The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Psychology
The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Psychology is a unique, state-of-the-art synthesis of the known work, combined with current research trends, in the broad field of gender and psychology. In the past 35 years academic publications on the subject have increased tenfold, and this level of activity as well the diversity of research looks set to increase in the coming years too. The time is ideal for a systematic review of the field. Contributions come from academics around the world and many different disciplines, and as a result multiple perspectives and a diversity of methodologies are presented to understand gender and its implications for behaviour. Chapters cover a wide variety of topics, theoretical approaches, contexts, and social issues; they also critically examine the key issues ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- How gender is studied
- Chapter 1: Understanding Gender:Methods, Content, and Controversies
- Chapter 2: The Science and Politicsof Comparing Women and Men: A Reconsideration
- Chapter 3: Androcentrism: Changingthe Landscape without Leveling the Playing Field?
- Chapter 4: Neurosexism in FunctionalNeuroimaging: From Scanner to Pseudo-science to Psyche
- Chapter 5: Gender andDiscourse
- Chapter 6: GenderDevelopment
- Chapter 7: An EvolutionaryUnderstanding of Sex Differences
- Chapter 8: PrecariousManhood
- Chapter 9: Gender-Based Standardsof Competence in Parenting and Work Roles
- Chapter 10: Gendering thePsychology of Aging
- GENDER DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES
- Chapter 11: Gender and Personality:Beyond Gender Stereotypes to Social Identity and the Dynamics of Social Change
- Chapter 12: The Social Basis ofEmotion in Men and Women
- Chapter 13: Gendered Communicationand Social Influence
- Chapter 14: The Social Psychologyof Gender across Cultures
- Chapter 15: Crossing Borders:Intersectional Excursions into Gender and Immigration
- Chapter 16: A Cultural Psychologyof Relationship: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology
- Chapter 17: Gender Differences inMotivation Shape Social Interaction Patterns, Sexual Relationships, Social Inequality, and CulturalHistory
- CONFLICT AND COPING
- Chapter 18: Sexism in ContemporarySocieties: How it is Expressed, Perceived, Confirmed, and Resisted
- Chapter 19: Appraising GenderDiscrimination as Legitimate or Illegitimate: Antecedents and Consequences
- Chapter 20: Coping with the Stressof Gender Discrimination
- Chapter 21: Sexual Harassment:Motivations and Consequences
- Chapter 22: Reducing Gender-BasedViolence
- Chapter 23: An Essential Debate:Science, Politics, Difference and the Gendered Self
- GENDER AND SOCIAL ISSUES
- Chapter 24: Monstrously Mortal:Women’s Bodies, Existential Threat, and Women’s Health Risks
- Chapter 25: PsychologicalCliterodectomy: Body Objectification as a Human Rights Violation
- Chapter 26: Gender StereotypeThreat among Women and Girls
- Chapter 27: Ceilings, Cliffs andLabyrinths: Exploring Metaphors for Workplace Gender Discrimination
- Chapter 28: PsychologicalPerspectives on Gender in Negotiation
- Chapter 29: Affirmative Action andGender Equality
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Editorial arrangement and Chapter 1 © Michelle K. Ryan& Nyla R. Branscombe 2013
Chapter 2 © Alice H. Eagly 2013
Chapter 3 © Peter Hegarty, Orla Parslow, Y. Gavriel Ansara,& Freyja Quick 2013
Chapter 4 © Cordelia Fine 2013
Chapter 5 © Tim Kurz & Ngaire Donaghue 2013
Chapter 6 © Kay Bussey 2013
Chapter 7 © Jennifer Byrd-Craven & David C. Geary2013
Chapter 8 © Jennifer K. Bosson, Joseph A. Vandello, &T. Andrew Caswell 2013
Chapter 9 © Kathleen Fuegen & Monica Biernat 2013
Chapter 10 © Susan Kemper 2013
Chapter 11 © Luisa Batalha & Katherine J. Reynolds2013
Chapter 12 © Agneta Fischer & Catharine Evers 2013
Chapter 13 © Linda L. Carli 2013
Chapter 14 © Serge Guimond, Armand Chatard, & FabioLorenzi-Cioldi 2013
Chapter 15 © Kay Deaux & Ronni Michelle Greenwood2013
Chapter 16 © Tuğçe Kurtiş & GlennAdams 2013
Chapter 17 © Roy F. Baumeister 2013
Chapter 18 © Manuela Barreto & Naomi Ellemers 2013
Chapter 19 © Jolanda Jetten, Nyla R. Branscombe, Aarti Iyer,& Nobuko Asai 2013
Chapter 20 © Kimberly Matheson & Mindi D. Foster2013
Chapter 21 © Anne Maass, Mara Cadinu, & Silvia Galdi2013
Chapter 22 © Laurie Ball Cooper, Elizabeth Levy Paluck,& Erin K. Fletcher 2013
Chapter 23 © Thomas A. Morton 2013
Chapter 24 © Jamie L. Goldenberg, Tomi-Ann Roberts, Kasey LynnMorris, & Douglas P. Cooper 2013
Chapter 25 © Shelly Grabe 2013
Chapter 26 © Diana E. Betz, Laura R. Ramsey, & DeniseSekaquaptewa 2013
Chapter 27 © Susanne Bruckmüller, Michelle K. Ryan, S.Alexander Haslam, & Kim Peters 2013
Chapter 28 © Hannah Riley Bowles 2013
Chapter 29 © Faye J. Crosby, Laura Sabattini, & MichikoAizawa 2013
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2012953286
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About the Editors[Page viii]
Michelle K. Ryan is Professor of Social and Organizational Psychology at the Universityof Exeter, UK, and a Professor of Diversity at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Hermajor area of research is the study of gender and gender differences in context. She is particularlyinterested in gender discriminatory practices in the workplace, such as the glass cliff and thegender pay gap. Other research interests include the study of complex and stigmatized socialidentities, such as those based on race, sexuality, and disability. She works closely with industryand policy-makers to translate her research into practical interventions.
Nyla R. Branscombe is Professor of Psychology at the University of Kansas and conductsresearch focused on two main issues: the psychology of historically privileged groups – whenand why they may feel collective guilt – and the psychology of disadvantaged groups –particularly how they cope with discrimination. She has published more than 120 articles andchapters, was the co-recipient of the Otto Kleinberg prize for research on Intercultural andInternational Relations in 1999 and 2012, and received the Personality and Social PsychologyPublication Award in 1996 and 2001. In 2004 she co-edited Collective Guilt: InternationalPerspectives, in 2008 Commemorating Brown: The Social Psychology of Racism andDiscrimination, and in 2010 Rediscovering Social Identity. She has served as AssociateEditor for Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, British Journal of Social Psychology,and Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, and her ongoing research is supported by theCanadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Notes on Contributors[Page ix]
Glenn Adams is an Associate Professor in the Psychology Department at theUniversity of Kansas and an affiliate of the Kansas African Studies Center. He served as a PeaceCorps volunteer in Sierra Leone before enrolling in the PhD program at Stanford University, duringwhich he spent two years in Ghana doing the field research that constitutes the empirical foundationfor his work on cultural–psychological foundations of relationship. His current work buildson this foundation to critique neocolonialism in psychological science and to articulate apostcolonial psychology that serves the interests of broad human liberation and development.
Michiko Aizawa is Associate Professor of Law at Hitotsubashi University, Japan. Herprincipal area of research is employment discrimination law, with a focus on gender-baseddiscrimination in the workplace. She is particularly interested in conducting comparative studies ofthe ways in which anti-discrimination law works or fails to work in different cultures andsocieties. Other research interests include the history of Japanese employment and labor law.
Y. Gávriel Ansara is a final year PhD Psychology researcher with Peter Hegarty at theUniversity of Surrey, UK. Gávi received the 2012 American Psychological Association (APA)Division 44 Transgender Research Award for his research contribution to the field of transgenderstudies. This research focused on cisgenderism, an ideology that delegitimizes people’s owndesignations of their genders. Gávi also received the 2011 UK Higher Education AcademyNational Psychology Postgraduate Teaching Award for his excellence in teaching, supporting students,and making a positive impact on the community. Details of Gávi’s publications and hisinternational human rights work are available on his website at http://www.ansaraonline.com.
Nobuko Asai is Lecturer of Social Psychology at Kyoto–Bunkyo University,Japan. She received her PhD from Kobe University in 2008. Her research interests are in the areas ofintergroup relations, prejudice and discrimination, with particular focuses on coping withdiscrimination and the association between essentialist beliefs and prejudice. She has co-editedInequality, Discrimination and Conflict in Japan: Ways to Social Justice and Cooperation(Trans-Pacific Press, 2012).
Laurie Ball Cooper is a Skadden Fellow and immigration attorney at the Tahirih JusticeCenter in Washington, DC, where she represents immigrant women and girls who are fleeinggender-based violence. She received her law degree from Yale Law School and her Master’sDegree in International Development from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University in2010.
Manuela Barreto obtained her PhD in Social Psychology from the Free University,Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and is now a Professor of Social and Organizational Psychology at theUniversity of Exeter, UK. Her research interests are on the psychology of social disadvantage, [Page x]exemplified by her work on identity respect, reactions toprejudice, and the psychology of concealed identities.
Luisa Batalha is a post-doctoral research fellow at the School of Psychology at theAustralian National University. She has investigated social identity-related concepts to areas asdiverse as gender, climate change mitigation, and deliberative democracy. She is currently workingon a project on how to build diverse communities and reduce prejudice.
Roy F. Baumeister is currently the Francis Eppes Eminent Professor of Psychology atFlorida State University. His current research interests include self-control, choice, and decisionmaking; the need to belong; how nature and culture influence people’s sex drive, rape andsexual coercion, the cultural suppression of female sexuality, and how couples negotiate theirsexual patterns; consciousness, volition, emotion, and ‘free will’; and irrationalityand self-destructive behavior.
Diana E. Betz is a PhD candidate in the social psychology program at the Universityof Michigan, Ann Arbor. She studies the impact of stereotypes on motivation and prejudice. Herdissertation examines women and girls’ reactions to counterstereotypic science role models,including feminine science role models. She also studies the effects of stereotype-driven humor,including jokes that use stereotypes to satirically undermine prejudice, as well as intergroupbeliefs about the everyday relevance of race.
Monica Biernat is Professor of Psychology and Associate Chair at the University ofKansas where she directs the PhD program in social psychology. Her research examines the processesof stereotyping and prejudice, and focuses on how stereotypes affect judgments of individual membersof stereotyped groups. She is currently associate editor of Psychological Bulletin andExecutive Officer of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology.
Jennifer K. Bosson is a social psychologist and Associate Professor of Psychology at theUniversity of South Florida. Her research interests include gender and identity and theirimplications for men’s and women’s psychological and interpersonal functioning. She isalso interested in targets of stigma, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction, and the consequences ofnorm violations.
Hannah Riley Bowles is a Visiting Associate Professor at the Tufts University FletcherSchool of Law and Diplomacy, a Senior Lecturer at the Harvard Kennedy School, and a FacultyAffiliate of the Center for Gender in Organizations at the Simmons University School of Management,all in Massachusetts. Her primary research focus has been on women’s pursuit of leadershipopportunities and rewards, illuminating in particular how interpersonal interactions, such asnegotiation, contribute to gender inequality.
Susanne Bruckmüller is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Exeter, UK. Herresearch combines approaches of social cognition and intergroup relations in the study of issuessuch as the explanation of and communication about group differences, normative and non-normativesocial identities, and the cultural reproduction of social inequality. Specific research interestsinclude the comparative framing of group differences, the glass cliff, gender stereotypes, agencyand communion as basic dimensions of person perception, and the role of perceptual fluency inintergroup contexts.
[Page xi]Kay Bussey is an Associate Professor in Psychology at Macquarie University,Sydney, Australia. She has been the recipient of a Fulbright Award and on three occasions has been aVisiting Scholar at Stanford University, California. She is on the editorial board of the BritishJournal of Developmental Psychology and serves as an editorial consultant for numerouspsychology journals and scientific organizations. Her interests and publications span several areasof social development, including gender development, moral development, children’sparticipation in the legal system, and school bullying.
Jennifer Byrd-Craven is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Oklahoma State University inStillwater, Oklahoma. Her major area of research is the psychobiology of the stress response and sexdifferences in stress responses and social cognition. She is particularly interested in psychosocialfactors related to plasticity of the stress response system, the timing of life history traits, andpeer relationships. She uses Evolutionary Psychology as a major theoretical framework in guiding herhypotheses.
Mara Cadinu is Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Padua,Italy. She received her PhD at the University of Oregon. She has been Associate Editor of theEuropean Journal of Social Psychology. She is currently a member of the Executive Committeeof the European Association of Social Psychology. She has over 40 publications, including 28articles in international peer-reviewed journals. Her current research interests are: stereotypingand intergroup relations; self stereotyping; stereotype threat; sexual harassment; objectificationof women; and implicit determinants of stereotype threat in children.
Linda L. Carli holds a PhD in social psychology from the University of Massachusettsat Amherst. She has taught in the psychology department at Wellesley College, Massachusetts, since1991 and is an authority on social influence, gender discrimination and the challenges faced byprofessional women. She has developed and conducted diversity training workshops and negotiation andconflict resolution workshops for women leaders and has lectured widely on gender and diversity forbusiness, academic, and other organizations.
T. Andrew Caswell is a graduate student in the Psychology Department at the University ofSouth Florida. His primary research areas are sexual prejudice and moral emotions. Other researchinterests include the social construction of masculinity and psychophysiology.
Armand Chatard is Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Poitiers,France. His research interests include self and identity, social comparison processes, and terrormanagement theory. His works seek to inform both the general public and policy-makers.
Douglas Cooper is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Johnson C. Smith University inCharlotte, North Carolina. His research focuses on the short- and long-term consequences ofrejection on self and identity, as well as the role that mortality concerns play in healthmotivations and decision-making.
Faye Crosby is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Cruz.She also serves as the Provost of Cowell College, UC Santa Cruz’s oldest residential college.Her area of special interest is the social psychology of social justice. Faye is also the founder ofthe Nag’s Heart Conference Series, an organization that exists to replenish the feministspirit.
[Page xii]Kay Deaux is Distinguished Professor Emerita of Psychology and Women’sStudies at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and a Visiting Research Scholar inthe Department of Psychology at New York University. She has a long history of research on issues ofstereotypes, discrimination, and social identity, particularly in the areas of gender andimmigration. Recent books include To Be An Immigrant (Russell Sage, 2006) and the OxfordHandbook of Personality and Social Psychology (2012), co-edited with Mark Snyder.
Ngaire Donaghue is an Associate Professor in Social Psychology at Murdoch University inPerth, Western Australia. Her research centers around ideological aspects of gender andsubjectivity, with a particular focus on critical feminist understandings of embodiment and thesexualization of culture.
Alice Eagly is Professor of Psychology, James Padilla Chair of Arts and Sciences,Professor of Management & Organizations, and Faculty Fellow in the Institute for PolicyResearch, all at Northwestern University, Illinois. In her research she is currently addressing thereasons why relatively few women have high-level leadership positions, the causal origins of sexdifferences in social behavior, and the relation between feminism and psychological science. She haswon several awards, including the Gold Medal for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology fromthe American Psychological Foundation, and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from theAmerican Psychological Association.
Naomi Ellemers obtained her PhD in Social Psychology from the University of Groningen,The Netherlands. She currently is a Professor of Social and Organizational Psychology at LeidenUniversity, The Netherlands. Her research, for which she received several substantial researchgrants and awards, covers a broad range of topics in the area of group processes and intergrouprelations, and their effects on social behavior in organizations.
Catharine Evers is Assistant Professor in the Department of Clinical and HealthPsychology at Utrecht University, The Netherlands. As a PhD student she investigated how men andwomen differ in the regulation of their anger, with a special emphasis on the role of the socialcontext. Currently, her research revolves around the topic of emotion and emotion regulation and howthese concepts connect to health behavior and self-regulation, especially eating behavior.
Cordelia Fine is a Senior Research Fellow in Psychological Sciences at the Universityof Melbourne, Australia, and Associate Professor at the Centre for Ethical Leadership at theMelbourne Business School. Her major area of research is in epistemic and ethical issues arisingfrom neurobiological accounts of sex differences, and the psychological effects of genderessentialist beliefs. Other research interests include the implications of findings from thecognitive sciences for moral philosophy and ethics. She writes regularly about these topics forgeneral audiences.
Agneta Fischer is Professor of Emotion Theory and Research at the University ofAmsterdam, The Netherlands. Her major area of research is the study of emotion, especially socialcontext influences on the experience and expression of emotion, including gender differences inemotion. She has studied gender differences in anger and anger regulation, but also socialimplications of emotion expressions by men and women, such as crying. Other areas of her researchinclude emotional mimicry and contagion, and more broadly social context effects on facialexpression.
[Page xiii]Erin Fletcher is a Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics at Gettysburg College,Pennsylvania. Her research examines issues of gender, families, and maternal decision-making as wellas gender-based violence.
Mindi Foster is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Wilfrid Laurier University,Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Her major area of research is the study of how women perceive and copewith discrimination. She is particularly interested in how taking collective action against genderdiscrimination affects mental and physical well-being. Other research interests include themotivational basis of perceiving discrimination and taking action against it, as well as gender biasin the media.
Kathleen Fuegen is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychological Science atNorthern Kentucky University. She earned her PhD in social psychology in 2002 from the University ofKansas. She teaches courses in selection and performance appraisal, judgment and decision-making,and teamwork. She researches how stereotypes are applied in workplace settings, specifically howgender, race, and parental status affect perceptions of work-related competence. Her research hasbeen cited by the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in its guidelines regardingdisparate treatment of workers with caregiving responsibilities.
Silvia Galdi received her PhD at the University of Padua, Italy, in 2009. She is apostdoctoral fellow at the University of Padua on a research program titled ‘An alternativeroute to performance deficit under stereotype threat: Implicit stereotypes without stereotypeawareness’. Her current research interests include: mutual relationships between implicit andexplicit attitudes in decision making; implicit components of self-stereotyping andingroup-stereotyping; sexual harassment; and implicit determinants of stereotype threat in children.She received the Best PhD dissertation Prize from the Italian Association of Psychology in2009.
David C. Geary is a Curators’ Professor in the Department of PsychologicalSciences and the Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Program at the University of Missouri. He haspublished more than 225 articles, commentaries, and chapters across a wide range of topics,including three sole-authored books: Children’s Mathematical Development (APA, 1994),Male, Female: The Evolution of Human Sex Differences (now in second edition, APA, 2010), andThe Origin of Mind: Evolution of Brain, Cognition, and General Intelligence (APA, 2004) aswell as one co-authored book, Sex Differences: Summarizing More Than a Century of ScientificResearch (Psychology Press, 2008).
Jamie Goldenberg is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of SouthFlorida. Her research focuses on the impact of existential concerns associated with mortality onattitudes toward sex and the body, and women’s bodies in particular. She has publishedextensively on the topic, and currently has a grant from the National Cancer Institute of NIH toapply her theoretical model to cancer-relevant health behavior.
Shelly Grabe is an Assistant Professor of Social Psychology at the University ofCalifornia, Santa Cruz. Shelly’s research is at the crossroads of women’s humanrights, globalization, and social change. Her research investigates women’s rights from asociocultural perspective that examines how structural inequities impact women’s health andwell-being. She is currently working on three transnational projects exploring: (1) the role of landownership in empowerment processes and gender-based violence in Nicaragua, (2) land ownership, civicparticipation, and [Page xiv]violence among women in Tanzania, and(3) the role of the grass-roots social movement in promoting justice for women in Nicaragua.
Ronni Greenwood is Lecturer of Psychology at the University of Limerick, Ireland. Hermajor area of research is intersectional approaches to gender and social identity, as they offer aframework for understanding complex social identities. Her research focuses on the study of socialexclusion, privilege, and well-being amongst immigrant women. She conducts participatory researchwith migrant women living in Ireland.
Serge Guimond is Professor of Social Psychology at the Université BlaisePascal in Clermont-Ferrand, France, and Director of the CNRS Laboratory of Social and CognitivePsychology. His research concerns the explanation of gender similarities and differences, and moregenerally, how socialization in a particular culture shapes beliefs and behaviors.
Alex Haslam is Professor of Psychology and Australian Laureate Fellow at theUniversity of Queensland. His work with colleagues around the world focuses on the study of socialidentity in social and organizational contexts. This is represented in his most recent books: TheNew Psychology of Leadership: Identity, Influence and Power (with Stephen Reicher &Michael Platow, Psychology Press, 2011) and The Social Cure: Identity, Influence and Power(with Jolanda Jetten and Catherine Haslam; Sage 2012). He is a Fellow of the Canadian Institute ofAdvanced Research and a former recipient of EASP’s Lewin Medal for research excellence.
Peter Hegarty is a Reader and the Head of the School of Psychology at the Universityof Surrey, UK. Details of his 70+ publications on gender, sexuality, social psychology andthe history of psychology are available on his website at http://www.surrey.ac.uk/psychology/people/dr_peter_hegarty/. His first book is a new study of theinterpenetration of the IQ testing movement and sexology in the first half of the 20th century inthe United States: Gentlemen’s Disagreement: Alfred Kinsey, Lewis Terman, and the SexualPolitics of Smart Men (University of Chicago Press, April 2013).
Aarti Iyer received her PhD in Social Psychology from the University ofCalifornia, Santa Cruz in 2004 and is currently a faculty member at the University of Queensland inAustralia. Her research investigates individuals’ emotional and political responses, as wellas organizations’ efforts to address intergroup inequality (i.e., affirmative action programsand diversity initiatives). She is Associate Editor of the European Journal of SocialPsychology, and serves on the Editorial Boards of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, and the British Journal of SocialPsychology.
Jolanda Jetten is Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Queensland,Australia. Her published work is concerned with intergroup processes relating to discrimination andprejudice and she explores the way stigmatized groups respond to their disadvantage. She alsoexamines group processes relating to leadership, conformity, normative behaviour, deviance, and therelationship between social identity and mental and physical health. Jolanda is currently ChiefEditor of the British Journal of Social Psychology (2009–2013) and the President ofthe Society of Australasian Social Psychology (SASP).
Susan Kemper is the Roy A. Roberts Distinguished Professor of Psychology and SeniorScientist with the Gerontology Center, a component of the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life [Page xv]Span Studies, at the University of Kansas. Her Language Acrossthe Lifespan Project addresses how aging affects the processing of spoken and written language andincludes comparative studies of healthy older adults and adults with Alzheimer’s disease andParkinson’s disease. Her research, which has been supported by a series of grants from theNational Institute on Aging, ranges from studies of how older adults’ memory affects theirspeech, how aging affects reading and language processing using eye-tracking, and how to enhanceolder adults’ comprehension through ‘elderspeak’, a set of special speechmodifications intended for older adults.
Tuğçe Kurtiş is a doctoral candidate in the Psychology Department at the Universityof Kansas and has a graduate certificate in African Studies from the Kansas African Studies Center.Her research focuses on sociocultural constructions of self and identity, which she examines throughjoint processes of voice and silence. One line of work investigates gender and health implicationsof voice and silence within close relationships. Another line of work investigates voice and silenceat the collective level (e.g., what nations disclose or silence about their collective past) tohighlight the bidirectional relationship between social representations of history and nationalidentity.
Tim Kurz is a Senior Lecturer in social psychology at the University of Exeter,UK. His research focuses on the ways in which various feminist dilemmas are negotiated within socialinteraction in the context of ‘post-feminism’. Such dilemmas have included thesexualization of culture, cosmetic surgery, and parenting practices such as infant feeding. Aparticular focus of his work has been the problematization of accounts that explain societal-levelphenomena by recourse to individualistic notions of ‘personal choice’. Other researchinterests include social psychological aspects of environmental sustainability and the ability ofpublic policy to influence social constructions of moral obligation.
Fabio Lorenzi-Cioldi received his PhD in Sociology in 1986 and is Professor of SocialPsychology at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Geneva,Switzerland. His current research interests include identity dynamics in social status hierarchies,gender stereotypes and psychological androgyny, and context effects in designingquestionnaires.
Anne Maass is Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Padua, Italy.She received her PhD at Florida State University. She has been Associate Editor of the Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology and Editor of the European Journal of SocialPsychology. Her past and current research interests include: minority influence; eyewitnesstestimony; sexual harassment; stereotyping and stereotype threat; language and social cognition;embodiment. She has over 100 publications, including 70 articles in international peer-reviewedjournals. She has received the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize in 2007 and the HenriTajfel Award in 2011.
Kimberly Matheson is a Professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Department ofPsychology at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Her research focuses on stress responses tostigma and discrimination. In particular, she looks at how social support and coping processespromote collective action and alleviate distress associated with discriminatory experiences. Mostrecently, she has been assessing the interplay between psychosocial and biological factors thatrender individuals more vulnerable to stress-related illnesses.
[Page xvi]Kasey Lynn Morris is a graduate student in social psychology at the University of SouthFlorida. Her research focuses on existential motivations for the objectification of women, andself-objectification in response to mortality concerns associated with the female body.
Thomas A. Morton is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Exeter, UK. Hisresearch focuses on the ways in which people experience and express their identities in relation toothers, and the role of strategic considerations and reality constraints in guiding these processes.His work on this theme has covered such topics as intergroup relations, conflict, and forgiveness;intragroup processes, deviance, and change; stigma, prejudice and stereotyping, and minority anddevalued identities. He is currently an Associate Editor for the British Journal of SocialPsychology.
Elizabeth Levy Paluck is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology and in theWoodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, New Jersey. Herresearch is concerned with the reduction of prejudice and conflict, including ethnic and politicalconflict, youth conflict in schools, and violence against women. She uses large-scale fieldexperiments to test interventions that target individuals’ perceived norms and behavior aboutconflict and tolerance, including mass media and peer-to-peer interventions.
Orla Parslow is a Social Psychology PhD candidate at the University of Surrey, UK,and an Associate Lecturer for the Open University in the South East of England, teachingintroductory psychology. Her PhD research seeks to explore the lesbian experience of family oforigin relationships and responsibilities across the lifespan. In particular, she is interested inhow normative constructions of the family and gender roles impact lesbian women’srelationships with their families of origin, and how lesbian women negotiate and re-negotiate theirfamily of origin relationships as individual lives and family circumstances change over time.
Kim Peters is Lecturer in Social and Organizational Psychology at the Universityof Exeter, UK. Her research focuses on the social structural implications (including fororganizational diversity and career trajectories) of social identity processes in social andorganizational settings. Her work has been published in leading journals in social and appliedpsychology, including Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and Journal ofManagement.
Freyja Quick is a PhD candidate at the University of Surrey, UK. Freyja’smain interest includes the intersection of social cognitive theory and workplace inequality. Herresearch looks at how the presumed gender and ethnicity of scientists can lead to inequitableevaluation of their research. Freyja has presented her research at the British Psychological SocietySocial Psychology Section Annual Conference 2011: Men Who Conduct Scientific Research on Women:The Hidden Advantage of Atypicality.
Laura R. Ramsey is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Bridgewater State Universityin Massachusetts. She is a social psychologist who studies a variety of topics regardingstereotyping and prejudice, including the implications of different kinds of stereotyping (such asimplicit versus explicit stereotyping) and how stereotypes contribute to the underrepresentation ofwomen in science. She also studies the origins and consequences of sexual objectification. Inaddition to her research, Dr Ramsey is devoted to undergraduate education.
Kate Reynolds is an Australian Research Fellow in the School of Psychology at theAustralian National University. Her research focuses on investigating the role of the social self orsocial [Page xvii]identity (sense of self as a group member– ‘we’, ‘us’) in shaping people’s attitudes, affect, andbehaviour. The work has direct relevance to social and behavioural change, including personplasticity, social influence processes, and adapting to change. She is an Associate Editor forPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin (2010–2012) and co-Editor for PoliticalPsychology (2013–2014) and serves on a range of other Editorial Boards.
Tomi-Ann Roberts is the Winkler Herman Professor of Psychology at Colorado College. Herresearch in the areas of gender, personality, and emotion include ‘ObjectificationTheory’, which has generated a great deal of research into the causes and consequences of thesexual objectification of girls and women. She served on the APA’s Task Force on theSexualization of Girls, is co-author of the book The Sexualization of Girls and Girlhood: Causes,Consequences and Resistance, and continues to work on empirical research, applied consultingwork, and media efforts in this area, in addition to teaching in both psychology and genderstudies.
Laura Sabattini is a Senior Director of Research at Catalyst, a New York-basednonprofit organization with the mission of expanding opportunities for women and business. She leadsand supports research projects related to women’s leadership, talent management,work–life strategies, and barriers to women’s corporate advancement, with a focus onglobal perspectives and variations. Dr Sabattini also teaches as an adjunct faculty member at NewYork University’s Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service.
Denise Sekaquaptewa is Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Her research in experimental social psychology focuses on stereotyping and intergroup dynamics, inparticular how being in the numerical minority in terms of gender or race influences academicoutcomes and experiences. The consequences of unintended stereotyping for intergroup behavior andindividual performance in stereotyped domains are also a focus of her work. Dr Sekaquaptewa hasserved as an Associate Editor for the journals Cultural Diversity and Ethnic MinorityPsychology and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Joe Vandello is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of SouthFlorida. His research examines cultural understandings of manhood and womanhood and theirimplications for various social behaviors such as aggression and health. Other research interestsinclude perceptions of disadvantaged groups and the origins and consequences of racialdiscomfort.[Page xviii]