The SAGE Handbook of Gifted and Talented Education

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Edited by: Belle Wallace, Dorothy A. Sisk & John Senior

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  • Part I: CONCEPTS OF GIFTEDNESS AND IDENTIFICATION: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL NEEDS

    Part II:  EDUCATIONAL PROVISION: PROGRAMS AND STRATEGIES

    Part III:  GLOBAL RESPONSES TO EMERGING G&T PROVISION: DEFINING THE FUTURE

  • Copyright

    Advisory Editorial board

    Don Ambrose (USA)

    Gillian Eriksson (USA)

    Marie Huxtable (UK)

    Ching-Chi Kuo (Taiwan)

    Hilary Lowe (UK)

    Kobus Maree (SA)

    Ken McCluskey (Canada)

    Jane Piirto (USA)

    Andrzej Sekowski (Poland)

    Bruce M. Shore (Canada)

    Michael Shaughnessy (USA)

    Dean K. Simonton (USA)

    Robert J. Sternberg (USA)

    Stephanie S. Tolan (USA)

    Ian Warwick (UK)

    Jack Whitehead (UK)

    Taisir Subhi Yamin (Germany)

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Belle Wallace was Co-Director of the Curriculum Development Unit (University of Natal, SA) with the double brief for developing Assessment Strategies and Curriculum Extension for very able, disadvantaged learners, and training Curriculum Planners. Belle has served on the Executive Committee of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children; was editor of Gifted Education International from 1981 to 2016 (SAGE); and is past President of NACE (National Association for Able Children in Education). She was the designer and senior author of ‘Language in My World’ (Juta Publishers): an English second language series for Grades 1 to 12 which incorporated TASC principles. She has been made a Fellow of the Royal Society for Arts in recognition of her services to education. She is currently Director of TASC International.

    Dorothy A. Sisk , PhD, is a professor at Lamar University in Beaumont, Texas and Director of the Gifted Child Center. She is an international consultant focusing on gifted education, leadership and creativity development, and former Director of the US Office of Gifted and Talented. Dr Sisk was a founder and first President of the American Creativity Association and founder/President of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children, serving as their executive administrator, and editor of Gifted International (1980–1990). She is the author or co-author of 13 books and numerous chapters and articles.

    John Senior is a freelance creative, academic, writer, editor, researcher and consultant to both the public and private sectors. He is an able and experienced teacher, lecturer, education manager and mentor, founder and Creative Director of Otherwise Ltd and a busy blogger. He has considerable experience of working with exceptional learners, internationally and throughout the UK. He has published extensively and is a Contributing Editor/Reviewer for Gifted Education International, a SAGE journal.

    The Contributors

    Harvey B. Adams taught high school science 1972–8, was Research Officer on decision-making in schools 1978–81, county advisor responsible for identifying the most able 1981–2, and director of a curriculum enrichment programme 1982–4. In 1984 he joined the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Natal, teaching postgraduate courses. He also was Co-Director of the Curriculum Development Unit, and worked with Belle Wallace on the development of TASC. In 1994 he became Professor and Head of Department until leaving South Africa in 1998 to become a consultant to an English Education Authority, and in 2004 became a regional consultant for the national government.

    Eunice M. L. Soriano de Alencar is Professor Emerita, University of Brasilia, Brazil, and has served as Brazilian delegate to the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children. She has been awarded honorary citizenship of Brasilia, Brazil and has served as president of the Brazilian Association for the Gifted at the Federal District. Over the last 40 years she has carried out research projects and published several books and numerous articles, especially on giftedness and creativity. She is on the editorial board of several journals in Brazil and internationally, and is an honorary member of the Brazilian Council of Giftedness.

    Don Ambrose , PhD, is Professor of Graduate Education, Rider University in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, and editor of the Roeper Review. He serves on the editorial boards of most of the major journals in the field of gifted education and for several book series. He has initiated and led many interdisciplinary book projects involving eminent scholars from gifted education, general education, creative studies, cognitive science, ethical philosophy, psychology, political science, economics, law, history, sociology, theoretical physics, complexity theory, and critical thinking. Current projects include books of new creative and critical thinking strategies derived from various academic disciplines. He has presented throughout the world.

    Bahadır Ayas is a researcher in the Center for Research and Practice for High Ability Education at Anadolu University, Turkey. He also teaches Science to gifted students at the Center. He worked as a Science teacher in private and public schools before he started to work at the Center. He received his Bachelor's degree in Science Education and Master's and PhD degrees in Gifted Education. His research focus on creativity, measurement of scientific creativity and education for gifted students. He is the coauthor of the Creative Scientific Ability Test. Currently, he works on the measurement of scientific creativity in young children.

    Zipi Bashan is the coordinator of the National Mentoring Program. She has extensive experience in educational program evaluation. In the National Mentoring Program, she formed and maintains the mentor bank, comprised of more than 100 professionals in a variety of fields, such as science, mathematics, and arts from all of the universities and research institutions in Israel, as well as from industry and the performing arts. Ms Bashan organises all of the conferences in the program. She also maintains personal contact with program participants and their mentors and is responsible for following their progress via digital questionnaires and individual phone conversations, when necessary.

    Aranzazu M. Blackburn has been an educator for more than twenty years in Australia, undertaking diverse roles such as English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher, Spanish teacher, deputy principal, curriculum coordinator and learning support coordinator. She attained her PhD from the University of New England, Australia. Her research focuses on gifted and talented English-language learners in the secondary years.

    Liliane Bernardes Carneiro is an educator at the Educational Secretariat of the Federal District. She obtained her Masters degree in Science of Information and her PhD in Psychology from the University of Brasilia, Brazil. She has worked in a Brazilian state programme for gifted and talented children for many years and is the author of several articles concerning school libraries, image reading and gifted education.

    Lai Kwan Chan , EdD, is Program Director of the Program for the Gifted and Talented, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. She has served as teacher, researcher and curriculum development officer in various educational settings, and has been working in gifted education for more than 25 years. Her major research interests includes giftedness, creativity and parent education.

    Tanya Chichekian holds a BEd (Mathematics Education), and an MA and PhD (Educational Psychology, Learning Sciences) from McGill University. She taught secondary mathematics then served as honors-science academic adviser at Dawson College, Montreal. Her research interests include mathematics and science education, inquiry-based instruction, high-ability learners’ cognitive and metacognitive skills, and development of learners’ and new teachers’ identity, knowledge, skills and motivation as inquirers. Her doctoral research received the McGill's social sciences Convocation Prize and a national award. She is currently a social psychology postdoctoral fellow at l'Université du Québec à Montréal and Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Education, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario.

    Barbara Cichy-Jasiocha , PhD, is a Junior Lecturer at the Department of Psychology of Individual Differences at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. She defended her doctoral dissertation: ‘The Selected Psychological Determinants of the Subjective Quality of Life in Artistically Gifted Adults'. Her main areas of interest are the psychology of individual differences, creativity, life satisfaction of the gifted and art therapy. For the last ten years, she has run workshops for children and adults. Since 2010, she has been working with the editorial office of The Review of Psychology. She is author of publications on creativity and special abilities.

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi , PhD, is Professor at Claremont Graduate University, founder and co-director of the Quality of Life Research Center, and former chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Chicago. His books include the bestselling Flow, as well as Creativity and Becoming Adult. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

    David Yun Dai , PhD, is Professor of Educational Psychology and Methodology at the University at Albany, State University of New York, and Guest Professor at the College of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences at East China Normal University. He has published eight authored books and edited volumes, and over one hundred journal articles and book chapters on psychological and educational topics. He is currently serving at on the editorial boards of Gifted Child Quarterly, Roeper Review and the Journal for the Education of the Gifted.

    Janet E. Davidson is Associate Professor of Psychology and Faculty Director of Advising at Lewis & Clark College. Her PhD is from Yale University (1989), where she began research on the role of insight in intellectual giftedness. She conducts research on several aspects of problem solving and giftedness, including the roles that insight and metacognitive skills play in intelligence across the lifespan. She and Robert J. Sternberg have edited four books: The Psychology of Problem Solving (2003), Conceptions of Giftedness (1986), The Nature of Insight (1995), and a second edition of Conceptions of Giftedness in 2005.

    S¸ule Demirel is a doctoral student and research assistant in gifted education in the Department of Special Education at Anadolu University, Turkey. During her master's program, she studied social values of talent types. Currently, she teaches character education for gifted children at the Center for Research and Practice for High Ability Education at Anadolu University. The subject of her teaching includes ethics, global values, social and emotional needs of gifted children and youth. She also conducts seminars for parents of gifted children about characteristics, myths and needs of gifted children. She is one of the contributors of the Anadolu Sak Intelligence Scale.

    Gillian Eriksson , PhD, is the Coordinator of Gifted Education and teaches Curriculum and Comparative Education at the University of Central Florida, with a doctorate from the University of Connecticut. A USA delegate to the World Council for Gifted Children (2007–2013) and active on Florida State Challenge grants, she is the UCF P.I. on a collaborative Javits Grant, Project ELEVATE (2015–2020). An author, consultant editor and contributor to Gifted Education International, she has received awards for Teaching Excellence, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Internationalization, Minority Mentorship and a Fulbright scholarship.

    Kelsey Procter Finley , MA, is a doctoral student of Positive Developmental Psychology at Claremont Graduate University. Her research interests include creativity, meaning in life and positive aging. Kelsey is also a musician and is involved in the Pomona College orchestra and concert band and consequently has an additional research interest in the psychology of music and aesthetic experiences.

    Denise de Souza Fleith , PhD, is a Psychologist, a Full Professor at the Institute of Psychology, University of Brasilia, and a researcher at the National Council for the Development of Science and Technology in Brazil. She received her doctoral degree from the University of Connecticut in gifted and talented education. She was the vice-president (August 2015–February 2017) and president (February–July 2017) of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children. She is the author of books and articles on creativity and giftedness.

    Donna Y. Ford , PhD, is a Professor and Cornelius Vanderbilt Endowed Chair in the College of Education at Vanderbilt University. Professor Ford's work focuses on: (1) the achievement gap; (2) recruiting and retaining culturally different students in gifted education; (3) multicultural curriculum and instruction; (4) culturally competent teacher training and development; (5) African-American identity; and (6) African-American family involvement. Regarding the above, she consults with school districts, and educational and legal organizations. She has published extensively.

    Joan Freeman , PhD, is a world expert in the lifetime development of gifts and talents. For this, the British Psychological Society has honoured her with an elected Fellowship and a Lifetime Achievement Award. Mensa International has honoured her with a Lifetime Achievement Award, and the College of Teachers (UK) with an Honorary Fellowship. She is Visiting Professor at Middlesex University, London, and Patron of the National Association for Able Children in Education (NACE). She has conducted and supervised a great deal of research and published 16 books in many languages, plus three UK government reports ad more than three hundred papers and chapters – as well as making a considerable number of international presentations. Her highly praised book, Gifted Lives: What happens When Gifted Children Grow Up, describes the intimate lives of the study participants, their pleasures, trials and successes over 35 years. Joan is Founding President of the European Council for High Ability (ECHA) and Executive European Talent Support Centres, along with having a busy international practice for gifted children in central London.

    Ramon B. Goings , EdD, is Assistant Professor of educational leadership at Loyola University Maryland. His research interests are centred on exploring the academic and social experiences of gifted/high-achieving Black males, non-traditional student success, diversifying the teacher and school leader workforce, equity and access to gifted programmes for students of colour, and investigating the contributions of historically Black colleges and universities. Dr Goings publishes extensively and serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of African American Males in Education.

    Eva Gyarmathy is Senior Researcher at the Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology of the Hungarian Academy. Her research interests focus on individuals with multiple or exceptional gifts, such as the talent associated with specific learning difficulties, ADHD, autism and social/cultural differences. She also lectures in several universities. As a psychotherapist, her work is directed toward the care of the profoundly gifted and multiple exceptionally talented. She is a consultant to private schools that serve gifted children and adolescents who could not be integrated into mainstream schools. She founded the Adolescent and Adult Dyslexia Centre and the Special Needs Talent Support Council.

    Petra D. T. Gyles has a PhD in School and Applied Child Psychology from McGill University. Her research, presentations and publications have focused on intrinsic motivation in school-aged children, and specifically examine how to promote growth mindsets and mastery goals in children. Areas of research include identifying and evaluating student outcomes in inquiry-based teaching and learning, and qualities and quantities of friendships among gifted children and young people. She currently works as a clinical and school psychologist privately and with the Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District School Board in Ontario and teaches at Seneca College and the University of Toronto.

    John Hattie is Laureate Professor, Deputy Dean of Melbourne Graduate School of Education, and Director of the Melbourne Education Research Institute. John is Chair of the Board of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership and Associate Director of the ARC-SRI: Science of Learning Research Centre. He was chief moderator of the NZ Performance Based Research Fund, is President of the International Test Commission, and associate editor of the British Journal of Educational Psychology. His areas of interest are measurement models and their applications to educational problems, and models of teaching and learning. Previous appointments were in Auckland, North Carolina, Western Australia, and New England.

    Marie Huxtable is Visiting Research Fellow at the University of Cumbria, UK. She supports and contributes to educational conversations, web-spaces and opportunities for adults, children and young people to learn together and research, develop and offer their talents, expertise and knowledge as gifts. Her current interests include supporting the development of researching communities, such as the Educational Journal of Living Theories (http://ejolts.net), and researchers in organisations such as the Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institute (https://brlsi.org/) and Make a Move (http://www.makeamove.org.uk).

    Sandra N. Kaplan , EdD, is Professor of Clinical Education in Teaching and Learning at USC University of Southern California. As a former teacher and administrator of gifted programmes in an urban school district in California, her primary area of concern is modifying the core and differentiated curriculum to meet the needs of inner-city, urban, gifted learners. She is a consultant for several state departments and school districts nationwide on the topics of education for gifted students, differentiated curricula in depth and complexity, and thematic interdisciplinarity. Additionally, Dr Kaplan has authored many articles and books on the nature and scope of differentiated curricula for gifted students; is a past president of the California Association for the Gifted (CAG) and the National Association for Gifted Children (NAC) and has been nationally recognised for her contributions to gifted education. Dr Kaplan has been the Principal Investigator for Jacob Javits grants on curriculum and early childhood.

    Ching-Chih Kuo is Professor of Special Education at National Taiwan Normal University. She is experienced in teaching, counselling and administration. Her research interests in terms of giftedness include educational policy, identification, multiple intelligences, guidance and counselling, twice exceptional students and brain study. Past honours include the NTNU Outstanding Service Award in 2015, NTNU's Subsidy for Distinguished Scholar since 2015, NTNU's Subsidy for Academic Papers and Books in 2015, and the MOE Prize for Excellent Educators & Officers in 2013. Dr Kuo serves on many national and international advisory boards and committees, and was an elected President of the Asia-Pacific Federation on Giftedness (AFPG) in 2006–2008. She also serves as the Taiwan focal point for internationally related activities for the gifted, such as the ASEAN+3 Student Camp & Teacher Workshop for the Gifted in Science, the ASEAN+3 Junior Science Odyssey and World Creativity Festival.

    Kelly M. Lee is currently Assistant Clinical Professor at the University of Maryland department of Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education (CHSE). She obtained her doctorate at the University of Houston in Counseling Psychology. Her research and clinical interests include psychoeducational assessment, gifted achievement and twice-exceptional students.

    Finarya Legoh works at the Agency for Assessment & Application of Technology (BPPT) in developing science & technology communication programmes for the socio-engineering community, including gifted students. She is the Indonesia focal point for the APEC Mentoring Center for Gifted in Science, the APEC Forum for Science Talented, the ASEAN+3 Center for Gifted in Science, World Creativity Festival, and is the Vice Chairman for AASSA Special Committee on SHARE Communication. Finarya was the Executive Director for the Indonesia S&T Center (2007–2010), and is also an Associate Professor at the University of Pelita Harapan. Her professional awards include: First Female Indonesian Scientist in Architectural Acoustics, from the Museum of Records of Indonesia, and Lee Kimche McGrath Worldwide Award, from the Association of Science-Technology Centers of the US.

    Pin Li is Full Professor at the School of Psychology, Chengdu Normal University. She was previously a full professor at the Chengdu Institute of Computer Application, Chinese Academy of Sciences. She is majoring in educational psychology, social psychology and experimental psychology.

    Hilary Lowe is Education Adviser for the National Association for Able Children in Education (NACE), following a career in senior management in secondary schools and in Higher Education, latterly as Associate Dean in a University Institute of Education. She was the Director for the Excellence in Cities National Training Programme for Gifted and Talented Co-ordinators, has been a member of several national education advisory groups, written materials commissioned by the Welsh and English governments and published and presented widely on the education of more able children, as well as on education leadership and professional development. She is a Consultant Editor for the Gifted Education International journal.

    Krishna Maitra , PhD, is a retired professor and has been passionately involved in teaching and research in the field of gifted education. She was a member of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children (WCGTC), the Council for Exceptional Children and the Asia-Pacific Federation of the WCGTC. She acted as a vice-president of the Asia Pacific Federation of Gifted and Talented and was on the editorial board of Gifted Education International and the Australasian Journal of Gifted Education. She has contributed to the field of special education by writing extensively in journals, books and by curriculum development.

    C. June Maker has served in leadership positions in national and international organizations for gifted children, served on Editorial Boards for national and international gifted education journals, and published numerous books, articles, and videos. She has conducted research on performance-based assessments, implementation of multiple intelligences theory, and creativity development, working with children, teachers and researchers in the US and other countries. In 2015 she received the International Research Award from the World Council for the Gifted and Talented Students (WCGTS), and in May 2016 an honorary Doctor of Letters Degree from Western Kentucky University. The website for her project, DISCOVER, is http://www.discover.arizona.edu/

    Jacobus G. Maree is Educational Psychologist and a Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Pretoria. He holds doctoral degrees in Education (Career Counselling), Mathematics Education and Psychology. A regular keynote speaker at national and international conferences, he has received multiple awards for his work and he has a B1 rating from the National Research Foundation. Professor Maree has authored or co-authored 100+ peer-reviewed articles and 76 books/book chapters on career counselling and related topics since 2009. In the same period, he supervised 36 doctoral theses and Masters dissertations.

    Ken McCluskey , Dean and Professor of Education at the University of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada has 25 years’ experience as a school psychologist and administrator in the public school system. A recipient of programme development, creativity and publication awards from the Canadian Council for Exceptional Children, the International Centre for Innovation in Education, Reclaiming Youth International, and the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children (along with his institution's teaching, research, governance and community service awards), Ken has delivered keynote addresses in several countries on six continents and authored or co-authored more than 125 professional articles, chapters or books.

    Menachem Nadler is the Head of the Division for Gifted and Outstanding Students in the Ministry of Education in Israel. The division identifies the top 1–3% of gifted students and the highest 8% of outstanding students in academic ability nationwide. The division offers them a variety of enrichment programmes, ranging from magnet enrichment centres to special classes, from concurrent enrolment in universities to individual mentoring with outstanding professionals. The division is also responsible for nurturing outstanding students within their regular classroom and offers a wide range of within-school programmes for these students, while training their classroom teachers to work with them.

    F. Richard Olenchak is Head of the Department of Educational Studies and Professor of Educational Psychology/Research Methodology at Purdue University. He is a past president of the National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC), and his work is devoted to improving the lives of gifted persons, particularly those who are twice-exceptional.

    Ercan Öpengin holds a Master's and PHD degree in Gifted Education and is a Research Assistant in Gifted Education in the Department of Special Education at Faculty of Education in Duzce University, Turkey. He worked as a psychological counsellor in schools and in the Center for Research and Practice for High Ability Education (UYEP) at Anadolu University. He is a contributor of the Anadolu Sak Intelligence Scale. He has involved in research in the area of giftedness and intelligence scales. He has published journal articles and book chapters on gifted label and wellbeing and academic and social needs of gifted students.

    N. Nazlı Özdemir works as a Research Assistant in the Center for Research and Practice for High Ability Education at Anadolu University in Turkey. She is the coordinator of the education programs at the Center where she teaches Science to gifted students. She graduated from the department of Mathematics education at Bogazici University. Afterwards, she received her Master's degree in the field of gifted education. She currently works on her PhD about the measure of scientific creativity in young children. She is the editorial assistant of the Turkish Journal of Giftedness and Education. Her research interest includes scientific creativity, intelligence and education models.

    Randy Pease is co-director of a research and development project to create assessments for identifying young gifted children in the UAE, and a teacher educator with the Cultivating Diverse Talent in the STEM project of the University of Arizona. He has taught children of all ages in general education classrooms, recently implementing the Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model, and taught self-contained classes of gifted students. He has also been a curriculum supervisor, a coordinator of programmes for gifted students, and a teacher educator with the DISCOVER Projects, conducting workshops and guiding teachers in the implementation of curricula to develop talents in general and special classrooms. He has co-authored numerous articles.

    Jane Piirto , PhD, is Trustees’ Distinguished Professor Emerita at Ashland University. Dr Piirto is the author of 21 books. She is an award-winning poet, novelist, and scholar. She has received the Mensa Lifetime Achievement Award, the NAGC Distinguished Scholar Award, the Torrance Creativity Award, the International Creativity Award, and an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Northern Michigan University. Her textbooks in gifted education are these: Talented Children and Adults: Their Development and Education (3 editions), Understanding Those Who Create (2 editions), Understanding Creativity, “My Teeming Brain”: Understanding Creative Writers, Creativity for 21st Century Skill, and the edited book, Organic Creativity. She has been a high school teacher, a counsellor, a college instructor of humanities, a coordinator of programmes for the talented, principal of the Hunter College Elementary School, and an artist in schools for the National Endowment for the Arts. She has served as a consultant and speaker in Europe, the Near East, Southern Asia, Australia, and throughout the United States.

    Martyna Płudowska , PhD, is a Junior Lecturer at the Department of Psychology of Individual Differences at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. She also holds a B.A. in sociology. Her interests concentrate on creativity, high abilities, contemporary social transformations and their consequences for the psychosocial functioning of individuals. Since 2015, she has been working with the editorial office of The Review of Psychology. She is the author of publications on creativity, values and the education of gifted students.

    Sally M. Reis is a Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor and a Teaching Fellow in Educational Psychology at the University of Connecticut. She currently holds the Letitia Neag Chair in Educational Psychology. She has authored more than 250 articles, books, book chapters, monographs and technical reports. Sally is a past-president of The National Association for Gifted Children, a fellow of the American Psychological Association and a Distinguished Scholar of the National Association for Gifted Children.

    Joseph S. Renzulli is Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Connecticut. His research has focused on the identification and development of creativity and giftedness in young people, and on curricular and organisational models for differentiated learning environments that contribute to total school improvement. A focus of his work has been on applying the pedagogy of gifted education to the improvement of learning for all students. Dr Renzulli is a Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor. In 2009 Dr Renzulli received the Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Award for Innovation in Education.

    Karen B. Rogers is Professor Emerita in the Special & Gifted Education Department of the College of Educational, Leadership and Professional Psychology at the University of St Thomas in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She has published extensively on the effects of academic acceleration, instructional/curricular differentiation, research synthesis methodology, programme evaluation, and gifted programme development in over 180 journal articles, 25 book chapters and seven books. She was Research Director for the Gifted Education Research and Resource Information Centre at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia from 2005 to 2008, and has been an invited visiting scholar or honorary professor in universities around the world.

    Ugur Sak is the founding Director of the Center for Research and Practice on High Ability Education and chair professor of the gifted education programme at Anadolu University, Turkey. He is the founding editor of the Turkish Journal of Giftedness and Education. His has published books, book chapters and articles in Turkish and English about gifted education, creativity and measurement of intelligence. He is the author/coauthor of a number of original models, such as Anadolu-Sak Intelligence Scale, Creative Reversal Act, Selective Problem Solving, and Creative Scientific Ability Test. Currently, he directs a nationwide project funded by the Ministry of Education to develop national curriculum for gifted students from kindergarten to high school.

    Andrzej E. Se˛kowski is Professor and Head of the Department of Psychology of Individual Differences at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, Vice-President of the Polish Psychological Association and Editor-in-chief of Przegląd Psychologiczny (The Review of Psychology). As a Fulbright and Humboldt Fellow and a Kościuszko Fund Fellow, he has been on placement in numerous foreign scientific institutions, including the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Italy. He is the author of some 250 publications – books and articles in international scientific journals, such as the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Science, High Ability Studies, the Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness and Zeitschrift fűr Heilpädagogik.

    Robert W. Seney is Professor Emeritus at the Mississippi University for Women. He has worked in education for over 36 years, about 30 of those in gifted education. He has been a classroom instructor, district administrator, head of private schools and a university professor. He is most known for his advocacy of using Young Adult Literature with Gifted Readers. At Mississippi University for Women, he directed the graduate programmes in Education and was the primary instructor in the Masters of Gifted Studies programme. He was also the director of the Mississippi Governor's School, a three-week summer residential programme for gifted high school students. Upon retirement, the Mississippi College Board named him Professor Emeritus for his educational service to the state of Mississippi, the university, and the field of gifted education. He has been active in several state gifted organisations and the World Council for Gifted Children. He was the 2005 Conference Chair in New Orleans.

    John Senior is a freelance creative, academic, writer, editor, researcher and consultant to both the public and private sectors. He is an able and experienced teacher, lecturer, education manager and mentor, founder and Creative Director of Otherwise Ltd and a busy blogger. He has considerable experience of working with exceptional learners, internationally and throughout the UK. He has published extensively and is a contributing editor/reviewer for Gifted Education International, a SAGE journal.

    Bilge Bal-Sezerel is a Research Assistant in the Center for Research and Practice for High Ability Education at Anadolu University in Turkey where she coordinates admission office and teaches mathematics to gifted students. She graduated from the department of Mathematics Education at Anadolu University and worked as a Mathematics teacher in a private school for six years. She holds a Master's degree in Gifted Education and currently is working on her PhD dissertation. The subject of the dissertation is the measure of mathematical creativity. She the editorial assistant of Turkish Journal of Giftedness of Education. Her researches focus on mathematical creativity, intelligence and creativity domains.

    Yukti Sharma , PhD, is faculty at the Department of Education, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India. She is involved in teaching and research in the area of giftedness with postgraduate and PhD scholars at the department. Additional research interests include science education, special education and creativity. She has conducted research projects that have been funded by the National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT), New Delhi. She has presented at several conferences and has various works published in national as well as international journals. She has co-authored textbooks on education and developed courses in special education for postgraduate students.

    Jiannong Shi is currently Full Professor of Psychology, affiliated with the Institute of Psychology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Department of Psychology of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has been a visiting professor jointly employed by the Department of Learning and Philosophy (Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Humanity) of Aalborg University, Denmark, the University of Munich, the University of Michigan, Yale University, the University of Adelaide and Regensburg University, respectively, during the last 20 years. He is the Director of the Center for Supernormal (G/T) Children at the Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has authored (or co-authored) 11 books in the field of child development, gifted education, creativity, talent development and excellence, as well as more than 230 journal articles and book chapters in Chinese and English.

    Bruce M. Shore is Emeritus Professor of Educational Psychology at McGill University, Montreal, having been department chair, faculty-association president and Dean of Students. His awards include American Educational Research Association Fellow, National Association for Gifted Students Distinguished Scholar, World Council for Gifted and Talented Children International Award for Research, six American Mensa Education and Research Foundation Awards for Excellence for Research on Human Intelligence and Intellectual Giftedness, and university distinctions for teaching and supervision. His research focuses on intellectual giftedness and inquiry-based teaching and learning. His latest book is The Graduate Advisor Handbook: A Student-centered Approach (University of Chicago Press).

    Linda Kreger Silverman , PhD, is a licensed Clinical and Counselling Psychologist. She directs the Institute for the Study of Advanced Development, the Gifted Development Center (GDC) and Visual-Spatial Resource in Denver, Colorado. Her PhD is in Special Education and Educational Psychology from USC. In the last 39 years, over 6,500 children have been assessed at GDC, the largest data bank on this population. She has studied the psychology and education of the gifted since 1961 and contributed over 300 publications, including Counseling the Gifted and Talented, Upside-Down Brilliance: The Visual-Spatial Learner, Advanced Development: A Collection of Works on Gifted Adults and Giftedness 101 (translated into Korean and Swedish).

    Dean Keith Simonton is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. His more than 500 publications largely concern genius, creativity, leadership and talent. Past honours include the William James Book Award, the George A. Miller Outstanding Article Award, the Theoretical Innovation Prize in Personality and Social Psychology, the Sir Francis Galton Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Study of Creativity, the Rudolf Arnheim Award for Outstanding Contributions to Psychology and the Arts, the E. Paul Torrance Award for Creativity, and three Mensa Awards for Excellence in Research. In 2014 he edited TheWiley Handbook of Genius.

    Dorothy A. Sisk , PhD, is Professor at Lamar University in Beaumont, Texas, and Director of the Gifted Child Center. She is an international consultant focusing on gifted education, leadership and creativity development, and former Director of the U.S. Office of Gifted and Talented. Dr Sisk was a founder and first President of the American Creativity Association and founder/President of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children, serving as their executive administrator, and editor of Gifted International (1980–1990). She is the author or co-author of 13 books and numerous chapters and articles.

    Susen R. Smith , PhD, is GERRIC Senior Research Fellow and Senior Lecturer in Gifted and Special Education at the School of Education, University of New South Wales, Australia. She is an experienced teacher, leader, and academic scholar in gifted education. Her research focuses on differentiating teaching for talent development and for the social-emotional learning of gifted underachievers. She has been a visiting scholar, keynoted internationally, guest edited for the Australasian Journal of Gifted Education and is published in journals such as the Roeper Review, Journal for the Education of the Gifted, Gifted and Talented International, and the International Journal for Talent Development and Creativity. Her three decades of practice and research resulted in the development of the Model of Dynamic Differentiation.

    Niamh Stack is Professor in the School of Psychology, University of Glasgow. In her role their as Director of Teaching and Learning she is engaged in activities around effective pedagogy, curriculum enhancement and graduate skills. In addition, she is the Research Director for the Scottish Network for Able Pupils (SNAP) which is hosted in the University of Glasgow. SNAP offers support and advice to the Scottish Education system in three main areas: publications, staff development and national conferences. She researches and publishes in the area of high ability/giftedness and atypical development. She has led seminars for staff and students across the UK and Europe.

    Robert J. Sternberg is Professor of Human Development at Cornell University. He is also Honorary Professor of Psychology at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Previously he was IBM Professor of Psychology and Education and Director of the Center for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise at Yale. He is a past-president of the American Psychological Association and the Federation of Associations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Sternberg's PhD is from Stanford and he holds 13 honorary doctorates. He is a member of the National Academy of Education and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has won the E. Paul Torrance Award and the Distinguished Scholar Award from the Natonal Association for Gifted Children.

    Margaret Sutherland , PhD, is a Senior Lecturer in inclusive education, University of Glasgow, Scotland. She is the Director of the Scottish Network for Able Pupils and Director of Post Graduate Research, School of Education, University of Glasgow. She has 37 years’ teaching experience in mainstream primary schools, behaviour support and, latterly, higher education. She is author of Gifted and Talented in the Early Years: A Practical Guide for 3–6 Year Olds and Developing the Gifted and Talented Young Learner. Her first book is in its second edition and has been translated into German and Slovenian. She is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. She serves on various international committees, has led seminars across the UK, and been invited to work with staff and students in Tanzania, Malawi, Korea, USA, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, Luxembourg, Sweden, Austria, China, Denmark and Australia.

    Stephanie S. Tolan is a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Educational Advancement, and has published 28 books for children and young adults, including the 2003 Newbery Honor winning Surviving the Applewhites. Her many non-fiction works about the needs of the highly gifted include the widely published and often translated essay ‘Is it a Cheetah?'and she was co-author of the award-winning Guiding the Gifted Child (1982). One of the original members of the Columbus Group, who brought the concept of Asynchronous Development to the gifted community, she co-edited Off the Charts: Asynchrony and the Gifted Child (2013). Her most recent publication about the gifted is Out of Sync: Essays on Giftedness (2016).

    Cheryl L. Walker received her PhD in School/Applied Child Psychology at McGill University in Montreal, and is currently a school psychologist at the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board in Ottawa, Ontario. Her research has challenged myths about gifted students’ previously presumed preference to work alone in classrooms, shifted the focus from role change to role diversification in inquiry teaching and learning, and examined social perspective-taking in successful classroom group work. She received an American Mensa Education and Research Foundation Award for Excellence for Research on Human Intelligence and Intellectual Giftedness for her theoretical paper linking ‘theory of mind’ and giftedness.

    Belle Wallace was Co-Director of the Curriculum Development Unit (University of Natal, SA) with the double brief for developing Assessment Strategies and Curriculum Extension for very able, disadvantaged learners, and training Curriculum Planners. Belle has served on the Executive Committee of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children; was editor of Gifted Education International from 1981 to 2016 (SAGE); and is past President of NACE (National Association for Able Children in Education). She was the designer and senior author of ‘Language in My World’ (Juta Publishers): an English second language series for Grades 1 to 12 which incorporated TASC principles. She has been made a Fellow of the Royal Society for Arts in recognition of her services to education. She is currently Director of TASC International.

    Janna Wardman is Lecturer at the University of Auckland and currently teaches on postgraduate Initial Teacher Education courses and Masters courses on gifted education, as well as being a supervisor of postgraduate candidates. Janna is an experienced international presenter and also advises parents and schools on questions relating to gifted education. She is the editor of APEX, the New Zealand journal for gifted education. A strong theoretical background, informed by research, supports her practical experience of 30 years in education in Scotland, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand.

    Ian Warwick taught in inner London comprehensives for 20 years, then worked as the Gifted Education Lead across two top-rated local authorities before he formed London Gifted & Talented in 2003. Since then LG&T has directly worked with well over 3,500 schools and 11,000 teachers internationally. More than 150,000 educators worldwide have used their free e-resources. Ian has set up and run many national school-based research programmes for the Department for Education and the London Mayor. His recent publications include World Class: Tackling the Ten Biggest Challenges Facing Schools Today (Routledge 2017) and Educating the More Able Student: What Works and Why (Sage 2015) and he has three more books being published this year. He has devised and delivered extensive online and live training programmes for many hundreds of schools in countries across Europe, the USA, Africa and the Middle and Far East.

    Jack Whitehead is Visiting Professor at the University of Cumbria, a former President of the British Educational Research Association and Distinguished Scholar in Residence at Westminster College, Utah. He is a Visiting Professor at Ningxia University in China and a member of the editorial board of the Educational Journal of Living Theories (EJOLTS – http://ejolts.net/node/80). Since 1973 his research programme has focused on the creation of the living-educational theories that individuals use to improve their practice and explain their educational influences in such enquiries as, ‘How do I improve what I am doing in my workplace?’ His latest publication Living Theory research as a way of life (Brown Dog Books) is available as a paperback and e-book.

    Brian L. Wright , PhD, is Assistant Professor of Early Childhood Education in the Department of Instruction and Curriculum Leadership in the College of Education at the University of Memphis. His research examines high-achieving African American boys/males in urban schools (pre-K-12), racial-ethnic identity development of boys and young men of colour, STEM and African American males, African American males as early childhood teachers, and teacher identity development. He is the author of The Brilliance of Black Boys: Cultivating School Success in the Early Grades (Teachers College Press).

    Taisir Subhi Yamin is Professor of Gifted Education, with a BS in Physics, an MA in Special Education and a PhD in Gifted Education and Computer Assisted Learning from Lancaster University in England. Yamin has written 20 books, numerous articles, chapters, research papers and training packages for productive thinking, creative problem solving and future problem solving. He is a former President of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children (WCGTC), former editor-in-chief of Gifted and Talented International, General Director of the International Centre for Innovation in Education (ICIE) in Germany, and research fellow at Université Paris Descartes. He founded, with Ken McCluskey, the International Journal for Talent Development and Creativity (IJTDC). ICIE publishes the IJTDC in partnership with American and European universities.

    Chris Yapp is a Patron of NACE (UK). He is an independent consultant specialising in Innovation, Technology, Policy and Futures Thinking. Chris was in the IT Industry for 30 years specialising in networking. He has written, edited and contributed to a number of books on these topics. He is a Fellow of the British Computer Society and blogs for them on the societal implications of technology advances. He has been involved in the Future of Education for nearly 30 years and has lectured extensively on this topic, including at the Royal Society, The Club of Rome, the British Council, the World Bank, and the EU. He has spoken on Gifted and Talented education at UK, European and Global Conferences. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. He has an M.A. in Physics from Magdalen College, Oxford and an honorary Doctorate from Glasgow Caledonian University.

    Jemimah L. Young is the National Supervisor of the Division for Gifted and Outstanding students in the Ministry of Education in Israel. She designs innovative curriculum models and pedagogical guidelines promoting cognitive and social-emotional development, leadership and creativity in all of the programs for gifted students nationwide. She also designs and implements professional in-service training and development for teachers of gifted students in various programs nationwide, such as magnet enrichment centers and special classes and for program directors of gifted students. In addition, Ms Zeltser supervises two year programs for training teachers to receive special certification for teaching gifted students.

    Pnina Zeltser is the National Supervisor of the Division for Gifted and Outstanding students in the Ministry of Education in Israel. She designs innovative curriculum models and pedagogical guidelines promoting cognitive and social-emotional development, leadership and creativity in all of the programs for gifted students nationwide. She also designs and implements professional in-service training and development for teachers of gifted students in various programs nationwide, such as magnet enrichment centers and special classes and for program directors of gifted students. In addition, Ms Zeltser supervises two year programs for training teachers to receive special certification for teaching gifted students.

    Rachel Zorman

    Preface

    I first became interested in education research in 1990, by a somewhat odd route. I was speaking at a conference on Learning Organisations, based around ideas by Peter Senge, Chris Argyris and Donald Schön. My session was around whether Information Technology was an enabler or a blocker to organisational learning and knowledge management. The answer of course is ‘it depends'.

    However, in the question and answer session at the end, one person asked if I thought schools, colleges and universities were learning organisations. Sometimes a question makes you think much more deeply than you may have imagined. It was quite clear that educational institutions were ‘learned', but were they ‘learning'? After the session I sought out and talked to the questioner about the motivation behind the question.

    Over the next few months I concluded that educational institutions were not learning organisations in the terms we had been discussing. Let me explain why. First, it was clear that education policy was not driven by or indeed informed by research. Much educational research was too small scale and qualitative to be influential on policy. My concern rapidly became that education policy was driven by politics and ideology, not evidence.

    In turn, within educational practice I discovered that camps and fads abounded. One group would claim, for instance, that understanding ‘learning styles’ was central to education improvement, while another would argue that there was no evidence that learning styles made any difference. Similarly, advocates could passionately argue that IT could transform education while others could argue that it had no impact.

    Yet during the 1990s, I met many educational researchers who were passionate advocates for quality research and for influencing both policy and practice. I also discovered that there were large areas of consensus about what worked. Importantly, one of the complexities in education research is that everything works somewhere but nothing seems to work everywhere with everyone. Teaching and learning is part science and part craft. Learning is a social and a socialising experience.

    Over the last 20 years our understanding of the human brain has advanced significantly. I don't wish to exaggerate what we know now, but for teachers starting on a career now, I suspect that by the time they retire we may have a much greater scientific underpinning of how humans learn and what it means to learn.

    That is why it is a privilege for me to have the chance to welcome this book. We are in a time of great change, socially, economically, politically and technologically. There could be no greater gift from my generation to those who will follow than to create a legacy where educational research is valued and integrated into the change processes for the development of our teachers and learners, curriculum and assessment.

    For some, it might be argued that we should concentrate research on tackling exclusion and underperformance, enhancing social mobility, special needs and the mainstream rather than the Gifted and Talented. For me that needs to be challenged. If we are to deliver an education system that provides the best education for all our children, we need to be clear what we mean by giftedness.

    This is hardly a new notion. Plato has never been bettered in 2000 years: ‘Do not train a child to learn by force or harshness; but direct them to it by what amuses their minds, so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each'.

    The mistake is to ask the question: ‘is this child gifted?’ The real question should be: ‘how is this child gifted?'

    I have met many children, and adults, who have extraordinary talents in one domain, yet have incredible weaknesses in others. In the words of the song, the best education for each child should ‘accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative'.

    That is a big ask of our teachers and indeed their parents. If we are to create a teaching force capable of rising to this challenge, we need to establish a culture where policy and practice is driven by quality evidence. I cannot see any other way.

    Of course, we live in a time where the future appears very unclear and the challenges to the rising generation are many and complex:

    • The environment, climate change and sustainability;
    • Globalisation and the backlash;
    • Religious conflict;
    • Technology and the future of work.

    There are others, but each of these is daunting. It is important also to note that these ‘wicked issues’ need systemic solutions crossing subject and disciplinary boundaries. Advances in Artificial Intelligence create ethical and philosophical challenges. Advances in medicine challenge what it means to be human, or to think about what we mean by a good life in the 21st-century context.

    Some of my friends argue that we need a new Renaissance or a re-envisaging of the Enlightenment if we are to meet these challenges. For me, the next 30 years is about a battle of ideas and values.

    As Nelson Mandela put it: ‘Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.'

    Arming our teachers, their students and their families to change the world for the better is a noble cause. Only that way can we create the creative, confident, problem-solving teams that can rise to the challenges that face the next generations.

    Of course, this is a cultural and political challenge. The status of teachers and teaching varies enormously between countries and communities. Investing in our teaching workforce based on peer reviewed evidence is, for me, what we should all aspire to.

    I grew up in an era where my parents believed that education was the best route to progress, to escape poverty and poor work. In too many communities, there is a poverty of aspiration which creates a cycle of underachievement. Yet schools and teachers do make a difference.

    I was the first person in my family to go to University. When I was 8 or 9, my primary head teacher took my parents aside and told them that I would go to University, probably Oxford or Cambridge. I passed entrance to Oxford at the age of 16. I am grateful to the Head, and to my parents, for the impact his early insight has had on my whole life.

    In 1953, the year I was born, there were 500,000 miners in the UK, enough to fill Wembley football stadium over five times. Today, they would struggle to fill the pitch. We are educating our children for a world we do not understand and will not live to see. Many will work in jobs that do not yet exist, in firms or industries that do not yet exist. Even those who will work in the law, medicine and other professions will work very differently to how we understand those jobs today.

    So, what we need to build is a culture of lifelong learning. Even for those whose work may keep them in the same domain, the personal development for working life will be as fundamental as their school or university education.

    Alec Reed, the entrepreneur, described his vision of lifelong learning to me, many years ago, with a wonderful comparison to another right of passage. He envisaged a world where when a child left school, they proudly put on L-Plates to say, ‘I am a Learner’ rather than taking them off and saying, ‘I have passed'.

    Of course, with much investment and interest focused on ‘self-driving cars', many children may not need or want to learn to drive. We shall see! The development of autonomous transport illustrates many of the themes I have raised so far. These developments in transport have technological underpinnings, but also philosophical, ethical, economic and political issues abound. Having spent a lifetime in the technology world, to see technologists grappling with issues such as this is fascinating: ‘If an autonomous vehicle is faced with a child running into the road and can only avoid the child by putting the passenger's life at risk, what should the vehicle do?'

    Of course, education is far more than preparation for the world of work. We need good citizens, good communities and good values.

    Are our schools up to the task? The central issue in my time has been that when there is a problem, the answer is always ‘Education'. Whether the problem is childhood obesity, online safety, teenage pregnancy, religious extremism or any number of issues around ‘21st-century skills’ education is the answer.

    We should not and cannot overburden schools with too many complex tasks. So, it is important that educational debate and research does not confine itself to what works in school, or the classroom. We need a broad debate about the fundamental purposes of education and the role of all stakeholders in society and the economy. In a world of rapid and complex change we need to think carefully about what it means to be educated.

    Again, this is not new. That most quotable of authors, Mark Twain put it succinctly: ‘I never let my schooling interfere with my education'.

    Raising standards of education at school level will fail society if our children do not become adults who value learning for the rest of their lives. That is a challenge for all of us, not just our teachers and schools.

    I have long argued that this is the best time in human history to be a teacher. We have new knowledge about learning. Our society, and economy, needs educated people more than ever in human history.

    Yet I know that for many teachers it does not feel that way. Teaching is a demanding and stressful profession. Again, here I argue that the quality of evidence and research to underpin the development of the workforce is vital.

    Change is stressful, but we know that if humans feel part of the change process rather than seeing themselves as victims of change, the stress feels less demotivating and damaging. It is important for me that our teachers are not just seen as objects of research or consumers of it, but active participants in shaping the agenda for research and the deployment of the findings.

    None of this can happen overnight. It will take courage and patience in equal measure.

    Bringing together the many contributors to this book is no mean achievement. I trust that all readers will find many ideas here, for policy, practice and indeed further research. There is much to learn and much to do.

    I argue a strong case for optimism. The world is changing. It is no one's fault if our current models of teaching and learning, schools, curriculum and assessment are lacking in delivering for the new world. On the contrary, this is a great opportunity for our generations to build a system of education for all our citizens of the world. We have a growing armoury of knowledge and tools to support the new arrangements we will need.

    I have had the privilege to travel the world and see fantastic innovations in teaching and learning in the developed and developing world. The challenges around the world are more similar than they are different, in my experience.

    So, I believe that this book is timely. I have the pleasure to know some of the authors, sadly not all. I know them to be passionate and committed to the cause of education. If in reading this you believe that this is unrealistic, I can only recall John Lennon's words: ‘You may say I'm a dreamer, but I'm not the only one'.

    The book is full of people's wisdom and ideas. Those I know are both dreamers and practitioners.

    Teachers made a difference to my life. They've made differences to my children's lives. Now I'm fortunate enough to see my grandchildren starting on their learning journeys.

    We have the opportunity to build an education system based on evidence to create a humane, talented and cohesive society. Why not now?

    Acknowledgements

    The Editors wish to acknowledge the generous gifts of thoughts and life-experiences the contributors brought to this volume. Many of the contributors are members of the Advisory Board, offering advice and reviewing chapters. It has been a joyous journey indeed, as ideas were shared across the world. We dedicate the volume to teachers and their students who are striving to cope with rapid change in this 21st century. We hope that parents and caregivers will appreciate the world picture presented as they play their part in helping children to realise their gifts and talents. In particular, we thank Harvey B. Adams for his copy-editing of chapters, and Sarah Philo for her quiet and calming advice. Our sincere thanks also go to Jude Bowen and SAGE for commissioning and supporting this publication.

    Belle Wallace, Dorothy A. Sisk and John Senior

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