoretically as well as empirically. Her most recent book is Chronotopes of Law: Jurisdiction, Scale, and Governance (Routledge, 2015).

    Adam White is a Research Fellow in the School of Law, University of Sheffield, England. Before arriving at the University of Sheffield in 2016, Adam was a Senior Lecturer in Public Policy at the University of York. He has also spent time as a Visiting Scholar at the University of Washington (Seattle) and has worked as a researcher for Gun Free South Africa (Cape Town) and Demos (London). Adam's research focuses on three interconnected themes: (i) the rise of the private security and private military industries in the post-war era; (ii) corresponding issues of governance, regulation and legitimacy in the contemporary security sector; and (iii) the changing nature of state–market relations. These interests are multi-disciplinary, lying at the intersection of politics, international relations, criminology and socio-legal studies. Recent publications include: The Politics of Private Security: Regulation, Reform and Re-Legitimation (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) and The Everyday Life of the State (University of Washington Press, 2013).

    Michael C. Williams is Faculty Research Professor of International Politics in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa, Canada. His publications include: The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations (2005), Culture and Security: Symbolic Power and International Security (2007) and Security beyond the State: Private Security in International Politics (with Rita Abrahamsen, 2010).


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