The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty
Publication Year: 2015
The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty, Second Edition addresses the persistence of poverty across the globe while updating and expanding the landmark work, Encyclopedia of World Poverty, originally published in 2006 prior to the economic calamities of 2008. For instance, while continued high rates of income inequality might be unsurprising in developing countries such as Mexico, the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported in May 2013 even countries with historically low levels of income inequality have experienced significant increases over the past decade, including Denmark, Sweden, and Germany. The U.N. and the World Bank also emphasize the persistent nature of the problem. It is not all bad news. In March 2013, the Guardian newspaper reported, “Some of the poorest people in the world ...
- Reader's Guide
- Entries A-Z
- Subject Index
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List of Articles[Page vii]AA BA B CA B C DA B C D EA B C D E FA B C D E F GA B C D E F G HA B C D E F G H IA B C D E F G H I JA B C D E F G H I J KA B C D E F G H I J K LA B C D E F G H I J K L MA B C D E F G H I J K L M NA B C D E F G H I J K L M N OA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O PA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q RA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R SA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S TA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U VA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W YA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
Reader’s Guide[Page xvii]
- Antipoverty Organizations
- African Development Foundation
- American Friends Service Committee
- Big Brothers Big Sisters
- Biodiversity International
- Campus Compact
- Center for the Study of Urban Poverty
- Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
- Center on Hunger and Poverty
- Charity Organization Society
- Comic Relief
- Development Gateway
- Earth Institute
- Employment Policies Institute
- Engineers Without Borders
- Feinstein Foundation
- Food First
- Food for the Hungry
- Food Research and Action Center
- Foods Resource Bank
- Global Poverty Project
- Habitat for Humanity
- Haig Fund
- Hull House
- Institute for Research on Poverty
- Institute for the Study of Homelessness and Poverty
- International Food Policy Research Institute
- International Labor Organization
- International Monetary Fund
- International Rescue Committee
- Lawyers Without Borders
- Médecins Sans Frontières
- National Alliance to End Homelessness
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
- National Coalition for the Homeless
- National Coalition of Barrios Unidos
- National Coalition on Health Care
- National Conference for Community and Justice
- National Low Income Housing Coalition
- National Poverty Center
- New Partnership for Africa’s Development
- Nongovernmental Organizations
- Salvation Army
- Second Harvest
- Southern Poverty Law Center
- Spotlight on Poverty and Opportunity
- United Students Against Sweatshops
- World Bank
- World Health Organization
- World Trade Organization
- Causes of Poverty
- Age Discrimination
- Bankruptcy[Page xviii]
- Class Structure
- Colonialism and Imperialism
- Economic Liberalization
- Gender Discrimination
- Great Recession (2007–8)
- Income Inequality
- Industrial Revolution
- Irish Famine
- Segregation, School and Housing
- Children and Poverty
- Child Immunization and Vaccination
- Child Malnutrition
- Child Mortality
- Child Soldiers
- Child Trafficking
- Child Welfare League of America
- Children’s Aid Society
- Children’s Defense Fund
- Children’s Hunger Relief
- Church of England
- Docs for Tots
- International Forum for Child Welfare
- Lingap Children’s Foundation
- National Association for the Education of Young Children
- National Center for Children in Poverty
- National Education Association
- National Fatherhood Initiative
- Street Children
- Consumption and Poverty
- Cash and In-Kind Transfers
- Chained Consumer Price Index
- Conspicuous (Status) Consumption
- Consumption Poverty
- Consumption Poverty, Child
- Economics of Consumption
- Food Consumption
- Household Saving and Dissaving
- Measures of Poverty, Resource-Based
- Supplemental Poverty Measure
- Countries: Africa
- Brunei Darussalam
- Burkina Faso
- Cape Verde
- Central African Republic
- Congo, Democratic Republic of the
- Côte d’Ivoire
- Equatorial Guinea
- Nigeria[Page xix]
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
- South Sudan
- Countries: Americas
- Antigua and Barbuda
- Costa Rica
- Dominican Republic
- El Salvador
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Lucia
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Trinidad and Tobago
- United States
- Countries: Asia
- Georgia (Country)
- North Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- South Korea
- Sri Lanka
- Timor-Leste (East Timor)
- United Arab Emirates[Page xx]
- Countries: Europe
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- Macedonia (FYROM)
- San Marino
- Serbia and Montenegro
- United Kingdom
- Countries: Pacific
- Marshall Islands
- New Zealand
- Papua New Guinea
- Solomon Islands
- Economics of Poverty
- Agriculture-Nutrition Advantage
- Area Deprivation
- Basic Income
- Basic Needs
- Basic Security
- Civic Society
- Class Analysis of Poverty
- Class Structure
- Corporate Responsibility
- Cost of Living
- Debt Relief
- Debt Swap
- Dependency School
- Deprivation, Relative
- Disability Insurance
- Economic Distance
- Economic Growth
- Employment Theory
- Environmental Degradation
- Equity and Efficiency Tradeoff
- Equivalence Scales
- Family Budgets
- Financial Markets
- Fiscal Policy
- Food Shortages
- Foreign Direct Investment[Page xxi]
- Free Trade Agreement of the Americas
- Fuel Poverty
- Green Economy Initiative
- Household Consumption
- Household Employment
- Household Income
- Human Capital
- Human Development
- Income Distribution Theories
- Income Inequality
- Income Poverty
- International Trade
- Intrahousehold Transfers
- Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies
- Labor Market
- Macroeconomic Policies
- Market Efficiency
- Millennium Promise Alliance
- Millennium Villages Project
- Monetary Policy
- Myrdal’s Theory of Cumulative Causation
- Neoclassical Thought
- Nonincome Poverty
- North American Free Trade Agreement
- Pension Programs
- Poverty Traps
- Primary Poverty
- Public Goods
- Public Policy
- Social and Solidarity Economy
- Social Budgeting
- Social Democracy
- Structural Dependency
- Structuralist School
- Supply-Side Economics
- Wage Slavery
- War on Poverty
- Welfare State
- Education and Poverty
- Absenteeism and Child Poverty
- Achievement Gap
- Adolescent Girls Initiative
- Adult Literacy Programs
- Alliance for Excellent Education
- American Graduate
- Children Out of School
- Donor Aid to Education
- Dropout Rates
- Education, Early Childhood
- Education, Primary
- Education, Private and Public
- Education, Secondary
- Education, Tertiary
- Education and Opportunity
- Education and Sustainable Development
- Education and Training, Technical and Vocational
- Education Equity
- Education Millennium Development Goals
- Education Premium
- Education Theories
- Educational Praxis
- Financial Aid
- Gender-Parity Index
- Girl Effect Dividend, The
- Global Education First Initiative
- Literacy and Illiteracy Rates
- National Policies for Education
- Resilience and Education
- School Feeding Programs
- Student Attrition Rate
- Systems Approach for Better Education Results
- Transition Rate
- Universal Primary Education
- World Bank New Education Strategy
- Effects of Poverty
- Economic Insecurity
- Exclusion[Page xxii]
- Family Desertion
- Nonworking Poor
- Rural Deprivation
- Social Disqualification
- Social Exclusion
- Social Inequality
- Social Insecurity
- Structural Dependency
- Welfare Dependence
- Health and Poverty
- Aboriginal Health
- Affordable Care Act
- Catastrophic Health Expenditure
- Communicable Diseases
- Contraceptive Prevalence
- Dengue Fever
- Disease Eradication and Elimination Programs
- Doha Declaration
- Equity in Health
- Global Health Initiatives
- Health, Investment in
- Health-Related Millennium Development Goals
- Mortality Rate
- National Health Accounts
- Neglected Diseases
- Oral Health Care
- Poverty Reduction Strategies
- History of Poverty
- Adams, John (Administration)
- Adams, John Quincy (Administration)
- Ancient Thought
- Arthur, Chester (Administration)
- Buchanan, James (Administration)
- Bush, George H. W. (Administration)
- Bush, George W. (Administration)
- Carter, Jimmy (Administration)
- Cleveland, Grover (Administration)
- Clinton, William (Administration)
- Cold War
- Coolidge, Calvin (Administration)
- Eisenhower, Dwight (Administration)
- Fabian Society
- Fillmore, Millard (Administration)
- Ford, Gerald (Administration)
- French Revolution
- Garfield, James (Administration)
- Grant, Ulysses (Administration)
- Great Depression
- Harding, Warren (Administration)
- Harrison, Benjamin (Administration)
- Harrison, William Henry (Administration)
- Hayes, Rutherford (Administration)
- Hoover, Herbert (Administration)
- Industrial Revolution
- Jackson, Andrew (Administration)
- Jefferson, Thomas (Administration)
- Johnson, Andrew (Administration)
- Johnson, Lyndon (Administration)
- Kennedy, John F. (Administration)
- Les Misérables
- Lincoln, Abraham (Administration)
- Madison, James (Administration)
- McKinley, William (Administration)
- Medieval Thought
- Monroe, James (Administration)
- Nixon, Richard (Administration)
- Pierce, Franklin (Administration)
- Polk, James (Administration)
- Poor Laws
- Poverty, History of
- Reagan, Ronald (Administration)
- Roosevelt, Franklin (Administration)
- Roosevelt, Theodore (Administration)
- Taft, William Howard (Administration)
- Taylor, Zachary (Administration)
- Truman, Harry (Administration)
- Tyler, John (Administration)
- Utopian Socialists
- War on Poverty[Page xxiii]
- Washington, George (Administration)
- Wilson, Woodrow (Administration)
- World War I
- World War II
- Measurements and Definitions of Poverty
- Arab Definition of Poverty
- Australian Definition of Poverty
- Axiom of Monotonicity and Axiom of Transfers
- Beveridge Scheme
- Brazilian Definition of Poverty
- Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
- Chinese Definition of Poverty
- Comparative Research Program on Poverty
- Contextual Poverty
- Cyclical Poverty
- Dependency Ratio
- Deprivation Index
- Duration of Poverty
- Economic Definitions of Poverty
- Endemic Poverty
- Engel Coefficient
- European Relative-Income Standard of Poverty
- European Union Definition of Poverty
- Extended Poverty Minimum
- Extreme Poverty
- Food-Ratio Poverty Line
- Foster, Greer, and Thorbecke Index
- Gini Coefficient
- Headcount Index
- Human Poverty Index
- Indicators of Poverty
- Joint Center for Poverty Research
- Living Standards Measurement Study
- Luxembourg Employment Study
- Luxembourg Income Study
- Mapping Poverty
- Means Testing
- Measures of Poverty, Capability
- Measures of Poverty, Absolute-Income-Based
- Measures of Poverty, Consumption-Based
- Measures of Poverty, Cost-of-Living-Based
- Measures of Poverty, Direct and Indirect
- Measures of Poverty, Relative-Income-Based
- Measures of Poverty, Subjective
- Measures of Poverty, Totally Fuzzy and Relative
- National Research Council, United States
- Normative Standards
- Overall Poverty
- Peripheral Poverty
- Permanent (Collective) Poverty
- Poverty Assessment
- Poverty Clock
- Poverty Gap
- Poverty Gap Index
- Poverty Rate
- Poverty Research
- Poverty Threshold
- Relative Welfare Index
- Rural Poverty Research Center
- Scientific Definitions of Poverty
- Secondary Poverty
- Sen Index
- Sen-Shorrocks-Thon Index
- Standard Food Basket
- Standard Food Basket Variant
- Standard of Living
- TIP Curves
- Traumatic Poverty
- UBN-PL Method
- Ultimate Poverty
- University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research
- USDA Poverty Line
- Voluntary Poverty
- Working Poor
- World Bank Poverty Lines
- Aquinas, Thomas
- Bellamy, Edward
- Black, Hugo L.
- Brandeis, Louis D.
- Bryan, William Jennings
- Calvin, John
- Carnegie, Andrew
- Coughlin, Charles
- de Soto, Hernando
- Donnelly, Ignatius
- Engels, Friedrich
- Evans, George Henry
- Foucault, Michel
- Francis of Assisi
- Frank, Andre Gunder
- Franklin, Benjamin
- Friedman, Milton
- Galbraith, John Kenneth
- Gandhi, Mahatma
- George, Henry[Page xxiv]
- Giddens, Anthony
- Gilder, George
- Greeley, Horace
- Harrington, Michael
- Heilbroner, Robert
- Hobbes, Thomas
- Hobson, John
- Lewis, Arthur
- Locke, John
- Luxemburg, Rosa
- Malthus, Thomas
- Marshall, Alfred
- Marx, Karl
- Mill, John Stuart
- Mother Teresa
- Owen, Robert
- Polanyi, Karl
- Prebisch, Raúl
- Rawls, John
- Ricardo, David
- Sen, Amartya
- Smith, Adam
- Thompson, T. Phillips
- Wallerstein, Immanuel
- Weber, Max
- Politics and Poverty
- Democratic Party, U.S.
- Economic Dependence
- Economic Inequality
- Educational Vouchers
- Foreign Aid
- Fourth World
- Republican Party, U.S.
- Senate Hunger Caucus
- Third Way
- World Economic Forum
- Poverty Relief Initiatives
- Access-to-Enterprise Zones
- Adjustment Programs
- Aid to Families with Dependent Children
- Antipoverty Programs, Asset-Based
- Antipoverty Programs, Means-Tested Government
- Antipoverty Programs, Rural
- Antipoverty Programs, Urban
- Bolsa Família
- Congressional Hunger Center
- Earned-Income Tax Credit
- Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy
- Eliminate Project, The
- End Hunger Network
- Federal Targeted Training
- Food Stamps
- G-8 Africa Action Plan
- Great Society Programs
- Guaranteed Assistance
- Head Start
- Heifer Project
- Help the Aged
- Housing Assistance
- Inter-American Development Bank
- Living Wage Campaign
- Low-Income Cutoffs
- Millennium Development Goals
- Minimum Wage
- Pro-Poor Growth
- Religious and Secular Charities
- Africa Faith and Justice Network
- Antipoverty Programs, Community-Based
- Brotherhood of St. Laurence
- Catholic Campaign for Human Development
- charity: water
- Christian Antipoverty Campaigns
- Christian Community Health Fellowship
- Christmas Seals
- Church World Services
- Feeding America
- Franciscan Order
- God’s Child Project
- Goodwill Industries
- Interfaith Worker Justice
- International Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
- Jesuits[Page xxv]
- Jubilee 2000
- Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, The
- Living Waters for the World
- March of Dimes
- Mendicant Orders
- National Economic and Social Rights Initiative
- New Hope Program (Milwaukee)
- Partnership to Cut Hunger and Poverty in Africa
- Polish Humanitarian Organization
- Presbyterian Hunger Project
- Protestant Churches
- Rebuilding Together
- Roy Wilkins Center
- Save the Children
- Share Our Strength
- Society of St. Vincent de Paul
- United Methodist Church Initiatives
- United Methodist Committee on Relief
- United Way
- World Concern
- World Food Programme
- YMCA and YWCA
- Social Assistance
- Supplemental Security Income
- Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
- Unemployment Insurance
- United Nations Development Programme
- United Nations Development Programme Regional Project for Overcoming Poverty
- Wealth Tax
- Workers’ Compensation
- Work–Welfare Programs
- World Economic Forum
- World Social Forum
- Sustainability and Poverty
- Environmental Economics
- Environmental Federalism
- Environmental Health
- Environmental Refugees
- Environmentalism, American Radical
- Environmentalism, Civic and Nongovernmental
- Environmentalism, Corporate
- Environmentalism, International
- Environmentalism, Modern
- Environmentalism of the Poor and Economic Justice
- Greenhouse Gas Emissions
- Natural Resource Management
- Solar Energy
- Sustainable Development, Measurement of
- Technology and Poverty
- Agricultural Technology
- Economic Growth and Technology
- Education and Technology
- Financing New Technology
- Genetically Modified Organisms
- Grameenphone and Telecom
- Information and Communication Technology
- Intellectual Property Rights
- International Trade, High Technology and
- Knowledge Poverty
- Medical Technology
- Mobile Phones
- Mobile Technology
- Natural Disaster Refugees
- New Technology: Risks and Gains
- Poverty Traps
- Technological Unemployment
- Technology Absorption and Appropriate Technology
- Technology and Poverty Alleviation
- Technology and Public Policy
- Technology and Replenishable Energy
- Technology Diffusion
- Technology Divide
- Technology Expenditure
- Technology Transfer
- Water Technology
- U.S. States and Territories
- American Samoa
- Florida[Page xxvi]
- Georgia (U.S. State)
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- North Carolina
- North Dakota
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Puerto Rico
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
- Virgin Islands
- Washington, D.C.
- West Virginia
- Women and Poverty
- Alliance for International Women’s Rights
- Center for American Progress
- Child Care
- Family Desertion
- Family Size and Structure
- Feminist Approaches to Poverty
- Feminization of Poverty
- Gender and Allocation of Time
- Gender and Food Security
- Gender and Land Rights
- Gender Discrimination
- Gender Division of Labor
- Gender Gap in Agriculture
- Gender Poverty Gap
- Institute for Women’s Policy Research
- Maternal Mortality and Morbidity
- National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy
- Pro Mujer
- Race, Ethnicity, Immigration and Women
- Reproductive Health and Rights
- Women, Missing
- Women’s Empowerment
- Women’s Global Empowerment Fund
About the Editor[Page xxvii]
Mehmet Odekon is Professor of Economics and Tisch Family Distinguished Professor at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, New York. He received his undergraduate degree in economics from Bogazici University (formerly Robert College) in Istanbul, Turkey. He won a Turkish government scholarship to pursue graduate work in the United States and earned his Ph.D. in economics at the State University of New York, Albany. After working at Bogazici University and at the European Institute of Business Administration (INSEAD) in Fontainebleau, France, he joined Skidmore in 1982. Dr. Odekon’s research interests include the political economy of development and globalization and domestic and international poverty and income equality. He is the editor of the Encyclopedia of World Poverty (Sage, 2006), and he coedited Economic Liberalization and Labor Markets (Praeger, 1998), Political Economy of Turkish Liberalization (Lehigh University Press, 1991), and Liberalization and the Turkish Economy (Praeger, 1988). He authored several articles and Costs of Economic Liberalization in Turkey (Lehigh University Press, 2005). In these publications he analyzes the effects of the dominant world economic order on economically disadvantaged groups. Dr. Odekon co-curated an interdisciplinary exhibit at the Tang Teaching Museum, Skidmore College, titled “Classless Society” (November 2013–March 2014). The exhibition, along with its Web site and catalogue, explores the myth that the United States is a classless society. He is currently working on a project on worker-owned cooperatives in the United States. He is an avid supporter of the Liverpool Football Club.[Page xxviii]
List of Contributors[Page xxix]
Anil Aba University of Utah
Yusuf Abdulazeez Usmanu Danfodiyo University
Biju Abraham Government College University, Lahore
Angel R. Ackerman Independent Scholar
Hazel Acosta Independent Scholar
Lady Jane Acquah The University of Texas at Austin
Samuel Ojima Adejoh University of Lagos
Paula Lucía Aguilar University of Buenos Aires
Patricia Agupusi Brown University
Ujala Ahsan Independent Scholar
Bree Akesson McGill University
Kendra P. Alexander Northwestern University
Alexander Allison Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne
Nayeli Berenice Perez Alvarado National Autonomous University of Mexico
Chinedu Anthony Anene University of Bradford
Isil Anil Middle East Technical University
Kepa Artaraz University of Brighton
H. S. Ashok Bangalore University
Abdullah Aswat University of Cambridge
Ahmet Atakisi Trakya University
Jerry P. Ausburn Hamshire-Fannett Independent School District
Rojhat B. Avsar Columbia College Chicago
James Olabisi Ayodele Obafemi Awolowo University
Şerif Onur Bahçecik Middle East Technical University
Paola Ballón University of Oxford
Sonali Chakravarti Banerjee University of Calcutta
Behroz Baraghoshi Eastern Connecticut State University
Justice Nyigmah Bawole University of Ghana Business School
Harlan R. Beckley Shepherd Higher Education Consortium on Poverty[Page xxx]
Nisha Beharie McSilver Institute
Vyjanti Beharry University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Orly Benjamin Bar-Ilan University
Montgomery R. Beyer University of Phoenix
Haimanti Bhattacharya University of Utah
Arundhati Bhattacharyya Bhairab Ganguly College, West Bengal State University
Rabindranath Bhattacharyya University of Burdwan
Magdalena Bielenia-Grajewska University of Gdansk
Danielle J. Bird Independent Scholar
Rebecca Bishop Independent Scholar
Frank Bliss University of Hamburg
Stefanie Bognitz Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology
Catherine E. Bolten University of Notre Dame
Helen Bond Howard University School of Education
Sarah E. Boslaugh Kennesaw State University
Thomas D. Boston Georgia Institute of Technology
Dina Bowman University of Melbourne
Kristin Boza Independent Scholar
Victoria M. Breting-Garcia Independent Scholar
Susan Bridle-Fitzpatrick Tulane University
Roxanne Brizan University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Chad Broughton University of Chicago
Justin Bunch Georgia Institute of Technology
John R. Burch Jr. Campbellsville University
Shanna L. Burke Simmons College
Claudio Butticè Independent Scholar
Sema Buz Hacettepe University
Michael Calabrese Independent Scholar
Sandra Calkins Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology
Pedro M. Cameselle Fordham University
Al Campbell University of Utah
Courtney J. Campbell Vanderbilt University
Steven Campbell University of South Carolina, Lancaster
James Park Canfield University of Cincinnati
Mary Caplan University of Georgia
John Cappucci University of Windsor
Juliana Carlson University of Kansas
Alma J. Carten New York University
Aziz Çelik Kocaeli University
Anusha Chaitanya Narmada Bachao Andolan
T. R. Chandrasekhara National Law School of India University
Roger Yap Chao Jr. City University of Hong Kong
Mihika Chatterjee University of Oxford
Saayan Chattopadhyay Baruipur College
Yanan Chen Skidmore College
Kingsley U. Chigbu The University of Texas at Arlington
Eric K. M. Chong Hong Kong Institute of Education
Masudul Alam Choudhury International Islamic University
Anna Julia Cieslewska Jagiellonian University[Page xxxi]
Kayelle Clarke The University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Ian C. Clift Mayo Clinic
Ryne Clos University of Notre Dame
Mary Elizabeth Collins Boston University
Monique Constance-Huggins Winthrop University
Daniel G. Cooper Adler School of Professional Psychology
Jessica Coretsi Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne
Justin Corfield Independent Scholar
Nicole Corley University of Georgia
Jessica Cortesi Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne
Hai-Anh H. Dang World Bank
Adel Daoud University of Gothenberg
Katrinell M. Davis University of Vermont
Carla De Ycaza New York University
Tiziana C. Dearing Boston College
Tunde Decker Osun State University
Mohammed Iqbal Degia Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, Barbados
Bronwen Densmore New York City College of Technology
Ralitza Dimova University of Manchester
Obediah Dodo Bindura University of Science Education
Pete Dorey Cardiff University
Amrita Duraiswamy Sri Ramachandra Medical College
Steven N. Durlauf University of Wisconsin
Amitava Krishna Dutt University of Notre Dame
Jaroslav Dvorak Klaipėda University
Amitabh Vikram Dwivedi Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University
Carl Egner Chicago Public Schools
Christine Erickson Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne
Michael Eshiemokhai University of Montreal
Jodi Essey-Stapleton Independent Scholar
Cristina Faludi Babeş-Bolyai University
Raúl Fernández-Calienes St. Thomas University
Rukshan Fernando Azusa Pacific University
Cindy Ferraino Independent Scholar
Marisa Fois University of Cagliari
Olakunle Michael Folami University of Ulster
Nadja Kurtovic Folic University of Novi Sad
John Wilson Forje University of Yaounde II
Izolda Fotiyeva Howard University
Judith Fox University of Notre Dame
Samuel Gabriel University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Sarah B. Garlington Boston University
Ruchi Singh Gaur Independent Scholar
Asad Ghalib Independent Scholar
Abhijit Ghosh University of Michigan
Charles N. Giberti University of Cincinnati
Kimberly-Ann Gittens-Baynes University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago[Page xxxii]
Daniel P. Gitterman University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Bren Gray Independent Scholar
Matthew J. Gritter Angelo State University
Ana Grondona University of Buenos Aires, CONICET-CCC
Nizamulmulk Gunes University of Kocaeli
Gaye Gungor Gediz University
Vinayak Gunjal Independent Scholar
Dipin Gupta Independent Scholar
Jessica Anne Hammer Independent Scholar
Joseph Hammond Independent Scholar
Catherine Hawes Independent Scholar
Thomas L. Head Edith Cowan University
Glenn Edward Heath Independent Scholar
Oliver Benjamin Hemmerle Stendahl University
Magdalena Díaz Hernández University of Seville
Andrea Hetling Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Gretchen Hoge Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Philip Young P. Hong Loyola University
Leonard J. Huggins Independent Scholar
Yameen Huq Georgia Institute of Technology
Nashaat Hussein Misr International University
Roukaya Ahmed Ibrahim University of Bristol
Enrico Ille Ahfad University for Women
Ana-Cristina Ionescu Independent Scholar
Victor Manuel Isidro Luna National Autonomous University of Mexico
Emel Istar Duzce University
Sharmaine Tia Jackson University of California, Irvine
Anupama Jacob Azusa Pacific University
Frank Jacob Queensborough Community College, City University of New York
Jaewoo Jang Stanford University
Katarzyna Jarecka-Stępień Jagiellonian University
Rana Jawad University of Bath
Laura Johnson Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Myungkook Joo Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Ayanna Julien Independent Scholar
Laurie E. Kaniarz Foods Resource Bank
Iİlknur Karaaslan Independent Scholar
Usman Ahmad Karofi Usmanu Danfodiyo University
Christine Anne Kelly Fordham University
Kyle Kelly Skidmore College
Whitney Key Loyola University
Santana Khanikar University of Delhi
Chang-Gi Kim Korea National University of Transportation
HaeJung Kim West Virginia University
Yoon Mi Kim Kutztown University
Njoki W. Kinyatti York College, City University of New York
Courtney Kisat Southeast Missouri State University
Kpoti Kitissou Skidmore College
Jeremy Kleidosty University of Sharjah
Elise Klein Australian National University[Page xxxiii]
Andrzej Klimczuk Warsaw School of Economics
Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska Stanislaw Staszic College of Public Administration
Anna Kotlarska-Michalska Adam Mickiewicz University
Milena Krkljes University of Novi Sad
Lynn C. Kronzek Independent Scholar
Bill Kte’pi Independent Scholar
Sharanya Kumar Independent Scholar
Althea La Foucade University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Tracy C. S. Lau Hong Kong Baptist University
Christine Laptiste University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Philipp Hieronymus Lepenies Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies
Yan Wing Leung Hong Kong Institute of Education
Lia Levin Tel Aviv University and King’s College London
Samuel I. Levy Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
Dan A. Lewis Northwestern University
Hector Lindo-Fuentes Fordham University
Marieme S. Lo University of Toronto
Michael Loadenthal George Mason University
Margaret Lombe Boston College
Li-Ching Lyu National Taiwan Normal University
Briony Patricia MacPhee Independent Scholar
Lily Mafela University of Botswana
James E. Mahon Washington and Lee University
Kristen Lynn Majocha University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
Thomas N. Maloney University of Utah
Shefali Manhas Jawaharlal Nehru University
Jillian Marchant James Cook University
Jay Marlowe University of Auckland
Michelle Dawn Martin Independent Scholar
Leemamol Mathew Bangalore University
Hiroaki Matsuura University of Oxford
Mandy M. McBroom Independent Scholar
Brian P. McCall University of Michigan
Philip McCallion State University of New York, Albany
Julia McClure Harvard University
Gordon C. McCord University of California, San Diego
Annie McEwen Carleton University
Stephen V. McGarity University of Georgia
Mary McKay New York University Silver School of Social Work
Ruth McRoy Boston College
Patricia Meador Independent Scholar
Catherine K. Medina University of Connecticut
Kelly Melekis University of Vermont
Rodrigo Meneses-Reyes Center for Research and Teaching in Economics
Trudy Mercadal Florida Atlantic University
Micaela Mercado New York University Silver School of Social Work
Charmaine Metivier University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago[Page xxxiv]
Elizabeth Bissell Miller University of Missouri
William J. Miller Flagler College
Fazil Moradi Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology
Christian Morgner University of Leicester
Marco Morini International University of Sarajevo
Katie Moss Independent Scholar
David Moxley University of Oklahoma
Ng’ang’a Muchiri University of Miami
Robert L. Muhlnickel Monroe Community College
Gift Kim Mushariwa Independent Scholar
E. Wairimu Mwangi Independent Scholar
Todd Myers San Diego State University
Larry Nackerud University of Georgia
Shailen Nandy University of Bristol
Tara Natarajan Saint Michael’s College
April Wagnon Nelms University of North Georgia
Stephen E. Nepa Temple University
Bala Raju Nikku University of Science, Malaysia
Jessica Nobile University of Georgia
Alison N. Novak Temple University
Chamunogwa Nyoni Bindura University of Science Education
Julia Obinger University of Zurich
Robin O’Brian Elmira College
Michael O’Brien University of Auckland
Mehmet Odekon Skidmore College
James Bamidele Odunbaku Olabisi Onabanjo University
David Okech University of Georgia
Eyene Okpanachi University of Alberta
Rasheed Akanji Okunola University of Ibadan
Taiwo Olaiya Obafemi Awolowo University
Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba University of South Africa
Arzu Ozsoy Ozmen Kocaeli University
Patit Paban Mishra Sambalpur University
Dimitrios Pachis Eastern Connecticut State University
Varsha Pandya Kutztown University
Hong-Jae Park University of Auckland
Sundramoorthy Pathmanathan University of Science, Malaysia
William M. Peaster Independent Scholar
Gianina Pellegrini Saybrook University
Sony Pellissery National Law School of India University
Wilson Amadeo Perez Latin American Social Sciences Institute
Wilson Perez-Oviedo FLACSO, Ecuador
Svetlana Perovic University of Montenegro
David Petrasek University of Ottawa
James E. Phelan Ohio State University
Marc Pilisuk Saybrook University and University of California
Vijayan Pillai University of Texas at Arlington
Yovanna Pineda University of Central Florida
Judy L. Postmus Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Steven Pressman Monmouth University[Page xxxv]
M. C. L. Provost University of Toronto
William R. Pruitt Elmira College
Elizabeth Rholetter Purdy Independent Scholar
Agnieszka Ewa Pyrzyk Association Centre for Intercultural Initiatives
Francisco Quiroz Chueca San Marcos National University
Carolyn Raider Independent Scholar
Sana Rasul Rais Independent Scholar
Lauren Ann Ricciardelli University of Georgia
Carter Ringle Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne
Brooks B. Robinson Independent Scholar
Cara Robinson Tennesee State University
Andreé Robinson-Neal Independent Scholar
Gisela Robles University of Oxford
Jaroslaw Richard Romaniuk Case Western Reserve University
David W. Rothwell McGill University
Candice Rowser Kingsborough Community College, City University of New York
Assel Rustemova Tutumlu Gediz University-Izmir
Mihai Stelian Rusu Babeş-Bolyai University
Karl Heinz Gaudry Sada University of Freiburg
Adam Salifu University of Western Sydney
Wylma C. Samaranayake-Robinson University of Phoenix
Emily Sanders Garcia University of Vermont
Juan E. Santarcángelo National Scientific and Technical Research Council
Doğa Başar Sariipek Kocaeli University
Jon Daniel Schmid Georgia Institute of Technology
Sanford F. Schram Hunter College, CUNY
Ulrike Schuerkens School for the Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences
Michaela Schulze University of Kassel
Ewan Scott University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
John C. Scott University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Tamara Seiffer Independent Scholar
Abdülkadir Şenkal Kocaeli University
Bodagalu Seshadri Independent Scholar
Erin Sexton Georgia Institute of Technology
Elena V. Shabliy Tulane University
Ritesh Shah University of Auckland
Syed Faisal Hyder Shah University of Sindh
Irina Shaorshadze University of Cambridge
Yasoda Sharma Kutztown University
Debbie Sharnak University of Wisconsin–Madison
Richard Sheldon University of Bristol
Milton Shook Independent Scholar
Milan Shreshta Arizona State University
Sebastian Silva-Leander Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initative, University of Oxford
Anusha Singh Delhi University
R. P. Singh University of Lucknow
Atul Singhal Independent Scholar
Aakanksha Sinha Boston College[Page xxxvi]
Pravin Sinha Indian Industrial Relations Association
Diana L. Skelton All Together in Dignity/ATD Fourth World
Curtis Skinner Columbia University
Paul Sloan Independent Scholar
Tanya Sloan Independent Scholar
Samia Solaiman University of Georgia
Ludovic A. Sourdot Texas Woman’s University
Frank Sowa Institute for Employment Research
Robert Spires Valdosta State University
Sarah Stanford-McIntyre College of William & Mary
Richard A. Stein New York University School of Medicine
Jakub Stępień Jagiellonian University
Steven Stoll Fordham University
Tara Stone Independent Scholar
John F. Struth Nonotuck Resource Associates, Inc.
Amanda Sturgill Elon University
Vakur Sumer Selçuk University
Olatunde Olaseni Taiwo Olabisi Onabanjo University
Ali Akbar Tajmazinani Allameh Tabataba’i University
David Takeuchi Boston College
Karl Theodore University of the West Indies at St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Rebecca Leela Thomas University of Connecticut
Amanda Rowe Tillotson University of Michigan
Alissa Tolstokorova Independent Scholar
Trasie A. Topple University of Georgia
Quyen Tran All Together in Dignity/ATD Fourth World
Silke Trommer Murdoch University
Amy Trostle Northern Kentucky University
Paige Mayleen True California State University, Monterey Bay
Feyza Turgay Kocaeli University
Rhea U. Vallente Independent Scholar
Annette L. Varcoe Independent Scholar
Tanadej Vechsuruck University of Utah
Eduardo Torres Veytia National Autonomous University of Mexico
Udaya R. Wagle Western Michigan University
Robert Walker New York University Silver School of Social Work
John Walsh Shinawatra University
Cheng-Tong Lir Wang University of California, Irvine
Kate Y. T. Wang National Taiwan Normal University
Judith Ann Warner Texas A&M International University
Andrew J. Waskey Dalton State College
Thomas D. Watts The University of Texas at Arlington
Richard Weiner Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne
Mary Rita Weller Kutztown University
Charles K. Wilber University of Notre Dame
Renee Wilson-Simmons National Center for Children in Poverty[Page xxxvii]
Christopher Wimer Columbia University
Hung Wong Chinese University of Hong Kong
Mathew Y. H. Wong University of Hong Kong
Martin Woodside Rutgers University-Camden
Darrin E. Wright Clark Atlanta University
Paul Wright California State University, Monterey Bay
Wang Xianhua Sichuan University
Wei Yang University of Kent
Komali Yenneti University of Birmingham
Emma Yorra Independent Scholar
Waqar H. Zaidi Lahore University of Management Science
Michael Zakour West Virginia University
Stephanie Zehnle University of Kassel
Scott Zimmer Independent Scholar[Page xxxviii]
Eight years have passed since the publication of the first edition of the SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty. They were an unsettling eight years. Events included the global financial crisis triggered by the collapse of the housing market in the United States; continuing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan; several high-impact natural disasters like the Sichuan earthquake in China; the global food crisis of 2007 and 2008; the Arab Spring; economic crises in Greece, Italy, and Spain; and outbreaks of diseases like the recent Ebola and dengue fever outbreaks in west Africa. Nonetheless, in the midst of these adverse developments, the United Nations Development Programme came up with news that gives a glimmer of hope: the first Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day has already been met. The joy spread among policymakers, politicians, media, and international organizations was a bit overshadowed, though, by the fact that there are still about 1 billion people living in poverty in the world, mostly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and southeast Asia.
It is hard to justify poverty given the economic affluence many enjoy. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook, the gross world product in 2013 calculated at purchasing power parity (PPP) is a staggering $87.25 trillion. If this sum were evenly distributed, per capita income would be $13,100 (in PPP) in contrast to actual per capita incomes of about $700 in Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Yes, there is significant progress in poverty reduction, but poverty is still a dire problem.
The distribution of economic gains among different sectors of the world economy is strongly tied to the persistence of poverty in developing countries. In 2013, the world output generated in industrial activity was 31 percent, with 23 percent of the total labor force employed in industry. On the other hand, the world output generated in agriculture was 6 percent of the total, with 35 percent of the total labor force employed in agriculture. This means less income for more workers in agriculture. It is not surprising that the global average Gini index is as high as 38.5 out of 100.
Solutions to global poverty come with a high price tag. According to the Millennium Project, headed by Jeffrey Sachs, the estimated gap between official development assistance commitments and what is needed to meet Millennium Development Goals in 2014 is estimated to be $74 billion. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that although 22 industrial countries committed about 0.7 percent of their national incomes to Official Development Assistance to developing countries, with the exception of the Scandinavian countries, they did not meet their commitments.
In the Western world, the interpretation of the successful reduction in the number of people [Page xl]living on less than $1.25 a day has emphasized the positive impact of economic liberalization and globalization on developing countries. The benefits of free markets and free trade policies, it is argued, finally trickled down and helped lift low-income groups out of poverty. It should be recognized, however, that while some countries (like India and China, for example) may have benefitted from liberalization and globalization, this paradigm is not the universal elixir to poverty. In other countries, especially in Latin and Central America, antipoverty programs outside this paradigm have had significant success. For example, in Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Nicaragua, poverty reduction was achieved through initiatives based on economic democracy; on the rights of indigenous people, women, and children; on bottom-up democratic reorganization; on environmental sustainability; on people’s ownership of natural resources; and on income redistribution schemes.The So-Called Great Recession
Industrial countries have been hit hard by the 2007–08 financial crisis. The so-called Great Recession it triggered in the United States spread to the rest of the industrialized Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The toll of the recession came in the form of decline in real output, increase in unemployment, increase in income inequality and poverty, and pressures on the budget. The drop in real gross domestic product (GDP) from 2008 to 2010 led to jumps in the unemployment rate, which soared to 9.9 percent in December 2009 in the United States. With the exception of Germany, other industrial OECD countries experienced similar increase in their unemployment rates. The United States succeeded in reducing its unemployment rate to 6.7 percent by mid-2014, while most industrial countries, especially in Europe, still have high rates. Some fervently argue that the persistent unemployment in Europe is the result of their social welfare states and the existing relatively high unemployment benefits that take away the incentive to look for jobs. The claim may or may not be true but the unemployed definitely find it easier to sustain a minimum standard of living thanks to the unemployment benefits and other social expenditures.
In the United States, high unemployment has also been the result of policy choices. The political impasse between the presidential administration and Congress took its toll, especially on people in low-income groups. In a time of urgent need for fiscal stimulation, budgetary considerations were given priority and fiscal conservatism led to policies not directed to poverty. Similar policies of fiscal contraction are seen in other industrial countries as well. Reactionary popular movements—like Occupy Wall Street in the United States and in numerous other countries—that protest public policies favoring financial sectors and higher income groups, however, have increased public awareness of income inequality and poverty. It is interesting that the first time in a long time in the United States, “socioeconomic class” has become part of public discourse. Stories of the unemployed and the economically struggling appear in the media on a regular basis. Indeed, among industrialized countries the United States today has the highest poverty rate (especially when it comes to children), a relatively low real wage structure, and one of the lowest social expenditure–GDP ratio to fight poverty, despite the fact that the per capita income in 2014 dollars in the United States is over $50,000.Slowly Changing Tide
Occupy movements in dozens of countries can indeed be perceived as displays of discontent with the new global class structure rooted in globalization and economic liberalization. Decades of policies favoring the owners of capital at the expense of labor—especially unskilled, low productivity labor—were bound to create discontent. Policies making the rich richer and counting on its trickle down effects to reach everyone else had limits. The 2007–08 global financial crisis is one of the several failures of globalization and liberalization. Similar crises in Poland, Mexico, Argentina, Turkey, and other countries foreshadowed the 2008 crisis but were perceived as country-specific instead of systematic. Moreover, policy choices by industrial countries and emerging market economies to re-establish the financial order that led to the crisis in the first place were at the surface puzzling, but make sense in the context of a power structure that has been put into place over decades. Economic power leads to political power, and if unchecked, tends to perpetuate [Page xli]itself. Occupy movements raised public awareness concerning the power of the economic and political elite in affecting the lives of people in the street across the globe. But how have these issues been handled by policy makers?
In the United States, the policy response to popular protests targeted the middle class. In 2009, Vice President Joseph Biden formed a group of experts to define “middle class” in the United States. The task force based its definition on the American Dream, which rested on the ownership of a two-bedroom house with a two-car garage, health care coverage for four, an annual two-week vacation for four, college education for two children, and sufficient savings for retirement. This set the income bracket for the middle class. It was the first official recognition that the United States is not really a classless society, as the popular myth told.
Similarly, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and other international economic institutions have responded to a climate of awareness about income inequality and poverty. The tide is slowly changing. The IMF is now recommending moderate programs to assist the poor, recommendations that would not have been heard of in the 1990s or in the first decade of the 21st century. Similarly, more and more aggressive antipoverty policies are finding their way into World Bank recommendations. A way to consider this shift is that authorities are starting to pay attention to the demand-side of the economy. If people do not have the purchasing power and favorably affect aggregate demand, ultimately all suffer—rich and poor. Recent economic history supports this picture. Perhaps people are moving toward a middle-class or classless society, and the 21st century will consist of a middle-class era, like the working-class era of the 1960s, and the capitalist-class era that took hold in the post-1980s.Next Steps
The progress made toward meeting the Millennium Development Goals also presents hope for the next step—the Sustainable Millennium Development Goals (SDG). They are 17 ambitious goals that build on the MDGs and that further aim to create a world where all people can lead lives they see as worth living. The SMGs are to end poverty in all its forms everywhere; end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture; ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages; ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all; achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls; ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all; promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all, build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable; ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns; take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts; conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development; protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss; promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development; provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels; and strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. Wouldn’t you love to live in such a world? I would.This Edition
The second edition of the SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty, expanded from three volumes to five, with one full volume of data and primary documents as of 2014, contains over 900 articles. About 175 of the articles are new, original additions, and those from the first edition have been updated. New categories explicitly incorporated into this second edition are health and poverty, education and poverty, environmental sustainability and poverty, technology and poverty, and various different measurements of poverty. More than 100 independent and affiliated scholars have contributed to it, including many new contributors since the previous edition. These scholars are passionately concerned about poverty and related issues, and it was a privilege to read and [Page xlii]comment on their contributions. The articles are supplemented with an updated Resource Guide and a Chronology of World Poverty, as well as with updated economic data on U.S. states and individual countries. It is an authoritative and thoroughly investigated source on poverty. It is intended to be a reference source for students, scholars, and anyone ready to engage in the complicated but critical issues related to poverty.
I hope you find it useful in your studies and research projects.
In Babylon, the Code of Hammurabi includes laws specifying the protection of widows and orphans.
The Talmud specifies how charitable funds should be collected and distributed in Jewish communities.
The Qur’an, considered by Muslims to be the divine revelation of God, includes practicing generous charity as one of the five duties of Muslims.
In England, the Statute of Labourers sets restrictions on the movement of workers and establishes the principal of treating the poor as criminals.
In England, the Act for the Punishment of Sturdy Vagabonds and Beggars establishes more severe penalties for begging and requires local communities to provide poor relief.
In England, the Poor Law creates categories of poor citizens, including the able-bodied, those with disabilities or who are elderly, and children.
The first African slaves arrive in the United States.
In colonial America, Rhode Island enacts a Poor Law requiring the state to appoint an official to provide support for the impoverished.
The Scots Charitable Society is founded in Boston, Massachusetts, making it one of the first voluntary societies to aid the poor.
In England, the Law of Settlement and Renewal introduces residency requirements in order for a person to receive poor relief and allows authorities to expel those believed likely to become poor and thus require future relief.
In colonial America, Massachusetts establishes a system of child indenture for poor children, with the justification that it would benefit the children to live in a formal family structure.
In England, the Workhouse Test Act requires unemployed people to work before being granted assistance.
The Ursuline Sisters, a Catholic order in New Orleans, Louisiana, establishes an orphanage to care for women and children who survived a smallpox epidemic and Indian hostilities.
The first public mental hospital in the United States is established in Virginia.
[Page xliv]In England, passage of the Gilbert Act forces the closure of man workhouses, and poor individuals are provided with relief while allowed to continue living in their own homes.
The U.S. Constitution includes the famous “three fifths of a man clause,” specifying that for the purpose of calculating a state’s population, a slave counted as 3/5 of a white person.
In the United States, the first public state orphanage is created in Charleston, South Carolina.
Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, setting the stage for greatly expanded cotton production in the U.S. south, and thus the impetus to create cotton plantations where the primary labor was supplied by African American slaves.
The U.S. Public Health Service is established in an attempt to control the introduction of diseases to east coast cities by the shipping industry.
The British reformer Elizabeth Gurney Fry visits London’s Newgate Prison, where she is shocked by the conditions in which women and children are housed.
The first free school in the United States for the deaf and hard of hearing, Gallaudet University, is founded in Connecticut.
In the United States, the House of Refuge, an institution created to deal with juvenile law-breakers, is founded in New York.
In England, the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 requires poor individuals seeking relief to live and work in workhouses; as well as the poor, residents of workhouses included orphaned and abandoned children, persons with disability or illness, elderly people, and unmarried mothers.
In upper Canada, the Charity Aid Act assigns responsibility for caring for the poor to churches and charities rather than the government.
The American reformer Dorothea Dix investigates and publicizes poor conditions for people living in institutions for the insane, leading to the establishment of many state hospitals, intended to provide humane care for the mentally ill.
The New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, which later becomes the Community Service Society after merging with the Charity Organization Society, is founded by Robert Hartley and colleagues.
In England, the first Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) is established in London by George Williams. Seven years later, the first YMCA is founded in North America in Montreal, Canada.
The Reverend Charles Loring Brace founds the Children’s Aid Society in New York, making it the first child placement agency not affiliated with an institutional program.
In the United States, the state of South Carolina becomes the first to secede from the country on December 20; by May 1861, 10 more states had seceded.
In April, the U.S. Civil War begins after the firing on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, by Confederate (Southern) troops.
In the Northern U.S. states, Freedmen’s Aid Societies are established to send teachers and material goods to former slaves in the South.
U.S. president Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in the states that seceded from the United States.
Slavery is abolished in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
The Freedmen’s Bureau is founded by the U.S. government with the assistance of private organizations, in order to provide food, clothing, and shelter for feed slaves, to provide education, and to protect the rights of freedmen.
In the United States, citizenship is redefined in the United States by the Fourteenth Amendment [Page xlv]to the Constitution; among the changes are defining as a citizen anyone other than an American Indian (Native American) who was born in the United States, as well as anyone who was naturalized as a citizen.
In Canada, the British North America Act assigns provinces the responsibility for caring for the poor.
In Massachusetts, the Board of State Charities begins to pay private families and individuals to care for orphans boarded in their homes.
Charles Loring Brace publishes The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty Years Work Among Them, informing the larger public of the difficult conditions under which many poor people and immigrants are living.
In Buffalo, New York, the first Charity Organization Society in the United States is founded. The practices established by the society include investigation of applicants, use of a central registration system, cooperation among relief agencies, and the use of volunteers to visit the poor and offer advice to them.
In the United States, Booker T. Washington founds the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute to provide education and training to African Americans and to increase their economic independence and self-respect.
The “Jim Crow” era in the United States begins after the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the Fourteenth Amendment does not apply to privately owned facilities such as railroads, restaurants, and hotels.
The British artist and teacher Octavia Hill publishes The Homes of the London Poor, helping to publicize the poor conditions under which many people live and supporting the push for housing reform.
In Germany, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck inaugurates a series of social welfare programs, including insurance for sickness, accidents, and old age.
The first settlement house in the United States, the Neighborhood Guild, is created in New York City; it is now known as the University Settlement.
Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr open Hull House in Chicago, a settlement house providing education and other services to the poor. In 1921, Jane Addams is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her work.
The photographer and journalist Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, informing the general public of the severe conditions under which many of their fellow citizens live.
The Nurses Settlement is founded in New York City by Lillian Wald; it later became the Henry Street Settlement (1895) and ultimately expands to the Visiting Nurse Service of New York, which provides in-home nursing care to the poor of New York City.
In New York City, the first school to train social workers is established as the New York School of Philanthropy, later the Columbia University School of Social Work.
In the United States, Maryland creates the first Workmen’s Compensation Law, but it is overturned in 1904 as unconstitutional.
In the United States, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded by a group of concerned African American and white citizens.
In England, the Royal Poor Law Commission recommends modifying the existing Poor Law by making local governments responsible for the provision of services.
Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, creates the first training program for African American social workers.
Former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt introduces the concept of the “New Nationalism” in a speech delivered in Kansas; this concept [Page xlvi]includes strong support for social justice and the importance of the government protecting human rights as well as property rights, and includes practical proposals to create a national health service, an inheritance tax, social insurance for the elderly and disabled, and labor protections, including the eight-hour work day.
The U.S. Children’s Bureau is created as the first federal agency focusing exclusively on children; the first head of the bureau is Julia Lathrop.
The American social theorist and physician Isaac M. Rubinow publishes Social Insurance, arguing for the creation of a social insurance system covering, among other things, unemployment, illness, old age, and disability.
In the United States, the Child Labor Act forbids interstate commerce of goods manufactured by child labor; however, the Act is overturned as unconstitutional in 1918 by the U.S. Supreme Court.
The American reformer Mary Ellen Richmond publishes Social Diagnosis, helping to establish casework as a method used in social services, as well as the practice of studying the influence of the environment on poverty and social exclusion.
In the United States, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer leads a movement to round up people believed to be radicals; many are immigrants who have not become citizens and are deported. Today, the Palmer Raids are attributed in part to fear of communism in the United States following the Russian Revolution.
The largest and oldest membership-based child welfare organization in the United States, the Child Welfare League, is founded in New York City.
In Canada, the Mothers Allowance provides cash assistance to women in Toronto who meet a series of qualifications, including being widowed, being British subjects, and having at least two children.
The American Civil Liberties Union is founded, in part in response to the Palmer Raids.
The first federally funded social welfare legislation in the United States, the Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Act, provides federal funds for prenatal and child health care, midwife training, and visiting nurses for pregnant women and new mothers.
In Canada, the Old Age Pensions Act creates a means-tested social security pension program for citizens age 70 and older.
In the United States, a number of federal government programs are created to provide ordinary Americans with relief from the consequences of the Great Depression; these programs, collectively called the New Deal, include the Public Works Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Rural Electrification Administration, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the National Recovery Administration.
In the United States, the Social Security Act creates a system of old-age pensions for workers and their spouses and children; benefits for the pensioners are funded by a tax paid by those currently employed.
In the United States, the federal Food Stamp Program is created to distribute agricultural surpluses and provide nutrition to the poor; in the 21st century the program is known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).
In the United States, the Lanham Act provides federal matching grants to help fund day care centers for working mothers as a response to the many women joining the work force to aid the war effort.
In the United States, the G.I. Bill (formally the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act) provides many benefits to those who have served in the American military, including home and business loans, adjustment allowances, and making financial aid available to those who wish to attend college.
The Bretton Woods system, created by representatives from the Allied Nations, creates the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, as well as regulations for international financial transactions, most notably the requirement to tie the value of national currencies to the value of the U.S. dollar.
The World Bank begins operations, with its first priority being to loan money to European countries to aid in reconstruction following World War II.
In Great Britain, the National Health Service is created.
In the Boston suburb of Brookline, Massachusetts, the first urban halfway house for mental patients, Rutland Corner House, is created.
At the U.S. Democratic National Convention, John F. Kennedy (later elected president) refers to a “New Frontier,” which is realized during his administration by programs such as increases in unemployment benefits, the minimum wage, and social security benefits, public works programs, and federal aid to cities and states for transportation and other projects.
The white American journalist and civil rights activist John Howard Griffin publishes Black Like Me, recounting his experiences living as a black man (aided by makeup) in the U.S. south.
In the United States, the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act acknowledges that poverty and other social conditions may contribute to youth crime and provides funds for antidelinquency programs in cities.
In the United States, the Manpower Development and Training Act provides funds to train displaced and unemployed workers for new jobs.
U.S. president Lyndon Johnson declares a War on Poverty as part of his concept of a Great Society program, a series of social interventions intended to diminish or eradicate poverty and related social ills such as racial discrimination. The Economic Opportunity Act creates the Office of Economic Opportunity and leads to the development of many antipoverty and social programs, including Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), the Job Corps, and the Neighborhood Youth Corps.
In the United States, the Administration for Children and Families, later the Department of Health and Human Services, is established.
In the United States, Medicare and Medicaid are created as part of Title XIX of the Social Security Act. Medicare is a federal program providing funding for medical care for people over 65, the disabled, and people with renal failure, while Medicaid provides funding for medical care for the poor.
The Canada Assistance Plan introduces a system of cost sharing for social and welfare services between the national government and the provinces.
U.S. president Richard Nixon proposes something resembling a guaranteed annual income as part of his Family Assistance Plan; it is passed by the House of Representatives but not by the Senate and is withdrawn several years later.
In the United States, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program is created to provide financial support to the elderly, blind, and disabled.
In the United States, undocumented migrants who meet certain conditions (most importantly, having been in the United States continuously prior to January 1, 1982) are granted temporary resident status through the Immigration Reform and Control Act, thus gaining the legal right to work in the United States.
In the United States, the Family Support Act provides additional benefits to families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (welfare), including education and training programs and improved support for collecting child support payments.
The World Trade Organization (WTO), headquartered in Switzerland, is created to supervise international trade, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that had been in force since 1948.
The Ontario Works program is inaugurated in Canada, requiring the poor in Ontario to work, be in a training program, or work as a volunteer in order to receive public assistance.
In the United States, President Bill Clinton signs the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996, setting time limits on how long an individual could receive welfare payments and requiring most to participate in work training. As of July 5, 1997, more than a million fewer people are on the welfare rolls, a change that Clinton claims as evidence that the new legislation is effective.
In May, the administration of U.S. president Bill Clinton announces a decrease in welfare caseloads of 20 percent nationally. Various explanations are offered for the drop, including a strong economy with many available jobs, innovation by the states thanks to a federal waivers program, and the earned income tax credit (EITC), which provides money to employed heads of families below a certain income level, thus presumably encouraging their work incentive.
The third conference of the World Trade Organization, held in Seattle, Washington, is disrupted by widespread street protests and forced to end earlier than planned, drawing world attention to opposition to the organization.
The American journalist Barbara Ehrenreich publishes Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, describing her difficulties in making ends meet while working a series of low-wage jobs.
A report by the European Union (EU) finds that, overall, about 16 percent of the EU population are at risk for poverty, with higher risks for children under 18 years and people age 65 and older (19 percent each). There is also disparity in the poverty rate among countries, with rates of more than 20 percent in Lithuania, Ireland, Poland, Greece, Spain, and Portugal.
A report by the Pew Research Center shows that U.S. support for the social safety net has increased substantially since 1994. For instance in 2007, 54 percent of those surveyed said the government should help more poor people, even at the cost of increasing the national debt, as compared with 41 percent who agreed with that statement in 1994.
Ontario becomes the first Canadian province to set reduction targets for poverty and the second (after Quebec) to require annual reporting on the success of poverty reduction measures.
Census data reveals that Hispanics have the highest rate of poverty among the largest racial ethnic groups in the United States. In 2010, 28.2 percent of American Hispanics were classified as poor by the Supplemental Poverty Measure, as compared to an overall rate of 16.0 percent, 25.4 percent for blacks, 16.7 percent for Asians, and 11.1 percent for whites.
A report released by the Office for National Statistics in the United Kingdom reveals that 17.1 percent of the population are at risk for poverty (meaning they have a disposable income of less than 60 percent of the national median), a slightly higher percentage than for the European Union as a whole (16.4 percent).
Canada releases a Poverty Trends Scorecard revealing that in 2010, 9.0 percent of Canadians were poor, but that some groups experienced much higher poverty levels, including unattached individuals (26.9 percent), single-parent families (18.7 percent), recent immigrants (17.6 percent), people with disabilities (13.6 percent), and Aboriginal peoples living off reserves (15.2 percent).
In October, the Children’s Society releases a study showing that over half (53 percent) of more than 3 million poor children in the United Kingdom reported that their home was insufficiently heated in the past winter, and over three quarters (76 percent) said they often worried about their family’s finances.
On January 13, the Pew Research Center releases a report showing that although the poverty rate in the United States has fallen since President Lyndon Johnson declared the War on Poverty in 1964, from 19 percent in 1964 to 15 percent in 2012 (based on census data), many troubling disparities remain. For instance, in 2012, over half (57 percent) of poor Americans were of working age (age 18–64), as compared to 41.7 percent in 1959.
In May, the U.S. Census Bureau releases a report showing that in 2012, 14.7 million Americans were near poor, meaning their family income was 100 to 125 percent of the official poverty threshold.
On May 6, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) releases its Factbook 2014, revealing that the average poverty rate for OECD countries was about 11 percent, but with wide disparities among countries; the poverty rate was over 20 percent in Israel and Mexico and below 7 percent in Denmark, Iceland, and the Czech Republic. The Factbook also revealed that poverty rates rose an average of 1.5 percent across the OECD from the 1990s to the 2010s.
On June 13, the Pew Research Center releases a report showing that the poverty rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives is 26 percent, as compared to 11 percent for white Americans, and that Native Americans and Alaska Natives are much less likely than white Americans to be a high school dropout (11 percent compared to 5 percent) and less likely to hold at least a bachelor’s degree (17 percent as compared to 33 percent).
On July 28, London mayor Boris Johnson announces that he will not act to counter the trend of separate entrances for richer and poorer tenants in buildings that offer both affordable and high-end housing.
In August, a report from the Health and Social Care Information Centre in the United Kingdom reveals that diseases associated with poverty and the Victorian era, such as malnutrition, tuberculosis, and measles, are becoming more prevalent in Britain. Sarah E. BoslaughKeenesaw State University[Page l]
Poverty so extreme that an individual or family cannot meet their daily needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
A category of poverty created by the government, indicating groups of people who are eligible for public assistance (e.g., single mothers, disabled people, low-income households).
A nongovernmental organization that seeks to influence policies and practices in support of a particular cause, rather than focusing on executing particular programs.
Agency explanations for poverty:
Explanations that attribute poverty to the failure of the government or to particular agencies to alleviate or prevent poverty. Some scholars do not consider agency explanations to be true explanations of poverty because they do not take into account societal and other factors outside the agencies or government involved.
Resources necessary for daily living. Expectations for amenities differ by country and income level, but in the context of housing, examples of amenities could include running water, bathing facilities, heating and cooling systems, and wastewater disposal systems.
A term with several meanings, depending on the context. One definition simply refers to the presence of a large number of poor people in a given area. A second definition includes the suggestion that a concentration of poor people in an area will create additional disadvantage (e.g., due to prejudice against people from areas known to be poor). A third definition is based on the lack of facilities (e.g., roads, schools) and/or the presence of pollution in an area.
Asset Vulnerability Framework:
A method of analysis developed by Caroline Moser that links assets and vulnerability to explain how people cope and how they move in and out of poverty.
Axiom of Monotonicity:
A test of poverty measures proposed by the Indian economist Amartya Sen requiring that if the income of someone below the poverty line decreases, the poverty measure must increase.
Axiom of Transfers:
A test of poverty measures proposed by the Indian economist Amartya Sen requiring that if there is a transfer from a person below the poverty line to someone better off, the poverty measure must increase.
A method of reliving poverty by providing payments to all households or [Page 1754]individuals to provide a minimum income; under a basic income scheme, there are no conditions or qualifications placed on receipt of these payments other than age and family status.
Minimum requirements and essential services required by an individual in order to live an adequate life; although the specific designation of basic needs will vary according to the economic and social development of a country, items often included as minimum requirements include food, clothing, shelter, and basic household furniture, while essential services often include potable water, sanitary facilities, transportation, and health care.
A method of judging the performance or effectiveness of an agency, industrial sector, and so on, by comparing it to the performance of a similar entity.
A 1942 report produced by a committee chaired by Sir William Beveridge that created the foundation of the contemporary British welfare state. The Beveridge Report specified six principles of social insurance: comprehensive coverage, classes of contributors (workers, the self-employed, pensioners, etc.), flat-rate benefits, flat-rate contributions, adequate benefit levels, and national administration.
Behavioral Incidence Analysis, a method of analyzing who benefits from services and how much that benefit is worth to them; for example, how much they would have to pay to receive the same services provided in a particular benefits program.
A type of labor similar to slavery in which an individual takes out a loan and must pay it back through their labor, with the terms often being such that they can never repay the debt.
A method of setting poverty levels by determining the price of a standard “basket” of goods and services appropriate to different standards of living. Budget standards are not based on actual expenditures by individuals or families but on what some expert committee determines that they “should” spend.
A concept introduced by Michael Lipton to explain the relationship between income and food consumed. As a rule, as income increases, the proportion of income spent on food decreases so that food expenditures represent a large part of the budget for the poor and a much lower proportion for people who are better off.
A type of intervention that invests in individuals and communities in order to upgrade their skills, improve procedures, and so on, in order to meet development objectives.
A tax placed on nonrenewable fossil fuels such as gasoline, with the goals of reducing consumption of such fuels, reducing pollution, and raising revenues for the government.
Charity Organization Society:
An organization founded in Britain in 1869 to coordinate activities among London charities.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a child under the age of 5 is malnourished if his or her weight is more than two standard deviations below the age standards published by the WHO.
According to the United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF), child poverty should be evaluated separately from household poverty; children are poor if they do not have the resources needed to develop and thrive.
Poverty that lasts for an extended period, as opposed to transitory poverty; also known as persistent poverty.
Commission of the Inquiry into Poverty:
A 1975 Australian commission that developed the methodology of the Henderson Poverty Line (HPL) to define poverty.
A classification based both on an individual or family’s income and on their inability to provide basic necessities, such as food and appropriate clothing, for themselves.
Goods and services used by an individual or household. Consumption has been [Page 1755]proposed as an alternative standard to income in determining poverty levels, with the reasoning that consumption is a better measure of the actual standard of living; however, difficulties in measuring consumption have limited its use in measuring and defining poverty.
The relative cost per unit of transforming money into something else, such as food purchased. Because the poor often pay more for goods than people who are better off (due to higher prices, fewer choices of where to shop, etc.), conversion efficiency is typically lower for the poor than for the non-poor.
Correlates of poverty:
Factors that have a strong association with poverty, such as a low level of education or living in a particular neighborhood within a city.
A negative and unexpected event that affects a large number of people, such as a flood that destroys all the crops in a village.
Culture of poverty:
A theory developed by Oscar Lewis stating that the poor shared certain cultural characteristics, such as feelings of helpless and inferiority, relatively low rates of marriage, and families centered around mothers rather than fathers. Lewis argued that these characteristics were an adaptive mechanism for the life circumstances faced by the poor, but his theory has been criticized as blaming the poor for their poverty and ignoring structural conditions as a contribution to poverty.
Cycle of deprivation:
A cycle identified by the British politician Keith Joseph in which inadequate parenting led to poor child development and the reproduction of poor parenting in the next generation.
The division of a ranked data set into 10 equal parts. This is often done with income, making it easy to make a comparison between, for instance the richest 10 percent (top decile) and poorest 10 percent (bottom decile) within a society.
A method of analyzing economic relationships by measuring how consumption is affected by income and price, while ignoring supply-side factors.
In social statistics, the ratio of household members who are economically dependent (e.g., children, elderly family members) to those who are earning an income.
A concept most prevalent in the 19th century in England, in which those who were poor were divided into the deserving and undeserving poor. The deserving poor could trace their current status to causes such as illness, injury, or the death of a spouse or parent, and were judged worthy of charity. The undeserving poor were judged to be responsible for their state due to their own behavior and thus were considered not worthy of charity.
The condition of having virtually no resources at one’s disposal, whether as a result of poverty or from another source, such as a natural disaster. Historically, the receipt of charity has in some cases depended on being destitute (not merely poor); this was the case, for instance, with the Poor Law in England.
Dimensions of poverty:
Different facets of poverty that may not be captured by simple measures of income; examples include poor access to health care, inferior neighborhood schools, and lack of control over one’s daily life.
Direct impact analysis:
A method of analyzing the consequences of a policy change in terms of who is directly affected by it, and what those effects are. This method of analysis is limited because it assumes there is no elasticity of demand; that is, that individuals and households will not adjust their demand for some good or service based on changes in price.
Direct measures of poverty:
Methods of defining and measuring poverty based on the current condition of an individual or family (that do not have some minimum standard of living).
A condition that results in the inability to perform an activity expected of an individual within their society, given considerations such as age [Page 1756]and gender. Sometimes disability is conceptualized as a condition of an individual and sometimes as an interaction between an individual’s condition and resources available in a society.
Factors and policies at the personal, institutional, or societal levels that act to disadvantage or exclude some individuals from benefits, based on irrelevant qualities such as race or gender.
A term introduced by R. M. Titmuss in the 1960s as part of his theory that poverty can be explained by the structural aspects of a competitive society. For instance, if there is not enough work available for everyone, some people will by definition be unemployed, and thus are also likely to be poor.
Dollar a day:
A measure of poverty introduced to the World Bank in 1990 as a measure of poverty, equivalent in purchasing power parity (PPP) to one 1996 U.S. dollar per day.
The European Anti-Poverty Network, a coalition of nongovernmental organizations in European Union countries that fight social exclusion and poverty.
The means by which people gain control over their lives; for instance, by increasing their income, learning to negotiate the power structure, or by participating in processes of political reform.
An effect caused by factors within a system (internal changes); for example, increased productivity due to the use of improved technology.
A ratio used to estimate the income required by a household to obtain a particular standard of living. One type of household is chosen as the standard and given the value 1.0, then the resources required by other types of households are defined by a number greater than or less than 1.0. For instance, if a household consisting of two adults is chosen as the standard, that type of household is assigned a value of 1.0. If studies determine that a single-person household requires only 60 percent of the resources of a two-adult household to attain the same standard of living, then a one-person household is assigned a value of 0.60.
The European Union, a union of nations formed in 1993 through the Maastricht Treaty; as of 2014, the EU includes 28 member states, with an additional six country candidates for membership.
A currency established in 1999 and used by 18 countries; collectively these countries are known as the Eurozone.
The process of analyzing how well a program or policy has achieved its objectives, based on information collected during and after implementation and sometimes information collected before as well.
An analysis carried out through forecasting or other methods before a proposed policy change takes place.
An analysis carried out after a policy change has taken place, by looking at the actual results of the policy change.
The state or condition of being inadequately integrated into society. There are many definitions of exclusion but they generally cover conditions such as being left out of systems of social protection, being unable to participate in everyday activities due to circumstances such as poverty or disability, and being deliberately shut out of activities due to discrimination.
An effect caused by factors outside a system (external changes); for example, decreased sales due to a widespread recession or depression.
While there is no single definition for extreme poverty, one definition often cited is that of a household that is unable to meet their needs for food even by spending all of their income on food.
Wages sufficient to support a family as a reasonable level. The concept of the family [Page 1757]wage developed in 19th-century England, and is attractive in terms of defining wages in terms of needs, but is also complicated because of the assumptions it makes about the roles of men and women as well as the different needs of different families (depending on the number of children and other dependents, high health care expenses caused by chronic illness, etc.).
A condition in which many people die from lack of adequate food. Famine does not necessarily refer to the absolute lack of food in a region but the inability of individuals to access that food (because it is destined for export, because they cannot afford to buy it, etc.).
Feminization of poverty:
A term used by social theorists to describe the fact that an increasing proportion of the world’s poor are female, often with the argument that this condition has been partly produced by cutbacks to social programs such as federal support for children and the elderly.
The Foster, Greer and Thorbecke Index, a method for measuring poverty based on a formula including the level of poverty, population size, number of poor, poverty line, per capital household income, and a fact based on the importance ascribed to the lowest living standards.
Food energy method:
A technique for setting the poverty line by determining how much money an individual needs in a given context in order to buy enough food to meet their basic caloric needs.
A state in which an individual or family is not secure in their ability to obtain sufficient nutritious food for good health: food insecurity has many causes, including poverty, food shortages, or poor distribution of available food.
A condition in which levels of available food are inadequate or are expected to be inadequate in the near future.
Evaluation carried out while a program is underway, to assess how well it is performing and suggest changes to make it more effective.
A term describing people living in chronic poverty within developed countries.
Gross domestic product, the value within a single country of all goods and services produced within a year. GDP per capita is often used as a measure of the relative prosperity of different countries, although it ignores questions of distribution within a country (for instance, a country with a relatively high GDP could still have large numbers of poor people).
Socially constructed expectations and roles assigned to men and women, on the basis of their sex, in a society.
Genetic explanations for poverty:
Theories that explain poverty in terms of the inherited behavior or characteristics of individuals; this type of explanation is not generally accepted today but was popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
A measure of the equality of income distribution within a geographic area (e.g., a country), with 0 signifying perfect equality (everyone has the same income) and 1 perfect inequality (one person has all the money).
Gross national product, the value within a single country of all goods and services plus income received from foreign exchange produced within a year. GNP per capita is often used as a measure of the relative prosperity of different countries, although like GDP per capita, it can be misleading because it ignores questions of distribution within a country.
The Human Development Index, a measure introduced in 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme to compare developmental levels of different countries. The HDI ranges from 0 (least developed) to 7 (most developed), based on the life expectancy, educational attainment, and per capita gross domestic product for a country.
Head count ratio:
The proportion of people, families, or households that fall beneath the [Page 1758]poverty line. Because of its simplicity, the head count ratio is a popular measure of poverty but ignores the intensity of poverty (a person, household, or family is simply classified as poor or not poor).
The principle that people with a similar ability to pay taxes (taking into account expenses as well as income) should pay a similar amount of tax.
Economic models that treat the household simultaneously as a unit of production and consumption; household models are often used to study reforms in fields such as taxation and agriculture.
The Human Poverty Index, a term introduced by the United Nations Development Programme in 1999. The HPI for a country is calculated using five components: the percentage of people expected to die prematurely, the percentage of illiterate adults, the percentage of people with access to health care, the percentage of people with access to safe water, and the percentage of malnourished children.
Henderson Poverty Line, a methodology for defining poverty developed in Australia in 1975 by the Commission of the Inquiry into Poverty, chaired by Roland Henderson.
Intangible factors that increase the productivity of an individual, such as education and good health.
The trade in persons for purposes such as slave labor or prostitution; women and children are the most common victims of human trafficking.
A negative and unexpected event that affects only one or a few people (e.g., a family), such as the death of the family’s main breadwinner.
Internally displaced person, someone who must flee their home due to circumstances such as a natural disaster or warfare but does not leave the boundaries of their country.
A term introduced in the 1990s to refer to the process of becoming poor. There are many causes of impoverishment, which may occur rapidly or over a period of time; these include degradation of natural resources, lack of access to land and water, commodity price erosion, and long-term illness.
Policies that attempt to include poor and vulnerable people in work intended to improve the circumstances of the poor and vulnerable.
The way income is allocated among individuals or families within a country. Many economic studies are based on the way income is distributed within a society—for instance, what percentage of national income goes to the richest 10 percent compared to the poorest 10 percent within a particular country.
The provision of money to an individual or household when personal income is considered insufficient.
The state of lacking the basic means for subsistence, often defined as earning half the income required to meet the poverty level in a given region.
Indirect measures of poverty:
Methods of defining and measuring poverty based on the ability of individuals to access the rights, resources, and capabilities to achieve a certain quality of life.
Infant mortality rate:
The number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births in a country or other geographic region; a high infant mortality rate is considered an indication of a low level of public health in a country.
The sector of the economy that is not included in calculations of gross domestic product and the like.
A French term (pauvreté intégrée) referring to poverty that is concealed due to the individual being integrated into part of a social network or to poverty among employed persons.
[Page 1759]Intergenerational continuity:
The theory that poverty continues within families for generations, due to reasons such as genetics or familial characteristics. This theory has been challenged by research that found no such continuity in poverty across generations.
Low birth weight, a term applied to infants weighing less than 2.5 kilograms at birth.
A 2000 agreement by heads of state of the European Union (EU) to improve the productivity of EU countries through improvement economic and social policies.
A research study that observes the same individuals over a period of time, with the goal of noting changes in some characteristics among those studied.
A process in which certain groups are pushed to the edge of society and have little influence or ability to improve their condition. Many factors may contribute to marginalization, including poverty, race and ethnicity, gender, and educational level.
A situation in which the free market does not efficiently allocate goods and services. One often-cited example of market failure is health care, and one reason among several cited for this market failure is that there are large differences in information among the parties involved (e.g., among patients, physicians, and insurers).
Millennium Development Goals:
A series of eight goals set by the United Nations to improve the lives of people around the world, particularly the poor. The first millennium development goal is to “eradicate extreme poverty and hunger” and it has three targets between 1990 and 2015: to cut in half the proportion of the world’s population who live on less than $1.25 per day; for all people to achieve productive and decent employment, and to cut in half the proportion of the world’s population that suffer from hunger. Other millennium development goals address issues such as education, gender equality, and maternal health.
The process of tracking the inputs and outputs as well as the outcomes and impacts of a policy change or program, in order to assess how well it is achieving the desired results and/or to suggest changes during or after implementation.
A nongovernmental organization, a private organization that provides services often provided by the government, such as social support services and community development.
Open method of policy coordination:
The process used by European Union (EU) countries in which each country creates its own employment and social inclusion policies, but the national policies are evaluated by the other EU countries.
Refers to nongovernmental organizations that implement programs, often in development, as opposed to focusing primarily on advocacy.
Participatory monitoring and evaluation:
An approach to monitoring and evaluation that includes input from the stakeholders.
Pathological explanations for poverty:
Explanations that attribute poverty to the characteristics of the poor, including characteristics attributed to individuals, families, or racial and ethnic groups.
A level of income, as established by a government or nongovernmental entity, below which a person is considered poor. In the United States in 2014, for the 48 contiguous states, the poverty line for a family of one is $11,670, and for a family of four is $23,850. Poverty lines are useful for calculating statistics but may also be controversial because they may not take into account factors such as the cost of living in different areas.
Maps that show how poverty is distributed geographically within a country or region. Poverty maps are often used in planning service delivery, for instance the placement of health clinics based on residents’ current access to health services.
[Page 1760]Poverty spell:
A term used in longitudinal studies designating a period of time spent in poverty (because an individual or family may go in and out of poverty many times over a period of time).
Purchasing power parity, a method of comparing income or the cost of living based on the cost of goods in an individual’s home country. The PPP method of comparing incomes is preferred to looking at raw income statistics because the cost of living differs greatly among countries.
Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, a lending facility established by the International Monetary Fund to provide loans to poor countries in order to promote economic growth and reduce poverty.
Poverty Reduction Support Credit, a lending instrument from the World Bank to support a country’s attempts to reduce poverty and promote development.
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, a type of document prepared by countries with the partnership of international agencies such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. PRSPs include information about a country’s economic status and plans for development, including policies and programs intended to promote growth and needs for financing.
Methods of analysis based on analyzing individuals’ own reports of their experiences and perceptions (sometimes literally analyzing the words they use), as compared to methods such as standardized surveys where individuals must choose from among a number of predetermined choices to describe their perceptions and experiences.
Methods of analysis based on statistical methods applied to collected data.
The division of a ranked data set into five equal parts. This is often done with income, making it easy to make comparison between; for instance, the richest 20 percent (top quintile) and poorest 20 percent (bottom quintile) within a society.
Distributing money or goods from one sector of society to another, through means such as tax collection and the provision of social benefits.
Individuals who cross international boundaries while fleeing war or civil unrest; the term is sometimes broadened to include people who flee their home country for other reasons, such as endemic poverty (economic refugees).
Poverty described in terms of the expected standard of living and social norms in a given society, including considerations of what an individual is expected to be able to afford even if not strictly available for survival (e.g., to pay for an expensive wedding for one’s children).
Programs designed to help people who are in need, such as income support, subsidies for necessary utilities, and feeding programs.
A method of analysis used to project the results of a proposed reform under different future conditions (e.g., changes in the value of a national currency).
Individuals in India formerly known as “untouchables” who are now eligible for certain benefits and preferential treatment from the government, in recognition of the discrimination they suffered in the past.
Individuals in India recognized as members of specific indigenous tribes who are entitled to affirmative action due to past discrimination; currently there are over 600 scheduled tribes recognized by the Indian government.
A technique used in statistical analysis that looks at how the results of the analysis change when specific assumptions (e.g., the price of a particular good) are changed.
The ratio of males to females in a population. Usually, this ratio is approximately 1:1, unless sex selection or migration patterns have favored either males or females.
Social Impact Assessment, a form of analysis that looks at how the costs and benefits of policy changes are distributed over time.
Single-good demand model:
An economic model that measures the willingness of households to pay for goods like water or electricity for which there are no close substitutes.
Social Capital Assessment Tool, a method of evaluating the social capital (including institutions, networks, and attitudes) of a society and how that social capital affects production and policy.
Intangible assets in a society, such as social relationships, institutions, and values, that affect both how people interact with each other and how well the society functions as a whole.
The process of preventing some groups of people from enjoying the full benefits of society, including participating in the making of public policy. Many factors can contribute to social exclusion, including poverty, race and ethnicity, gender, and level of education.
Structural explanations for poverty:
Explanations that attribute poverty to structural factors such as the differing access of different groups to resources and opportunities.
The failure of children to grow as tall as expected for their age, usually due to malnutrition.
Subcultural explanations for poverty:
Explanations for poverty based on the assumption that poor people hold different values than the non-poor.
An individual’s belief that they are poor, which need not be based on objective measures such as income.
A type of evaluation usually performed after the conclusion of an intervention, in order to judge how successful and effective it was. Often, in order to increase objectivity, summative evaluations are carried out by an individual or group not affiliated with the creation or implementation of the program.
The analysis of how price changes affects supply at the household, firm, and aggregate levels.
Poverty that lasts for only a short period, usually due to temporary circumstances such as loss of a job; after transitory poverty, the individual or family returns to an existence above the poverty line.
The condition of being at greater than average risk for some hardship or disadvantage, such as illness or poverty. Many factors, alone or in combination, can increase an individual’s vulnerability, including gender, age, poverty, and race or ethnicity.
The failure of children to gain weight as expected for their age, usually due to malnutrition or disease; the term wasting may also be applied to adults, for instance, AIDS may be called a wasting disease because it can result in severe weight loss among adults.
Resource Guide[Page 1763]Books
Alexina, Alberto, and Edward L. Glaeser. Fighting Poverty in the U.S. and Europe: A World of Difference. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Alters, Sandra. World Poverty. Detroit, MI: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2013.
Auyero, Javier. Patients of the State. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.
Ayittey, George B. N. Africa Unchained: The Blueprint for Africa’s Future. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Bahle, Thomas, Vanessa Hubl, and Michaela Pfeifer. The Last Safety Net: A Handbook of Minimum Income Protection in Europe. Bristol: Policy Press, 2011.
Banerjee, Abhijit V., and Esther Duflo. Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011.
Baptist, Willie. Pedagogy of the Poor: Building the Movement to End Poverty. New York: Teachers College Press, 2011.
Barrientos, Armando. Social Assistance in Developing Countries. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Berthoud, Richard. Patterns of Poverty Across Europe. Bristol, UK: Policy Press, 2004.
Bhagwati, Jagdish N., and Arvind Panagariya. Why Growth Matters: How Economic Growth in India Reduced Poverty and the Lessons for Other Developing Countries. New York: Public Affairs, 2013.
Bhalla, A. S., and Dan Luo. Poverty and Exclusion of Minorities in China and India. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Bhalla, A. S., and Peter McCormick. Poverty Among Immigrant Children in Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Blackden, C. Mark, and Quentin Wodon, eds. Gender, Time Use, and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006.
Boyden, Jo, and Michael Bourdillon, eds. Childhood Poverty: Multidisciplinary Approaches. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Brockington, Dan. Celebrity Advocacy and International Development. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014.
Buckland, Jerry. Hard Choices: Financial Exclusion, Fringe Banks, and Poverty in Urban Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.
Carr, Stuart C. Anti-Poverty Psychology. New York: Springer, 2013.
Chandy, Laurence, Akio Hosono, Homi Kharas, and Johannes Linn, eds. Getting to Scale: How to Bring Development Solutions to Millions of Poor People. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2013.
[Page 1764]Chant, Sylvia, ed. The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2010.
Clark, David Alexander, ed. Adaptation, Poverty and the Development: The Dynamics of Subjective Well-Being. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Davis, Deborah S., and Wang Feng, eds. Creating Wealth and Poverty in Postsocialist China. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009.
de Boyser, Katrien, ed. Between the Social and the Spatial: Exploring the Multiple Dimensions of Poverty and Social Exclusion. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009.
Dellink, Rob B., and Arjan Rujs, eds. Economics of Poverty, Environment, and Natural-Resource Use. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer 2008.
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Bureau of Labor Statistics: Experimental Poverty Measures
Combating Poverty in Europe (European Commission)
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OECD: Poverty Reduction and Social Development
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United Nations Millenium Project: Fast Facts: The Faces of Poverty
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