The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Edward S. Neukrug

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      Editorial Board

      Editor

      Edward S. Neukrug Old Dominion University

      Editoral Board

      Allen Bishop Pacifica Graduate Institute

      Nina W. Brown Old Dominion University

      Sarah P. Deaver Eastern Virginia Medical School

      David Donnelly University of Rochester

      Andre Marquis University of Rochester

      Rip McAdams The College of William and Mary

      Jane E. Myers University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Suzan K. Thompson Military Integrative Therapies, LLC

      Richard E. Watts Sam Houston State University

      Jeffrey Zeig Milton H. Erickson Foundation

      Managing Editor

      Kevin C. Snow Old Dominion University

      Associate Editors

      Hannah B. Bayne Virginia Tech

      Cherée F. Hammond Eastern Mennonite University

      List of Entries

      Reader’s Guide

      The Reader’s Guide is provided to assist readers in locating articles on related topics. It classifies articles into twenty general topical categories: Behavior Therapies; Body-Oriented Therapies; Cautious, Dangerous, and/or Illegal Practices; Classical Psychoanalytic Approaches; Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies; Complementary and Alternative Approaches; Constructivist Therapies; Contemporary Psychodynamic-Based Therapies; Couples, Family, and Relational Models; Creative Arts and Expressive Therapies; Ego-Oriented Therapies; Erickson-Derived or -Influenced Theories; Existential-Humanistic Therapies; Foundational Therapies; Group Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories; Integrative Approaches; Neurological and Psychophysiological Therapies; Other Therapies; Theorists; and Transpersonal Psychology. Entries may be listed under more than one topic.

      List of Theorists*

      Theory/Approach

      Theorist

      Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP)

      Diana Fosha

      Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)

      Steven Hayes

      Ackerman relational approach (ARA)

      Nathan Ackerman

      Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) model

      Francine Shapiro

      Advanced Integrative Therapy (AIT)

      Asha Clinton

      Adlerian Therapy

      Alfred Adler

      Alexander technique

      Frederick Matthias Alexander

      All-quadrant, all-level (AQAL) model

      Ken Wilber

      Alternative psychiatry

      R. D. Laing

      Analytical music therapy (AMT)

      Mary Priestly

      Analytical psychology

      Carl Gustav Jung

      Applied behavior analysis (ABA)

      Ted Allyon and Jack Michael

      Archetypal psychotherapy

      James Hillman

      Aromatherapy

      Rene Gattefossé

      Art therapy

      Margaret Naumburg

      Authentic Movement

      Mary Whitehouse

      Autogenic training

      Johannes Heinrich Shultz

      BASIC I.D. formulation

      Arnold A. Lazarus

      Behavioral therapy

      John B. Watson

      Biodynamic psychology (BP)

      Gerda Boyesen

      Bioenergetic analysis

      Alexander Lowen and John Pierrakos

      Biophilia hypothesis

      E. O. Wilson

      Biopsychosocial model

      George Engel

      Body movement structural patterns

      Judith Aston

      Body psychotherapy

      Wilhelm Reich

      Body-Mind Centering®

      Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen

      Body-oriented therapies

      Wilhelm Reich

      BodyTalk System

      John Veltheim

      Bonny method of guided imagery and music (BMGIM)

      Helen Bonny

      Bowenian family systems theory

      Murray Bowen

      Brain Change Therapy

      Carol Kershaw and Bill Wade

      Brainspotting

      David Grand

      Brief Therapy

      Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer

      Broad-spectrum behavior therapy

      Arnold A. Lazarus

      Characteranalytical Vegetotherapy

      Wilhelm Reich

      Childhood developmental theory

      Jean Piaget

      Choice theory

      William Glasser

      Classical conditioning learning theory

      Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov

      Clinical Pastoral Education

      Rev. Anton Boisen and Dr. Richard Cabot

      Cognitive Analytic Therapy

      Anthony Ryle

      Cognitive processing therapy

      Patricia Resick and Monica Schnicke

      Cognitive therapy

      Aaron Beck

      Cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy

      James McCullough

      Cognitive-behavioral family therapy

      Joseph Wolpe, Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis, Frank Dattilio, Donald Baucom, Norman Epstein, and others

      Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)

      Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis, and Arnold A. Lazarus

      Coherence therapy (or depth-oriented brief therapy)

      Bruce Ecker and Laurel Hulley

      Cognitive psychology

      Jean Piaget

      Cohesion construct

      David Olson

      Collaborative family therapy

      William Madsen

      Collaborative therapy

      Harlene Anderson and Harold Goolishian

      Common factors approach

      Jerome Frank

      Communication theory

      Gregory Bateson, Don D. Jackson, John Weakland, Jay Haley, and William Fry

      Concentrative movement therapy

      Helmuth Stolze

      Concept of arousability

      Jeffry A. Gray

      Conjoint family therapy

      Don D. Jackson

      Contemplative psychotherapy

      Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche

      Contextual therapy

      Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy

      Control (system) theory

      William Glasser and William T Powers

      Core Process Psychotherapy

      Maura Sills

      Critical Incident Stress Management/Debriefing approach

      Jeffery Mitchell

      Culture-centered music therapy

      Brynjulf Stige

      Cyclical psychodynamics

      Paul L. Wachtel

      Dance movement therapy (DMT)

      Marian Chace and Mary Whitehouse

      Daseinsanalysis

      Medard Boss

      Developmental constructivism

      Michael Mahoney

      Developmental counseling and therapy (DCT)

      Allen Ivey

      Developmental Needs Meeting Strategy (DNMS)

      Shirley Jean Schmidt

      Developmental theory of separation-individuation

      Margaret Mahler

      Developmental transformations

      David Read Johnson

      Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)

      Marsha M. Linehan

      Dialogical self theory

      Hubert Hermans

      Differentiation concept

      Murray Bowen

      Ecopsychology

      Theodore Roszak

      EcoWellness

      Ryan F. Reese and Jane E. Myers

      Ego state therapy

      John G. Watkins and Helen Watkins

      Emotional freedom techniques

      Gary Craig

      Emotive Voice Dialogue Method

      Sidra Stone and Hal Stone

      Energy medicine

      Donna Eden

      Existential-humanistic theory

      Viktor Frankl, Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, Carl Rogers, and others

      Existential phenomenology

      Martin Heidegger

      Existential psychotherapy

      Rollo May

      Experiential family therapy

      Carl Whittaker

      Experiential group counseling

      Kurt Lewin

      Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

      Francine Shapiro

      Eye movement integration therapy

      Connirae Andreas and Steve Andreas

      Family constellation therapy

      Bert Hellinger

      Feldenkrais Method

      Moshé Feldenkrais

      Feminist psychology

      Karen Horney

      Filial Therapy

      Bernard Guerney and Louise Guerney

      Fixed Role Therapy

      George Kelly

      Focusing therapy

      Eugene Gendlin

      Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP)

      Robert Kohlenberg and Mavis Tsai

      General systems theory

      Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy

      Gestalt therapy

      Fritz Perls and Laura Perls

      “Good enough” mothering

      Donald Winnicott

      Gottman method couples therapy

      John Gottman

      Group analysis or group analytic psychotherapy

      S. H. Foulkes

      Group therapy

      Kurt Lewin, Carl Rogers, and others

      Hakomi therapy (HT)

      Ronald S. Kurtz

      Haley-Madanes model for strategic therapy

      Jay Haley and Cloe Madanes

      Hayashi Reiki Ryoho Kenkyu kai

      Chujiro Hayashi

      Healing From The Body Level Up (HBLU)

      Judith Swack

      Healing Touch

      Janet Mentgen

      Hellerwork Structural Integration

      Joseph Heller

      Hierarchy of needs

      Abraham H. Maslow

      Holding therapy

      Robert Zaslow

      Holotropic Breathwork

      Stanislav Grof and Christina Grof

      Homeopathy

      Samuel Hahnemann

      Humanistic psychoanalysis

      Eric Fromm

      Humanistic psychology

      Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, and Carl Rogers

      Human validation process theory

      Virginia Satir

      Hypnotherapy

      Milton H. Erickson

      Identity Renegotiation Counseling

      Thomas W. Blume

      Imago Model

      Harville Hendrix and Helen LaKelly Hunt

      Imago Relationship Therapy

      Harville Hendrix

      Impact therapy

      Ed Jacobs

      Improvisational therapy

      Bradford Keeney

      Individual Psychology

      Alfred Adler

      Inner child therapy

      John Bradshaw

      Integral psychotherapy

      Andre Marquis, Elliott Ingersoll, and Mark Forman

      Integral Taxonomy of Therapeutic Interventions (ITTI)

      Andre Marquis

      Integral theory

      Ken Wilber

      Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT)

      Neil Jacobson and Andrew Christensen

      Integrative Body Psychotherapy

      Jack Lee Rosenberg and Beverly Kitaen Morse

      Integrative five-phase model

      Renée Emunah

      Integrative forgiveness psychotherapy

      Philip H. Friedman

      Integrative interpersonal group therapy

      Harry Stack Sullivan

      Integrative milieu model

      Kevin McCready

      Integrative relational therapy

      Paul Wachtel

      Interactional therapy

      Jay Haley

      Interactive biblio/poetry therapy

      Sister Arleen Hynes and Mary Hynes-Berry

      Internal family systems (IFS) model

      Richard C. Schwartz

      Interpersonal group counseling model

      Irvin Yalom

      Interpersonal group therapy

      Joseph Pratt

      Interpersonal learning feedback loop

      Irving Yalom

      Interpersonal theory of human behavior

      Harry Stack Sullivan

      Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)

      Gerald Klerman and Myrna Weissman

      Intersubjective group psychotherapy

      Jessica Benjamin

      Intersubjective recognition theory

      Jessica Benjamin

      Intersubjective-systems theory

      Robert D. Stolorow and George E. Atwood

      Intersubjectivity

      Robert Stolorow

      IS-Wel model of wellness

      Jane E. Myers and Thomas J. Sweeney

      Journal therapy

      Katherine Adams

      Klein-Bion model

      Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion

      Lacanian psychoanalysis

      Jacques Lacan

      Law of Similia

      Hippocrates

      Lifescript theory

      Claude Steiner

      Logotherapy and existential analysis

      Viktor Frankl

      Mentalization-based treatment

      Anthony Bateman and Peter Fonagy

      Metaphorical storytelling

      Milton Erickson

      Method of Levels (MOL)

      Timothy A. Carey

      Milan systemic family therapy

      Mara Selvini Palazzoli, Gianfranco Cecchin, Luigi Boscolo, and Giuliana Prata

      Mind-body healing

      Ernest Rossi

      Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

      Zindal Segal

      Mindfulness-based stress reduction

      Jon Kabat-Zinn

      Mitchell Model

      Jeffery Mitchell

      Modern analytic group psychotherapy

      Hyman Spotniz

      Modern psychoanalysis

      Hyman Spotnitz

      Morita therapy

      Shoma Morita

      Motivational interviewing

      William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick

      MRI (Mental Research Institute) brief therapy

      Richard Fisch, John Weakland, and Paul Watzlawick

      Multigenerational family therapy

      Murray Bowen

      Multimodal therapy (MMT)

      Arnold A. Lazarus

      Multitheoretical psychotherapy (MTP)

      Jeff Harris

      Multiple Dimensions of Cultural Competence

      Derald Sue

      Multisystemic therapy(MST)

      Scott W. Henggeler

      Music-centered music therapy

      Ken Aigen

      Music therapy

      E. Thayer Gaston

      Mutual reinforcement and reciprocity

      Nathan Azrin

      Narrative family therapy

      Michael White and David Epston

      Nature-Guided Therapy

      George W. Burns

      Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)

      Richard Bandler and John Grinder

      Neurological music therapy (NMT)

      Michael Thaut

      Nordoff-Robbins music therapy (NRMT)

      Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins

      Object relations theory

      Melanie Klein, Ronald Fairbairn, and Donald Winnicott

      Object relations theory of thinking

      W. R. Bion

      Operant conditioning

      B. F. Skinner

      Orgonomy/Reichian therapy

      Wilhelm Reich

      Ortho-Bionomy

      Arthur Lincoln Pauls

      Parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT)

      Sheila Eyberg

      Pastoral counseling

      Seward Hiltner, Carroll Wise, Paul Johnson, and Wayne Oates

      Pennebaker Writing Paradigm

      James Pennebaker

      Person/client-centered therapy/counseling

      Carl Rogers

      Personal construct theory (PCT)

      George Kelly

      Personology

      Henry Murray

      Phenomenological therapy

      Edmund Husserl

      Philosophy of the implicit (POI)

      Eugene Gendlin

      Positive psychology or well-being theory

      Marty Seligman and Philip George Zimbardo

      Possibility Therapy

      William “Bill” O’Hanlon

      Postural Integration

      Jack Painter

      Primal integration

      Frank Lake and William Emerson

      Primal therapy

      Arthur Janov

      Problem resolution brief therapy

      John Weakland and his colleagues, the Palo Alto Group

      Process consultations

      Edgar Schein

      Process-experiential therapy

      Leslie Greenberg and Robert Elliott

      Process-oriented cognitive therapy

      Vittorio Guidano and Giovanni Liotti

      Process-oriented psychology (or Processwork)

      Arnold Mindell

      Progressive muscle relaxation

      Edward Jacobsen

      Prolonged exposure therapy

      Edna B. Foa

      Provocative Therapy

      Frank Farrelly

      Psychiatric crisis intervention theory

      Gerald Caplan

      Psychedelic therapy

      Humphry Osmond and Abram Hoffer

      Psychoanalysis (Freudian)

      Sigmund Freud

      Psychoanalytical play technique

      Melanie Klein

      Psychodrama

      Jacob Levy Moreno

      Psychological well-being theory

      Carol Ryff

      Psychology of Selves theory

      Hal and Sidra Stone

      Psychosynthesis

      Roberto Assagioli

      Pulsing

      Curtis Turchin

      Quality-of-life therapy

      Michael B. Frisch

      Radix

      Charles Kelley

      Rational behavior therapy (RBT)

      Maxie C. Maultsby

      Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)

      Albert Ellis

      Rational emotive imagery

      Maxie C. Maultsby

      Rational emotive therapy (RET)

      Albert Ellis

      Rational Living Therapy

      Aldo R. Pucci

      Rational self-analysis

      Max Maultsby

      Reality therapy

      William Glasser

      Rebirthing-Breathwork

      Leonard Orr

      Re-evaluation Counseling (RC)

      Harvey Jackins

      Reiki

      Mikao Usui

      Relational psychoanalysis

      Jay Greenberg and Stephen Mitchell

      Relational-cultural theory (RCT)

      Jean Baker Miller

      Relationship Enhancement therapy

      Bernard G. Guerney Jr.

      Release Therapy

      David Levy

      Receptive/Expressive/Symbolic model

      Nicholas Mazza

      RESPECTFUL model

      Judy Daniels and Michael D’Andrea

      Response-based practice (therapy)

      Allan Wade, Linda Coates, and Nick Todd

      Role theory and role method

      Robert Landy

      Rolfing (Postural Release, Structural Integration)

      Ida Rolf

      Rubenfeld Synergy Method (RSM)

      Ilana Rubenfeld

      Schema therapy

      Jeffrey Young

      Self-determination theory

      Edward Deci and Richard Ryan

      Self Psychology

      Heinz Kohut

      Self-relations psychotherapy

      Stephen Gilligan

      Sensorimotor psychotherapy

      Pat Ogden

      Sequential analysis of verbal interaction (SAVI)

      Yvonne Agazarian and Anita Simon

      Sexual identity therapy (SIT)

      Warren Throckmorton and Mark Yarhouse

      Sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE)

      Sandor Rado

      Social cognitive theory

      Albert Bandura

      Social learning theory

      Albert Bandura

      Solution-focused brief family therapy (SFBFT)

      Steve de Shazer and Insoo Kim Berg

      Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT)

      Steve de Shazer and Insoo Kim Berg

      Solution-oriented therapy

      William “Bill” O’Hanlon

      Somatic Experiencing

      Peter A. Levine

      Stages of change model

      James Prochaska, Carlo DiClemente, and John Norcross

      Status dynamics

      Peter Ossorio

      Steps for Repentance method

      Cloe Madanes

      StoryPlay therapy

      Joyce Mills

      Strategic Therapy

      Jay Haley

      Strategic Family Therapy

      Jay Haley and Cloe Madanes

      Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)

      Donald Meichenbaum

      Stress inoculation therapy

      Donald Meichenbaum

      Structural Family Therapy

      Salvadore Minuchin

      Supportive psychotherapy

      Kurt Eissler, Jerome Frank, and Herbert Schlesinger

      Symbolic experiential family therapy (SEFT)

      Carl Whitaker

      Symbolic Modeling

      James Lawley and Penny Tompkins

      Systematic desensitization

      Joseph Wolfe

      Systemic constellation therapy

      Bert Hellinger

      Systemic family therapy

      Luigi Boscolo, Gianfranco Cecchin, Mara Selvini Palazzoli, and Giuliana Prata

      Systems-centered therapy and training (SCT)

      Yvonne Agazarian

      Tavistock Group Training Approach

      Wilfred Bion and Melanie Klein

      Tenohira Ryoji Kenkyo Kai system

      Toshishiro Eguchi

      Theoretical transpersonal caring model

      Jean Watson

      Theory of communication

      Claude Shannon

      Theory of general semantics

      Alfred Korzybski

      Theory of infant attachment

      John Bowlby

      Theory of physiological bases of extraversion and introversion

      Hans J. Eysenck

      Theory of power and knowledge

      Michael Foucault

      Theory of psychosocial development

      Erik H. Erikson

      Therapeutic letter-writing campaigns

      Stephen Madigan

      Therapeutic Touch

      Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz

      Thought field therapy (TFT)

      Roger Callahan

      Tomita Teate Ryoho system

      Kaji Tomita

      Training groups (T-groups)

      Kurt Lewin

      Transformative writing

      Sherry Reiter

      Transpersonal psychology

      Stanislav Grof, Abraham Maslow, and Viktor Frankl

      Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP)

      Otto F. Kernberg

      Transactional analysis

      Eric Berne

      Transcranial electric stimulation

      P. A. Merton and H. B. Morton

      Transcranial magnetic stimulation

      Anthony Barker

      Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP)

      Otto F. Kernberg

      Transgenerational family therapy

      Murray Bowen

      Transpersonal psychology

      Ken Wilber

      Transtheoretical Model (TTM)

      James Prochaska and Carlo C. DiClemente

      Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT)

      Judy Cohen, Esther Deblinger, and Anthony Mannarino

      Trauma Treatment Model

      Shirley Jean Schmidt

      Tripartite model

      Derald Sue and David Sue

      Unified psychotherapy movement

      Jeffrey Magnavita and Jack Anchin

      Utilization

      Milton Hyland Erickson

      Unified theory

      Gregg Henriques

      Unified therapy

      David Allen

      Values clarification

      Louis Raths, Sidney Simon, and Merrill Harmin

      Vegetotherapy

      Wilhelm Reich

      Voice Dialogue (method)

      Hal and Sidra Stone

      Well-being interventions

      Giovanni Fava and Michael B. Frisch

      Wheel of Wellness

      Jane E. Myers and Thomas J. Sweeney

      Writing therapy (therapeutic writing)

      Fred McKinney and Albert Ellis

      Z-process

      Robert Zaslow

      To Carole, Ray, Howie, and Amy for your constant support and love

      About the Editor

      Born and raised in New York City, Dr. Edward S. Neukrug obtained his B.A. in psychology from SUNY (State University of New York) Binghamton, his M.S. in counseling from Miami University of Ohio, and his doctorate in counselor education from the University of Cincinnati. He currently holds a number of credentials, including being a nationally certified counselor (NCC), licensed professional counselor (LPC), Human Services–Board Certified Practitioner (HS-BCP), and licensed psychologist.

      After teaching and directing a graduate program in counseling at Notre Dame College in New Hampshire, he accepted a position at Old Dominion University, in Norfolk, Virginia, where he currently is Professor of Counseling and Human Services and former chair of the Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling. In addition to teaching, Dr. Neukrug has worked as a substance abuse counselor, a counselor at a crisis center, an outpatient therapist at a mental health center, an associate school psychologist, a school counselor, and a private practice psychologist and licensed professional counselor.

      Dr. Neukrug has held a variety of positions in counseling and human services in local, regional, and national professional associations. In addition, he has received a number of grants and contracts with school systems and professional associations. He has received numerous honors and awards, including being designated a “University Professor” at Old Dominion University, in recognition of his teaching, research, and professional service. He has been a speaker on numerous radio and TV shows, including WBAI in New York City and National Public Radio, Virginia.

      Dr. Neukrug has written more than 60 articles and chapters in books and has presented at dozens of conferences. In addition to this encyclopedia, he has published eight books: (1) Counseling Theory and Practice; (2) The World of the Counselor (fifth edition); (3) Experiencing the World of the Counselor: A Workbook for Counselor Educators and Students (fourth edition); (4) Theory, Practice and Trends in Human Services: An Introduction to an Emerging Profession (fifth edition); (5) Skills and Techniques for Human Service Professionals; (6) Skills and Tools for Today’s Counselors and Psychotherapists; (7) Essentials of Testing and Assessment for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists (third edition); and (8) Brief Orientation to Counseling: Professional Identity, History, and Standards. He has also developed a DVD that illustrates the major theories of counseling and another that demonstrates important counseling skills and techniques.

      In addition to his books, Dr. Neukrug has been developing an interactive and animated website titled Great Therapists of the Twentieth Century (www.odu.edu/~eneukrug), where you can “meet” some of the major theorists of counseling and psychotherapy and learn more about them and their theories. He has also developed an interactive survey where you can identify your view of human nature and examine which school of therapy it is closest to (http://ww2.odu.edu/~eneukrug/therapists/survey.html).

      Dr. Neukrug is married to Kristina Williams Neukrug. They have two children, Hannah and Emma.

      Contributors

      Amir Abbassi Texas A&M University–Commerce

      David Allen University of Tennessee Health Science Center

      Elizabeth Allison University College, London

      Jack C. Anchin University at Buffalo–SUNY

      Harlene Anderson Houston Galveston Institute

      Joel G. Anderson University of Virginia

      Margaret Andover Fordham University

      Connirae Andreas Private practice and consulting

      Steve Andreas Trainer/consultant

      Leslie Armeniox University of Hawaii

      Virginia Peace Arnold Rebirth International & Rebirthing NYC

      Lewis Aron New York University

      S. Dean Aslinia Texas A&M University–Commerce

      Andrew T. Austin Private practice

      Katherine Bacon University of Houston-Victoria

      Carrie Lynn Bailey Walden University, The College of William and Mary

      Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen Founder of BMC

      John Banmen University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada—Retired

      Suzanne Barnard Duquesne University

      Sonja V. Batten U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Central Office

      Alexander Batthyány University of Vienna

      Brent A. Bauer Mayo Clinic

      Scott Baum Society for Bioenergetic Analysis

      Hannah B. Bayne Virginia Tech

      Danie Beaulieu Académie Impact

      Leslie C. Bell Women’s Therapy Center, Berkeley

      Esther N. Benoit Walden University

      Anna A. Berardi George Fox University

      Christine Berger Old Dominion University

      Raymond Bergner Illinois State University

      Richard M. Billow Adelphi University

      Allen Bishop Pacifica Graduate Institute

      Daniel Bjork St. Mary’s University

      Thomas W. Blume Oakland University

      Matthew Wardell Bonner Old Dominion University

      Mary Kim Brewster Ackerman Institute for the Family

      Sara K. Bridges The University of Memphis

      Annie Brook Certified BMC teacher

      Amanda A. Brookshear Old Dominion University

      Nina W. Brown Old Dominion University

      Laura Bruneau Adams State University

      Patricia A. Buchanan Private practice

      George W. Burns Cairnmillar Institute, Melbourne, Australia

      Kay Bussey Macquarie University

      John V. Caffaro California School of Professional Psychology

      Timothy A. Carey Flinders University

      Kristy L. Carlisle Old Dominion University

      Robert M. Carlisle Old Dominion University

      Ann Casement Private practice

      Enrico Cazzaniga Centro Milanese di Terapiadella Famiglia

      Joseph V. Ciarrochi University of Western Sydney

      Asha Clinton Advanced Integrative Therapy Institute

      Jorge Colapinto Minuchin Center for the Family

      Melinda H. Connor Langara College

      Robert K. Conyne Seattle University and University of Cincinnati

      Ellen P. Cook University of Cincinnati

      John O. Cooper The Ohio State University

      Joseph Coppin Pacifica Graduate Institute

      Gerald Corey California State University, Fullerton

      Ann Weiser Cornell Focusing Resources

      Ashley Cosentino The Chicago School of Professional Psychology and Governors State University

      Stephen J. Costello Viktor Frankl Institute, Dublin

      Eleanor F. Counselman Harvard Medical School

      Charles Crews Texas Tech University

      Sue Cutshall Mayo Clinic

      Heather D. Dahl Old Dominion University

      Jack Danielian Karen Horney Center

      Victor Daniels Sonoma State University

      LaShauna M. Dean William Paterson University

      Sarah P. Deaver Eastern Virginia Medical School

      Shannon Dermer Governors State University

      John Dewell Loyola University New Orleans

      Annette Deyhle Institute of HeartMath

      Stephen A. Diamond Loyola Marymount University

      Gail Donaldson Union College

      David Donnelly University of Rochester

      Kristin I. Douglas Murray State University

      Anthony P. DuBose Behavioral Tech, LLC

      Catherine Ducommun-Nagy Drexel University

      Erika Dyck University of Saskatchewan

      Bruce Ecker Coherence Psychology Institute

      Roxanna Erickson Klein Milton H. Erickson Foundation

      Jose A. Fadul De La Salle–College of Saint Benilde

      David Feinstein Innersource

      Genovino Ferri Italian School of Reichian Analysis

      Trey Fitch Troy University, Panama City

      Skye Fitzpatrick Ryerson University

      Peter Fonagy University College, London

      Diana Fosha AEDP Institute

      Victoria A. Foster The College of William and Mary

      Philip H. Friedman Foundation for Well-Being

      Michael B. Frisch Baylor University

      Patricia R. Frisch Private practice

      Janet Froeschle Texas Tech University

      Paul A. Gabrinetti Pacifica Graduate Institute/C. G. Jung Institute

      Susan P. Gantt Emory University School of Medicine

      Wangui Gathua University of Iowa

      Brent B. Geary Milton F. Erickson Foundation

      Evan George BRIEF

      Stephen Gilligan Private practice

      H. L. Gillis Georgia College

      Barry G. Ginsberg The Center of Relationship Enhancement (CORE)

      Francesca G. Giordano The Family Institute at Northwestern University

      Macario Giraldo Washington School of Psychiatry

      Jacob W. Glazier University of West Georgia

      Brett K. Gleason Old Dominion University

      Brian Gleason Institute of Core Energetics

      Dale C. Godby Group Analytic Practice of Dallas

      Emilie Godwin Virginia Commonwealth University

      Kristopher M. Goodrich University of New Mexico

      Charles F. Gressard The College of William and Mary

      Joshua Gross Florida State University

      Rebecca Hall Stanford University

      Sean B. Hall University of Alabama at Birmingham

      Cherée F. Hammond Eastern Mennonite University

      Terry D. Hargrave Fuller Theological Seminary

      Jeff E. Harris Texas Women’s University

      Jessica A. Headley The University of Akron

      Justin Hecht University of California, San Francisco

      Katherine A. Heimsch Old Dominion University

      Stig Helweg-jørgensen Odense University Hospital, Southern Denmark

      Gregg R. Henriques James Madison University

      Jessica S. Henry Ohio University

      Jason Hepple Association for Cognitive Analytic Therapy

      Ruth Herman-Dunn Private practice and University of Washington

      Timothy E. Heron The Ohio State University

      William L. Heward The Ohio State University

      James F. Hill Rush University Medical Center and The Morita School of Japanese Psychology

      Tara M. Hill Old Dominion University

      Lisa D. Hinz Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College

      Stefan G. Hofmann Boston University

      Janice Miner Holden University of North Texas

      Jim Hopkins University College, London

      Earl Hopper Member, Institute of Group Analysis, London

      Michael F. Hoyt Independent practice

      Mark A. Hubble International Center for Clinical Excellence

      Daniel Hughes Quittie Glen Center for Mental Health

      Ado Huygens International Federation of Daseinsanalysis

      Chris Iveson BRIEF

      Allen E. Ivey University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Tracy L. Jackson Virginia Beach City Public Schools

      Ed Jacobs West Virginia University

      Sachin Jain Walden University

      Marty Jencius Kent State University

      Catherine B. Jenni University of Montana

      Eric D. Jett Walden University

      Debbie Joffe Ellis Independent practice

      Gregory J. Johanson Hakomi Educational Resources

      Kaprea F. Johnson Old Dominion University

      Miranda Johnson-Parries Old Dominion University

      Jason S. Jordan Trevecca Nazarene University

      J. Jozefowiez Université Lille Nord de France & Universidade do Minho

      Francis J. Kaklauskas Naropa University

      Hillary Keeney University of Louisiana

      David V. Keith SUNY Upstate Medical University

      Nick Kemp Nick Kemp Training, LTD

      Carol J. Kershaw Brain Change International

      Howard Kirschenbaum University of Rochester

      Beverly Kitaen Morse IBP

      Keith Klostermann Medaille College

      Robert J. Kohlenberg University of Washington

      Marilena Komi European Association for Body Psychotherapy

      Kurt L. Kraus Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania

      Victoria E. Kress Youngstown State University

      Janice R. Kuo Ryerson University

      Mario A. Laborda Universidad de Chile

      Stephen R. Lankton Arizona State University

      Richard Lawton Bodymind Integration

      Arnold A. Lazarus The Lazarus Institute

      Clifford N. Lazarus The Lazarus Institute

      Elsa Soto Leggett University of Houston-Victoria

      Molyn Leszcz Mount Sinai Hospital

      Peter A. Levine Developer

      Kathleen Levingston Old Dominion University

      Kristopher Lichtanski Saybrook University

      Melissa Lindsay The Radix Institute

      Jessica LLoyd-Hazlett The College of William and Mary

      Camillo Loriedo Sapienza University of Rome

      Lisa Loustaunau Institute of Core Energetics

      Marilyn Luber Private practice

      Herman R. Lukow II Virginia Commonwealth University

      Rebecca R. MacNair-Semands University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Cloe Madanes Robbins-Madanes Training

      Stephen Madigan Vancouver School for Narrative Therapy

      J. Maia University of York

      Andre Marquis University of Rochester

      Jennifer Marshall Troy University, Panama City

      Christopher R. Martell University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee and Martell Behavioral Activation Research Co.

      J. Barry Mascari Kean University

      Cynthia H. Matthews New Horizons Center for Healing

      Peggy L. Mayfield Private practice

      Rip McAdams The College of William and Mary

      Rollin McCraty Institute of HeartMath

      Angela R. McDonald University of North Carolina at Pembroke

      Melissa Kate McIntosh Pacifica Graduate Institute

      Dean McKay Fordham University

      Narelle McKenzie The Radix Institute

      Anne S. McKnight Bowen Center for the Study of the Family

      Candace M. McLain Tait Colorado Christian University

      Donald Meichenbaum University of Waterloo

      Sarah Meng Georgia Safe Schools Coalition

      Franklin Mesa University of Central Florida

      Stanley B. Messer Rutgers University

      Gonzalo Miguez State University of New York at Binghamton

      Scott D. Miller International Center for Clinical Excellence

      Ana Mills Virginia Commonwealth University

      Joyce C. Mills StoryPlay Global LLC

      Jeffry Moe Old Dominion University

      Mary Molloy Gerda Boyesen International Institute of Biodynamic Psychology and Psychotherapy

      Jane E. Myers University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Nicki Nance Webster University Ocala

      Cheryl W. Neale-McFall West Chester University of Pennsylvania

      Sandra M. Neer University of Central Florida

      Jason K. Neill Colorado Christian University

      Robert A. Neimeyer The University of Memphis

      Edward S. Neukrug Old Dominion University

      Sarah Noble The University of Akron

      Bill O’Hanlon Possibilities

      Adele Logan O’Keefe Walden University

      Leslie W. O’Ryan Western Illinois University–QC Campus

      Marvarene Oliver Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi

      Elizabeth A. Olson University of Colorado

      Bill Owenby The University of Akron

      Delila Owens The University of Akron

      Everett W. Painter Walters State Community College

      Daniel M. Paredes North Carolina A&T State University

      Will Parfitt United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy

      Rob Parker Private practice

      Stephen Parker Regent University

      Agatha Parks-Savage Eastern Virginia Medical School

      Jacqueline Ciccio Parsons University of Texas at San Antonio

      Sandra Lee Paulsen Bainbridge Institute for Integrative Psychology

      Dale-Elizabeth Pehrsson Central Michigan University

      Rebekah R. Pender Kean University

      Betsy Perluss Pacifica Graduate Institute

      Teri Pichot Denver Center for Solution-Focused Brief Therapy

      Gina B. Polychronopoulos Old Dominion University

      Verl T. Pope Northern Kentucky University

      Felicia D. Pressley Shorter University

      James O. Prochaska University of Rhode Island and Pro-Change Behavior Systems

      Cassandra G. Pusateri Youngstown State University

      Jonathan D. Raskin State University of New York at New Paltz

      Harvey Ratner BRIEF

      Wendel A. Ray University of Louisiana at Monroe

      Nick Reed University of Hertfordshire

      Ryan F. Reese Oregon State University–Cascades

      Sherry Reiter Touro College, Hofstra University

      Robert W. Resnick Gestalt Associates Training, Los Angeles

      Richard J. Ricard Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi

      Robert Rice St. John Fisher College

      Alan Richardson International Association of Process-Oriented Psychology

      Frances Rinaldo International Primal Association

      Kathleen Y. Ritter California State University, Bakersfield

      Thomas B. Roberts Innerchange Counseling, & Thomas Roberts, LLC

      Christopher J. Rogers Retired chiropractor

      Jack Lee Rosenberg Integrative Body Psychotherapy

      Jim Ross The Radix Institute

      Ernest Lawrence Rossi Milton H. Erickson Institute of the California Central Coast

      Kathryn Lane Rossi Milton H. Erickson Institute of the California Central Coast

      John Rowan Private practice

      Shawn Rubin Saybrook University

      Lori A. Russell-Chapin Bradley University

      J. Scott Rutan Boston Institute for Psychotherapy

      Pepe Santana Private practice clinical psychologist

      Jane Saunderson Society of Teachers of the Alexander Technique

      Massimo Schinco Centro Milanese di Terapiadella Famiglia

      Shirley Jean Schmidt DNMS Institute, LLC

      Karin Schreiber-Willnow Concentrative Movement Therapy

      David Seelow Excelsior College and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

      Jason A. Seidel International Center for Clinical Excellence

      Xavier Serrano-Hortelano European Association for Body Psychotherapy

      Laura R. Shannonhouse University of Maine

      Francine Shapiro Mental Research Institute

      Meg Sharpe Member of the Institute of Group Analysis, London

      Dan Short Private practice

      Jack D. Simons University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Kevin C. Snow Old Dominion University

      Sandro M. Sodano University at Buffalo–SUNY

      Roger Solomon EMDR Institute

      Lynn Somerstein Institute for Expressive Analysis

      Len Sperry Florida Atlantic University

      Shari Shamsavari St. Martin Private practice

      J. E. R. Staddon Duke University and the University of York

      Penelope S. Starr-Karlin Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, Los Angeles

      Claude M. Steiner International Transactional Analysis Association

      Hans Steiner Stanford University

      Julie A. Strentzsch St. Mary’s University

      Deborah C. Sturm James Madison University

      Jamie Sturm Boston University

      Tami Sullivan State University College of New York at Oswego

      Judith A. Swack Healing From The Body Level Up, Inc.

      Suzan K. Thompson Old Dominion University

      Warren Throckmorton Grove City College

      Mavis Tsai Independent practice and University of Washington

      Leah Tucker University of Louisiana at Monroe

      Mary Catherine Tucker Indiana State University

      Emmy van Deurzen Middlesex University and New School of Psychotherapy & Counseling

      Luc Vandenberghe Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias

      John Veltheim International BodyTalk Association

      Paul L. Wachtel City College of NY and CUNY Graduate Center

      Allan Wade Centre for Response-Based Practice

      J. William Wade Brain Change International

      Naoko Wake Michigan State University

      Hollida Wakefield Private practice

      Beverly M. Walker University of Wollongong

      E. Scott Warren Warren Counseling Services

      Jeffrey M. Warren University of North Carolina–Pembroke

      Wanda Warren Wisdom Traditions Wellness

      Toby T. Watson Associated Psych Health Services

      Richard E. Watts Sam Houston State University

      Jane M. Webber Kean University

      Haim Weinberg The Professional School of Psychology, Sacramento, CA

      Marjorie E. Weishaar Brown University

      Avrum Weiss Pine River Psychotherapy Training Institute

      Jana Whiddon Capella University

      Martyn Whittingham Catholic Health Partners

      Chinwé U. Williams Argosy University, Atlanta

      Nona Wilson St. Cloud State University

      David A. Winter University of Hertfordshire

      Julia Woodman Scientific Research Group, Society of Teachers of the Alexander Technique

      Robert E. Wubbolding Center for Reality Therapy

      Danny Yeung AEDP Institute

      Miyoung Yoon Hammer Fuller Theological Seminary

      Carlos P. Zalaquett University of South Florida

      Michael L. Zanders Texas Woman’s University

      Elliot M. Zeisel Center for Group Studies

      Barry J. Zimmerman Graduate Center of City University of New York

      Introduction

      The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy is the first encyclopedia of its kind. Since Sigmund Freud’s astonishing creation of psychoanalysis, the first comprehensive theory of counseling and psychotherapy, hundreds of other theoretical approaches to counseling and psychotherapy have been developed, and this encyclopedia provides an overview of the vast majority of them.

      An encyclopedia, by its very nature, gives a focused description of an important concept. These descriptions can often be used in helping understand a concept more clearly, in comparing concepts, in getting a thorough understanding of a number of related concepts, and more. Thus, this encyclopedia offers wide-ranging descriptions of most of the major theories of counseling and therapy, so that individuals can gain a quick grasp of them. However, to have a full understanding of this encyclopedia, we should first define what is meant by “theory of counseling and psychotherapy.”

      What Is a Theory?

      Having a theory to drive a clinician’s understanding of personality and to be the undercarriage of one’s approach to conducting counseling and psychotherapy is critical. This is because theories are heuristic—they allow one to develop hypotheses about the theory, research the theory, change the theory based on what the research shows, and develop new and better theories. Many of the theories found in this encyclopedia have been researched and examined, and have changed over time.

      For instance, today, there are numerous iterations of what began as classical Freudian psychoanalytic theory. This is because Freud meticulously spelled out his theory, and using his model as a base, others were able to develop new theories that kept many of his core principles but also moved in novel directions. Carl Rogers understood the importance of carefully explaining one’s theory when he encouraged others to research the core concepts of his approach, person-centered counseling. Thus, research on the use of empathy in counseling, one of his core concepts, has been conducted almost since the inception of his theory and continues into recent years, with numerous studies now indicating that it is one of the critical elements in all counseling relationships. Finally, showing the efficacy of an approach through research has been one of the hallmarks of the cognitive-behavioral approaches. The ability to match specific symptoms to cognitive-behavioral treatments has shown positive outcomes for a number of disorders and has bolstered the importance of using “evidence-based treatment” when working with individuals with specific mental disorders.

      The heuristic nature of theory has also rendered some theories useless. For instance, during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, many believed in phrenology, or the “science” that “proved” that the size and shape of the cranium was predictive of personality. Although the encyclopedia does not include those theories that have been shown to be ineffective and are no longer practiced, it does include some approaches that have been shown to be harmful yet continue to be used. We included these approaches because it is important that the public knows about theories that are still around and should not be used as well as those theories that are still in use and can be potentially dangerous.

      Finally, many of the theories in the encyclopedia have not been thoroughly researched, sometimes because they are new, other times because the research has simply not been conducted. Only time will tell if they will be proven worthwhile. Keeping this in mind, as I reflect on the beginning stages of the mental health field 100 years ago and realize how far we have come, I also wonder what the mental health field will look like 100 years from now. Which theories found in this encyclopedia will no longer be used in the years to come?

      Counseling Versus Psychotherapy, Counselors Versus Psychotherapists, Clients Versus Patients

      Many in the mental health professions (human services, counseling, social work, psychology, and psychiatry) make a distinction between what some call counseling and others call psychotherapy. Counseling, they say, tends to be short-term, is often supportive and nurturing, deals mostly with what some call “surface issues,” tends to have more of a present or “here-and-now” focus, and is often educationally oriented and preventive. In contrast, psychotherapy, they assert, is long-term, concentrates largely on personality reconstruction and restoration, deals with issues that are out of one’s awareness or in one’s unconscious, and examines embedded, secretive, underlying issues in an attempt to heal an individual of neurotic or psychotic symptoms. Despite this clear distinction made by some, others in the mental health professions, including myself, do not distinguish the two terms so clearly. I, for instance, realize that most theory books do not make a distinction between counseling and psychotherapy, and that a clinician who uses a particular “theory” when conducting “counseling” has learned the same concepts that another clinician has learned who uses the same theory but suggests that he or she is conducting “psychotherapy.” Thus, I tend to be less inclined to view theories of counseling as something separate from theories of psychotherapy.

      Given my understanding of counseling and of psychotherapy, you can see why this encyclopedia is called “The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy.” Yet despite my insistence that any specific theory is no different whether you call it a theory of counseling or a theory of psychotherapy, I also realize that two clinicians trained in the same theory, using the same techniques, may practice it very differently. One ends up doing “counseling,” and the other ends up doing “psychotherapy.” The theory is the same, but something about the manner in which the clinician delivers the theory varies. Perhaps it is the clinician’s willingness to take the client to a “deeper level” or the fact that the setting does not allow for long-term counseling and thus inhibits the clinician from practicing psychotherapy or that there are other, unknown factors that differentiate the manner in which a person practices his or her skills. So differences in the manner in which a clinician delivers a theory do exist, but the theory tends to remain the same—it is a constant. This encyclopedia offers you an overview of many, if not most, of the theories of counseling and psychotherapy that are used today, and even some that are rarely used. But keep in mind that some clinicians may deliver these theories quite differently.

      In a similar vein, some who conduct counseling or psychotherapy call themselves counselors, while others call themselves therapists, psychotherapists, psychologists, clinicians, or practitioners. Sometimes this difference has to do with their training and the credential the individual received (licensed psychologists call themselves “psychologists,” whereas licensed professional counselors tend to call themselves “counselors”). Sometimes, it has to do with how the practitioner views the manner in which he or she delivers services (some who call themselves “counselors” may see themselves conducting “counseling,” whereas others who call themselves “psychotherapists” see themselves conducting “psychotherapy”). When reading the entries, I would look beyond the term that is used to describe the practitioner and focus more on the description of the theory. Remember that regardless of what they call themselves, the theory is the same.

      Finally, you will find that throughout the encyclopedia a number of different words are used to describe the consumer of counseling and psychotherapy. When Freud developed psychoanalysis, being a physician and viewing the client from an objective viewpoint, he naturally used the word “patient.” In contrast, the existential-humanistic therapies that developed during the middle of the 20th century rebuffed this clinical objectification of the individual and thus moved to the use of the word “client,” Although the split between the analysts’ and the existential-humanists’ use of the words “patient and client,” respectively, has, to some degree, remained, many of the approaches you will find in the encyclopedia are comfortable with the use of either of these words, or even other words such as “customer” or “consumer.” For consistency, we decided to use the same word for each entry, whether it be “client,” “patient,” “consumer,” and so on. Usually, this was the word used most frequently by the author who wrote the entry. However, I would not jump to any conclusions about the theory based on whether the entry author used the word “client,” “patient,” or some other word. It may have simply been the training or preference of the author of the entry.

      Identifying Theories for the Encyclopedia

      So how does one choose which theories to include in an encyclopedia such as this? My first thought was to be broad based. I decided that unless a theory had been shown by research to be worthless and was clearly no longer in use, it had an equal opportunity to be placed in the encyclopedia. So I did what seemed logical—I searched the web, I examined books on counseling theories, and I reviewed the theories-related journals. In the end, I identified close to 300 theories that are used in the delivery of mental health services.

      With my list at hand, I began to place the theories into logical categories. Having written a counseling theory text, I knew that many of the theories would historically fit under the following categories or schools: psychodynamic, behavioral, existential-humanistic, cognitive-behavioral, and postmodern. Psychodynamic theories include those theories that, to some degree, had their origins with Freud’s classical psychoanalytic approach. These theories tend to view personality formation as the product of early child-rearing patterns in combination with dynamic conscious and unconscious intrapsychic forces. Although originally developed during the second half of the 19th century, many of these original theories are still practiced, and other, modern variations have developed over time.

      Next, I placed theories under the behavioral school. To some degree, these theories were based on learning theory, which originated with Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with classical conditioning and B. F. Skinner’s research on operant conditioning at the beginning and into the middle of the 20th century. As their name implies, these theories focus mostly on changing behaviors. Although many modern behavioral approaches look dramatically different from the originally practiced theories, because they continue to focus mostly on changing behaviors, I kept them in this school.

      The existential-humanistic school made up the next group of theories. They mostly arose during the middle to second half of the 20th century and focused on the plight of the human condition. They stood in stark contrast to the determinism of the early psychoanalytic approaches and the systematic and methodical analysis of the early behavioral approaches. They stressed the individual’s development of self as the person encounters others throughout life, tended to be optimistic, and focused on the individual’s ability to change.

      Just past the midpoint of the century, a number of cognitive approaches arose and focused on how cognitions are conditioned and are the impetus for problematic feelings and behaviors. These approaches later developed into what has become known as the cognitive-behavioral school of therapy, as they broadened their focus to include changing cognitions and changing behaviors.

      In recent years, we began to see a new school of psychotherapy arise. Starting during the 1990s, the postmodernists provided an approach that stressed that one’s reality is the product or function of the language milieu one encounters through life, that those in positions of power are often responsible for the language that is used, that such language tends to oppress those who are not in power, and that individuals can reconstruct or reauthor their lives as they find new solutions to past problems or problem-dominated narratives.

      I took my theories and neatly placed them in my five classic schools: (1) psychodynamic, (2) behavioral, (3) existential-humanistic, (4) cognitive-behavioral, and (5) postmodern approaches. I quickly saw that many of the theories I had found were not accounted for—did not fit neatly into any of these five schools. For instance, I realized that there were many approaches that one might consider complementary or alternative—approaches not mainstream, used by a fair number of counselors and therapists, and of interest to many who were trying to find an approach that was a bit “off the beaten path.” These became known as the complementary and alternative theories.

      As I continued categorizing, I realized that there were a host of other approaches that were based on the early work of what some call the most interesting “master therapist” of all time—Milton H. Erickson. His distinctive, unusual, and sometimes-irreverent techniques were found to quickly “cure” people of their presenting problems. I thus added another category: Erickson-derived or -influenced theories. As I continued to try and neatly categorize the various theories, other headings quickly popped up, and soon I had added creative arts and expressive therapies, or therapies that use the creative and expressive arts to work with clients. I next added ego-oriented therapies, or approaches that de-emphasize instinctual drives and focus on the development of the individual’s ability to manage and deal with reality. Next, I saw that there were a number of transpersonal approaches, or theories that have a bit of the mystical and/or spiritual in their focus. Then, the recent influence of neuropsychology became evident, as some of the theories were clearly based on recent brain research. I also realized that some approaches integrated different theories, so I created a heading called integrative approaches. It also became evident to me that there were a number of unique ways of practicing group counseling and couple and family therapy—thus, two more categories evolved.

      The wise editors at Sage suggested that I pull together an editorial board. Having developed my tentative headings, I reached out to world-renowned individuals to examine what I had developed. These individuals provided me with some wonderful feedback. For instance, the psychodynamic heading became two separate headings: Classical Psychoanalytical Approaches and Contemporary Psychodynamic-Based Therapies. The postmodern therapies became Constructivist Therapies (though not all constructivist therapies are postmodern). The complementary and alternative therapies resulted in two headings: (1) Complementary and Alternative Approaches and (2) Body-Oriented Therapies. The neuropsychology approaches became Neurological and Psychophysiological Therapies, and couple and family therapy became Couples, Family, and Relational Models. And, of course, there were those theories that did not neatly fit into any one category. Those went in the Other Therapies category.

      As the encyclopedia evolved, I came to the conclusion that there were two other categories greatly needed. First, there were some therapies included in the encyclopedia that were or could be harmful and/or illegal, so I added a category called Cautious, Dangerous, and/or Illegal Practices. Finally, I realized that some approaches were widely used by the vast majority of counselors and psychotherapists. Thus, I added a heading called Foundational Therapies to highlight these approaches. In the end, we had twenty headings to categorize the theories:

      • Behavior Therapies
      • Body-Oriented Therapies
      • Cautious, Dangerous, and/or Illegal Practices
      • Classical Psychoanalytical Approaches
      • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
      • Complementary and Alternative Approaches
      • Constructivist Therapies
      • Contemporary Psychodynamic-Based Therapies
      • Couples, Family, and Relational Models
      • Creative Arts and Expressive Therapies
      • Ego-Oriented Therapies
      • Erickson-Derived or -Influenced Theories
      • Existential-Humanistic Therapies
      • Foundational Therapies
      • Group Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories
      • Integrative Approaches
      • Neurological and Psychophysiological Therapies
      • Other Therapies
      • Theorists
      • Transpersonal Psychology

      Each of the headings, and their affiliated theories, can be found in the Reader’s Guide at the beginning of each volume. As you review the theories in the Reader’s Guide, you may observe that some are listed under more than one heading. This is because theories are not as discrete as my brain would like them to be. For instance, clearly Freudian Psychoanalysis belongs in the Classical Psychoanalysis section as well as the Foundational Therapy section. Thus, a theory may share elements of two schools (headings), or maybe even three or four schools. Undoubtedly, placing theories into the various categories was at times challenging, and in the end, you may dispute the placement of some of these theories.

      Every entry that describes a theory starts with a short definition of the theory, which summarizes its main points. It then offers historical influences that may have affected the theory’s development. Next, the entry describes the theoretical underpinnings that drove the theory, followed by the major concepts of the theory. The entry then provides examples of some of the theory’s more popular techniques and then offers a description of how the theory is applied—the therapeutic process. Each entry also lists other entries that inform the theory (under the “See also” section) and further readings that may be of interest to the reader.

      Overview Entries and Biographies

      In addition to classifying the major theories into twenty categories or schools, I included an “overview” entry for each of the twenty categories or schools. These overview entries begin with a description of the categories or schools found in the Reader’s Guide, under which the various entries fall (e.g., “Freudian Psychoanalysis” falls within the school of Classical Psychoanalytical Approaches). The overview entries then provide the following for each of the categories or schools found in the Reader’s Guide: (a) historical context, (b) theoretical context, and (c) short descriptions of each theory listed under that category. They also include a “See also” list that identifies all entries and biographies from the Reader’s Guide that are related to the overview, as well as select further readings for that category.

      Finally, I decided to include about 40 select biographies, thinking that one could not have an encyclopedia of theories of counseling and psychotherapy without including some basic information about individuals like Sigmund Freud, B. F. Skinner, and Carl Rogers. These biographies focus more on the development of their theory, as opposed to lengthy background information about the individual theorist’s upbringing and personal life. These entries conclude with a “See also” list that identifies entries that are related to the individual and a list of further readings that may be of interest to the reader. Clearly, my list is subjective. There may well be those whom you think should be included who were not and those who were included whom you believe should be taken off the list. You may be right.

      Identifying Individuals to Write the Theories

      Whenever possible, I recruited some of the most well-known authors on the specific theories to write the entries. These individuals were sometimes the originators of the theory or students and colleagues of the original theorist. Generally, I contacted these individuals directly by e-mail. If they informed me that they could not write the entry, they usually recommended other well-known colleagues with whom I could follow up.

      When these individuals could not be contacted, we found experts on the theory to write the entry, usually through professional listservs. Thus, you will find that all entries are written by individuals who are extremely knowledgeable about the subject matter. For consistency and clarity, I asked all entry writers to follow the same format for each theory written (Description, Historical Context, Theoretical Underpinnings, Major Concepts, Techniques, See also, and Further Readings).

      How to Use the Encyclopedia

      You probably have an interest in understanding one or more specific theories when you decide to use this encyclopedia. If that is the case, you might want to go directly to the Index and look up the theory you are interested in. It is more than likely listed there. Then, you can read about that theory. The entry will include the “See also” list of other theories, overviews, or biographies that you can also read if you want to find out more about the theory and related materials.

      In addition to going directly to the Index, you can also find a theory in a couple of other ways. First, you can go directly to the Reader’s Guide, which lists the theories by category or school, as noted earlier. The Reader’s Guide can be found at the beginning of each volume. Second, an alphabetical list of all entries can also be found at the beginning of each volume. You can look through the list and identify any theories you might have an interest in reading about.

      If you want to know more about a whole class of theories (e.g., classical psychoanalytical, cognitive-behavioral, complementary and alternative, existential-humanistic), then you might want to start with the “overview” entry, as this will describe the category and give very brief descriptions of the various theories listed under that category. Then, you can pick and choose those theories you want to review in more depth. You can find the overview entries listed in the Reader’s Guide, the List of Entries, and the Index.

      As noted earlier, select biographies regarding a number of classic or iconic theorists are included in the encyclopedia and can be found under the Theorists category in the Reader’s Guide. Also, immediately following the Reader’s Guide, you will find a list of theories cross-referenced with the theorist who founded the theory. Thus, if you want some limited information about these theorists, you can read about them in the entry with which they are associated. Finally, if you have identified a specific theorist and want to see if he or she is included in the encyclopedia, you can see if he or she is listed in the List of Entries and/or the Index.

      Acknowledgments

      Whom to acknowledge first? Clearly, I need to recognize those who, early on, I most irritated, when I felt like I had taken on more than I could handle. My wife, Kristina, and two lovely daughters, Hannah and Emma, put up with me all those nights that I sat at the computer and struggled to put this encyclopedia together. They stuck with me, continue to stick with me, and continue to love me. I love you too.

      I was handed a gift one day—Kevin Snow, a new doctoral student in our counselor education and supervision program, was assigned to me to assist me with the encyclopedia. Kevin had the humanities and philosophy background that I did not have. He was a natural editor and became the managing editor of the encyclopedia. I must admit that on more than a couple of occasions I said to Kevin, “Can you review this entry?” because I knew that he had the background and the ability to edit some entries that I simply could not understand. Kevin, you are the best!

      I could not have finished this encyclopedia without the help of the editorial board. They examined the category headings I developed and suggested changes to them. They suggested additional theories that should be listed under the headings, and they recommended that I move some theories to other headings. They helped me find experts to write many of the entries, and on some occasions, they wrote the entries themselves. Those members of my esteemed editorial board include Allen Bishop from Pacifica Graduate Institute; Nina W. Brown from the Old Dominion University; Sarah P. Deaver from Eastern Virginia Medical School; David Donnelly from the University of Rochester; Andre Marquis also from the University of Rochester, Rip McAdams from The College of William and Mary; Jane E. Myers from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Suzan K. Thompson from Military Integrative Therapies, LLC; Richard E. Watts from Sam Houston State University; and Jeffrey Zeig from the Milton H. Erickson Foundation.

      As I was working on the encyclopedia, I realized that I needed some additional help to finish it, and I reached out to two colleagues, Drs. Hannah B. Bayne and Cherée F. Hammond. I had worked with Cherée when writing my counseling theory text and knew she would be a wonderful editor. And Hannah was one of my former, top doctoral students, and I knew she too could do the job. Thank you, Hannah and Cherée, for stepping up when I needed you.

      Finally, there are a number of individuals without whom this encyclopedia could not have been completed. Shamila Swamy, the copy editor, was skillful and masterful, and the encyclopedia is much stronger due to her wonderful ability, and that of her team from QuADS Prepress. Anna Villasenor, Reference Systems Coordinator, Sage Publications, was also incredible. Her assistance with all of the minutiae that needed to be addressed was remarkable, and always, she would respond quickly and with a kind and helpful attitude. Finally, Carole Maurer, Senior Development Editor at Sage Publications, was amazing. Her artfulness in massaging sentences and ensuring accuracy is quite remarkable. I have worked with developmental editors in the past, but never have I seen one as good as Carole.

      10.4135/9781483346502.n8
    • Chronology

      Select Moments in the History of Counseling and Psychotherapy

      1870s: Jean-Martin Charcot begins research on conversion disorder and hysteria in France and eventually treats it with hypnosis.

      1885: Sigmund Freud goes to Paris to study with Jean-Martin Charcot.

      1893–1896: Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer document case studies and begin to identify the importance of free association, catharsis, and abreaction. These early influences eventually lead to understanding about neuroses, the unconscious, defense mechanisms, transference and counter-transference, and dream analysis.

      Late 1800s–early 1900s: Sigmund Freud coalesces his ideas into the first comprehensive theory of psychoanalysis. He focuses on the conscious and the unconscious, the structure of personality (id, ego, and superego), and the psychosexual stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) as some of his key concepts.

      1906: Based on his experiments with hungry dogs being conditioned to salivate to a bell when the bell is paired with food, Ivan Pavlov explains the principles of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning later becomes the basis of some major behavioral approaches to counseling, such as systematic desensitization.

      1910–1912: Alfred Adler becomes president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society but later resigns from it and establishes the Society for Individual Psychology, which espouses his ideas about psychotherapy.

      1911: Carl Jung becomes president of the International Psychoanalytic Association.

      1913: Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud part ways as Jung develops his theory of analytical psychology. His ideas around the psychological types that define a person’s usual way of functioning; a personal unconscious, which houses all repressed materials; and a collective unconscious, which houses archetypes that are models for human experience become a new model for understanding human behavior.

      1913: Jacob Moreno develops psychodrama, which some consider the beginning of group psychotherapy.

      1920s: Karen Horney begins to develop her ideas on psychotherapy and is one of the original neo-Freudians, along with Eric Fromm, who stresses the influence of culture and object relations on the development of personality. Her ideas are also considered foundational to feminist psychology.

      1920s: John B. Watson applies the principles of classical conditioning to humans, such as his well-known study of “Baby Albert,” whom he conditions to be fearful of a white rat by pairing the striking of a steel bar (a loud noise) with the holding of the rat. The fear created becomes generalized to other objects.

      1926: Otto Rank gives a lecture on “The Genesis of Object Relations,” which opposes some of Sigmund Freud’s ideas and is the birth of object relations theory.

      1930s: Viktor Frankl begins to develop his ideas on logotherapy, a form of existential therapy, which some call the “third wave of Viennese psychology” (after Freudian analysis and Individual Psychology). His ideas concerning how individuals find meaning and make choices in their lives become foundational to many existential-humanistic therapies.

      1933: Wilhem Reich publishes Character Analysis, which is the basis for his ideas on body armor and Orgone therapy. This approach to therapy becomes foundational to many of the body-oriented approaches of counseling and psychotherapy.

      1938: B. F. Skinner publishes the Behavior of Organisms, which is based on his studies of operant conditioning, such as the place of negative and positive reinforcement in the shaping of behavior. This book, and his continued research and scholarship, becomes the foundation for many types of behavior therapy.

      Late 1930s–1940s: The neo-Freudians become increasingly popular as individuals like Harry Stack Sullivan stress that in addition to intrapsychic issues, interpersonal interactions and social context should also be considered important factors in understanding the person.

      1940s: Kurt Lewin studies and writes about group dynamics and experiential group counseling. This eventually leads to the establishment of the National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine, which studies group dynamics.

      1941: Eric Fromm publishes Escape From Freedom, which marks the beginning of his ideas on humanistic psychoanalysis, which are known for their political and social focus.

      1942: Carl Rogers publishes Counseling and Psychotherapy, which addresses the beginning of his nondirective, client-centered approach to counseling, originally called client-centered counseling and later called person-centered counseling.

      1942: Fritz Perls publishes Ego, Hunger, and Aggression, which challenges many of Sigmund Freud’s ideas and is the beginning of his existential-humanistic approach that eventually becomes known as Gestalt therapy. His ideas regarding unfinished business and how unsatisfied needs direct behavior become important in many types of existential-humanistic approaches.

      1943: Abraham Maslow’s article “A Theory of Human Motivation” is published. This article, and his 1954 book Motivation and Personality, helps usher in the humanistic psychology movement, which stresses the nature of the person in the counseling relationship and the ability of the individual to change. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which becomes one of the first developmental models of understanding change, focuses on how lower order needs (e.g., hunger, shelter) must be addressed before higher order needs (e.g., love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization) can be examined.

      1947: The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations is established to study organizational development and action research.

      1948: Milton H. Erickson establishes a private practice that uses a variety of uncommon methods when working with individuals. Considered one of the “master therapists” of all time, his use of hypnosis, homework assignments, and any ethical technique to actively help clients change in a brief amount of time was to influence a wide range of therapists, particularly those involved with strategic therapy.

      Mid- to Late 1900s: Rollo May becomes one of the key figures in American existential therapy and writes a series of well-known books on issues such as anxiety, love, and being that become classics in the field and influence the development of other theories.

      1950s: The Palo Alto Group is formed and includes, over the years, a wide range of individuals from a variety of disciplines that study communication in systems, how context affects behavior, the structure of systems, and brief approaches to therapy. Some of its original members are Gregory Bateson, William Fry, Jay Haley, Don D. Jackson, and John Weakland. Some of their work is inspired by Milton H. Erickson.

      1950s: Albert Ellis develops rational therapy, which eventually becomes rational emotive behavior therapy, one of the first therapies to focus on cognitions in the treatment of mental disorders and problematic behaviors. His ABC theory (A = activating event, B = belief about the event, C = consequences of the belief about the event) becomes a popular method of conceptualizing problematic behaviors for cognitive therapists.

      1950s: Salvadore Minuchin develops structural family therapy. This approach departs from the intrapsychic approach of psychodynamic therapy and examines the structure of families, including boundaries in families, how individuals communicate in families, subsystems, contextual issues, and stress in families.

      1950s and Later: Melanie Klein challenges some of the basic tenets of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic approach and is considered one of the founders of the object relations school of therapy. In particular, she believes that the infant has a primary relationship with the mother that is separate from the idea that the mother satisfies the infant’s physiological needs, as Freud had proposed. Others, such as Margaret Mahler, Otto Kernberg, and Donald Winnicott, also contribute to the object relations approach.

      1954: Nathan Ackerman proposes that families should be seen as a whole unit and states that if one family member has a problem, the whole family has a problem. This approach is in stark contrast to the individualistic approach of the psychoanalysts and other individually oriented counselors and therapists.

      1954: Murray Bowen obtains a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to study individuals with schizophrenia and their families. His research eventually leads to ideas about the importance of differentiation of self within families, how triangles within families handle stress, and the nuclear family emotional system that explains family patterns.

      1955: George Kelly’s book The Psychology of Personal Constructs becomes the forerunner of what are later known as constructivist and postmodern therapies and examines how individuals construct meaning throughout their lives.

      1958: Jules Riskin, Virginia Satir, Richard Fisch, and Paul Watzlawick join the original Palo Alto Group to form the Mental Research Institute, which examines interactions in systems.

      1958: Joseph Wolpe writes Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. This text becomes the basis of his ideas on systematic desensitization, which is used to help individuals conquer phobias and anxiety.

      1960s: Aaron Beck develops cognitive therapy. Like Albert Ellis, he focuses on cognitions as the source of emotional problems, but his theory examines the place of automatic thoughts and cognitive schemas in the development of problems and maladjusted feelings.

      1960s: Albert Bandura’s research leads to the discovery of social cognitive theory (modeling, social learning), which examines how important behaviors are imitated and reproduced by others. Modeling is widely used in many approaches to counseling, particularly those that have a cognitive-behavioral focus.

      1962: The Esalen Institute is founded at Big Sur, California, and sponsors workshops and conferences on humanistic psychology by world-renowned researchers and therapists.

      1963: Erik Erikson writes Childhood and Society, which stresses psychosocial factors in the development of the individual over the life span.

      1963: Jay Haley’s book Strategies of Psychotherapy is published. He and Cloe Madanes drastically change the way many individuals do counseling and therapy as they focus on strategies that will lead to change for individuals, couples, and families rather than focusing on the past or trying to unearth underlying issues that are assumed to create problems.

      1964: Virginia Satir publishes Conjoint Family Therapy, and her ideas about communication in families and her positive and humanistic approach to working with families become widely known and practiced.

      1965: The Mental Research Institute’s Brief Therapy Center is founded by John Weakland, Richard Fisch, and Paul Watzlawick, with Don D. Jackson and Jay Haley as consultants. This institute looks at how problems can be addressed in brief and novel ways. It is the foundation of a number of therapies, including strategic therapy, solution-focused therapy, and other forms of brief treatment.

      1967: William Glasser establishes the Institute for Reality Therapy and Educator Training Center to develop his ideas on reality therapy and, later, choice theory. His ideas about how we develop pictures in our quality world based on our need— strength profile (survival, love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun) are picked up by counselors and others and often used as a model for running institutions (e.g., schools).

      1969: John Bowlby publishes Attachment and Loss, which becomes the basis for ideas on attachment theory.

      1970: Irvin Yalom publishes The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy. This book becomes the standard text for understanding the issues and practice of group counseling and helps place group counseling on an equal footing with other forms of counseling and psychotherapy.

      1970: Carl Rogers writes On Encounter Groups, which describes the experiential group process and is based on his experience running such groups over the years.

      1971: Phillip Zimbardo conducts the Stanford Prison Experiment, which examines abuse of power and how perceived roles affect how people act. Later, he becomes increasingly interested in the power of positive psychology.

      1973: Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy writes Invisible Loyalties, which stresses the importance of relational ethics in family counseling.

      1975: Otto Kernberg’s developmental object relations theory examines how the successful mastering of unconscious tasks at various developmental levels is critical to the developmental of a healthy ego. Unhealthy development leads to identity diffusion and individuals who see the world as all good or all bad.

      1975: The American Psychological Association states that homosexuality is not a mental disorder, which the American Psychiatric Association had listed as a mental disorder since the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1952. Other prominent mental health associations soon concur.

      1976: Jean Baker Miller writes Toward a Psychology of Women, which describes relational-cultural theory and focuses on the importance of connections with clients—especially women. She eventually directs the Elizabeth Stone Center at Wellesley College, where she works with others on developing a new model of working with women.

      1976: Stanislav Grof establishes the International Transpersonal Association and explores ideas about spirituality and identity beyond the self or psyche, including peak experiences, mysticism, and altered states.

      1977: Donald Meichenbaum writes Cognitive Behavior Therapy Modification: An Integrative Approach and becomes well-known for developing innovative cognitive-behavioral techniques in this therapeutic approach. In the 21st century, he increasingly takes on a cognitive narrative/constructivist perspective.

      1976: Arnold Lazarus breaks from the more traditional cognitive-behavioral therapists and publishes Multimodal Behavior Therapy, which examines broad aspects of a person’s functioning, which he calls the BASIC I.D. (behaviors, affective processes, sensations, images, cognitions, interpersonal relationships, and drugs/biology).

      1978: Carl Whitaker and August Napier write The Family Crucible, which stresses the importance of experiential activities and spontaneity when working with couples and families. Their approach increasingly moves couple and family counseling away from the removed position of the therapist prevalent in the psychodynamic approach to working with individuals.

      1980s: Michael White and David Epston develop narrative therapy, which is based on the philosophies of social constructionism and postmodernism. These philosophies state that reality is socially constructed through language and that the narratives or stories we create represent our current understanding of our lives. This nonpathological, humble approach to therapy is used to help “reauthor” individuals’ lives.

      1987: Francine Shapiro develops Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy, which becomes one of the many approaches to the treatment of trauma, focusing on the use of rapid eye movements, or some other rhythmic stimulation, while simultaneously remembering a traumatic event. This pairing of rhythmic stimulation with memory seems to de-potentiate neural pathways and helps clients become calm.

      1990s: Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer popularize solution-focused therapy. Based on some of the same philosophies as narrative therapy (social constructionism and postmodernism), this nonpathological, future-oriented approach focuses on solutions, not problems. Its brief approach to working with clients fits in nicely with the emerging managed-care organizations, which look to cut costs of services, and with practitioners who need to work briefly with clients (e.g., school counselors).

      1990s: Bill O’Hanlon offers his take on solution-focused therapy by developing solution-oriented therapy and, later, Possibility Therapy, which focuses more on validating client issues and joining with them as they dialogue about their problems.

      1990s: Michael Mahoney popularizes constructivist therapy, which emphasizes how individuals actively create their reality and meaning by organizing their experiences within their social world.

      1991: With the publication of Learned Optimism, Martin Seligman becomes one of the leaders ushering in the positive psychology movement, with its focus on improving lives through positive internal dialogue.

      1991: With the publication of Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change, William Miller and Steve Rollnick provide a new model for working with clients that focuses on helping to enhance the intrinsic motivation of clients to change.

      1992: Cross-cultural counseling competencies are simultaneously published by the Journal of Counseling and Development and the Journal of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development, two journals of the American Counseling Association. Eventually endorsed by the American Counseling Association and the American Psychological Association, these competencies will be critical to the training of mental health professionals relative to working with clients from nondominant groups.

      1993: Marsha Linehan popularizes dialectical behavior therapy, which balances teaching clients how to accept their lives with offering problem-solving strategies and skills to help clients regulate their emotions.

      1998: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine is established to promote research on complementary and alternative medicine.

      2004: Steven Hayes and others popularize acceptance and commitment therapy, which examines how behaviors and cognitions are related to an intricate web of relationship associations. Realizing the complexity of symptoms, they encourage acceptance of symptoms as one method in helping one reduce or eliminate symptoms.

      2007: The American Psychological Association adopts the Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Girls and Women, which offers 11 guidelines that become a focus for feminist therapy.

      Recent years: Research on how the brain and behaviors are intimately related is increasingly being conducted, resulting in the development of new theories related to neurophysiology and mental health.

      Resource Guide—Journals and Professional Associations

      Journals

      The following is an exhaustive list of journals in the social sciences. To some degree, all of these journals publish conceptual or research articles related to the use of techniques and theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A large portion of them have been cited in the encyclopedia (indicated with an asterisk following their names).

      Accident, Analysis and Prevention*

      Acta Psychiartr Scandinavica*

      Adolescence*

      Adolescent Aggression*

      Adoption and Fostering*

      Advances in Mind-Body Medicine*

      Advances in Psychiatric Treatment*

      Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly

      Alternative and Complementary Therapies

      Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine*

      American Behavioral Scientist

      American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis*

      American Journal of Dance Therapy

      American Journal of Family Therapy*

      American Journal of Occupational Therapy*

      American Journal of Orthopsychiatry*

      American Journal of Preventive Medicine*

      The American Journal of Psychiatry*

      American Journal of Psychotherapy*

      American Psychologist*

      Annals of Behavioral Medicine*

      Annals of Psychotherapy & Integrative Health*

      Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences*

      Annual Review Clinical Psychology*

      Annual Review of Psychology*

      Applied Psychophysical and Biofeedback*

      Archives of General Psychiatry*

      Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry*

      Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy

      Art Psychotherapy

      Asia Pacific Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy*

      Assessment*

      Attachment & Human Development*

      Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy*

      Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis*

      The Behavior Analyst*

      The Behavior Analyst Today*

      Behavior Research and Therapy*

      The Behavior Therapist*

      Behavior Therapy*

      Behavioral and Brain Sciences*

      Behavioral Science*

      Behavioral Scientist*

      Behaviour Research and Therapy*

      Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy*

      Bioenergetic Analysis*

      Biofeedback*

      BioMed Central*

      BMC Nephrology*

      BMC Psychiatry*

      Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy*

      BRAT Series in Clinical Psychology

      British Gestalt Journal*

      The British Journal of Play Therapy*

      British Journal of Psychiatry*

      British Journal of Psychology

      British Journal of Psychotherapy*

      British Medical Journal*

      Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic

      Cahiers Critiques de Therapie Familiale et de Pratiques de Reseaux

      Canadian Journal of Music Therapy

      Canadian Journal of Psychiatry*

      Canadian Psychology*

      Chantiers d’Art-therapie

      Child & Family Behavior Therapy

      Child and Adolescent Mental Health*

      Child Development*

      Child Psychiatry & Human Development*

      Circulation*

      Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review*

      The Clinical Psychologist*

      Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy*

      Clinical Psychology Review*

      Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice*

      Clinical Social Work Journal*

      CNS Drugs*

      The Coaching Psychologist*

      Cognitive and Behavioral Practice*

      Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

      Cognitive Therapy and Research*

      Comprehensive Psychiatry*

      Conditional Reflex

      Constructivism in the Human Sciences*

      Contemporary Family Therapy*

      Contemporary Hypnosis & Integrative Therapy

      Context (Canterbury)

      Counseling and Values*

      Counseling News—The Voice of Counseling Training*

      The Counseling Psychologist*

      Counseling Psychology Quarterly*

      Counseling Today

      Counselor*

      Counselor Education and Supervision*

      Dissociation*

      Drug and Alcohol Dependence*

      Early Child Development and Care*

      Edification*

      Education & Treatment of Children*

      Energy & Character: The Journal of Biosynthesis

      Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment*

      European Journal of Oral Sciences*

      European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counseling*

      European Psychologist*

      European Review of Applied Psychology*

      Families, Systems, & Health

      Familles et Therapie

      The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families*

      Family Process*

      Family Relations*

      Family Systems Forum

      Family Therapy

      Family Therapy Magazine

      The Family Therapy Networker*

      Feminism & Psychology*

      Frontiers in Physiology*

      Gestalt Journal*

      Gestalt Journal of Australia & New Zealand*

      Gestalt Review*

      GROUP

      Group and Organizational Studies*

      Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice*

      Group Psychotherapy

      GTK Rivista di Psicoterapia Istituto di Gestalt Therapy

      Guidance and Counseling*

      Health Psychology

      Holistic Nursing Practice*

      Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research*

      Integral Review*

      Integrative Therapie

      International Association for Regression Research and Therapies. Newsletter

      The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion*

      International Journal of Behavioral and Consultation Therapy

      International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

      International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy*

      International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis*

      International Journal of Cognitive Therapy

      International Journal of Comparative Psychology*

      International Journal of Family Studies*

      International Journal of Group Psychotherapy*

      International Journal of Healing and Caring*

      International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work

      International Journal of Play Therapy

      International Journal of Psychoanalysis*

      International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy

      International Journal of Reality Therapy

      International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation*

      Jiritsu Kunren KenkyuNihon Jiritsu Kunren Gakkai

      The Journal for the Study of Human Interaction and Family Therapy

      Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour*

      Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology*

      Journal of Abnormal Psychology*

      Journal of Addiction & Therapy

      Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling*

      Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma*

      Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine*

      Journal of Alternative Medicine Research*

      Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis*

      Journal of Basic and Applied Science*

      Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry*

      The Journal of Biosynthesis*

      Journal of Brief, Strategic & Systemic Therapies

      Journal of Brief Therapy*

      Journal of Child Sexual Abuse*

      Journal of Clinical Child Psychology*

      Journal of Clinical Nursing*

      Journal of Clinical Psychiatry*

      Journal of Clinical Psychology*

      Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy*

      Journal of Cognitive Therapy*

      Journal of College Counseling*

      Journal of Constructivist Psychology*

      Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology*

      Journal of Consulting Psychology*

      Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy*

      Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science*

      Journal of Counseling and Development*

      Journal of Counseling Psychology*

      Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy

      Journal of Creativity in Mental Health*

      Journal of Divorce & Remarriage*

      Journal of EMDR Practice and Research*

      Journal of Experiential Education*

      Journal of Family Psychotherapy*

      Journal of Family Therapy*

      Journal of Family Violence*

      Journal of Feminist Family Therapy

      Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy*

      The Journal of General Psychology*

      Journal of Health Psychology*

      Journal of Holistic Nursing

      Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development*

      Journal of Humanistic Education and Development*

      Journal of Humanistic Psychology*

      Journal of Imago Relationship Therapy

      Journal of Individual Psychology*

      Journal of Instructional Psychology*

      Journal of Integral Theory and Practice*

      Journal of Marital and Family Therapy*

      Journal of Mental Health Counseling*

      Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development*

      Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease*

      Journal of Neuroscience*

      Journal of Neurotherapy*

      Journal of Palliative Medicine*

      Journal of Personality and Social Psychology*

      Journal of Poetry Therapy

      Journal of Projective Techniques*

      The Journal of Psychological Therapies in Primary Care

      Journal of Psychology*

      Journal of Psychology & Theology*

      Journal of Psychosomatic Research*

      Journal of Psychotherapy Integration*

      Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

      Journal of Reality Therapy*

      Journal of Regression Therapy

      Journal of Sandplay Therapy

      Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy

      Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy

      Journal of Social Action in Counseling and Psychology*

      The Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health*

      Journal of Sports Therapy

      Journal of Systemic Therapies*

      Journal of Teaching in the Addictions*

      Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry*

      Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association*

      The Journal of the Eastern Group Psychotherapy Society*

      Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences

      Journal of Transpersonal Psychology*

      Journal of Trauma and Dissociation*

      Journal of Traumatic Stress*

      Journal of Traumatic Stress Disorders & Treatment*

      Journal of Unified Psychotherapy and Clinical Science*

      Kodo Ryoho Kenkyu

      Kunst und Therapie

      Kunst, Gestaltung und Therapie

      Les Cahiers de Gestalt-Therapie

      Massage and Bodywork*

      Medical Hypotheses*

      Mental Health Occupational TherapyMusic

      Therapy Now

      Music Therapy Perspectives

      Nature*

      Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation*

      Neuropsychopharmacology*

      The New Zealand Journal of Music Therapy

      Nihon Kodo Ryoho Gakkai Nyuzu Reta

      Nippon Geijutsu Ryoho GakkaishiNippon

      Geijutsu Ryoho Gakkai

      Nursing Older People*

      Pacific Health Dialog*

      Paradigms in Theory Construction*

      Patient Education and Counseling*

      The Permanente Journal*

      The Personnel and Guidance Journal*

      Personzentrierte Beratung und Therapie

      Perspectives in Psychological Science*

      Phytomedicine*

      Phytotherapy Research*

      Pilgrimage

      Play Therapy

      PLoS One*

      Practical Pain Management*

      Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy*

      Preventive Medicine*

      Professional Psychology: Research and Practice*

      Psychiatric Clinical*

      Psychiatry*

      Psychoanalytic Dialogues*

      Psychoanalytic Inquiry*

      The Psychoanalytic Quarterly*

      Psychoanalytic Social Work

      The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child*

      Psychoanalytical Notebooks of the London Circle

      Psychodrama*

      Psychological Bulletin*

      Psychological Inquiry*

      Psychological Reports*

      Psychological Review*

      Psychological Science*

      Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory,

      Research, and Practice*

      Psychology in the Schools*

      The Psychology of Gender*

      Psychology, Public Policy, and Law*

      Psychophysiology*

      Psychosomatic Medicine*

      Psychosozial

      Psychotherapy*

      Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic*

      Psychotherapy Bulletin*

      Psychotherapy Networker*

      Psychotherapy Research*

      Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice*

      PsycSCAN: Behavior Analysis and Therapy (Online)

      Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology*

      Research on Social Work Practices

      Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport*

      Review of General Psychology*

      School Psychology International*

      Science*

      Selbstpsychologie Brandes und Apsel Verlag

      Sexual and Relationship Therapy

      Social Indicators Research*

      Social Psychology Quarterly*

      Social Work

      Somatics Magazine—Journal of the Mind/Body Arts and Sciences

      South African Medical Journal*

      Spring Journal

      Substance Use & Misuse

      Theory & Psychology*

      Therapie KreativTherapy Today

      Tijdschrift voor Kreatieve Therapie

      Traumatology*

      Trials*

      Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal*

      Voice of Counseling Training, The Women & Therapy*

      Zeitschrift fuer Individualpsychol

      Zeitschrift fuer Systemische Therapie und Beratung

      Professional Associations

      The following select associations and foundations are related, in some manner, to the use of one or more of the theories found in this encyclopedia. What follows is a very brief description of the association and its web address. If you are interested in learning more about the association and its relationship to one or more of the theories in the encyclopedia, please visit its website.

      American Academy of Neurology

      Description: For the diagnosis, treatment, and practice of neurological diseases

      Web address:www.aan.com/

      American Art Therapy Association

      Description: Promotes the healing of art and creative therapies

      Web address:www.arttherapy.org/

      American Association of Pastoral Counselors

      Description: Promotes information about pastoral counseling

      Web address:www.aapc.org/

      American Counseling Association

      Description: Focuses on the growth and awareness of all aspects of the counseling profession

      Web address:www.counseling.org

      American Group Psychotherapy Association

      Description: Provides theory, research, and education in group work

      Web address:www.agpa.org/

      American Psychiatric Association

      Description: Assists its member physicians in the promotion of the human treatment of individuals with mental disorders

      Web address:www.psychiatry.org

      American Psychoanalytic Association

      Description: Promotes education, practice, research, and advocacy in psychoanalytic work

      Web address:www.apsa.org

      American Psychological Association

      Description: Advances a wide range of psychological knowledge through its many divisions and work

      Web address:www.apa.org

      American Psychological Society

      Description: Promotes a wide range of scientific psychology in research, teaching, and working with individuals

      Web address:www.psychologicalscience.org/

      American Society of Clinical Hypnosis

      Description: Founded by Milton Erickson to support clinicians who practice clinical hypnosis

      Web address:www.asch.net/

      Association for Behavior Analysis International

      Description: Focuses on the development of behavior analysis through practice, research, and teaching

      Web address:www.abainternational.org/

      Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies

      Description: Focuses on the application of cognitive, behavioral, and evidence-based practices

      Web address:www.abct.org/home/

      Association for Contextual Behavioral Science

      Description: For anyone interested in acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, or contextual behavioral science

      Web address:http://contextualscience.org/

      Association for Humanistic Psychology

      Description: Promotes the philosophy of humanistic counseling and psychology

      Web address:http://afhc.camp9.org/page-1242938

      Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

      Description: Provides theory, research, and education in couples and family counseling

      Web address:www.aamft.org

      Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development

      Description: Promotes understanding of others in the counseling relationship

      Web address:www.multiculturalcounseling.org/

      Association for Natural Psychology

      Description: Focuses on mental health improvement through multiple, natural methods, without the use of drugs

      Web address:www.winmentalhealth.com/

      Association for Play Therapy

      Description: Promotes the use of play with clients

      Web address:www.a4pt.org/

      Association for Specialists in Group Work

      Description: Provides theory, research, and education in group work

      Web address:www.asgw.org/

      Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy

      Description: Fosters the enhancement, research, and practice of Gestalt therapy

      Web address:www.aagt.org

      Association for the Study of Dreams

      Description: Examines dreams from an eclectic and integrative perspective

      Web address:www.asdreams.org/

      Association for Transpersonal Psychology

      Description: Examines alternative and peak experiences and promotes eco-spiritual transformation. Web Address:www.atpweb.org/

      Behavior Analysis (Division 25 of the American Psychological Association)

      Description: Focuses on all aspects of behavior, including experimental, applied, and conceptual

      Web address:www.apadivisions.org/division-25/index.aspx

      B. F. Skinner Foundation

      Description: Informs professionals and the public about the science of behavior

      Web address:www.bfskinner.org/

      British Association of Play Therapists

      Description: Regulates the practice of play therapy in Great Britain

      Web address:www.bapt.info/

      Canadian Mental Health Association

      Description: Promotes advocacy, education, research, and service for individuals with mental health problems in Canada

      Web address:www.cmha.ca/

      Canadian Psychological Association

      Description: Promotes a wide range of psychological knowledge for its members and for the public

      Web address:www.cpa.ca/

      Clinical Neuropsychology (Division 40 of the American Psychological Association)

      Description: Focuses on the relationship between brain and behavior

      Web address:www.div40.org/

      Cognitive Neuroscience Society

      Description: Examines the relationship between mind, brain, and behavior and their relationship to mental disorders

      Web address:www.cogneurosociety.org/

      Cognitive Science Society

      Description: Brings together the fields of artificial intelligence, linguistics, anthropology, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and education to understand the human mind

      Web address:http://cognitivesciencesociety.org/

      European Association of Body Psychotherapy

      Description: Supports, advocates, and promotes a wide range of body psychotherapies and techniques

      Web address:www.eabp.org/

      International Association for Individual Psychology

      Description: Provides a forum for discussion and application of individual psychology (Adlerian Therapy)

      Web address:www.iaipwebsite.org/

      International Association for Marriage and Family Counselors

      Description: Provides theory, research, and education in couple and family counseling

      Web address:www.iamfconline.org/

      International Association for Mental Health Online

      Description: Promotes mental health through technology

      Web address:http://ismho.org/

      International Forum for Psychoanalytic Education

      Description: Open to any person interested in the study of psychoanalysis

      Web address:www.ifpe.org/

      International Neurological Association

      Description: A multidisciplinary organization that examines the brain–behavior relationship

      Web address:www.the-ins.org/

      International Psychoanalytic Association

      Description: Founded by Sigmund Freud to promote the ideas and concepts of psychoanalysis

      Web address:www.ipa.org.uk/

      International Society for Gestalt Theory and Its Applications

      Description: Promotes Gestalt theory and practice through research

      Web address:www.gestalttheory.net/cms/

      International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation

      Description: Promotes clinically effective treatment for trauma and dissociation disorders

      Web address:www.isst-d.org/

      The International Transactional Analysis Association

      Description: Dedicated to advancing the theory and methods of transactional analysis

      Web address:www.itaaworld.org/

      Jung Society

      Description: Promotes the basic theoretical philosophy proposed by Carl Jung and his theory, Jungian (analytical) therapy

      Web address:www.jung.org (See related sites also by search for “Jung Society or Foundation”)

      Milton H. Erickson Foundation

      Description: Promotes the clinical work of Milton H. Erickson

      Web address:http://erickson-foundation.org/

      National Academy of Neuropsychology

      Description: Explores the evaluation and treatment of brain disorders

      Web address:www.nanonline.org/

      The National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

      Description: Supports, advocates, and teaches cognitive-behavioral principles

      Web address:www.nacbt.org/

      National Association of Complementary and Alternative Medicines

      Description: Provides a wide range of information for practitioners and the public on complementary and alternative medicine

      Web address:www.nacams.org/

      National Association of Social Workers

      Description: Enhances the growth and development of social workers and the individuals with whom they work

      Web address:www.naswdc.org/

      North American School of Adlerian Psychology

      Description: Promotes the ideas of Adlerian psychology and encourages research on its efficacy

      Web address:www.alfredadler.org/

      Pavlovian Society

      Description: Promotes the science of behavior and encourages understanding of how it affects the whole organism

      Web address:http://campus.albion.edu/pavlovian/

      Sandplay Therapists of America

      Description: Focuses on the use of play therapy, sandplay, art and sandtray therapy

      Web address:www.sandplay.org/

      Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

      Description: Dedicated to the scientific understanding, education, and practice of clinical hypnosis for all mental health professionals who practice it

      Web address:www.sceh.us/

      Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration

      Description: Promotes the exploration and development of psychotherapies that integrate theoretical orientation, clinical practice, and diverse methods of inquiry

      Web address:www.sepiweb.org

      United States Association of Body Psychotherapy

      Description: Supports healing of the body/mind through somatic and body techniques

      Web address:http://usabp.org/

      United States of America Transactional Analysis Association

      Description: Dedicated to advancing the theory and methods of transactional analysis

      Web address:www.usataa.org/

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