The SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management
Publication Year: 2015
The SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management allows readers to gain knowledge of educational management in practice while providing insights into challenges facing educational leaders and the strategies, skills, and techniques needed to enhance administrative performance. This guide emphasizes the important skills that effective leaders must develop and refine, including communication, developing teams, coaching and motivating, and managing time and priorities. While being brief, simply written, and a highly practical overview for individuals who are new to this field, this reference guide will combine practice and research, indicate current issues and directions, and choices that need to be made. • 30 brief, signed chapters are organized in 10 thematic parts in one volume available in a choice of electronic or print formats designed to ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
PART I. LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
- Unraveling the Leadership/Management Paradox
- The Emerging Wisdom of Educational Leadership
- Understanding How the Bureaucratic Maze Works
PART II. TEACHING AND LEARNING
- What Makes a Good Teacher? Models of Effective Teaching
- Overcoming Learning Barriers for All Students
- Response to Intervention and Its Impact on Classroom Performance
PART III. CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
- Multiculturalism Versus the Common Core
- The Growing Hispanic Population in U.S. Schools: Challenges and Solutions
- The Continuing Search for Best Practices in Classroom Instruction
PART IV. TESTING AND ASSESSMENT
- What Is This Test Really Testing? Validity, Reliability, and Test Ethics
- Achievement Gaps: Causes, False Promises, and Bogus Reforms
- Cheater, Cheater, I Declare: The Prevalence, Causes, and Effects of, and Solutions to, School Cheating Scandals
PART V. TECHNOLOGY, THE INTERNET, AND ONLINE LEARNING
- The Expanding Wireless World of Schooling
- The Opportunities and Challenges of Online and Blended Learning
- Social Media and Texting: The Law and Considerations for School Policy
PART VI. BUDGETING, FINANCE, AND FUND-RAISING
- Understanding School Finance Laws and Practices
- Expectations Exceeding Revenues: Budgeting for Increased Productivity
- A Free Public Education for All: Rediscovering the Promise
PART VII. SCHOOL LAW, SAFETY, AND THE LIMITS OF REGULATION
- Today’s Compelling Issues in Public School Law
- Transportation, School Safety, and Dealing With Bullies
- Charter Schools and the Privatization of Public Education: A Critical Race Theory Analysis
PART VIII. STUDENTS, PARENTS, AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS
- Student Conduct, Attendance, and Discipline: The Troika of School Safety and Stability
- Homeschooling: Parents’ Rights and the Public Good
- Emerging Trends in Student Services and Counseling
PART IX. SCHOOL CLIMATE, CULTURE, AND HIGH PERFORMANCE
- Establishing a Climate of Performance and Success
- Secrets of Creating Positive Work Cultures: The Work Lives of Teachers
- New South Realities: Demographics, Cultural Capital, and Diversity
PART X. POLITICS, ELECTIONS, AND ACCOUNTABILITY
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List of Figures, Tables, and Sidebars[Page xvii]
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- [Page xix]
About the Editors[Page xxi]General Editor
Fenwick W. English is the R. Wendell Eaves Senior Distinguished Professor of Educational Leadership in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a position he has held since 2001. Dr. English has served in practitioner settings in California, Arizona, Florida, and New York as a K-12 public school teacher, middle school principal, central office coordinator, assistant superintendent, and superintendent. He has worked in the private sector as a partner in the then Big Eight accounting firm of Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co., in the Washington, D.C., office of the firm where he was practice director of North American Elementary and Secondary School Consulting. He was also an associate director of the American Association of School Administrators (AASA). In higher education Dr. English has been a department chair, dean, and vice-chancellor of academic affairs at the University of Cincinnati and Indiana University-Purdue University in Fort Wayne, Indiana.Associate Editors
JoAnn Danelo Barbour is associate professor and department chair of the Doctoral Program in Leadership Studies at Gonzaga University. Professor Barbour has a PhD (administration and policy analysis) and MA (anthropology) from Stanford University. Prior to coming to Gonzaga University, Barbour was for 22 years professor of education administration and leadership at Texas [Page xxii]Woman’s University, where she taught courses for future school principals and superintendents, chaired to completion over 100 master’s theses and professional papers, served a stint as department chair, and served one year as faculty intern in the offices of provost and chancellor. While at Texas Woman’s University, Barbour was awarded the Mary Mason Lyon Award for Excellence in Scholarship, Teaching and Service, the university’s highest award for a junior professor; the Ann Uhlir Endowed Fellowship for Higher Education Administration; and in 2012 the Outstanding Faculty Award for Research Mentor, College of Professional Education. In 2013 the university awarded Barbour status of Professor Emerita.
Rosemary Papa is the Del and Jewel Lewis Endowed Chair in Learning Centered Leadership and professor of educational leadership in the College of Education at Northern Arizona University, a position she has held since 2007. In 2000 she founded the eJournal of Education Policy, one of the first open access, free, blind-peer-reviewed journals in the world, and serves as its executive editor. She founded the Sacramento Heart Gallery, an organization to provide adoption for older children in foster or group homes, in 2005, and in 2012 she founded Educational Leaders Without Borders, an organization focused on children not in school and on the role of economic, cultural, and political influences on schooling worldwide.[Page xxiv]
Tawannah G. Allen is an associate professor at Fayetteville State University (FSU). She earned her doctorate in education degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Prior to her role at FSU, she served as a human resources administrator with Wake County Public Schools in Cary, North Carolina, and as executive director of human resources and professional development with Bertie County Schools. Earlier she served as director of elementary education and professional development with Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools. Dr. Allen has facilitated trainings and presented at many conferences and lecture series pertaining to the challenges African American and Latino male students face within the public school sector. Many of these discussions focused on understanding how theoretical perspectives such as resiliency, critical race, and successful pathway theories are imperative when educating students of color. Her most recent scholarly article on the achievement of minority males was “The Resilient Ones: Voices of African American Males,” in the Journal of Urban Education: Focus on Enrichment, 1(1), 21–31.
M. David Alexander is a professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, School of Education, at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He received his EdD in educational administration from Indiana University in 1969, and joined Virginia Tech in 1972 after having taught at Western Kentucky University. Dr. Alexander was a math teacher, coach, and school board member in the public schools of Kentucky and Virginia. He is coauthor of five books, one of which, American Public School Law, is currently in its eighth edition and is a leading graduate textbook on education law. He is a coauthor of The Challenges to School Policing, a publication of the Education Law Association. He has also written numerous research reports and articles, many of which have been presented at regional, national, and international meetings.
James E. Berry is a professor in the Department of Leadership & Counseling at Eastern Michigan University. He has served as an assistant principal, principal, assistant superintendent, department head, and associate dean. He was an American Council on Education fellow in 2001. He presently serves as the executive director of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration. Berry has conducted research and written in the area of K-12 school reform with a focus on change leadership and the use of technology.
Kimberly A. Gordon Biddle is a university professor with over 20 years of experience. Her research interests include motivation and resilience in students who are at risk because of family income level, stressful life circumstances, ethnic minority status, learning English as a second language, and/or being a student with a special need. She is especially interested in the education and socialization of these children. She has coauthored a textbook, written more than 12 peer-reviewed articles, and presented at more than 30 peer-reviewed conferences. At Sacramento State University, she teaches students who want to advocate for, teach, and/or work with children and families in some capacity.
Brad E. Bizzell is an assistant professor and program area coordinator for the educational leadership program at Radford University. Radford’s educational leadership program uses a blended learning model that includes a combination of synchronous and [Page xxvi]asynchronous online and face-to-face instruction. Bizzell completed his PhD in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at Virginia Tech in 2011 where he also earned a Master Online Instructor Certificate. Prior to his current position, he worked for 25 years in public education as a teacher, principal, and school improvement specialist with the Virginia Department of Education. His experience includes work at all levels of education in rural, suburban, and urban school districts.
Ira Bogotch is a professor of school leadership at Florida Atlantic University. In the 1990s, he facilitated the development of leadership standards in Louisiana. In 2014, the International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Social (In)Justice was published by Springer, coedited by Professor Carolyn Shields and Ira. He also serves on a number of editorial boards including the SAGE journal Urban Education, as well as The Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly, The Professional Educator, and the Journal of Research in Leadership Education. He is the associate editor of the Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, published in association with the University Council for Educational Administration, and the International Journal of Leadership in Education. Professor Bogotch has also held short-term visiting professorships in Malaysia, Scotland, and Australia.
Kathleen M. Brown currently serves as professor of educational leadership and policy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her research interests include effective, site-based servant leadership that connects theory, practice, and issues of social justice. Her most recent book, Preparing Future Leaders for Social Justice, Equity, and Excellence, was published as part of the Christopher-Gordon School Leadership Series. Kathleen received a bachelor of arts degree in psychology and theology with an elementary education concentration from Immaculata College, a master of arts in educational administration from Rowan University, and her EdD at Temple University.
Launcelot I. Brown, PhD, is the Barbara A. Sizemore Professor of Urban Education at Duquesne University, associate professor of educational research, and chair of the Department of Educational Foundations and Leadership. He earned his PhD in educational research, evaluation, and policy studies from Virginia Tech. Dr. Brown is a former teacher, special educator for students with emotional and behavioral difficulties, and a former principal of a school for deaf children. He has served on many national educational boards in Trinidad and Tobago, including the National Advisory Committee on Special Education. His research interests are in the areas of school leadership, student achievement, national assessment, and teachers’ use of assessment data, with a focus on the English-speaking Caribbean. In conducting his research, he utilizes both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Dr. Brown has been an invited speaker and presented his work at several international, national, and regional conferences. He served as an associate editor for the journal Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice from 2006 to 2009 and is an active member of the Comparative & International Education Society, the American Educational Research Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education.
Theodore B. Creighton was a professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Virginia Tech prior to his retirement in 2011. He has served as a teacher in the Los Angeles Unified School District and as a principal and superintendent in Fresno and Kern counties, California. Creighton is widely published in the areas of school leadership and the use of data to improve decision making in K-12 schools. He currently serves as publications director for the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration.
Autumn Tooms Cyprès is the chair of the Department of Educational Leadership in the School of Education at Virginia Commonwealth University. She is a former school principal whose research examines the politics of school leadership and school reform. Her contributions as a principal include the desegregation of a school and the implementation of a schoolwide dual language program. Autumn served as the 50th president of the University Council for Educational Administration, and her work can be found in journals for scholars and practicing school leaders such as Educational Administration Quarterly, Kappan, and Educational Leadership. She received her doctorate from Arizona State University in 1996.
Frank Davidson is the superintendent of the Casa Grande Elementary School District in Casa Grande, [Page xxvii]Arizona, a position he has held since 1997. He has served as a teacher, principal, and assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction. He received his doctorate in education at the University of Arizona in 2005. He coauthored Contours of Great Leadership, published in 2013. He received the Superintendent of the Year Award for Large School Districts from the Arizona School Administrators in 2000 and was the Arizona nominee for National Superintendent of the Year, presented by the American Association of School Administrators in 2006.
Elizabeth DeBray is a professor in the Department of Lifelong Education, Administration, and Policy in the College of Education, University of Georgia. She received her EdD in administration, planning, and social policy from the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 2001. Dr. DeBray’s major interests are the implementation and effects of federal and state elementary and secondary school policies and the politics of education at the federal level. She is author of Politics, Ideology, and Education: Federal Policy During the Clinton and Bush Administrations (Teachers College Press, 2006), which analyzes the politics of the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in the 106th and 107th Congresses. She was a 2005 recipient of the National Academy of Education/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship, which supported her research on education interest groups, think tanks, and Congress. With Christopher Lubienski and Janelle Scott, she is the coprincipal investigator on a William T. Grant-funded project on how intermediary organizations promote research on incentivist policies (charter schools and teacher pay for performance) in three school districts and at the national/federal level.
Todd A. DeMitchell is the John and H. Irene Peters Endowed Professor of Education at the University of New Hampshire. He was named distinguished professor of the university in 2010 and was selected as the Lamberton Professor of Justice Studies from 2010 to 2013. He earned graduate degrees from the University of La Verne (American intellectual history), University of California at Davis (philosophy of education), and the University of Southern California (education). In addition, he completed his postdoctoral study at Harvard University (school law and policy). He has published six books on school law and labor relations in education and over 160 book chapters, law review articles, peer-reviewed journal articles, professional education articles, and case and policy commentaries. Prior to joining the faculty at the University of New Hampshire, he spent 18 years in the public schools of California, holding such positions a substitute teacher, elementary school teacher, assistant principal (K-6), principal (K-8), director of personnel amd labor relations (K-12), and superintendent (K-8). He served as the chief negotiator for two school districts and consults with school districts and teachers about collective bargaining and labor relations issues.
Shannon Dickson is a university professor and a licensed psychologist in part-time private practice in Sacramento, California, where she provides psychoeducational assessments and individual psychotherapy services to adults and youths with a special focus on children, adolescents, and families. As a member of the Sacramento Multicultural Counseling and Consulting Associates (MCCA) she provides consultation services, workshops, and trainings in K-12 schools in such areas as culturally responsive service delivery, crisis intervention, and recognizing trauma response in children. She has coauthored two book chapters and written several journal articles and has presented at two international conferences and a host of national and local conferences. Her research interests include responses of youths and families of color to traumatic experiences (e.g., child abuse and intimate partner violence) and culturally responsive mental health treatment of children and their families.
Patricia F. First is the Eugene T. Moore Distinguished Professor of Educational Leadership at Clemson University and Director of the UCEA Center for Leadership in Law and Education. Dr. First’s research and teaching are focused on the legal and policy issues of the education system, particularly those issues intersecting with ethical leadership furthering justice for children, the role of school boards and the financing of education. She is the author of Educational Policy for School Administrators, and School Boards: Changing Local Control. She has written numerous legal monographs, book chapters, and articles in scholarly and practitioner journals and has presented education law topics nationally and [Page xxviii]internationally. Her current work focuses upon the legal and ethical rights of immigrant children. Dr. First received her EdD at Illinois State University and her JD at The University of Dayton School of Law.
Kimberly Kappler Hewitt serves as assistant professor of educational leadership at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. She earned her PhD in educational leadership from Miami University. Her books include Differentiation Is an Expectation: A School Leader’s Guide to Building a Culture of Differentiation (2011) and Postcards From the Schoolhouse: Practitioner Scholars Examine Contemporary Issues in Instructional Leadership (2013). Her research focuses on the ethical and efficacious use of educational data. She served as a school and district administrator for 8 years in Ohio where she worked to cultivate and interrogate best practices in classroom instruction.
Eric A. Houck, is an associate professor of educational leadership and policy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He earned his doctoral degree from Peabody College of Vanderbilt University. Dr. Houck is a specialist in school finance, having published in an array of journals on such topics as equity and efficiency in state education funding systems, and the resource allocation implications of district level policies such as student assignment.
Jane Clark Lindle, PhD, is Eugene T. Moore Professor of Educational Leadership at Clemson University. She has developed innovative leadership development programs for aspiring and practicing school leaders in rural schools. She has prepared parents and community members for their decision-making roles in school governance. Lindle has experience as a principal in two states and as a teacher in five states. She has served as a special education teacher in secondary schools. Her recent publications include work on school safety and cognitive coaching of experienced and midcareer school leaders.
Christopher Lubienski is a professor of education policy and the director of the Forum on the Future of Public Education at the University of Illinois and Sir Walter Murdoch Adjunct Professor at Murdoch University in Australia. His research focuses on education policy, reform, and the political economy of education, with a particular concern for issues of equity and access. His current work examines organizational responses to competitive conditions in local education markets, including geo-spatial analyses of charter schools and research on innovation in education markets. Lubienski was recently a Fulbright Senior Scholar for New Zealand and continues to study that country’s school policies and student enrollment patterns. He is principal investigator of a multiyear project on intermediary organizations’ ability to influence the use of research evidence in the policymaking process with Elizabeth DeBray and Janelle Scott. He has authored both theoretical and empirical papers, including peer-reviewed articles in the American Journal of Education, the Oxford Review of Education, the American Educational Research Journal, Educational Policy, and the Congressional Quarterly Researcher. Lubienski is the author of The Charter School Experiment: Expectations, Evidence, and Implications (with Peter Weitzel, Harvard Education Press, 2010) and The Public School Advantage: Why Public Schools Outperform Private Schools (with Sarah Theule Lubienski, University of Chicago Press, 2014).
Fred C. Lunenburg is The Jimmy N. Merchant Professor of Education at Sam Houston State University, where he teaches graduate courses in educational leadership. He has taught at the University of Louisville and Loyola University Chicago. In addition, he has served as a high school English teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, and university dean. He has authored or coauthored 25 books and more than 200 journal articles. His best known books include: Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices (1991, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012), Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools (2008, 2012), Writing a Successful Thesis or Dissertation (Corwin, 2008), The Principalship: Vision to Action (2006), Shaping the Future (2003), The Changing World of School Administration (2002), and High Expectations: An Action Plan for Implementing Goals 2000 (Sage, 2000).
Catherine Marshall is the R. Wendell Eaves Distinguished Professor of Educational Leadership and Policy at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Her ten books include Designing Qualitative Research, Reframing Educational Politics for Social Justice, Leadership for Social Justice, The Assistant Principal, and Activist Educators. Marshall was [Page xxix]president of the Politics of Education Association and vice president of politics and policy of the American Educational Research Association. Awards include the Stephen Bailey Award for Shaping the Intellectual and Research Agendas of the Field of Politics and the Campbell Lifetime Achievement Award for contributions that changed the leadership field.
Dionne V. McLaughlin, author of “Insights: How Expert Principals Make Difficult Decisions,” is an assistant professor at North Carolina Central University. She is a British-born Jamaican educator and an experienced bilingual high school and elementary school principal. Dr. McLaughlin has 13 years of experience as a principal and assistant principal, five years of experience as a K-12 director, and four years of experience as a program director for a Latino community-based organization. Additionally, she has nine years of experience teaching. Her doctorate of education in educational leadership was earned from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She completed her master’s in education from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her most recent scholarly article on effective teachers of African American and Latino high school students was “Inside Our World: How Administrators Can Improve Schools by Learning From the Experiences of African American and Latino High School Students,” in the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) Education Leadership Review Special Issue (2013), 14(2), 28–40.
Connie M. Moss, an associate professor and director of the Center for Advancing the Study of Teaching and Learning (CASTL) at Duquesne University, earned her EdD at Duquesne. Her research, published in books, chapters, and journal articles, occurs at the nexus of classroom assessment, social justice, student learning and achievement, teacher effectiveness, and educational leadership. Her most recent book, coauthored with Susan Brookhart, is Formative Classroom Walkthroughs: How Principals and Teachers Collaborate to Raise Student Achievement (ASCD, 2015). The book advances a learning target theory of action to help principals and teachers use evidence from what students produce during daily lessons to develop assessment capable students, increase the effectiveness of teachers and administrators, and raise student achievement.
Abul Pitre, PhD, is professor and department head of educational leadership and counseling at Prairie View A&M University, where he teaches graduate courses. His current research interests are in the areas of multicultural education for educational leaders, critical educational theory, and the educational philosophy of Elijah Muhammad.
William K. Poston, Jr., is an emeritus professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, where he served from 1990 to 2005. He taught school finance and school business management and managed the Iowa School Business Management Academy, sponsored by the Iowa Association of School Business Officials. He is the former superintendent of schools in Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, and in Billings, Montana. He was the youngest elected international president of Phi Delta Kappa, selected as an outstanding young leader in American education in 1980. He has authored numerous professional articles and published over a dozen professional books.
Pamela Jane Powell spent over two decades as an elementary school teacher prior to coming to Northern Arizona University. Now, she is dedicated to helping teachers learn to utilize current, inclusionary, and developmentally appropriate practices in their classrooms to promote learning for all students. She serves as chair of the Department of Teaching and Learning in the College of Education at NAU. Interested in education policies that affect students in public school settings, she has studied the practice of grade retention and is interested in studying the high correlation of grade retention to subsequent high school dropout, transitions, and subsequent life trajectories.
Jennifer Prior is an associate professor of literacy and early childhood in the Department of Teaching and Learning at Northern Arizona University. She received her PhD in curriculum and instruction from Arizona State University. Her research interests include early literacy, family involvement in education, and teacher preparation. She is the author and coauthor of over 70 books and articles for teachers, including Environmental Print in the Classroom: Meaningful Connections for Learning to Read, Family Involvement in Early Childhood Education: Research Into Practice, and “Curriculum: The Inside Story” in Curriculum and Teaching[Page xxx]Dialogue, 14(1/2). She has 12 years of teaching experience in elementary classrooms.
Matthew T. Proto currently serves as assistant dean of admission at Stanford University. Previously, he served as director of selection for the Morehead-Cain Scholarship at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, associate director of admission and college counseling at Choate Rosemary Hall, and assistant director of undergraduate admission at Yale University. Matt received a bachelorof arts in history from Yale University, a master of arts in liberal studies from Wesleyan University, and his EdD at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Beth Parrott Reynolds, PhD, is the executive director of the National Dropout Prevention Center at Clemson University. She is a former English teacher, high school principal, and assistant superintendent with more than 30 years of experience in leading schools and districts to develop the internal capacity to drive change for student and organizational success. In addition to keynote speeches, Reynolds is often asked to lead deep work with schools and districts in areas including standards, assessment, instruction, and grading. She is a coauthor on two books about assessment.
Darlene C. Ryan is the principal of Glenwood Elementary School, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and formerly served as the math-science coordinator. She completed her bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degrees at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a dissertation on principal mentoring. Ryan currently serves as the president of the National Science Education Leadership Association (NSELA) and has served as North Carolina Science Leadership Association (NCSLA) president. The UNC-CH School of Education honored Ryan with the Distinguished Alumni Award—Excellence in Teaching, and NCSLA honored Ryan with the Herman Gatling Distinguished Service to Science Education Award. Ryan recently completed the North Carolina Principal and Assistant Principal Association Distinguished Leadership in Practice Program.
Claudia Sanchez is associate professor of bilingual education and English as a second language at Texas Woman’s University. She earned a PhD in educational psychology with an area of emphasis in bilingual education at Texas A&M University-College Station. Her publications explore culturally appropriate strategies for the instruction of English language learners in kindergarten through fifth grades and family involvement of Spanish-speaking Hispanics in public schools.
Claire E. Schonaerts taught 35 years in the PreK-12 school setting and served in the area of school administration before spending the last decade in higher education. She has brought her years of experience and passion for teaching and learning to teacher-candidates as an associate clinical professor at Northern Arizona University. Her work with pre-service teachers is fueled by her desire to support their knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions. Supporting children’s early literacy development and acquisition in the United States, Asia, and Europe is an enduring interest that propels her research and outreach. Her work with teachers and administrators to support the survivors of devastating typhoons in the Philippines has provided opportunities for mutual understanding and professional development in a cross-cultural setting.
Janelle Scott is an associate professor at the University of California at Berkeley in the Graduate School of Education and African American Studies Department. A former elementary school teacher, her research explores the relationship between education, policy, and equality of opportunity through three policy strands: (a) the racial politics of public education; (b) the politics of school choice, marketization, and privatization; and (c) the role of elite and community-based advocacy in shaping public education. She was a Spencer Foundation Dissertation Year Fellow and a National Academy of Education/Spencer Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow. With Christopher Lubienski and Elizabeth DeBray, and funding from the William T. Grant Foundation, she is currently studying the role of intermediary organizations in research production, promotion, and utilization in the case of incentivist educational reforms.
Jennifer A. Sughrue is director and graduate coordinator for the Ed.D. program in educational leadership and professor at Southeastern Louisiana University. Her areas of instruction include law, policy, ethics, politics of education, history of American schooling, [Page xxxi]comparative education, social justice in education, and leadership for diverse populations. Her areas of research focus primarily on law and policy, including special education. She writes and presents extensively on the federal constitutional rights of students.
Gail L. Thompson, Fayetteville State University’s Wells Fargo Endowed Professor of Education, has written six books, including the award-nominated The Power of One: How You Can Help or Harm African American Students, and the critically acclaimed Through Ebony Eyes: What Teachers Need to Know But Are Afraid to Ask About African American Students. Yes, You Can! Advice for Teachers Who Want a Great Start and a Great Finish With Their Students of Color, a book for beginning teachers that she coauthored with her husband, Rufus Thompson, was published by Corwin. Her work has also been published in newspapers and journals nationwide. She has given hundreds of presentations and workshops, and has appeared on television and radio programs. Thompson earned a doctorate from Claremont Graduate University.
Jeffrey E. Uhlenberg currently serves as an elementary school principal in Greensboro, North Carolina. He has also been a middle school principal and assistant principal, and an elementary and middle school teacher. Uhlenberg holds masters’ degrees in school administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and in elementary education from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Uhlenberg coauthored an article titled “Racial Gap in Teachers’ Perceptions of the Achievement Gap” published in Education and Urban Society (2002). He is currently enrolled as a doctoral student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Alicia Valero-Kerrick is a university lecturer at California State University, Sacramento, and a school psychologist. She has worked as an evaluation coordinator, a training coordinator, and a private educational consultant. Her interests include early literacy development, best practice for students with special needs, and the professionalization of educators in the field of early childhood education to promote advanced learning and development experiences for young children. She has coauthored a textbook, Early Childhood Education: Becoming a Professional, and presented at various conferences. She has delivered staff development and training for early childhood education teachers working with infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and kindergartners. She has knowledge of effective instruction, consultation and coordination, mental health, behavior, school organization, prevention, and program evaluation.
Bradford J. Walston is principal at Providence Grove High School in the Randolph County School System in Central North Carolina. He earned his BA in history from East Carolina University, and he holds a master of arts in school administration and an EdD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research interests are in exploring school turnaround as well as the adaptive leadership capabilities of school-based administrators.[Page xxxii]
The general editor acknowledges the encouragement and support of three deans in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill since 2001: Madeleine Grumet, Thomas James, and Bill McDiarmid. Thank you for making it possible to serve as general editor of the first and second editions of the SAGE Handbook of Educational Leadership (2005, 2011); the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration (two volumes) in 2006, and the four-volume Educational Leadership and Administration, part of the SAGE Library of Educational Thought and Practice major works series, in 2009.
Thanks also to Robert Eaves Jr. for endowing the School of Education with funds to support research and development in educational leadership in the memory of his late father Robert Wendell Eaves Senior, who served as executive secretary of the National Association of Elementary School Principals from 1950 to 1969, and who was my professor of educational administration at the University of Southern California in 1964. He was a remarkable national educational leader.[Page xxxiv]
Introduction[Page xxxv]The SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management: A Living Reference Situated in Practice
Welcome to the third component of SAGE’s unique tripartite approach to improving educational leadership and management practice in the schools. It is called a guide to differentiate it from other reference works such as SAGE’s A-to-Z Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration, released in 2006, and The SAGE Handbook of Educational Leadership, published in 2005 with a second edition in 2011, all of which were edited by Fenwick W. English. The encyclopedia is very broad and includes interdisciplinary terms and concepts that have impacted school leadership over a century, while the handbook is designed to take the reader deeply into contemporary research. The concept of a guide, however, has a very different design and purpose.
The SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management is designed to be a highly readable, practical, and brief treatment of foundational knowledge and information about current leadership and management issues in the schools. While research is not ignored and is included where relevant, the Guide is meant to distill research and good practice rather than to become involved in purely research or methodological issues. So this book is not a review of the research about leadership and management, nor about how to conduct research about leadership and management. It is about how to improve the practice of leadership and management by providing exemplars, models, perspectives, and criteria by which practice can be redefined, reshaped, and reimagined. The Guide is a reference work, but it is more than that. It is a living reference situated in contemporary practice, specifically aimed at the school site administrator and students at the master’s degree level.“Talking the Talk, Walking the Walk”: About the Chapter Authors
A quick look at the chapter authors of The SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management shows that some currently are practicing school administrators. A larger number are former practitioners turned professors, who currently reside at more than 20 different institutions of higher education in 13 different states. The universities represented by the chapter authors range from public research giants such as the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia. Others are more regionally prominent such as Sam Houston State University in Texas, Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona, Sacramento State University in California, and Eastern Michigan University in Ypsilanti, Michigan.
There are also authors from historically Black colleges and universities such as Prairie View A&M in Texas and Fayetteville State University in North Carolina, as well as smaller private, religiously centered institutions such as Duquesne University in Pittsburgh. The institutions in which our authors work are located in densely populated California, Texas, and Florida, and in smaller, more rural states such as Iowa and New Hampshire. In short, there is great diversity represented by our chapter authors, not only in their own personal experiences and careers as educational leaders, but in their places of [Page xxxvi]work. Readers can be sure that our authors “talk the talk” because most have “walked the walk.” That’s why they were approached to contribute to this book by the general editor, Fenwick W. English, and the two associate editors, Rosemary Papa and JoAnn Danelo Barbour.The Layout of The SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management
The layout for the Guide consists of 30 chapters clustered into 10 broad, intersecting themes within the practice of educational leadership and management in the schools. We briefly review them here and give an overview of each section and its contents. We should say at the outset that the reader can expect some overlap and blurring among the chapter contents inasmuch as the job of managing and leading schools is an interdisciplinary endeavor. The creation of conceptually pure categories to try and provide a more singular focus for presentation and discussion is therefore elusive. For example, cyberbullying is a matter of school safety, but also an emerging area of school law. Digital learning laps over several categories relating to practice. Practical problems almost always lap over more than one academic discipline or category. That is to be expected, and confronting these problems depends on how one sorts them out. If the problems in educational leadership and management are interdisciplinary, then so must be texts that purport to solve them. Each chapter ends with key terms defined and further readings recommended. Links are also provided for websites, blogs, and other types of electronic references, so that the reader can quickly learn more.
Here, we present the general flow of the book. We did not assume that a reader would sit down and chronologically read it from Chapter 1 to Chapter 30. Rather our assumption was that readers would jump into some chapters as the need for such a resource arose in their practice of school leadership, and perhaps not read other chapters because there were no problems in that area. So the context of the book is one that may be called “need” or “problem” based reflecting the old adage that, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” Graduate programs using a case study approach to learning school administration would be especially apt to use the text, as would school practitioners. However, the guide can also be used in a more traditional way and read sequentially. The logic of the chapter flow does reflect how the editors conceptualize the most important aspects of leadership at the school site level. The context for the chapters is distinctively American and located within the American social, cultural, and legal systems. This is not to say that educators in other nations do not have similar problems; they too might find the chapter contents interesting and useful. It simply acknowledges that the focus of the book is centered in the American experience. We now review the 10 book themes and the chapters within each theme.The Themes and Chapters of the GuideTheme 1: Leadership and Management
The initial three chapters of the Guide present the core notions of leadership and management that provide a conceptual framework for the remainder of the book. The initial chapter, “Unraveling the Leadership/Management Paradox,” by Ira Bogotch of Florida Atlantic University, confronts the paradox of whether improving schools is an issue for management or for leadership. He observes that American school administration was, and remains, in thrall to the tenets of scientific management and specifically to the ideas of Franklin Bobbitt. Dr. Bogotch indicates how these tenets are reflected in leadership standards, but proffers the notion that leadership cannot be improved without a reengagement in school management and that is the paradox to be confronted in improving and reforming schools.
The second chapter, “The Emerging Wisdom of Educational Leadership” by the guide’s Editor Fenwick W. English of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Associate Editor Rosemary Papa of Northern Arizona University, picks up the themes developed in Chapter 1, and posits that both leadership and management are required to improve schools. It is not a choice to be captured by one or the other, but rather a dynamic dyad that must be taken together. The chapter then examines six dimensions of this dyad and explores the concept of artful leadership within Dr. Papa’s concept of accoutrements as a perspective regarding how experience and knowledge are woven together to improve actual [Page xxxvii]leadership practice. Effective decision making involves balancing three factors: personal risk, uncertainty, and emotionality in context.
Chapter 3 is “Understanding How the Bureaucratic Maze Works,” by Autumn Tooms Cyprès of Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia. Dr. Cyprès opens this chapter by dealing with the negative halo surrounding the term “bureaucracy” and moves to present the organizational complexity facing school site leaders by substituting the term “network” for it. School site leaders (principals, assistant principals, department or grade-level chairs, and instructional coaches) have to leverage their change agendas within formal and informal networks, collectively referenced as a kind of stammbaum, a German term for network or family tree. The notion of political “fit” is explored as a way to consider membership in a network and to successfully negotiate school system networks.Theme 2: Teaching and Learning
Teaching and learning are the heart of the school and its raison d’être. The three chapters (Chapters 4, 5, and 6) within this theme concentrate on issues and practices central to teaching and learning. Chapter 4 is “What Makes a Good Teacher? Models of Effective Teaching,” by Jennifer Prior of Northern Arizona University. The components of being an effective teacher are carefully reviewed and include classroom management, teaching strategies, building family partnerships, and reflective teaching. The need for differentiated instruction is discussed along with the concept of building family partnerships.
Chapter 5 is “Overcoming Learning Barriers for All Students,” by Jane Clark Lindle and Beth Parrott Reynolds from Clemson University in South Carolina. The framing for the chapter is a bio-ecological understanding of students’ worlds, which offers a lens for attending to multiple aspects of the learner’s ecology (social, cultural, political, institutional, interpersonal, and individual). This broader approach requires analysis of four ecologies in the following order: (a) social, cultural, and economic, (b) policies and rules, (c) teaching strategies, and then (d) learning strategies for individual students’ use. When school leaders confront barriers to learning, they have multiple resources in their school ecologies. The key is to confront the barriers with an optimistic, rather than a deficit, approach. One of the keys is the idea of a community audit, which is described in detail.
Chapter 6 is “Response to Intervention and Its Impact on Classroom Performance,” by Alicia Valero-Kerrick of California State University at Sacramento. As Dr. Valero-Kerrick explains, Response to Intervention (RTI) is an innovative service delivery model designed to help all students succeed academically. It is a tiered intervention framework where students are provided with research-based instruction, and evidence-based interventions that are student unique. RTI addresses long-standing concerns with educating students with learning challenges, including English language learners, students from impoverished backgrounds, and students with learning disabilities. Since all 50 states allow RTI as a method for learning disability identification, this chapter is timely and relevant everywhere in the United States.Theme 3: Curriculum and Instruction
Practical concerns with matters pertaining to curriculum and instruction are the theme of Chapters 7 to 9. Chapter 7, first under this theme, is Fenwick English’s “Multiculturalism Versus the Common Core.” As the nation moves toward a common curriculum with a common set of tests for the first time in its history, several important issues have emerged. The first is the question, “Whose common curriculum is common?” The enormous cultural diversity of the U.S. school population means that some children would inevitably find the idea of knowledge that is common to all not to be true of their different cultural experience. The idea of multiculturalism is severely challenged with a one size fits all assumption behind the Common Core State Standards. Other issues with the Common Core revolve around the control of the curriculum, which up to this time has been reserved to the respective states. Will there end up being a common national curriculum, and will this be unconstitutional?
Chapter 8 is “The Growing Hispanic Population in U.S. Schools: Challenges and Solutions” from Claudia Sanchez, a professor of bilingual education at Texas Woman’s University. The author identifies the four main challenges facing school leaders as a result of the growth in the numbers of Hispanic [Page xxxviii]students, along with five potential solutions that include strategies school leaders can use to overcome them. The challenges are the importance of responding to school enrollment projections, the need to educate children of poverty, the urgency of meeting the needs of language minority children, and the need to reduce dropout rates and increase college completion rates. Among the many program options for English language learners, bilingual education is more effective than all-English approaches (submersion, structured English immersion, ESL), especially in cases where ELLs’ native language is stronger than their second language. Dr. Sanchez concludes with an exploration of the critical assumptions behind effective programs for non-English language speakers.
Chapter 9 is by Kimberly Kappler Hewitt, a professor of educational leadership at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, who explores the topic of “The Continuing Search for Best Practices in Classroom Instruction.” The concept of best practices reflects the 17th- and 18th-century Enlightenment notion of betterment through change grounded in scientific knowledge. Dr. Hewitt indicates that while the concept of best practices has notable merits, there are also substantive concerns about it that fall into four broad categories: theoretical challenges, issues of social justice and equity, challenges of practice, and misuse of best practices. Among the most serious is that best practices work toward oversimplifying and ultimately deskilling teaching. Dr. Hewitt says that when considering best practices, we must ask, “Best for whom, in what context, under what conditions, for what goals/ends/purposes and best as determined by whom, using what criteria and evidence, and selected over what alternatives?” Context is key and includes historical, social, political, and cultural elements. There is no best practice that serves all students’ needs at any given time in any given setting.Theme 4: Testing and Assessment
There are few more heated issues in education today than matters concerning testing and assessment and their use in accountability and pay for performance schemes. Three chapters in this theme (Chapters 10, 11 and 12) explore these issues and more. Chapter 10 is “What Is This Test Really Testing? Validity, Reliability, and Test Ethics” by Launcelot I. Brown, a professor at Duquesne University. Dr. Brown differentiates between tests and assessments, indicating that assessment is the process of documenting, describing, quantifying, and interpreting the data from a test to retrieve the information hidden therein about an individual’s learning, attitudes, and beliefs. The overarching questions posed in this chapter are, “Is the test really capturing the data it was designed to capture?” and “Is the test being used with the appropriate population?” The answers to these questions address issues of the reliability of the data generated by the test and, as a consequence, the validity of the conclusions drawn from the test. But, foundational to each question is an ethical concern. Thus issues of reliability and validity are ethical issues and are integral to the code of ethical standards that delineate the social responsibility that guides a profession and the personal responsibility of practitioners within the profession.
Chapter 11 is “Achievement Gaps: Causes, False Promises, and Bogus Reforms,” by Dr. Connie M. Moss, also from Duquesne University. In the first part of this chapter, Dr. Moss discusses the question “What is achievement?” The answer is not obvious. Achievement can have numerous definitions depending on content, grade level, and expectations for success. The chapter examines the historic achievement gap over several decades and offers a wide and penetrating review of the adequacies and inadequacies of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) as well as Race to the Top (RTT). Various types of gaps are also discussed, including those attributed to race, opportunity, and competency.
In Chapter 12, “Cheater, Cheater, I Declare: The Prevalence, Causes, and Effects of, and the Solutions to, School Cheating Scandals,” Dr. Gail L. Thompson of Fayetteville State University in Fayetteville, North Carolina, discusses causes of the escalating cheating scandals, which appear to be becoming more prevalent. Described are scandals in Atlanta, Georgia, Washington, D.C., and El Paso, Texas, and the draconian approaches of the chief school administrators in these school systems who had allegedly created a climate of fear and retribution to the point where educators engaged in unethical behavior rather than face being punished or humiliated for low test scores. In El Paso, Texas, a superintendent was even sent to federal prison for schemes to defraud the district and federal government that included his involvement in inflating student test scores. Dr. Thompson closes by presenting some of the [Page xxxix]solutions that can be pursued by school leaders and teachers to counteract the new pressure to improve test scores.Theme 5: Technology, the Internet, and Online Learning
Educators are slowly becoming aware of the enormous impact the digital world has had on students and the schools. Chapters 13, 14, and 15 explore and expose some of those impacts. In Chapter 13, “The Expanding Wireless World of Schooling” James E. Berry of Eastern Michigan University characterizes technology as a “disruptive innovation” that has already led to the decentralization and global expansion of learning. Dr. Berry examines the infrastructure of global learning and how the traditional brick-and-mortar concept of schooling is being penetrated by digitally infused structures that challenge conventional bureaucratic concepts. He then sketches out the future school as an example of a disruptive innovation in which education is “flattened” through technology. This development will create a much more individualized and personalized type of learning that is still not the norm in conventional schools.
Chapter 14 is “The Opportunities and Challenges of Online and Blended Learning,” by Brad E. Bizzell of Radford University in Virginia. Dr. Bizzell observes that online learning is a fifth-generation distance learning technology, following mail, radio, television, and videoconferencing. However, unlike the previous generations of distance learning, the growth of online and blended learning is occurring at a rapid pace. Online learning is defined as teacher-led education that occurs entirely or mostly online. Online learning includes static content, multimedia, and links to various resources in addition to the online delivery of instruction. Blended learning, also referred to as hybrid learning, includes a mix, or blend, of online instruction with face-to-face instruction. Blended learning is not simply the use of Web-based resources in the conduct of a traditional class; rather, it occurs when a significant portion of the instruction is delivered in the online environment. The chapter closes with a presentation of planning for online and blended programs.
Chapter 15 is “Social Media and Texting: The Law and Considerations for School Policy” by Theodore B. Creighton and M. David Alexander, both professors at Virginia Tech. The chapter focuses on the most ubiquitous social media tools, Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter. The authors of this chapter use existing case law to help teachers and principals in the schools understand and utilize legal decisions related to social media in dealing with the enormous impact social media is having in their schools. In the past 10 years, there have been numerous cases involving students and electronic media or communication. These cases have involved student blogging, Facebook, YouTube, Myspace, email, instant messaging, and texting. The courts have been faced with numerous questions, such as, “Do the student free speech cases apply to student activity off-campus?” and “Do the student free speech cases apply if the student uses his grandmother’s computer to post derogative statements about a principal or fellow student?” The authors review the most recent and important court decisions in the arena of social media and indicate that new rules are being written for communication in cyberspace.Theme 6: Budgeting, Finance and Fund-Raising
Money for support of public education at all levels has never been tighter than in the years since the Great Recession. Chapter 16 is “Understanding School Finance Laws and Practices” by Eric A. Houck of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Houck first briefly describes the context of educational funding and then introduces four values that frame discussions of school finance issues and have implications for school administrators: equity, efficiency, liberty, and adequacy. The chapter also introduces a conceptual shift from “school finance” to “resource allocation” as a profitable framework from which school administrators may work, even in the face of the limited resources of tightly controlled school budgets.
Chapter 17, “Expectations Exceeding Revenues: Budgeting for Increased Productivity,” is by William K. Poston, Jr., of Iowa State University. He describes budgeting as an art—specifically the creation of a quantified financial strategy to implement organizational plans and goals for a specified future accounting period. Moreover, it requires constraining planned expenditures to no more than tangible revenues available for the allocation process. Included are the four basic steps for budgeting and an explanation of the new requisites. These requisites pertain to including cost-benefit analyses, utilizing knowledge of the [Page xl]results of budgeted activities, and implementing participatory decision making for organizational allocations. The author concludes with a step-by-step outline of how to implement performance-based budgeting.
Chapter 18 is “A Free Public Education for All: Rediscovering the Promise,” by Fred C. Lunenburg of Sam Houston State University in Texas. Dr. Lunenburg provides a unique perspective on much of the current commentary about the alleged failures of public education by declaring that all of the pronouncements about the crisis in education are largely a myth. He concedes, however, that there are huge disparities for children who are poor and for African American, Native American, and Latino students, compared to White students and those from certain Asian groups. Dr. Lunenburg examines the achievement gap, its causes linked to social class, poverty, racial isolation, and child-rearing and health-related barriers to school learning. He argues that NCLB does not address education inequality, and instead has had negative effects on schools. He closes the chapter by reviewing current means of privatizing public education in the form of school choice programs, including tuition tax credits, vouchers, and charter schools.Theme 7: School Law, Safety, and the Limits of Regulation
Under this theme, the first chapter is “Today’s Compelling Issues in Public School Law,” written by M. David Alexander of Virginia Tech, Patricia F. First of Clemson University, and Jennifer A. Sughrue of Southeastern Louisiana University. Chapter 19 highlights two important current areas: (1) bullying and cyberbullying; and (2) search and seizure. These areas are very important to the school site administrator for several reasons, but school safety is paramount. Bullying and cyberbullying have led to students being injured and, in several cases, have been cited as at least one reason for victims committing suicide. Knowledge of when search and seizure procedures are permissible in schools is important for school administrators since these procedures relate to the need to promote school safety through measures such as removal of alcohol, drugs, and weapons from school property.
Chapter 20, “Transportation, School Safety, and Dealing With Bullies,” by Jennifer A. Sughrue and M. David Alexander, examines the issue of what is a safe school? Safe schools are not only about physical safety, but about emotional and psychological safety, as well. Child safety starts when a parent takes the youngster to catch the “big yellow bus” to school. More than 450,000 school buses transport approximately 25 million students per day, which represents over 55% of the K-12 enrollment. The chapter reviews what the school site leader has to know regarding transportation, including why there was a debate regarding the use of seat belts on school buses. The authors also discuss the general matter of school violence, including the major forms of school violence—verbal, social or indirect, sexual, physical, and property-related violence; cyberbullying (also discussed in the previous chapter); and corporal punishment. The need to reexamine so-called zero-tolerance policies is also part of this very practical chapter.
In Chapter 21, “Charter Schools and the Privatization of Public Education: A Critical Race Theory Analysis,” Abul Pitre of Prairie View A&M in Texas and Tawannah G. Allen of Fayetteville State University in North Carolina examine the growth of the charter school movement through the lens of critical race theory (CRT). Emerging in the mid-1970s with the work of legal scholars who were distressed over the slow pace of racial reform in the United States, CRT attempts to provide a greater understanding of the intersection of race and education. On the surface, charter schools appear to offer minority students a better educational option and thus appear to be the great equalizer for historically underserved groups. As the authors illustrate, however, analysis from an interest convergence perspective reveals that the charter school movement serves the interest of the powerful and has very little to do with education for the empowerment of disenfranchised groups. The charter school movement and the privatization of public education are not new in education. As this chapter illustrates, these movements have taken different names at different times, but the outcome remains remarkably the same.Theme 8: Students, Parents, and Special Populations
Chapter 22 is “Student Conduct, Attendance, and Discipline: The Troika of School Safety and Stability,” by Claire E. Schonaerts and Pamela Jane Powell of Northern Arizona University. The troika of positive student conduct, consistent attendance, and the [Page xli]cultivation of self-discipline is a major challenge of school site leaders. The ability to harness these three essential student responses—conduct, attendance, and discipline—often requires behaviors that demand professional practice. At the heart of this challenge, school leaders must be motivators, communicators, and strategists; in short, transformational leaders. As this chapter illustrates, the school community that is built on collaborative practices provides a frame that is both dynamic and stable. The chapter authors illustrate the need for systems building and the intersection of multiple systems to construct a true and reliable community school.
Chapter 23 is “Homeschooling: Parents’ Rights and the Public Good,” by Jennifer A. Sughrue of Southeastern Louisiana University. Dr. Sughrue explores the homeschooling movement and its current place in K-12 education across the states. The chapter begins with a look at the recent growth in homeschooling and a brief history of homeschooling in the United States to provide some background for the debate on the subject. This is followed by descriptions of some of the homeschooling options available to home educators, and then by a discussion of the legal debate over the rights of the parents versus the authority and responsibility of the state in the matter of educating children. The author adds an overview of the primary concerns associated with homeschooling, such as socialization, civic and citizenship education, and the impact of homeschooling as a social movement.
Chapter 24 is “Emerging Trends in Student Services and Counseling” by Kimberly A. Gordon Biddle and Shannon Dickson of Sacramento State University. The authors review trends in student services, such as the focus on student mental health, the emphasis on gifted and talented students, and the increased emphasis on data collection and storage in both elementary and secondary schools. More data are being archived, transferred, and communicated electronically. Because such data are easily accessible and permanent, issues have arisen concerning the privacy of the individual families and children involved. The authors also review the role of the 21st-century elementary and secondary (K-12) counselor. Counselors today are involved in preparing and supporting students’ academic readiness and overall school success, thus assisting in closing the ever-widening achievement gap. Additionally, they play a major role in delivering mental health services to the students in their charge. Leadership is fast becoming a prominent responsibility for professional school counselors as they influence and effect change in ways that teachers and administrators cannot, given their other responsibilities and duties. Counselors are trained to assess, identify areas of concern, and develop strategies to address obstacles that hinder children and adolescents’ academic success. Learning to use the special talents and skills of a trained school counselor is critical in accomplishing the overall mission of a school.Theme 9: School Climate, Culture, and High Performance
The first chapter under this theme (Chapter 25) is “Establishing a Climate of Performance and Success,” by Matthew T. Proto of Stanford University in California, Kathleen M. Brown of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Bradford J. Walston, a high school principal in North Carolina. Of particular importance is the challenge for leadership of turnaround schools, that is, chronically low-performing schools that are mandated to generate higher student achievement outcomes in very restricted time frames. Turnaround schools are placed under federal, state, or district mandate to increase student achievement within one to three years. If they are unable to do so, the principal and other staff members often face strict accountability measures (sometimes including the removal of the principal). Many school turnaround efforts have significantly increased student achievement while others have failed to generate positive results. The authors identify specific practices that have been shown to significantly impact transforming a school from a low-performing site to a high-performing site.
Chapter 26 is “Secrets of Creating Positive Work Cultures: The Work Lives of Teachers” by Frank Davidson, who is the superintendent of the Casa Grande Elementary School District in Arizona. He explains that teachers’ beliefs and attitudes are central to school quality. Additionally, despite the history of teaching as work that is independent and autonomous, both researchers and practitioners agree that students experience greater success in schools where teachers work together in meaningful ways, sharing the responsibility for planning, carrying out, and assessing the outcomes of instruction. Creating school workplaces where collaboration is an expected norm must, of necessity, take into account the historical and sociological reality of schools and the [Page xlii]organizational supports needed to foster a collegial and collaborative environment. The author highlights the impact of current school accountability policies promulgated by those who want instant and simple fixes and cheap solutions. These are often barriers to establishing a true work culture based on collaboration, which take a longer period of time and solid transformational leadership to establish. The chapter closes with an explanation of the five secrets of creating positive work cultures.
Chapter 27 is “New South Realities: Demographics, Cultural Capital, and Diversity” by Tawannah G. Allen of Fayetteville State University and Dionne V. McLaughlin of North Carolina Central University. Racial and ethnic minority populations are growing in the United States. Projections generated by the U.S. Census Bureau indicate that members of minority groups represented 37% of the population in the United States in 2011 and are expected to reach 57% by 2060. If current growth rates continue, the United States will be transformed into a “majority minority” nation by 2043. This demographic projection represents a sea change for public educational systems. The authors discuss the ways in which underachievement by minority students is characterized and how school site leaders can engage in the creation of counternarratives for these students that will lead to their academic success. The necessity of using culturally relevant curriculum content and classroom practices is also discussed.Theme 10: Politics, Elections, and Accountability
The last theme of the Guide deals with “big picture” issues that impact school site leadership. Chapter 28 is “School Leadership and Politics” by Catherine Marshall of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Darlene C. Ryan and Jeffrey E. Uhlenberg, who are currently elementary school principals in North Carolina. The authors posit that school politics is mostly about manipulating and bargaining over who gets what—and who controls who gets what. They argue that school principals who ignore politics, or perform as if school leadership centers on technical competencies, will leave themselves, their staffs, their parents and communities, and their students vulnerable. The most serious problems are those that are characterized as “wicked.” Wicked problems have characteristics such as no clear solution and involve conflicting values, and perceived mistakes can carry serious consequences. The problems rarely go away because they come from chronic challenges, such as poverty, violence, and the tendency for people to take care of their self-interests and ignore others. To be politically wise and strategic means actively engaging in the political environment. To do this the authors identify three roles a politically wise leader takes to manage issues and problems: the diplomat/negotiator, the political strategist, and the executive. The authors close with a discussion of the school leader pursuing social justice and the context and implications of the choices involved.
Chapter 29 is “Producing ‘Evidence’: Overcoming the Limitations of the Market, Competition, and Privatization,” by Christopher Lubienski of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Janelle Scott of the University of California, Berkeley, and Elizabeth DeBray of the University of Georgia. One of the current major national debates in the United States concerns the appropriate role of the government vis-à-vis the private sector in public education. This debate around schooling has become acrimonious, with participants making moral claims for their perspectives on issues like choice and competition, or accusations about the unethical position of their opponents. The authors focus on issues for which there are some emerging empirical insights. As they point out, the empirical evidence itself not only is often disputed, but frequently serves as the center of a new political economy of knowledge production for use in public policy making. At the center of the chapter is an analysis of what the authors call “incentivist” policies in education such as the use of vouchers, charter schools, merit pay for teachers, and pay for performance. This chapter will be of enormous value to school site leaders seeking to understand the nature of the debate over incentivist policies and practices, which are beginning to be mandated in state legislation and are already impacting school leaders in many states.
Chapter 30 is “The Changing Nature of Teachers’ Unions and Collective Bargaining,” by Todd A. DeMitchell of the University of New Hampshire. Teachers’ unions are under siege. They have been attacked as self-serving at the expense of the children. As Dr. DeMitchell notes, collective bargaining is a creature of the law: created by law, changed by law, and eliminated by law. Such laws are also under attack. The struggle is really about money, power, [Page xliii]and influence. Dr. DeMitchell provides a concise history of unionism and points out that the major conundrum for teachers is that while their union advocates and bargains for their self-interests, teachers are professionals who provide a valuable service in the best interests of their students. Teachers tend to see themselves and describe themselves as professionals. Typically, they do not define themselves as union members but become union members when threats to their work, their livelihood, and their security arise. The chapter focuses on how teachers deal with this dilemma and how it plays out in schools. Upon the resolution of this dilemma lies the future of unions and collective bargaining.A Final Note From the Editors
It has been a challenge to put together this initial SAGE Guide to Educational Leadership and Management. The editors had to keep one eye on how our academic disciplines sort out issues for analysis and inquiry and the other eye on how such knowledge can be applied in practical school site settings. The tension between these two antipodes is palpable and means that the boundaries of the disciplines sometimes become blurred and the arena of practice is not always in absolute alignment so that some advice or guidance does not always seem practical. In the end in balancing these two requirements we accepted the consequence that there is no ultimate response that everyone will find 100% satisfactory. This is another reason to view the Guide as a “living reference” and one that will inevitably be changed in the years ahead as the nation continues to debate and resolve the continuing dilemma of finding a form of schooling that provides justice, equality, and excellence for all of its future citizens.[Page xliv]10.4135/9781483346649.n5
Getting Started in Your Educational Leadership Career: Associations and Journals[Page 487]
Joining professional associations is a key to a career in educational leadership and management. Membership in such groups will bring one into important professional and social relationships that are essential to continuing career professional development and advancement. The associations and journals in this section are national and international. The only associations listed are those you may join as an individual. Some associations, such as the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA), accept only institutional memberships and are not listed. However, UCEA does publish an outstanding journal that can be accessed online and that is shown in this section.
Many associations, such as the American Association of School Administrators (AASA), Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), and National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA), have state affiliates. If you go to the national association’s website, you can see if there is an affiliate for your state and it will provide information about joining. In almost all cases, you must join the state and the national as separate memberships. Some state affiliates also have their own conferences apart from the national conference. Attending a state conference is an excellent way to get started in putting together a cadre of professional friends that are important for career networking.
Some of the best journals for school site administrators are published by national associations. These are shown in this section. If you do not wish to join a national association but want to have access to its journals, there are usually procedures to subscribe or purchase articles independently from association membership. Nearly all association journals also have iPad and Kindle applications.National and International American Administrative Educational Associations
American Association of School Administrators (AASA)
1615 Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314
The AASA is primarily known as the superintendents’ national association. However, school site administrators may also join. The AASA was founded in 1865 just months after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Originally known as the National Association of School Superintendents, it merged in 1870 with the National Teachers Association. which eventually became the National [Page 488] Education Association (NEA). As part of the NEA it was known as the Department of Superintendence until 1937, when it became the AASA. It left the NEA in 1972.
The AASA is governed by an elected governing board and executive committee. It holds an annual conference, publishes a variety of journals and books, and every 10 years releases a study of the American superintendency that has become an important source on the changing values and demands of the superintendency in the United States. The AASA also has affiliates in 48 of the 50 states as well as relationships with the Canadian Association of School System Administrators and the Association for the Advancement of International Education.
American Education Research Association (AERA) 1430 K St., NW, Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20005
Despite the fact that AERA’s main membership consists largely of researchers and professors, there are still many school leadership practitioners who belong to it and attend its annual conference. AERA’s publications are among the very best in the field. AERA was founded in 1916 and includes international members. It is led by a council consisting of the president, the president-elect, the immediate past president, the vice presidents of divisions, six at-large members, a graduate student representative, a special interest group representative, and the executive director, who serves without a vote. The divisions of AERA that most often are of interest to school practitioners are Division A: Administration, Organization and Leadership; Division B: Curriculum Studies; Division C: Learning and Instruction; and Division L: Education Policy and Politics.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
1703 North Beauregard St.
Alexandria, Virginia 22311
800-933-2723 or 703-578-9600
The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) was founded in 1943 as the result of a merger between the NEA’s Society for Curriculum Study and the Department of Supervisors and Directors. It became independent of the NEA in 1972. It is governed by a 21-member board of directors on which the executive director and its president also serve. ASCD is an international organization and also has state affiliates. Its membership is open to teachers, principals, supervisors, central office administrators, and professors. It has an annual conference and a strong professional development and publishing program. It is an excellent “starter” professional organization for the beginning school site administrator.
Flagstaff Seminar: Educational Leaders Without Borders
25 Creek Rock Circle, Sedona, Arizona 86351
This is an international association of scholars and practitioners dedicated to getting all children around the world into school, especially girls. Educational leaders must become emboldened to step out of the school/state nexus so that they become true leaders without borders, ensuring that greater equality is the result for all children and their families. The basic principles of the Flagstaff Seminar (FS) are that all children have a right to go to school, that education should draw out of humans the potentialities of a progressive humanity that is inclusive and respectful of difference, that schools are a leveraging institutional force for greater equality and opportunity, and that educational leaders can and must be more than agents of the state in perpetuating the socioeconomic status quo.
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP)
1615 Duke St., Alexandria, Virginia 22314
The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) was founded in 1921 by a group of principals interested in establishing a national forum for leadership at the K-8 level. It is the only national administrative association solely focused on issues before elementary and middle school principals. It is governed by a 14-member board of directors [Page 489] and an executive director. It hosts an annual conference, and its publications include a widely read national journal. It also has state affiliates that a school site administrator can join separately.
National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP)
1904 Association Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191
Created in 1916, NASSP’s mission has been to promote excellence in school leadership. Its membership is open to middle school and high school principals and assistant principals. NASSP runs an annual convention and releases books and other publications, among the most famous of which is Breaking Ranks: The Comprehensive Framework for School Improvement, released in 2011. The organization has also created a Center for New Principals (CNP) where members can find advice and tips from experienced principals. There is also a free helpline for new principals. The National Honor Society and the National Junior Honor Society were created in 1921 and 1929, respectively, by NASSP. The organization also sponsors the National Association of Student Councils, which seeks to promote civil service among students to their schools and communities.
National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA)
John W. Porter Building, Suite 304
Eastern Michigan University
Ypsilanti, Michigan 48197
The National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) is the oldest organization of professors of educational administration in the nation. It was established in 1947. It is open to membership from school site practitioners who may also attend the organization’s annual summer conference. Many of the professors in NCPEA are former school practitioners. The organization also has state affiliates and an independent publishing arm of print and e-books. Its blog, “Talking Points,” discusses the issues of the day at http://ncpeapublications.blogspot.com.Professional Journals for the School Site Educational Leader
Professional reading is essential to stay abreast of current developments in education. Without constant attention to professional development, a school site administrator can quickly become dated. Staying current is an investment in one’s career. The journals listed are some of the most popular ones and range from topical treatments and reviews to more in-depth and scholarly analyses. Some of the journals are published by educational associations, and access to them comes with membership. They are listed here because they can also be accessed or purchased separately.
Some terms should be explained. An academic journal is primarily written by and for professors and researchers. A nonacademic journal is aimed at a largely practitioner audience. Some journals are mixed in this respect. A refereed journal (sometimes called “peer reviewed”) is one in which the content is evaluated by independent, usually anonymous, judges to determine its accuracy and perspective. If a journal is refereed the judges or evaluators are usually “blind”; that is, an author does not know who is going to be reviewing and rating his or her paper. Nearly all top-rated academic journals are “blind refereed.” Most practitioner-centered journals are not refereed, and the decision to publish is determined by the journal’s editorial staff.Education Week
This newspaper is dedicated to covering national and international issues in education. It does feature stories on graduation rates and publishes very useful information in chart and graph form, which can be useful in comparing a leader’s school or school system with others in the nation. Education Week is published 37 times per year by Editorial Projects in Education, which is located at 6935 Arlington Road, Suite 100, Bethesda, MD 20814-5287. Its phone number is 301-280-3100. The newspaper has received foundation support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the GE Foundation, the Wallace Foundation, and the Walton Family Foundation, among others. Its website is www.edweek.org. Articles cover a very wide range of topics. It is billed [Page 490] as “American Education’s Newspaper of Record.” Education Week is a nonacademic, nonrefereed publication of general interest to all educators and to members of the public who are interested in educational issues.Educational Administration Quarterly
Educational Administration Quarterly is the flagship publication of the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). It is an academic, refereed publication and focuses mainly on research and conceptual issues in educational administration. Articles are much longer and more detailed than those found in more contemporary, practitioner-focused publications. The journal is published five times each year by SAGE. Information is available at eaq.sagepub.comEducational Leadership
This is the flagship journal for ASCD and it is written for practitioners, teachers, principals, superintendents, and professors. Its circulation is estimated at more than 100,000. About 75% of the articles are unsolicited. It is considered a nonacademic, non-peer-reviewed journal. Articles are practical, current, and reader friendly. You can subscribe independently of joining ASCD. Digital subscriptions are available for use with the iPad, iPhone, Android, and Kindle devices. More information is available at www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership.aspxeJournal of Education Policy
The eJournal of Education Policy was established in the fall of 2000. The journal is an open access journal and free to use. It is an excellent resource for the beginning school site administrator. It is an academic, refereed journal and is published twice a year, in the fall and spring. Special editions are also a part of publication. The editor is Dr. Shadow Armfield. The journal may be accessed at http://nau.edu/COE/eJournal; the address is P.O. Box 5774, Flagstaff, AZ 86011. The phone number is 928-523-7651. The journal is affiliated with the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).NASSP Bulletin
The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals is the award-winning official journal of NASSP. It is peer reviewed but not considered an academic journal. It is, however, focused on the issues middle school and high school principals face every day. NASSP makes articles available on OnlineFirst, which allows articles to be viewed before they are published in the journal. The Bulletin is published by SAGE; information about the journal is available at the NASSP website at http://www.nassp.org/knowledge-center/publications/nassp-bulletinNCPEA Educational Leadership Review
Educational Leadership Review (ELR) is published by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA). It is an academic and refereed journal and is published in the spring and fall of each year. Articles are usually 5,000 words and scholarly in content. While it is considered an outlet for research on leadership, the articles deal with practical leadership issues. For information go to http://www.ncpeapublications.org/subscriptions.htmlPhi Delta Kappan
The Kappan is perhaps the most widely read and influential nonacademic educational journal in the United States. It is published by Phi Delta Kappa, the honorary educational fraternity. The Kappan can be read on the Web at kappanmagazine.org or pdk.sagepub.com. Many libraries offer online access to current and back issues of this journal. Abstracts and the full text of all Kappan articles from November 1915 to the most recent 3 months are available. There is also an iPad edition that can be obtained in the App Store. Phi Delta Kappa sponsors the annual Gallup Poll of the Public’s Attitudes Toward the Public Schools and publishes the results in the Kappan. The content of the journal is reader friendly and nontechnical.Principal
Principal is a magazine published by the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). Articles are between 1,500 and 2,000 words. The magazine is nonacademic and nonrefereed but highly readable and practical. Articles are available at the NAESP website at www.naesp.org