The SAGE Handbook of Applied Social Psychology

Handbooks

Edited by: Kieran C. O'Doherty & Darrin Hodgetts

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I:   CULTURE AND INDIGENEITY  

    Part II:   GENDER AND SEXUALITY  

    Part III:   POLITICS  

    Part IV:   HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH  

    Part V:   WORK  

    Part VI:   AGEING  

    Part VII:   COMMUNICATION  

    Part VIII:   EDUCATION  

    Part IX:   ENVIRONMENT  

    Part X:   CRIMINAL JUSTICE, LAW AND CRIME  

  • Copyright

    Reviewers

    John Berry, Queen's University, Canada

    Mary Breheny, Massey University, New Zealand

    Alexander Bridger, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom

    Peter Branney, University of Bradford, United Kingdom

    Stuart Carr, Massey University, New Zealand

    Donatienne Desmette, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium

    David Fryer, University of South Africa, South Africa

    Allison Harell, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada

    Elsie Ho, The University of Auckland, New Zealand

    Wendy Li, James Cook University, Australia

    James liu, Massey University, New Zealand

    Malcolm MacLachlan, Trinity College, Ireland

    Jeanne Marecek, Swarthmore College, United States

    Maritza Montero, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venezuela

    Mandy Morgan, Massey University, New Zealand

    Deirdre O'Shea, University of Limerick, Ireland

    Chris Sonn, Victoria University, Australia

    Ottilie Stolte, University of Waikato, New Zealand

    Thomas Teo, York University, Canada

    Ellen van der Werff, University of Groningen, Netherlands

    List of Figures, Tables and Boxes

    Figures

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Kieran C. O'Doherty is an Associate Professor in applied social psychology at the University of Guelph, and director of the Discourse, Science, Publics research group. His current research focuses on the use of deliberative methods on diverse social issues, health psychology, and investigation of the broader social, psychological, and ethical implications of science and technologies. O'Doherty has designed and implemented several deliberative public engagements on controversial areas of science and technology. He has also published widely on theory and practice of public deliberation as a mechanism to inform policy. Other contributions to the academic literature and practice include analyses of the meaning of genetic risk in genetic counselling sessions, ethical implications of involving children in biomedical research, and the development of theory and methodology to involve lay publics in the governance of biobanks. Current and previous funding sources include the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Research & Innovation, Genome Canada, and Genome British Columbia. O'Doherty is currently editor of the journal Theory & Psychology.

    Darrin Hodgetts is Professor of Societal Psychology at Massey University New Zealand, where he teaches applied social and health psychology. Before taking up his current post, Darrin held positions in Community Medicine at Memorial University in Canada, Social Psychology and Media at the London School of Economics and Political Sciences in England, and Community Psychology at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. Darrin is a review editor for the Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology and an Associate editor for Sage Communication. His recent books include the Social Psychology of Everyday Life and Asia-Pacific Perspectives in Intercultural Psychology. Darrin's primary areas of research are societal and health inequalities, urban poverty and homelessness. He has been involved in a range of projects designing services to address issues of urban poverty, food insecurity and homelessness. Darrin is also the co-initiator and coordinator for the Global Living Organisational Wage (GLOW) network in psychology which is a scholarly cooperative with hubs across four continents (http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/learning/departments/school-of-psychology/research/project-glow/project-glow_home.cfm).

    The Contributors

    Michael Adams (Uncle Mick to most) is a descendent of the Yadhiagana/Wuthathi peoples of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland and of the Gurindji people of Central Western Northern Territory. He is a Senior Research Fellow at the Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, Edith Cowan University. He is nationally and internationally recognised for his active involvement in addressing issues associated with the health and wellbeing of Indigenous males.

    Stefan Agrigoroaei is an Associate Professor in psychology and ageing at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain). He approaches his research with an interdisciplinary and lifespan perspective. His general research program is in the area of health and ageing, with a focus on the contribution of psychosocial (e.g., sources of disparities, control beliefs), behavioural (e.g., physical and cognitive activities) and stress-related factors (e.g., cortisol response) for optimising and maintaining good cognitive and physical health as people age. His projects involve a wide range of cognitive and physical health assessments, including biomedical indicators, in both surveys and laboratory settings.

    Fabiana Alceste is a PhD student at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the CUNY Graduate Center. Interested in the psychology of police interrogations and confessions, she has published research on the psychological state of police custody; the process by which accurate, non-public details contaminate false confessions; and a survey of opinions of confession experts all over the world. She is a member of the American Psychology-Law Society, is an active member of her student government, and a professor of undergraduate psychology. She has trained in the two most common specialised interview and interrogation techniques in the United States.

    Louise R. Alexitch is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan, Canada). She earned her doctorate in Applied Social Psychology at the University of Windsor (Ontario, Canada) and has published in the areas of achievement motivation, academic advising and help-seeking behaviours in post-secondary students. For the last 10 years, she has conducted research in the academic adjustment, persistence and sense of belonging of ethnic minority students. In addition, she has been involved in the development and evaluation of academic programmes designed to increase the success of Canadian Indigenous university students. Her work appears in such journals as the Journal of College Student Development, Canadian Journal of Higher Education and Journal of American Indian Education. She is currently the Coordinator of the Culture, Health and Human Development graduate programme and Chair of Undergraduate Programmes in the Department of Psychology.

    Aria Amrom is a PhD student at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the CUNY Graduate Center. Interested in the psychology of police interrogations and confessions, she has conducted research on the effect of confession evidence on character witnesses and juror decision-making. She has also examined the impact of video recording police interrogations on the behaviour of suspects. She is a member of the American Psychology-Law Society and a teaching assistant for undergraduate psychology courses.

    Eleni Andreouli is Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the Open University, UK. She completed her doctoral and postdoctoral research at the London School of Economics. Her research interests are in the social psychology of citizenship, immigration, and identity in diverse societies. She has published widely in these subjects and is co-editor of The Cambridge Handbook of Social Representations (Cambridge University Press) and The Social Psychology of Everyday Politics (Routledge).

    Alma Au works as Associate Professor at the Department of Applied Social Sciences and the Research Co-ordinator of the Institute of Active Ageing at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. She is a Fellow of the Hong Kong Psychological Society. She has obtained a number of grants, both from both government and non-government organisations, and has published various papers on caregiving, developing sustainable models of health care, and productive ageing in the context of inter-generational relationships.

    Paula C. Barata is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology (Applied Social Stream) at the University of Guelph. Her research is explicitly feminist, has largely focused on violence against women, and has always had an applied bend. She has examined women's experiences with the criminal justice system, minority women's definitions of abuse, housing discrimination against survivors, and housing programmes for women who have experienced abuse. More recently, she has collaborated on a successful multi-site randomised clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of a sexual assault resistance programme, and she continues to work on the wider implementation of the programme. Currently, she is also working with a community partner on a programme for pre-schoolers who have witnessed violence against their mothers.

    R. Thomas Beggs has a master's degree from the University of British Columbia and is completing his PhD at the University of Guelph. His research focuses on health and social psychology, including topics such as perceptions of social support in chronic pain patients and the use of yoga for non-specific low back pain. His thesis research investigates the association between the perceived descriptive and injunctive norms of various reference groups and vaccination hesitancy and intentions among first-time expecting parents. He is also interested in program evaluation and has completed several evaluations during the course of his degree.

    Mary Breheny is a Senior Lecturer in Public Health at Massey University and member of the Health and Ageing Research Team. Her research focuses on the ways that inequalities throughout the lifespan accumulate in later life and constrain older people from ageing well. She is the co-author of Healthy Ageing: A Capability Approach to Inclusive Policy and Practice for the Routledge book series Critical Approaches to Health with Christine Stephens.

    Alexander J. Bridger is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Huddersfield. His teaching and research interests include psychogeography, critical social psychology, and qualitative approaches such as psychoanalysis and discourse analysis. He is also a co-organiser for the 4th annual World Congress of Psychogeography.

    Stuart C. Carr is Professor of Psychology, Industrial/Organizational Psychology Programme, Massey University, NZ. He co-coordinates the End Poverty and Inequality Cluster (EPIC), which includes transitions from precarious labour to decent work and living wages. He coordinates Project G.L.O.W. (for Global Living Organizational Wage), a multi-country, multi-generational, interdisciplinary study of links between decent wages and sustainable livelihoods for the eradication of poverty – UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG1). Stuart co-convened a Global Task Force for Humanitarian Work Psychology, promoting Decent Work aligned with local stakeholder needs, in partnership with global development agencies. He was a lead investigator on Project ADDUP, a multi-country DFID/ESRC-funded study of pay/remuneration diversity between national and international labour in low-income economies. Stuart is a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Zealand Psychological Society. He edits International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, which supports the SDGs.

    Kerry Chamberlain is a Professor of Social and Health Psychology at Massey University, New Zealand. He is the co-editor of Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and Methods (Sage; with Michael Murray), co-editor of Existential Meaning: Optimizing Human Development Across the Life Span (Sage; with Gary Reker) and co-author of Health Psychology: A Critical Introduction (Cambridge; with Antonia Lyons), and co-editor (with Antonia Lyons) of the Routledge book series Critical Approaches to Health, and has published widely on health psychology and methodology in international peer-reviewed journals and in book chapters. His research interests focus on health in everyday life, with a particular interest in food, materiality, media, medications and minor illness, and the use of innovative qualitative methods. He is a founding member of the International Society for Critical Health Psychology.

    Leigh Coombes is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Psychology, Massey University. Her research focuses on issues of gender and violence with special attention to the historical, social, and cultural conditions of gender and the effects of colonisation on particular communities. She uses innovative qualitative methodologies to ask new questions of wicked problems that enable understandings of lived experiences of gendered psychological wellbeing with a particular focus on how the systematic marginalisation of women informs interventions into domestic violence. Promoting knowledge of gender-related issues within community collaborations is prioritised so that the issues of service delivery can meet contemporary demands. She is a member of a collaboration that teaches applied social and community psychology with a focus on social justice.

    Homero Gil de Zúñiga has a PhD in Politics from the Universidad Europea de Madrid and PhD in Mass Communication from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, holds the Medienwandel Professorship at University of Vienna, where he directs the Media Innovation Lab (MiLab). Prior to joining Vienna, he participated in the summer doctoral programme at the Oxford Internet Institute, after which he was appointed Nieman Journalism Lab Research Fellow at Harvard. He was formerly Associate Professor at University of Texas–Austin. Presently, he serves as Research Fellow at the Universidad Diego Portales and the Center for Information Technology Policy at Princeton University. His research addresses the influence of new technologies and digital media over people's daily lives and the impact of its use on the overall democratic process. He has published several books, book chapters, and over 60 articles in journals such as Journal of Communication, Communication Research, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Human Communication Research, etc.

    Stephanie Denne is a Lecturer in the School of Psychology, Massey University, working as part of a collaborative team invested in exploring issues of power, social justice, and ethical integrity within psychological research, teaching, and practice. She has been involved in the curriculum development and teaching of a range of courses in applied community and social psychology, including forensic psychology. Her research interests lie in the exploration of the complexities of lived experiences for those marginalised within our communities, particularly in relation to domestic and gendered violence.

    Donatienne Desmette is a Professor of social and work psychology at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Belgium. Her research interests are concerned with ageism in the workplace, management of age diversity, older workers’ wellbeing, and retirement. She has published in international journals in social and organisational psychology as well as in psychology of ageing (e.g., Basic and Applied Social Psychology; European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology; Work, AgingandRetirement).

    Trevor Diehl is a doctoral student and instructor at the Department of Communication at the University of Vienna, Austria. He previously worked as a research assistant at the Annette Strauss Institute for Civic Life in Austin, Texas. He currently teaches courses in research methods and communication theory. His research interests include the role of social media in politics and populist movements, journalism practice, and science communication.

    Neil Drew is Director of the Australia Indigenous HealthInfoNet. Neil has over 30 years’ experience working with a diverse range of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and groups throughout Australia. He was the programme head and cofounder of the Wundargoodie Aboriginal Youth and Community Wellbeing Program in East Kimberley, established in 2006. The programme promotes wellness and suicide prevention with young people in East Kimberley Aboriginal communities.

    Bianca Dreyer is a PhD student of community psychology and environmental justice at Wilfrid Laurier University. She works on building community–university partnerships, as part of the Community, Environment & Justice Research Group. She is also a research associate at the Center for Community Research Learning and Action where she mentors students in community-based research and conducts participatory program evaluations. Bianca completed an MA in Social Psychology and was the outreach lead for the David Suzuki Blue Dot Campaign in Kitchener-Waterloo. Bianca's PhD work aims to develop a framework for socially just sustainability work. She wants to explore how psychological theory and practice can contribute to social change as it pertains to issues of climate change communication, adaptation, mitigation, climate justice, and environmental activism. Her approach to research and action is shaped by her experiences of growing up in post-war Berlin and influenced by German philosophical traditions. Bianca is an SSHRC Vanier Scholar.

    Sophia Emmanouil is an Architect and Independent Scholar. She is also a participatory arts facilitator and runs a range of projects in partnership with schools, community groups, and other voluntary and community collectives. Her research, which incorporates situationist approaches to space, place, and mapping, transgresses architecture, design, and education, and takes experimental approaches to sustainability and psychogeography. Sophia's work also considers art, design, and architecture from a public engagement perspective.

    Lia Figgou is Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the Department of Psychology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. She undertook her doctoral studies and completed her PhD at the University of Lancaster (UK). Her research interests lie in the field of immigration and citizenship. She has also studied the understandings of prejudice and racism in social scientific and lay discourse and the construction of social categorisation in political discourse. Her publications appear in international journals such as the British Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology and Journal of Ethnic and Immigration Studies.

    David Fryer is Professor Extraordinarius at the Institute for Social and Health Sciences and Medical Research Council–University of South Africa Safety and Peace Promotion Research Unit, University of South Africa (2016–2019) and Honorary Research Associate Professor, School of Education, University of Queensland (2018–2021). He is an Associate Fellow of The Critical Institute, a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and a Fellow of the Society for Community Research and Action (Division 27 of the American Psychological Association). He has served as President of The European Community Psychology Association and co-editor of Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology.

    Anne Galletta is Professor at the College of Education and Human Services at Cleveland State University. As a social psychologist, her research interests include the nature of social and structural relations as they relate to equity in education. To address dimensions of human experience within schools and communities, she draws on critical social theory, attending to structural violence as well as liberatory impulses within public institutions. She employs qualitative research methods, with particular strengths in participatory action research, ethnography, and the case study approach. Guided by dialogic methodologies, Dr Galletta works with educators, youth, and community members in studying issues affecting neighbourhoods and schools and engaging in collective action.

    Benjamin Giguère is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Guelph. Broadly speaking he is interested in understanding the influence of socio-cultural groups on thoughts, emotions and behaviour in order to foster positive social changes. His work focuses on issues related to health and wellbeing, immigration and biculturalism, and, on occasion, collective actions. He is involved with projects that serve primarily traditional basic research objectives, as well as projects that serve primarily applied objectives, such as community informed interventions.

    Ashley Jade Gillis is a doctoral student in social psychology at The Pennsylvania State University, with a specialisation in methodology, and a Graduate Research Fellow at Mt. Cuba Center. Ash is broadly interested in perceptions of the natural environment and pro-environmental behaviour. Ash's research focuses on (1) psychological processes involved in how people respond to changes in the natural environment, (2) spillover of pro-environmental behaviour, and (3) community-focused solutions to preventing and addressing environmental problems. Ash received a Bachelor's degree in psychology from University of South Florida and a Master's degree in general psychology from University of North Florida.

    Shiloh Groot is of Te Arawa descent and is an interdisciplinary and Indigenous social scientist who works in the fields of Indigenous worldviews and communities, relational resilience, urban poverty, and social justice. Their research is located within a decolonising and intersectional framework to better conceptualise and address socio-cultural and economic concerns. This is reflected in their role as Co-Chair of the Māori Caucus to the New Zealand Coalition to End Homelessness (NZCEH), where they advise on the expansion of research strategies to inform the development of national policy and service provision. Shiloh is a Senior Lecturer in Social and Community Psychology at the University of Auckland (Aotearoa/New Zealand).

    Allison Harell holds the UQAM Research Chair in the Political Psychology of Social Solidarity at the Université du Québec à Montréal. She is co-founder and co-director of the Political Communication and Public Opinion Lab and regularly publishes research on the sources of citizens’ attitudes towards public policies related to diversity and inequality.

    Johanna Hellgren is a PhD student at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the CUNY Graduate Center. Interested in the psychology of police interrogations and confessions and plea bargaining, she has conducted research examining the effect of confession evidence on alibis, the impact of video recording police interrogations on the behaviour of suspects, and the effects of collateral consequences on plea-bargaining decisions. She is a member of the American Psychology-Law Society and a teaching assistant for undergraduate psychology courses.

    Hélène Henry is a PhD student in work psychology and teaching assistant at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Belgium. Her research interests involve age management, older workers’ wellbeing, work–family balance, and retirement. She has published in international journals of psychology (Carrer Development International; Frontiers in Psychology; Work, AgingandRetirement).

    Tessy Huss is a doctoral researcher at the Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin. She holds an MSc in International Politics from Trinity College Dublin and a BA in Politics and Sociology from University College Dublin. Tessy has a particular interest in social inclusion. Her doctoral research focuses on challenges to the inclusiveness of the national disability policy in Timor-Leste. She previously worked with government and civil society representatives in Malaysia, Cambodia and Timor-Leste to make public policies more inclusive of vulnerable groups. She has also conducted research in the areas of child injury prevention and patient experience in Ireland.

    Eric R. Igou received his PhD from University of Heidelberg in 2000 under the supervision of Herbert Bless. Since then, he has worked at the University of Mannheim, the New School University and New York University (postdoc fellowship 2002–2004), Tilburg University (tenured; 2004–2008) and now the University of Limerick (since 2008). He served as Head of Department (2010–2013), developed two master programmes, and served as director of various courses. His research centres on experimental existential psychology, person perception, and biases in judgement and decision making.

    Katherine Johnson is Professor and research director of the Social and Global Studies Centre at RMIT, Australia. She works in the field of gender, sexuality and mental health drawing on critical and community psychology perspectives. She is author of Sexuality: A Psychosocial Manifesto (Polity, 2015) and Routledge series co-editor, Transforming LGBTQ Lives.

    Saul M. Kassin is a Distinguished Professor of Psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He received his PhD at the University of Connecticut, after which he was awarded postdoctoral fellowships at the University of Kansas, the US Supreme Court, and Stanford University. Kassin is an author of several books – including Social Psychology, a textbook now in its tenth edition. In the 1980s, Kassin pioneered the scientific study of false confessions. He went on to write numerous books and articles and is senior author of the official ‘White Paper’ on false confessions. His work is cited all over the world – including by the US Supreme Court. He has received Distinguished Contribution Awards from the American Psychological Association (APA), the American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS), and the European Association of Psychology and Law (EAPL). In addition to his extensive scholarly work, Kassin has consulted on a number of high-profile cases and has served as an analyst on all major news networks and in several documentaries.

    Andrea LaMarre is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo. She recently obtained her PhD in the Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition at the University of Guelph, where she used qualitative and arts-based approaches to explore the experiences of people in recovery from eating disorders and their supporters. Her research has been funded by the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship and the Ontario Women's Health Scholar programme through the Ministry of Health and Longterm Care.

    Rebecca Lawthom is a Professor in Community Psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University. She uses community participatory methods and is interested in areas such as migration, disability, and community work.

    Wendy Wen Li is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology in College of Healthcare Sciences at James Cook University, Australia. Dr Li has extensive research experience and has led projects in Australia, New Zealand, and China in the areas of ageing, mental health, intergroup relations and discrimination, migration and refugees, and problem gambling and substance abuse. Dr Li has been active in voluntary sectors for many years in Australia and New Zealand. She was the founding Chairperson of the Hamilton Chinese Golden Age Society of New Zealand. Dr Li is currently the President of the Townsville Chinese Club, a Committee Member of Townville Sisters Cities Program and a Member of the Inclusive Community Advisory Committee for the Townsville City Council.

    James H. Liu (刘豁夫) is Professor of Psychology at Massey University in New Zealand, managing over 100 full-time staff. He completed a PhD at UCLA in 1992, followed by a postdoc at Florida Atlantic University. He previously taught at Victoria University of Wellington (as Professor and Co-Director of its Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research). His research is in cross-cultural, social, and political psychology with a specialisation in social representations of history and their relationship to identity, prejudice, and international relations. James has more than 195 refereed publications that have been cited over 8,000 times (H-index = 48 according to GoogleScholar). He calls the Asian Association of Social Psychology (http://asiansocialpsych.org) his organisational home, having served as President, Secretary General, Treasurer, and Editor-in-Chief of its flagship journal over 20 years of membership in the association. He self-identifies as a Chinese-American-New Zealander.

    Antonia Lyons is Professor of Health Psychology at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Her research focuses on the social, cultural and mediated contexts of behaviours related to health. Antonia was the lead editor of Youth Drinking Cultures in a Digital World: Alcohol, Social Media and Cultures of Intoxication (Routledge, 2017 with Tim McCreanor, Ian Goodwin and Helen Moewaka Barnes), co-edited the text Qualitative Research in Clinical and Health Psychology (Palgrave 2015, with Poul Rohleder) and is co-author of Health Psychology: A Critical Introduction (Cambridge; with Kerry Chamberlain). She is currently co-editor for Qualitative Research in Psychology, Associate Editor for Psychology and Health and co-editor (with Kerry Chamberlain) of the book series Critical Approaches to Health (Routledge).

    Malcolm MacLachlan is Professor of Psychology and Social Inclusion and Director of the recently established ALL (Assisting Living & Learning) Institute, at Maynooth University, Ireland. Previous appointments include holding a Personal Chair in Global Health at Trinity College Dublin, and Head of the Department of Psychology at the University of Malawi. He has also held visiting professorships at the universities of Stellenbosch, Olomouc and Harvard. He has worked as an academic, clinician, organisational consultant and policy advisor in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America; with government, civil society, corporates and United Nations agencies. Mac is currently Research & Innovation Lead for the World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) programme; and Knowledge Management Co-Lead for the United Nations Partnership to Promote the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNPRPD). He also serves as a Clinical Advisor to the Irish health service's National Disability Team.

    Paul J. Maher is an Assistant Professor in the School of Psychology at University College Dublin. Prior to this appointment, Paul worked as Lecturer at the University of Limerick, where he also received his PhD. His research focuses on emotions, meaning-regulation, and political polarisation. Paul has recently published research on meaning-regulation, intergroup bias, and political ideology. He has presented his research at international conferences across Europe and in the United States. He has been awarded funding from the Irish Research Council.

    Hasheem Mannan is an Associate Professor at the School of Nursing, Midwifery, and Health Systems, University College Dublin, Ireland. Hasheem completed his PhD on disability policy and family studies at the University of Kansas, US in 2005. Most recently, he was a Senior Research Fellow at the Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne. Prior to that, he was a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin. He also held a two-year Marie Curie Fellowship at the National Institute for Intellectual Disabilities, Trinity College Dublin. He has worked for the University of Kansas, the World Health Organization, the US National Center for Health Statistics and the National Disability Authority (Ireland). Hasheem's areas of expertise include content analysis of health policies; human resources for health and service delivery; disability measurement and statistics; and social inclusion.

    Antar Martínez-Guzmán is Professor and Researcher in the Department of Psychology in the University of Colima, Mexico. He works in the field of non-normative gender and social expressions from the perspective of critical and social psychology. He is also interested in developing discursive, narrative and participatory methods.

    Tracy A. McFarlane completed doctoral studies at the CUNY Graduate Center in Social and Personality Psychology, with a concentration in Health Psychology, and a postdoctoral Psychiatric Epidemiology Training fellowship at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Dr McFarlane's research is mainly in the areas of social identity and its relationship to higher education, health, immigrant adjustment and stigma. She is currently a senior lecturer at the University of the West Indies, Mona. In addition, she works as an independent consultant with local and regional organisations and community groups to improve wellbeing, interpersonal/intergroup processes and psychosocial outcomes among their members.

    Joanne McVeigh is a Post-Doctoral Researcher at the Department of Psychology, Maynooth University, Ireland. Joanne received a BA Joint Honours Sociology and Business (2007), Postgraduate Higher Diploma in Psychology (2010), Postgraduate Certificate in Statistics (2015), and PhD (Psychology) (2018) at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Her work is inter-disciplinary, focusing on the interface between Psychology and Global Health. Supporting psychosocial wellbeing and social inclusion, particularly for occupational groups at high risk for stress and for marginalised populations, is a core focus of her work. Joanne has worked with senior corporate management, health service users and providers, and policy-makers, within multidisciplinary and international research teams. She has conducted research in the UK, Ireland and Philippines, with funders including the European Commission, Shell and the World Health Organization. Joanne has published articles in numerous leading healthcare journals and presented at several international conferences in relation to social inclusion and organisational justice.

    Mandy Morgan is a Professor of feminist psychology in the School of Psychology at Massey University, Aotearoa/New Zealand. She has particular interests in theoretical debates concerning the relationships between feminism, poststructuralism, and psychology. As well as these theoretical interests, she works within a research collaboration conducting programmatic critical and discursive studies on issues of gender-based violence.

    Tracy Morison's primary research focus is in the area of sexual and reproductive health and critical feminist theories, including Sexual and Reproductive Justice Theory. Her work draws on critical qualitative methodologies, including internet-based methods. Previously, she worked as a researcher in South Africa on projects dealing with sexuality and gender, such as gender-based violence, gender equity in education, and LGBT health service delivery. At present, she teaches Critical Health and Social Psychology at Massey University (Aotearoa/New Zealand) and is an Honorary Research Associate of the Critical Studies in Sexualities and Reproduction research group at Rhodes University (South Africa). She is the co-author of Men's Pathways to Parenthood: Silence and Heterosexual Gendered Norms (HSRC Press; with Catriona Macleod) and co-editor of the volume Queer Kinship (Unisa Press & Routledge; with Ingrid Lynch & Vasu Reddy).

    Deirdre O'Shea is a Chartered Work and Organisational Psychologist and Senior Lecturer at the Kemmy Business School, University of Limerick, Ireland. She is the current Chair of the MSc in Work and Organisational Psychology. She received her PhD from Dublin City University in 2011. Deirdre's research interests include: psychological resource-based interventions, emotions and self-regulation, work motivation, proactive behaviour, occupational health psychology, the psychology of entrepreneurship, and voice and silence in the workplace. She has published in both national and international peer-reviewed journals and regularly presents at international conferences. She has received research funding from Erasmus+ (2016), the Irish Research Council (2014), Enterprise Ireland (2008, 2009) and European Association of Work and Organisational Psychology (2013), among others.

    Amy F. Quayle is a Lecturer in psychology at Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. Completing her PhD is community psychology in 2017, Amy's research interests are in the area of intergroup relations and the role of community arts for psychosocial transformation. Her research is informed by critical social theory, including critical race and whiteness studies, critical narrative inquiry, and liberation psychologies. She has co-authored several articles on these topics that are published in refereed journals such the American Journal of Community Psychology and the Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology and book chapters.

    Christopher Quinn-Nilas is a PhD candidate in the Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition at the University of Guelph. He studies factors associated with relationship and sexual satisfaction and how relationships develop over time. His research is supported by a SSHRC Doctoral Fellowship.

    Melissa Rangiwananga is of Māori (Ngāti Ruanui, Kai Tahu) and Pākehā descent. She is a senior tutor at Massey University who works as part of a professional collaborative that understands the practice of psychology as an ethical commitment to social justice. She has been involved in the development and teaching of community psychology and forensic psychology, and her research interests lie in issues of marginalisation and exclusion within our social political relationships.

    Manuel Riemer is an Associate Professor of community psychology and sustainability science at Wilfrid Laurier University. He received his PhD in Psychology from Peabody College at Vanderbilt University, where he also served as research director at the Centre for Evaluation and Program Improvement. At Laurier, he has served as the director of the Centre for Community, Research, Learning and Action (CCRLA) from 2012–2018 and the Community, Environment and Justice Research Group since 2009. Starting in 2018, Dr Riemer is leading the Viessmann Centre for Engagement and Research in Sustainability (VERiS), with a focus on human aspects of sustainability and fostering a culture of sustainability. Using community-engaged research and principles, Dr Riemer applies community and other psychology principles, theories, and tools to address issues related to sustainability, including global climate change mitigation and resiliency, with a special interest on engagement and in promoting a culture of sustainability in organisations and communities

    Katrina Roen's research addresses questions about minoritised youth, emotional distress and embodiment. She has a particular focus on intersex children and their families, transgender youth, self-harm and psychological support. Katrina takes an interdisciplinary approach to investigating these areas, drawing from critical psychological approaches to discourse, empirical research on emotional wellbeing, and poststructuralist feminist and queer understandings of embodiment and subjectivity. Katrina is a Professor in Cultural and Community Psychology at the University of Oslo (Norway) and a Professor of Sociology at the University of Waikato (New Zealand).

    Mohi R. Rua is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Psychology, The University of Waikato and the co-director of the Māori and Psychology Research Unit, the University of Waikato. Mohi's primary research interests include Māori psychology, Indigenous psychology, and community psychology. He is actively involved in indigenous service development.

    Saba Safdar is an Iranian-born Canadian-educated Professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Guelph in Canada. She is Director of the Centre for Cross-Cultural Research at the University of Guelph. She conducts research examining the wide range of factors that are relevant in understanding the adaptation processes of newcomers, including immigrants, refugees and international students. Professor Safdar is an active member of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP) and Deputy Secretary General of the IACCP (2016–2020). Professor Safdar is a Fellow of the International Academy for Intercultural Research and a Fellow of the International Association of Applied Psychology. In addition, she is Associate Editor for the International Journal of Intercultural Relations (2017–presnt) and a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (since 2010). Professor Safdar has held academic appointments in Canada, USA, UK, France, Spain, India, Russia and Kazakhstan.

    P. Wesley Schultz is Professor of Psychology at California State University, San Marcos. He is Fellow at the Association for Psychological Science, and the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, and has served as President of the Environmental Psychology Division of the International Association of Applied Psychology. His research interests are in applied social psychology, particularly in the area of sustainable behaviour. Relevant books in this area include Social Marketing for Environmental Protection, Psychology of Sustainable Development and Attitudes and Opinions. His current work focuses on social norms, and the importance of social norms in fostering sustainable behaviour. He has worked on projects for a variety of organisations, including the Environmental Protection Agency, Keep America Beautiful, the National Institute of Justice and the National Science Foundation

    Colin Scott is a PhD candidate with the Centre for the Study of Democratic Citizenship at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. His research interests are at the intersection of social, political, and cross-cultural psychology, with a particular focus on accommodation, prejudice, and discrimination, along with their consequences for immigrant integration.

    Charlene Y. Senn is a feminist social psychologist, Canada Research Chair in Sexual Violence (CIHR) and Professor of Psychology (Applied Social Track) and Women's & Gender Studies at the University of Windsor. Her research focuses on male violence against women and girls with an emphasis on developing, evaluating and implementing effective sexual violence interventions, particularly those developing women's capacity to resist sexual assault. She also explores the social factors and contexts necessary to support the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions to reduce sexual violence for students of all genders. She developed the feminist EAAA (aka Flip the Script) programme, which has been proven to substantially reduce the sexual violence women experienced (30–64%) for at least two years. With her colleagues on the Bystander Initiative team, she has worked since 2010 to institutionalise effective bystander sexual assault education and to study its short- and longer-term impact on campus culture.

    Fuschia M. Sirois is a Reader in Health and Social Psychology at the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom, and a former Canada Research Chair in Health and wellbeing. Her research investigates how the cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of personality and self-perceptions influence motivation and self-regulation, and the implications of these intra-personal processes for physical and psychological health of wellbeing. Specific applied topics include coping and adjustment to chronic illness such as arthritis, fibromyalgia and inflammatory bowel disease, and the role of time orientation and emotions as resources for effective regulation of health behaviours and disease management.

    Olga Smoliak is an Associate Professor in Couple and Family Therapy at the University of Guelph, Canada. She has taken a social constructionist approach to psychotherapy and has explored the links between discourse and therapy. Olga has studied linguistic and interactional methods used by therapy participants to give and receive advice, collaborate, accomplish specific therapeutic tasks, and negotiate responsibility for blameworthy conduct. She is currently examining how therapists request in-session practical actions from clients and how the authority to direct clients’ actions is interactionally implemented and negotiated.

    Christopher C. Sonn is Associate Professor of community psychology. His research is in the area of sense of community, social identity, immigration and intergroup relations. His research is concerned with examining histories of colonialism and oppression and its continuities in various forms of structural violence and its effects on social identities and intergroup relations. Chris is also concerned with developing critical and culturally anchored approaches to research and praxis that can contribute to changing psychological and material realities. He holds a Visiting Professor position at University of the Witwatersrand. He is co-editor of Creating Inclusive Knowledges (with Alison Baker) and Places of Privilege (with Nicole Oke and Alison Baker). Psychology and Liberation (with Maritza Montero) and co-author of Social Psychology and Everyday Life and Associate Editor of the American Journal of Community Psychology and Community Psychology in Global Perspective.

    Christine Stephens is a Professor of Social Science Research at Massey University in New Zealand. She teaches in critical health psychology and co-leads the Health and Ageing Research Team to conduct longitudinal and qualitative research on the health of older people. She has a particular interest in the contribution of social participation to wellbeing. She is the co-author of Healthy Ageing: A Capability Approach to Inclusive Policy and Practice for the Routledge book series Critical Approaches to Health with Mary Breheny.

    Karla Stroud received her PhD in Applied Social Psychology from the University of Guelph. She is currently a programme evaluation consultant with five years of experience and has worked with a wide range of community based organisations, employing participatory designs that generate useful evidence that can inform action. She has led projects at the local and national level on topics relating to healthcare, ageing, poverty reduction, mental health and youth engagement.

    Heather Barnes Truelove is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of North Florida. Her research interests centre on the social psychology of pro-environmental behaviour with focuses on pro-environmental behavioural spillover, climate change adaptation and factors that influence pro-environmental behaviour. Her work on spillover and adaptation has been supported by the National Science Foundation. She serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Environmental Psychology. She earned her PhD in experimental psychology from Washington State University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Vanderbilt Institute for Energy and Environment and the Consortium for Risk Evaluation and Stakeholder Participation.

    Eleftheria Tseliou is an Associate Professor of Research Methodology and Qualitative Methods at the University of Thessaly, Greece, and a systemic family psychotherapist. She teaches research methodology, qualitative methods and family psychology. Her research interests include the development of discursive research methodologies, like discursive psychology, and the study of psychotherapeutic and educational processes by discourse analysis methodology. She is author of articles in international journals (e.g., Family Process, Journal of Marital Therapy, Journal of Family Therapy) and book chapters on methodological aspects of discursive research methodologies and on family psychotherapy process studies. She is co-editor (with Maria Borcsa) of a special section on discursive methodologies for couple and family therapy research (Journal of Marital and Family Therapy).

    Fons J. R. van de Vijver is Emeritus Professor of Cross-Cultural Psychology at Tilburg University, the Netherlands, and has honorary positions at the University of Queensland, Australia, and North-West University, South Africa. He has authored more than 50 publications, mainly in the domain of cross-cultural psychology. The main topics in his research involve bias and equivalence, psychological acculturation and multiculturalism, cognitive similarities and differences, response styles, translations, and adaptations. He is former President of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, a former editor of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. He has received several awards for his work, including the International Award of the American Psychological Association (for his contributions to international cooperation and to the advancement of knowledge of psychology) and the Fellows Award of the International Association of Applied Psychology (for contributions to applied psychology).

    Introduction: Applied Social Psychology – An Evolving Tradition

    As well as comprising a scientific sub-discipline, Applied Social Psychology is an artistic endeavour that involves putting research into practice, navigating the complexities of human relations and promoting social change in order to support human flourishing. For almost 100 years, applied social psychologists have grappled with the complexities of social issues, seeking to apply and reformulate our disciplinary understandings to inform efforts to address the problems faced by our fellow human beings. Some of our collective efforts have been progressive, other projects less so (Guthrie, 2004; Herman, 1995). As with any complex scholarly endeavour – and theorising, documenting and addressing social issues is inherently complex – there are considerable tensions in terms of theory, method and application. These require critical reflection, trial and error. They also make for a dynamic, heterogeneous and responsive disciplinary space.

    Early, and somewhat persistent, tensions emerged between variants of social psychology focused primarily on the individual (McDougall, 1908) and the group (Ross, 1908) as the primary unit of analysis. These tensions have remained and are also evident today in tensions around the epistemic foundations of how we produce actionable knowledge. In the process, we have learnt that we need to understand personal and group thoughts and actions in the historical, societal and cultural contexts in which these social psychological phenomena take shape.

    Today, Applied Social Psychology remains a diverse and evolving sub-disciplinary field. Despite apparent overlaps with ‘social psychology’ and ‘applied psychology', we see Applied Social Psychology as a distinctive academic sub-discipline. The term ‘Applied Social Psychology’ has been in existence for some time, with several psychology departments internationally having graduate programmes dedicated to it and several journals incorporating the term in their titles. However, there is surprisingly little scholarly work that provides an overview of the field or that collects prominent research literature under a common banner. The purpose of this Handbook is to provide such an overview, with a particular focus on bridging epistemic divides between different academic communities associated with the label of Applied Social Psychology, and thus provide a strong impetus for invigorated applied scholarship in social psychology.

    In setting the scene for the Handbook, this chapter provides a brief introduction to key developments and figures in Applied Social Psychology as a sub-disciplinary field. We then draw on the tensions between scholarship founded on the principles of the physical and the human sciences to offer a synthesis of key contemporary trends. In particular, we identify three broad types of epistemic approaches that seem to characterise research and practice in applied social psychology and are useful as organising categories for the structure of this book. At the risk of glossing over important distinction, we loosely term these categories social cognition approaches, critical approaches and community approaches. Each topic covered in the Handbook has chapters that illustrate research and practice from each of these three approaches. Although this Handbook, as a whole, will treat these three epistemic traditions separately, the rigidity of boundaries between them varies depending, in part, on the object of inquiry. We therefore include some thoughts about the value of working across these epistemic distinctions and incorporating elements of all three approaches within pragmatic efforts to address social issues.

    Applied Social Psychology: Boundary Pushing in an Evolving Tradition

    Since the inception of the discipline of psychology, scholars have sought to engage with the issues of the day, including the rise of mass society that came with rapid industrialisation and urbanisation in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It was at this time that the contemporary discipline was taking shape, and psychologists began to research issues of poverty, crime, civil unrest, the environment, education, health, work and community development (Hodgetts et al., 2010). Historical events such as the great depression continued to have major impacts on the application of social psychological knowledge, sparking initiatives such as the development of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) in 1935 (Stagner, 1986). This organisation emerged, in part, from growing frustrations among politically progressive psychologists in the United States with the discipline's delayed reaction to the horrors of the great depression. The early SPSSI provided a focal point for many social psychologists working to overcome the distance between the academy and communities in need and to support efforts for progressive social change. Like today, societal level changes were seen as being necessary to ensure human flourishing.

    Our discipline's orientation towards application was reinforced with developments during the Second World War, where psychologists proved themselves useful to the war effort in developing knowledge of effective leadership and transitioning civilians into comparable military occupations (Herman, 1995). Subsequently, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the rise of totalitarian regimes and addressing associated issues of group conformity. The social change agenda returned to prominence again during the 1960s; a period of social turmoil in many countries, including the United States, which had the highest concentration of social psychologists (Hodgetts et al., 2010). We were far from united at the time on whether, or if so how, we should respond to events in society (Herman, 1995). Some psychologists promoted the preservation of the deeply sexist, racist and classist social structures of the time. Others sought to foster emancipation and progressive social reform. This situation contributed to the well documented crises in social psychology in the 1970s (Gergen, 1973; Lubek and Apfelbaum, 2000). Long held tensions surfaced around who defines and benefits from the activities of social psychologists, and how we should respond to historical and societal events that impact the lives of groups in society. This led to considerable disciplinary soul searching. As the discipline went global the need for a more diverse epistemological base and applied focus became even more apparent. Many scholars became aware that social psychology is fundamentally embedded within the very societal structures with which practitioners seek to engage. As a result, groups of applied social psychologists emerging especially in the 1970s in Latin America, Europe, and the Global South fostered the pluralising of theories, approaches and applications (Pe-Pua and Perfecto-Ramos, 2012; Staeuble, 2004; Stam, 2006).

    There has been a vibrant proliferation of modes of understanding human phenomena and society, leading to the development of new theoretical frameworks, research and engagement strategies underlying social psychological inquiry. These include the emergence of participative approaches that seek to work with social groups to address the issues affecting their lives. Of considerable importance is the emergence of issues of diversity evident in scholarly practice in social cognitive, critical and community approaches included within this Handbook. Today, there is significant plurality in theory and ways of working in Applied Social Psychology. What binds these approaches into our sub-discipline is the will to action and a desire by many scholar practitioners to support human flourishing by addressing significant social issues. Contemporary scholarship embraces the need not only to understand social psychological issues (such as diversity, health, ageing, poverty, crime, work, the environment and education), but also to develop practical responses aimed at enhancing social life. Key terms central to the development of the field include engagement, immersion, participation, actionable knowledge, liberation, action research, intervention and evaluation. Of central interest are issues of praxis and the need to bridge theoretical and practical developments.

    We have identified three key figures who exemplify tensions and diversity within the field of Applied Social Psychology and whose scholarship still speaks to present dilemmas and plurality in the field. Marie Jahoda, Francis Sumner and Kurt Lewin each exemplify aspects of diverse epistemic traditions in our discipline (social cognitive, critical, community). The work of these scholars draws attention to tensions in the development, focus and practice of Applied Social Psychology. It is ironic that Marie Jahoda and Francis Sumner have been written out of most textbook histories of social psychology, arguably because they complicate simplified accounts of the slow accumulation of impartial knowledge that are dominant in psychology today. Along with the more high profile Lewin, Jahoda and Sumner questioned our disciplinary orthodoxies, without totally dismissing useful insights, and pushed for a discipline that contributed to the promotion of healthier and more equitable societies. Their work showcases how social psychology has and continues to respond to economic crises, social upheavals, inequities and the mundanity of power and discrimination (Cartwright, 1979; Murphy, 1998).

    Marie Jahoda was part of the founding generation of Applied Social Psychology and was elected the first woman president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues or SPSSI (Campbell, 1981). Jahoda's work does not fit neatly within a single epistemic tradition. Her contributions contain a focus on human thought and action (social cognition) as well as offering criticisms of disciplinary orthodoxies (critical) and lengthy engagements with groups in society (community). Jahoda took a pluralistic, politicised and theoretically informed approach that involved ‘immersing’ herself within the lives and social problems faced by the groups she sought to understand and help (Fryer, 1986; Rutherford et al., 2011). This work involved developing ‘substantive knowledge’ of unemployment, the meaning of work, factory life, organisational processes, prejudice, authoritarianism, mental health, women in leadership and youth issues (Fryer, 1986). Jahoda conducted research with rather than doing research on groups to avoid dissolving local people into statistical trends and so that actionable understandings relevant to the experiences of local people could be developed (Jahoda, 1992). In the early unemployment project, for example, Jahoda et al. (1933/1971) committed to not just documenting what was happening in the everyday lives of community members but also to activities that directly assisted the people around them. Briefly, Jahoda worked to understand people, their thoughts and actions within the context of broader socio-economic structures, which she also sought to deconstruct and change (see Fryer, Chapter 14, this collection). The unemployed community of Marienthal offered a case study for exploring how political, economic and social structures manifest in the changing culture of the village and lives of residents (Jahoda et al., 1933/1971).

    Likewise, Francis Cecil Sumner was a scholar from the foundational generation of Applied Social Psychology who also pushed the boundaries of our discipline. Sumner is often referred to as the father of Black psychology in the United States, where he developed a broad understanding of psychological theory and research, having translated more than 3,000 articles from German, French and Spanish into English (Guthrie, 2004). Of particular importance was the emphasis Sumner also placed on the need to understand people and social issues in the context of social structures and broader intergroup relations. His scholarly endeavours remind us how our disciplinary understandings of social issues can change over time and often require critical reflection (Murphy, 1998). Sumner spent his career navigating the racial politics of the United States and psychology. In doing so, he promoted the relevance of intergroup, historical and cultural considerations for psychologists. He was an early critic of hereditary, biological, evolutionary and genetic determinism in psychology (Sumner, 1924; 1928). For example, Sumner challenged psychological theory and methods of measurement that were used to give ‘scientific credibility’ to racist assertions of the racial inferiority of people of African descent. He emphasised similarities between racial groups, rather than differences, and in doing so, brought into question the racist use of intelligence tests and comparisons based on Eurocentric assumptions of superiority (Guthrie, 2004). He encouraged wider consideration of historical relations, socio-economic structures and the resulting circumstances to which African American people were consigned as explanations for differences in intelligence and achievement. In doing so, Sumner changed measurement practices in Applied Social Psychology. Sumner also prepared many African American students for careers in psychology, several of whom made valuable contributions to the civil rights movement (Guthrie, 2004; Sawyer, 2000). His orientation to promoting the importance of culture, diverse perspectives, history and ideology in psychology foreshadows attempts to decolonise social psychology today (see Sonn, Rua and Quayle, Chapter 3, this collection; Roen and Groot, Chapter 5, this collection).

    A humanitarian scholar practitioner of some note, Kurt Lewin was also a past president of the SPSSI and defined many of the characteristics of that organisation and our sub-discipline. Lewin had a wide range of interests, including child development, group processes, identity, democracy, leadership, organisational change, worker wellbeing, prejudice, discrimination, migration, rehabilitation, social justice, participative problem solving and social change (Marrow, 1969). He also emphasised the importance of historical and societal contexts for understanding social psychological phenomena, including local cognitions and behaviour. Lewin developed his field theory out of his concepts of ‘social atmosphere', ‘action wholes', ‘life spaces’ and ‘psychological realities’ in an attempt to locate individuals, groups and their experiences and behaviour within broader societal landscapes. The concept of a ‘field’ was taken to mean ‘…the totality of coexisting facts which are conceived of as mutually interdependent’ (Lewin, 1951: 240). Central here was consideration of how personal actions can be better understood within the historical and social contexts within which people interact. Lewin's efforts to promote equality, intergroup cooperation and social change to address collective histories of colonialism and exploitation are associated with the development of action research (Adelman, 1993; Lewin, 1946). For Lewin, action research required the active participation of people facing social problems in the development of understandings of, and solutions for, these problems (Adelman, 1993). His application of a cognitive perspective is well documented (Adelman, 1993; Marrow, 1969), but it is also important to note that Lewin engaged in community action and critical reflection regarding applied developments in our discipline. He spent much of his career grappling with the societal factors that lead to social problems, as well as influences that prevent changes to address these problems (Marrow, 1969). Diversity in his theoretical and applied work has led some to propose philosophical contradictions between Lewin's early philosophical stance and later research practice (Billig, 2014). It is useful to remind ourselves that such contradictions are often inherent to theoretically informed applied work. Applied endeavours require scholars to learn through experience and to generate actionable knowledge that may not be as pure or coherent as some focused more on theoretical debates might desire.

    Marie Jahoda, Francis Sumner and Kurt Lewin were all engaging teachers who demonstrated a generosity of spirit. Their students went on to become socially responsive and high profile applied social psychologists also engaged in the promotion of human flourishing. These historical figures continue to be valuable role models whose legacies of responding to events in society that adversely affect particular communities continue to shape our sub-disciplinary area today.

    Whilst remaining highly positive about the work of such scholars and the contributions that applied social psychologists more broadly have made to enhance the human condition for some time, we also need to remain vigilant in our efforts to address complex social issues. This is particularly apparent in relation to topics such as poverty that are inherently structural or societal in nature, but which are approached by some social psychologists as simply the product of individual deficits (Hodgetts and Stolte, 2017). We must remind ourselves that seminal early social psychologists, including Jahoda, Sumner and Lewin, emphasised the need to explore human cognition and behaviour in relation to the broader contexts in which people are situated. These contexts are shaped by economic conditions, joblessness, colonial histories and ongoing inequalities in power and resources.

    We need a range of theoretical and practical approaches to respond to the complexities of social issues faced by humanity today. This Handbook showcases many of these. The collection contains micro-focused accounts of socio-economic, institutional and cultural marginalisation as well as efforts to decolonise society that inform our understandings of local thoughts, action and discriminatory practices (McFarlane, Chapter 2, this collection; Sonn, Rua and Quayle, Chapter 3, this collection). Many practitioner scholars continue to grapple with the space between tightly defined constructs that can be evaluated through experimental manipulation and those more focused on the subtle richness of human experience (Stephens, 1998). This means that applied social psychologists seek to contribute to the development of laws of human behaviour for predicting human action as well as seeking richer understandings of human experiences and actions within particular cultural, historical, social and physical locales (Hill, 2006). In the present epoch of global change, movement, interconnection and the intensification of social issues within and across many societies, applied social psychologists need to continue evolving in response to increasing issues of diversity and the overlapping and unique needs of local and global communities. It is timely that we bring together these disparate and evolving approaches into an edited collection.

    Approach and Structure to the Handbook

    The production of a handbook at a time of transition is important because it constitutes an essential resource for those who are shaping the future of the discipline. Central to the Handbook is an international perspective of Applied Social Psychology with contributions situated in multiple national contexts. As we have indicated above, we observe three relatively distinct orientations within Applied Social Psychology. Each is characterised by different epistemological foundations, values and practices. These three orientations are separated to a large degree through communities of practice that often have little contact with each other. This is evident in conferences, journals and scholarly societies that cater exclusively to only one type of epistemic tradition in applied social psychology, though there are exceptions. Our typology of epistemic traditions is not intended to create artificial boundaries for the sake of structuring a handbook and, indeed, some of the domains we cover in the Handbook show a strong integration of two, or even three, of the epistemic traditions. The domain of gender and sexuality is notable in this regard (see Barata and Senn, Chapter 4; Roen and Groot, Chapter 5; Johnson and Martínez Guzmán, Chapter 6; all this volume). However, for the most part, each chapter in this Handbook illustrates strong affiliations with only one of the epistemic traditions. We see this in the types of studies that are conducted, the values (implicit or explicit) that underlie authors’ commitments and the particular philosophy of science that supports the generation of knowledge. We have categorised these divergent epistemic traditions as (1) social cognition approaches, (2) critical psychological approaches and (3) community psychological approaches.

    Social cognition approaches are characterised by a commitment to values reminiscent of those in the natural sciences: objectivity, accuracy and a focus on prediction. Methodologically, practitioners seek to define variables of interest, identify and test relationships between them and use this knowledge to design interventions that lead to a desired behavioural change in a population of interest. The analytical unit of interest tends to be the individual and applied social psychologists in this tradition draw on theories that focus on intra-psychic constructs and processes (e.g., cognitive dissonance, theory of planned behaviour). Accordingly, most research in this tradition is quantitative. Successful interventions use social psychological theories to link particular interventions to psychological change of individuals, which in turn, leads to some desired behavioural change (e.g., better academic performance, adoption of health promoting behaviour, pro-environmental behaviour). The strengths of social cognition approaches lie in their precision. A well designed and evaluated intervention can be designated as a success or failure and effect sizes quantified and compared to alternatives (Gruman et al., 2017).

    Critical social psychological approaches, in contrast, tend to reject values typically associated with the natural sciences (neutrality, objectivity, etc.) based on observations that all human phenomena are inherently subjective and political. Thus, attempting to carve out aspects of human phenomena for experimental study without considering structural inequalities within which human phenomena manifest is seen as futile. Critical social psychologists tend to be sceptical of psychological approaches that see the cause and solution to social problems within the individual (Tuffin, 2005). Human subjectivity and action are conceptualised instead as emergent from the social conditions within which individuals exist. Critical social psychological approaches thus give priority to the study of social structures, cultural context, institutional setting and historical considerations. Moreover, these factors are seen as a rich and detailed source of data. Culture, for example, is not seen as a variable that can be plugged into a statistical analysis, but rather a dynamic fabric surrounding and imbuing individuals and groups with meaning. Accordingly, most critical research is qualitative. The epistemic foundation of critical psychological approaches tends to be social constructionist or critical realist. Although we treat critical psychological approaches as one category for the purposes of this Handbook, there are many distinctive scholarly traditions that are drawn on in conducting critical work, and there are both tensions and complementarities among them. Notable traditions underlying applied critical scholarship include liberation psychology, Foucauldian scholarship, feminism, German critical psychology, cultural psychology and discursive psychology. Applied critical social psychology involves the analysis of social phenomena with the aim of making visible the effects of institutional and social arrangements leading to oppression. The applied aspect of this work accordingly seeks to subvert such structural arrangements to promote social justice and human flourishing.

    Community psychological approaches are most explicitly associated with a set of values. These include, among others, a commitment to social justice, collaboration with communities, a focus on wellness and prevention, respect for diversity and aiming towards community participation and liberation. A core aspect of community psychological approaches is that they do not involve conducting research on people but rather with people. Research participants are thus not conceived of as objects to be studied; they are related to as partners in the research process and can be involved in any number of ways, including research design, data collection, analysis and design, as well as write-up and dissemination of findings. Ultimately, community psychological research seeks change motivated by the needs and values of the community, not those of the researcher. Community members are also central to the design and implementation of strategies for addressing social problems (Nelson and Prilleltensky, 2010; Watkins and Shulman, 2008).

    Quite obviously, not all social psychological research is applied, and there is some disagreement about precisely what should be considered applied research. Moreover, applied research from a social cognition perspective looks very different from applied critical research. In selecting suitable contributions to this Handbook that we characterised as applied social psychology, we required that research satisfy at least one of the following criteria:

    • Proposes responses (interventions or policies) to issues based on empirical evidence and/or scholarly theoretical arguments;
    • Engages critically with particular interventions or policies or practices based on empirical evidence and/or scholarly theoretical argument;
    • Engages directly with particular communities for the purpose of social change using scholarly principles.

    We considered work that draws on any tradition of social psychology and satisfies at least one of these criteria to be within the scope of ‘applied social psychology’ and eligible for inclusion in the Handbook. We excluded social psychological work that does not satisfy any of these criteria. For example, research on prejudice might be considered applied given the nature of the topic as socially relevant. However, it would not fit within the Handbook's criteria of applied social psychological research if it does not explicitly develop and test an intervention (social cognition approaches), or explicitly criticise existing interventions or policies in society (critical approaches), or directly engage with marginalised communities (community approaches). While non-applied scholarship may be important in informing more applied work, we see it as a possible precursor to Applied Social Psychological work, not an exemplar as such.

    One of the consequences of the proliferation of disciplinary sub-cultures has been a fragmentation of academic communities that have an affinity with the label of Social Psychology. This fragmentation is evident in epistemological divides between positivist and social constructionist commitments, methodological divides between quantitative and qualitative approaches and separation of scholarly outputs into different journals based not on content of inquiry, but on the approach to research that is taken. Further, the very idea of applied work in social psychology sits on the precarious foundation of a Social Psychology that is, itself, fragmented and resists unification on theoretical and methodological grounds. Though many individual researchers are unlikely to work with, or across, multiple epistemological positons, we believe that to be truly ‘applied’ and problem focused, at the very least an understanding is required of the diversity of approaches within the field.

    In this Handbook, we embrace the scholarly diversity evident in Applied Social Psychology. Our intent is not to develop elaborate theories of unification, but rather to showcase diverse approaches and studies that have an applied value for a given social issue or domain of action such as health and work. Our premise is that there is strength in diversity of sub-cultures, particularly when applied to real-world problems. Different approaches to a problem can yield different ways of thinking about, and responding to, the topic and the contexts within which an issue manifests. In showcasing different approaches to Applied Social Psychology, we are then not seeking to ‘triangulate’ to arrive at an optimal solution; rather, we are seeking to broaden horizons, enabling development and elaboration of creative mechanisms towards social change and justice. Our effort to bring distinct strands of social psychology into conversation is evident in the work of key figures in our sub-discipline and the very structure of this Handbook. Diversity of theoretical orientations, interests and approaches is a strength upon which we need to reflect and build. For seminal early figures in Applied Social Psychology, tensions in theory, research and application seemed to have been managed through a will to action.

    Our approach to this Handbook is domain based. We identify ten key areas of application (domains) and, for each domain, present research that illustrates applied social psychological work across each of the three epistemic traditions listed above. That is, for each domain, we present applied social psychological work that illustrates social cognition, critical and community psychological approaches to the issue. In most cases, there are three chapters per domain, each covering one type of approach. In some domains (e.g., gender and sexuality), diverse epistemic traditions are better integrated than in others (e.g., work) where chapters do not fit as neatly into our categorisations of social cognition, critical and community Applied Social Psychology.

    Clearly, there are areas of social life to which social psychology has been applied that are not represented in this Handbook. We had to make hard decisions about what to include and what to exclude. Reflecting, in part, the commitments of important pioneers of Applied Social Psychology, such as Lewin, Jahoda and Sumner, as well as our own values and interests, the ten domains we selected are heavily weighted towards social justice issues. In addition, many of the research programmes we collect in this volume under the banner of Applied Social Psychology are, in some instances, themselves each associated with other sub-disciplines or fields of psychology. We therefore also wanted to ensure that particular sub-disciplines that have an important place in relation to Applied Social Psychology were accommodated in the structure of the Handbook. For example, Chapter 1, which illustrates social cognition approaches to culture, is also illustrative of a branch of cross-cultural psychology; Chapter 3 illustrates community approaches to indigenous and cultural psychology; Chapter 13 examines social cognition in the workplace and is also illustrative of work in the field of industrial/organisational psychology; and Chapter 20, which illustrates critical approaches to communication, also provides an overview of the field of discursive psychology. As well as focusing on the local settings, contributing authors also situate their respective chapters in relation to international literature. Each chapter provides a brief history of the body of research and practice they draw on, key developments, particular practical initiatives and future theoretical and empirical work that is needed.

    Overall, this structure provides a pragmatic means for approaching this project as it emphasises the importance of the particular epistemic tradition that informs applied work in social psychology. Below, we provide an overview of the content of the book and a summary of each chapter.

    Overview of the Ten Topic Domains and Contributing Chapters

    The Handbook is structured according to ten domains (topics). Our original intention was to include three chapters in each domain: one each dedicated to illustrating social cognition approaches, critical approaches and community approaches to Applied Social Psychology. In large part, the Handbook now reflects this intention. However, as will be recognisable to experienced applied social psychologists, even the best laid plans are subject to change. This has occurred to a minor degree in two of the thematic domains in this collection. For various reasons, we did not accept three chapters in these two domains and have progressed with two chapters on education and two chapters on criminal justice, law and crime. In each case, we have a chapter from the social cognition perspective and a chapter covering both critical and community perspectives. Below, we offer a brief overview of each thematic domain and an introduction to each contributing chapter.

    Domain one focuses on culture and indigeneity, which are central to understanding intergroup relations, power, identities and the everyday social practices and needs of diverse groups in society. Issues of culture and ethnicity are increasingly recognised as being central to human experience in our increasingly interconnected world. Applied social psychologists often engage in intergroup comparisons but also develop diverse, culturally-based approaches to a range of social psychological issues. Chapter 1 presents a social cognition perspective on cross-cultural research and acculturation as a central concept for understanding processes of adjustment that occur when people move between different socio-cultural settings. Saba Safdar and Fons van de Vijver engage with some of the complexities around applying models of acculturation across different contexts. Foregrounding the use of the concept of ethnicity in social psychology, Chapter 2 offers a critical perspective focused on issues of racism and how this social psychological phenomenon relates to issues of power and exclusion between groups in society. In this chapter, Tracy McFarlane questions the dominant focus in social psychology on urban minority group struggles and intergroup conflicts. This author calls for more focus on intersectional relationships between ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality and age. This is important for extending our understandings of, and responses to, inequalities and discrimination. Embracing notions of praxis, Chapter 3 by Chris Sonn, Mohi Rua and Amy Quayle focuses on the importance of the concept of culture in extending disciplinary understandings of human functioning. Contributing to broader efforts to decolonise psychology, the authors adopt an emic or insider perspective associated with indigenous and cultural psychologies to illustrate how social psychologists can work with their own communities to address a range of applied issues. Combined, these chapters offer insights into the diverse perspectives that are driving applied scholarship in the area of ethnicity, culture and indigeneity in social psychology today.

    Domain two explores issues of gender and sexualities that have become prominent in applied settings, and which intersect with issues of culture, ethnicity and difference in shaping power relations in society. Although this domain follows the overall structure of the Handbook in illustrating social cognition, critical and community approaches, research and practice in applied social psychology on the topic of gender and sexualities have developed in ways that are more integrated than work on other topics. Chapter 4 explores research and applications that draw primarily on the social cognitive approach to understanding gendered relations, attitudes and interventions aimed at promoting gender equity. In this chapter, Paula Barata and Charlene Senn focus specifically on how interventions to address violence against women have been enhanced through the application of theory and research from social psychology. Although writing primarily from a social cognition perspective, these authors demonstrate the interlinking of approaches to applied social psychology by drawing on, and adopting, an explicit feminist agenda and arguing for the incorporation of community and interdisciplinary feminist approaches to men's violence against women. In Chapter 5, Katrina Roen and Shiloh Groot showcase the rich vein of research and activism emerging around the lives of trans* or gender diverse (TGD) youth in this rapidly evolving area of research and practice in psychology. These authors also attend to the institutional violence that comes with the intersectional or multiple layering of minoritisation for many TGD youth. Roen and Groot identify particular concerns that applied social psychologists need to address. Completing domain two, Chapter 6 also focuses on trans* identities and issues of marginalisation; this time with more emphasis on a community perspective. Katherine Johnson and Antar Guzmán focus directly on issues of embodiment and social justice and provide reflections on two participative, action research projects. The first is with trans* youth in the UK and the second considers activist women in Mexico. Both exemplars showcase the importance of engaged, participatory scholarship when social psychologists work with marginalised groups who are struggling for social change.

    Domain three focuses on politics and the long-standing engagements applied social psychologists have had with issues of civic, intergroup and community politics. Chapter 7 focuses on democratic citizenship and civic participation within pluralistic societies with a view to promoting positive social changes that lead to increased social inclusion across diverse groups in society. In this chapter, Colin Scott and Allison Harell adopt a social cognition perspective to address classic issues of prejudice and discrimination in applied settings, with a view to guiding policy makers in the implementation of policies that contribute to more equitable forms of civic participation. Chapter 8 focuses on politics from a critical social psychological perspective and, in doing so, considers a core tension in social psychology between approaches adopting an objective stance to the measurement of social phenomena and approaches that involve scholars working on behalf of marginalised groups in overtly political ways. In this chapter, Eleni Andreouli and Lia Figgou attend to links between everyday politics, personal experiences and socio-political contexts. Their approach is exemplified through an engagement with issues of citizenship and immigration. In Chapter 9, Malcolm MacLachlan, Joanne McVeigh, Tessy Huss and Hasheem Mannan present an argument for what they call Macropsychology, which is designed to promote structural changes that promotes a politics of inclusion. Their focus is on how to change social structures from the bottom up. These processes are illustrated through examples from the authors’ collaborations with institutions within civil society as well as United Nations organisations. A core focus across all three chapters in this domain is on the politics of exclusion and efforts to foster increased social inclusion among members of marginalised groups.

    Central to domain four is health. Social psychologists have engaged in research into a range of physical and mental health topics as well as developing a range of health promotion strategies. As is evident across the three chapters in this domain, social psychologists have developed rich understandings of how personal behaviour, societal ideologies, material living conditions and the relationships between groups in society shape peoples’ health. In Chapter 10, Ben Giguère, Thomas Beggs and Fuschia Sirois outline how models of social cognition are deployed to enhance efforts to promote the physical and mental health of persons and communities. The focus here is on making positive changes to people's perceptions and health-related behaviour. Chapter 11 presents applications of a critical approach to health psychology. Adopting a classic communitarian approach to social psychology, Tracy Morison, Antonia Lyons and Kerry Chamberlain foreground the importance of linking the wellbeing of persons, communities and societies with broader social, cultural and global contexts or the social determinants of health. Rather than orientating towards personal behaviour change, these authors emphasise the need to transform unhealthy societies so that the people who inhabit these have more chance of remaining healthy and responding effectively to illness. In Chapter 12, Neil Drew and Michael Adams outline the importance of community case-based initiatives and the importance of natural helpers in providing mental health care in the context of deinstitutionalisation and colonisation in Australia. In doing so, they outline the importance of principled practice in developing and conducting participative programmes with Indigenous Australians.

    Social psychologists have long recognised the centrality of work to human existence and relationships. Applied scholarship in this domain has often focused on paid employment and has been extended to unpaid, familial and volunteer work as well as unemployment. In Chapter 13, Paul Maher, Deirdre O'Shea and Eric Igou consider the future of research and interventions in relation to the meaning of paid employment from a social cognition perspective. This focus is important because high meaning of work scores are heavily correlated with better health outcomes, slower age-related cognitive declines and reduced mortality. In Chapter 14, David Fryer offers personal and critical reflections on the role of social psychological research and interventions in the cultivation of labour-market subjects. Fryer's focus is on unemployment and extends from the classic scholarship of leading applied social psychologists in the 1930s to current scholarly activities. A key assertion in this chapter is that such research comprises part of the psy-complex. The result are subjectivities for people who are unemployed that meet the needs of neoliberal capitalism more than the people themselves. Finally, adopting the perspective of humanitarian work psychology, which draws insights from community and industrial psychologies, Chapter 15 considers the importance of sustainable livelihoods and decent work for poverty reduction. In this chapter, Stuart Carr presents the United Nations Sustainablity Goals as offering a global structure for increasing the efficacy of social psychological programmes to create jobs and improve the working conditions and remuneration of people experiencing poverty.

    The average age of populations in many countries is increasing and social psychologists have responded with an explosion of applied research and interventions. As such, domain six provides an introduction to ageing as a growing area in applied social psychology. Chapter 16 opens the domain with a focus on ageism. Here, Donatienne Desmette, Hélène Henry and Stefan Agrigoroaei present the study of ageism and discrimination as a crucial orientation for extending present understandings of wellbeing in later life and for targeting interventions to promote the health of older people. Adopting a critical perspective, Chapter 17 considers links between new social identity formations among older people and ageing related policies. In this chapter, Mary Breheny and Christine Stephens question negative and stigmatising perspectives on ageing that dominate many social narratives and which promote notions of mental and physical decline. These authors showcase the importance of a more positive focus on helping people to age well. In the third chapter in this domain (Chapter 18), Wendy Li and Alma Au contemplate successful ageing in community settings. These authors emphasise ageing in place policies as important responses to the ageing of populations in most nation states and for ensuring ‘successful ageing', which is associated with freedom of choice and empowerment in later life.

    Applied social psychologists have paid particular attention to issues of human communication between individuals, groups and societies. Domain seven is concerned with issues of communication. Chapter 19 offers an introduction to the broad area of social cognition and communication as applied to cross-cultural research and technologies of digital influence. James Liu, Homero de Zúñiga and Trevor Diehl identify the classic focus in social psychology on the impacts of persuasion on attitudes before expanding the focus from individuals to social networks and both intra- and inter-individual processes. As both critical social psychologists and Liu and colleagues argue, attitudes are not just the property of individuals. Attitudes are also evident in the public meaning systems that have been theorised by social psychologists as social representations and discourses. In Chapter 20, Eleftheria Tseliou, Olga Smoliak, Andrea LaMarre and Christopher Quinn-Nilas present discursive psychology as a critical and applied approach to communication in everyday life. To exemplify their argument, these authors offer a selective review of the application of discursive psychology to a range of topics. Chapter 21 completes the communication domain with a focus on public deliberation. Until recently, the practice of public deliberation has not received much attention in applied social psychology. Kieran O'Doherty and Karla Stroud argue that central to work in this area is the assertion that people affected by decisions should have a voice in collective decision-making processes that influence their lives. These authors also propose that social psychologists are well placed to contribute to efforts to enhance deliberative processes by which members of the public come together in attempts to arrive at collective conclusions on key social issues.

    Domain eight offers an exploration of scholarship in the area of education. Applied social psychologists conduct research and develop programmes in a range of educational settings to address various concerns from communities, educators and students. In Chapter 22 Louise Alexitch outlines the contributions of applied social psychologists to several areas of education to illustrate the value of a social cognition perspective in this domain. The primary focus in this chapter is on students, their perceptions and beliefs about their own abilities and learning environments. In this vein, Alexitch reviews four primary areas of scholarship relating to academic self-concepts, teacher expectations, social comparisons and student motivation, which are central to student success. In the second and final chapter (Chapter 23) in this domain, Anne Galletta offers a critical (liberation) and community-orientated approach to consider the importance of participative action projects in education. These projects involve educators, youth and social psychologists engaging in critical inquiry and action together.

    Human beings live somewhere and engage with others in a range of physical and social environments. Domain nine cogitates scholarship that addresses the environment and place; topics that have seen rapid growth in attention in recent years. Chapter 24 tackles the twin issues of how social psychologists can help reduce environmentally harmful behaviour patterns and promote pro-environmental behaviour in order to reduce harmful emissions. In this chapter, Heather Truelove, Wesley Schultz and Ashley Gillis review theory and research on behaviour change and make useful recommendations for actions to address environmental concerns. In the following chapter (Chapter 25), Alexander Bridger, Sophia Emmanouil and Rebecca Lawthom provide a critical perspective on the social psychology of place. These authors argue for a psychogeographical turn in applied social psychology as a way of embracing the importance of material and social contexts in understanding the everyday conduct of social lives. This approach is exemplified through an example from the authors’ own research into urban gentrification. Chapter 26 adopts a community approach to environmental issues and outlines strategies for social changes necessary to address environmental issues. Here, Bianca Dreyer and Manuel Riemer propose that more research in this area is important but not sufficient for supporting such changes. These authors argue that social psychologists need to do more to cooperate with social movements and community groups. They provide practical exemplars of this type of action-research that is contributing to positive social change.

    For over 100 years, scholar practitioners in applied social psychology have worked to address crime and ‘anti-social’ behaviour. Domain ten encompasses two chapters that provide excellent introductions to work in the domain of criminal justice, law and crime. In Chapter 27, Fabiana Alceste, Aria Amrom, Johanna Hellgren and Saul Kassin examine social psychological research with a direct bearing on the criminal justice system. The authors focus, in particular, on social psychological factors related to different forms of evidence, processes whereby guilt and innocence are adjudicated (correctly or incorrectly) and laypeople's perceptions of justice. Chapter 28 completes the contributions to the Handbook with an illustration of a critical and community orientated perspective on the injustices of criminal victimisation and the need to explore such issues within historically specific socio-political contexts. Mandy Morgan, Leigh Coombes, Stephanie Denne and Melissa Rangiwananga exemplify their approach through the case of domestic violence.

    In conclusion, we are excited to present a collection of chapters, which showcases many of the cutting-edge dimensions of contemporary Applied Social Psychology as an evolving sub-disciplinary area focused on understanding and responding to social issues. Of course, we make no claims to exhaustiveness. By necessity, we have omitted important work that should be recognised as applied social psychology. Nor do we claim that our specific structure of this Handbook is the only, or even best, way of categorising work in the sub-discipline. However, we do believe that we have succeeded in collecting, in one place, an impressive array of practitioner-scholars that together provide a complex and nuanced foundation for the work of applied social psychologists into the future.

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