The SAGE Encyclopedia of Intercultural Competence


Edited by: Janet M. Bennett

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      Editorial Board

      General Editor

      Janet M. Bennett The Intercultural Communication Institute

      Portland, Oregon

      Managing Editor

      Francisca Trujillo-Dalbey The Intercultural Communication Institute

      Portland, Oregon

      Editorial Board

      Kimberley A. Brown Portland State University

      Robert Hayles Senior Consultant for Effectiveness, Diversity, and Inclusion

      Faculty Emeritus, Intercultural Communication Institute

      Bruce LaBrack University of the Pacific

      R. Michael Paige University of Minnesota

      Nagesh Rao Mudra Institute of Communications, Ahmedabad, India

      Stella Ting-Toomey California State University, Fullerton

      List of Entries

      Reader’s Guide

      About the Editors

      Janet M. Bennett received her bachelor’s degree with a double major in journalism and psychology from San Francisco State University, and her MA and PhD in communication from the University of Minnesota. After serving as a Peace Corps volunteer in Micronesia, she devoted her career to developing theory and training design in intercultural competence.

      As an educator, she created the liberal arts program at Marylhurst College, where she was the chairperson of the liberal arts division, creating award-winning interdisciplinary programs for adult learners.

      Dr. Bennett provides consultation, faculty development, and training in intercultural relations. In the global arena, she designs training for international education programs and conducts seminars in Asia and Europe. In the area of domestic intercultural relations, she creates train-the-trainer programs in intercultural competence for various organizations, conducts programs for university campuses, and is a sought-after speaker on intercultural topics at both academic and professional conferences.

      She is the executive director of the Intercultural Communication Institute (ICI), a private, nonprofit foundation designed to foster an awareness and appreciation of cultural difference in both the international and domestic arenas. ICI maintains an extensive library and sponsors the annual Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication, the Winter Institute, and the Qatar Institute. She is also the director of the Master of Arts in Intercultural Relations, a limited residency graduate program for professionals and other nontraditional students. She teaches training and organization development at three universities and has published multiple articles and chapters on intercultural theory and training in academic books and journals.

      Francisca (Franki) Trujillo-Dalbey has a PhD in urban studies from Portland State University, where she also earned her master’s degree with a specialty in intercultural communication. Franki is a consultant, teacher, and cross-cultural mediator, working specifically with nonprofit organizations on issues of domestic diversity (she is second-generation Latina), leadership, team building, employment law, and relationship building. Franki was also a senior civil rights investigator for the state of Oregon and worked for various employment-related programs focused on disability issues. She has a long history with the Intercultural Communication Institute in many capacities; she served for a number of years as coordinator of ICI’s Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication (SIIC). She continues her involvement in the Masters of Intercultural Relations program as an advisor and faculty member. When she’s not consulting, Franki can be found playing electric bass with her dance band, High Fidelity, hanging out with her husband and their two dogs, and enjoying her two grandchildren.


      Kris Acheson Georgia State University

      Rukhsana Ahmed University of Ottawa

      Lily A. Arasaratnam Alphacrucis College

      Maarten Asser Culture Learning Group

      Erin Barnhart The International Partnership for Service-Learning and Leadership

      Laura A. Bathurst University of the Pacific

      Janet M. Bennett Intercultural Communication Institute

      Martin F. Bennett Independent Practitioner

      Jeff Berglund Kyoto University of Foreign Studies

      John W. Berry Queen’s University, International Centre for the Advancement of Community-Based Rehabilitation

      Dharm P. S. Bhawuk University of Hawaii at Manoa

      Dan Bommarito Arizona State University

      Richard Y. Bourhis Université du Québec à Montréal

      Terence Brake TMA World

      Jesse A. Brinson University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Benjamin J. Broome Arizona State University

      Kimberley A. Brown Portland State University

      Judee K. Burgoon University of Arizona

      Dominic Busch Universität der Bundeswehr München

      Patrice M. Buzzanell Purdue University

      Michael Byram University of Durham, United Kingdom

      Amanda Smith Byron Portland State University

      Deborah A. Cai Temple University

      Carolyn Calloway-Thomas Indiana University

      Donal Carbaugh University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Norma Carr-Ruffino San Francisco State University

      Chris Taylor Cartwright Intercultural Communication Institute

      George Cheney University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

      Winnie Cheng The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

      Tiffany Nok Hang Ching The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

      Leeva Chung University of San Diego

      Price M. Cobbs Pacific Management Systems

      John Condon University of New Mexico

      Anne P. Copeland The Interchange Institute

      Carlos E. Cortés University of California, Riverside

      Patricia O. Covarrubias University of New Mexico

      William E. Cross Jr. University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Kenneth Cushner Kent State University

      Brian R. Davis City University of New York

      Kristin L. Deal University of Denver

      Shannon R. Dean University of Georgia

      Barbara R. Deane

      Darla K. Deardorff Duke University

      Juergen Deller Leuphana Universität Lüneburg

      Tenzin Dorjee California State University, Fullerton

      Uttaran Dutta Arizona State University

      Andrea Edmundson The Global eLearning Community

      Sherifa Fayez American Field Service, Cairo

      Tatyana Fertelmeyster Connecting Differences

      Peony Fhagen-Smith Wheaton College

      Beth Fisher-Yoshida Columbia University

      Cheryl Forster Portland State University & Bookmark Connections

      Sandra M. Fowler Independent Practice

      Kerry Freedman Northern Illinois University

      Eric Friginal Georgia State University

      Gerald W. Fry University of Minnesota

      Adrian Furnham University of California, Los Angeles

      Cindy Gallois The University of Queensland

      Miguel Gandert University of New Mexico

      Ge Gao San Jose State University

      Lee Gardenswartz Independent Scholar, Gardenswartz & Rowe

      Dustin Garlitz University of South Florida

      Jennifer L. Gibbs Rutgers University

      Cristina B. Gibson University of Western Australia

      Eleanor Gil-Kashiwabara Portland State University

      Margery B. Ginsberg Independent Practitioner

      Michael Goh University of Minnesota

      Kristina Gonzalez PNW Conference, United Methodist Church

      Cornelius N. Grove Grovewell LLC

      Manuela Guilherme Universidade Lusófona (ULHT)

      Daniel Gulanowski Carleton University

      Allison Gundersen Independent Practitioner

      Ernest Gundling Aperian Global

      Alan Guskin Antioch University

      Rona Tamiko Halualani San Jose State University

      Mitchell R. Hammer American University

      Steve Hanamura Hanamura Consulting, Inc.

      Richard Harris Chukyo University

      Christiane Hartnack University of the Danube

      Fukumi Hauser Senior Consultant for Corporate Social Responsibility

      Robert Hayles Senior Consultant for Effectiveness, Diversity and Inclusion

      Chayla Haynes University of Northern Colorado

      Kristin L. Hibler Mercy Corps

      Dianne Hofner Saphiere Cultural Detective/Nipporica Associates

      Christopher Honeyman Convenor Conflict Management

      Ying-yi Hong Nanyang Technology University

      Juliane Marie-Luise House Hellenic American University

      Edward E. Hubbard Hubbard & Hubbard, Inc.

      Hyisung C. Hwang San Francisco State University

      Kazuko Ikeda Pacific University

      Luby Ismail Connecting Cultures

      Jane Jackson The Chinese University of Hong Kong

      Ronald L. Jackson II University of Cincinnati

      David W. Johnson University of Minnesota

      Roger T. Johnson University of Minnesota

      Kay Jones Aja Consultants, Inc.

      Sonya Kaleel Aperian Global

      Istvan Kecskes State University of New York, Albany

      Brenden E. Kendall Metropolitan State University of Denver

      Min-Sun Kim University of Hawaii at Manoa

      Sang-Yeon Kim University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

      Young Y. (Yun) Kim University of Oklahoma

      Patricia M. King University of Michigan

      Elizabeth Kirkhart Private Therapist, Moving Boundaries

      Larry Kirkhart Moving Boundaries

      Jane Knight University of Toronto

      Tom Kochman Kochman Mavrelis Associates, Inc.

      David A. Kolb Case Western Reserve University

      Shahana Koslofsky Pacific University

      Steve J. Kulich Shanghai International Studies University

      Bruce LaBrack University of the Pacific

      Anja Langbein-Park Culture Learning Group

      Michelle LeBaron University of British Columbia

      Tae-Seop Lim University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

      Shuang Liu The University of Queensland

      Elizabeth Stallman Madden University of Minnesota

      Judith N. Martin Arizona State University

      Paul Kei Matsuda Arizona State University

      David Matsumoto San Francisco State University

      Jean Mavrelis Kochman Mavrelis Associates, Inc.

      Steven K. May University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

      Kelli McLoud-Schingen Independent Practitioner

      Lucia Ann McSpadden Pacific School of Religion

      Mary M. Meares University of Alabama

      Lars Meier Technische Universität Berlin

      Mark Earl Mendenhall University of Tennessee, Chattanooga

      S. Lily Mendoza Oakland University

      Josef A. Mestenhauser University of Minnesota

      Barbara Kappler Mikk University of Minnesota

      Andrew Molinsky Brandeis University

      Annie Montreuil Université du Québec à Montréal

      Dreama G. Moon California State University, San Marcos

      William S. Moore Center for the Study of Intellectual Development

      Thomas Winston Morgan The International Partnership for Service-Learning and Leadership

      Debashish Munshi University of Waikato

      Thomas K. Nakayama Northeastern University

      Kyoung-Ah Nam American University

      Luciara Nardon Carleton University

      Gayle Nelson Georgia State University

      Nancy O’Brien University of Alabama

      Julie M. O’Mara O’Mara and Associates

      John G. Oetzel University of Waikato

      Joyce S. Osland San Jose State University

      Michael Osmera Independent Practitioner

      R. Michael Paige University of Minnesota

      Anthony Pan Aja Consultants, Inc.

      Lynne Parmenter Manchester Metropolitan University

      Gillian Peiser Liverpool John Moores University

      Elvinet S. Piard Indiana University East

      Sheila Ramsey Personal Leadership Seminars

      Timothy Reagan Nazarbayev University

      George W. Renwick Renwick and Associates

      Alan Richter QED Consulting

      Karen Risager Roskilde University

      Rebecca Ropers-Huilman University of Minnesota

      Anita Rowe Independent Scholar

      Riikka Salonen Global Inclusion Consulting

      Lynn Santelmann Portland State University

      Victor Savicki Western Oregon University

      Barbara F. Schaetti Personal Leadership Seminars

      Véronique Schoeffel Senior Independent Practitioner

      Karin Schreiner Intercultural Know How—Training & Consulting

      Glen T. Sebera Renaissance Consulting Group

      Farzad Sharifian Monash University

      Daryl G. Smith Claremont Graduate University

      Peter B. Smith University of Sussex

      Miriam S. Sobre-Denton Southern Illinois University

      Kathryn S. Sorrells California State University, Northridge

      Nadezhda Sotirova University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Helen Spencer-Oatey University of Warwick

      Günter K. Stahl Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien

      Cookie White Stephan New Mexico State University

      Walter G. Stephan New Mexico State University

      Michael J. Stevens Weber State University

      Craig Storti Communicating Across Cultures

      Donna M. Stringer Independent Scholar

      Douglas Kent Stuart Independent Scholar and Practitioner

      Kiyoko Sueda Aoyama Gakuin University

      Chit Cheung Matthew Sung Lancaster University

      Jiro Takai Nagoya University

      Edward W. Taylor Pennsylvania State University

      Amanda Lanier Temples Michigan State University

      Stella Ting-Toomey California State University at Fullerton

      Mai P. Trinh Case Western Reserve University

      Linda R. Tropp University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Michael F. Tucker Tucker International

      Michael Vande Berg Senior Independent Scholar and Practitioner

      Luis A. Vazquez New Mexico State University

      Xiaoling Wang Beifang University of Nationalities

      Yi’an Wang Shanghai International Studies University

      Colleen Ward Victoria University of Wellington

      Kent Warren Intercultural Communication Institute

      Gordon Watanabe Personal Leadership Seminars

      Gary Weaver American University

      Liping Weng Shanghai International Studies University

      Barbara A. West Culture Works

      Bob White Université de Montréal

      Louise C. Wilkinson Wilkinson Intercultural Consulting

      Raymond Wlodkowski Independent Practitioner

      Ria Yoshida Fisher Yoshida International

      Muneo J. Yoshikawa International Mentorship Graduate School


      “It depends.”

      In response to intercultural questions, the phrase it depends is a frequent answer. What is the role of status in Chinese culture? It depends. Why do tribal conflicts seem unresolvable? It depends. What is the source of prejudice? It depends. It depends on the context, the timing, the interwoven histories, the subtle nuances of beliefs, values, and assumptions. Interculturalists carry the ambiguity of the cultural interface as an inevitable part of their work.

      One way to reduce this ambiguity in intercultural interactions is to develop intercultural competence, a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills and characteristics that support effective and appropriate interaction in a variety of cultural contexts. Implicitly, this definition recognizes that knowledge alone does not equal competence; intercultural competence also requires motivation and skill. Such competence promotes interactions that accomplish the task at hand (effective) and do so while respecting the norms of the cultures involved (appropriate). Other works have expertly reviewed hundreds of potential intercultural competencies as determined by dozens of researchers. This encyclopedia concentrates on the conceptual background necessary to develop such skills and characteristics.

      You might discover many definitions of culture within these entries since words mean what the author intends them to mean and authors reliably communicate their intended meaning. In general, however, the underlying concept of culture used in this encyclopedia refers to what has come to be known as subjective culture— the learned and shared values, beliefs, and behaviors of a community of interacting people. It reflects culture as a dynamic process, not a reified construct, and is based on the notion that culture continually undergoes transformation.

      One of the primary academic disciplines focusing on intercultural competence is intercultural communication, a young field that originally emerged from studies of human communication. Decades ago, topics related to human communication often developed in departments of rhetoric. Influenced by psychologists such as Dean Barnlund and anthropologists such as Edward T. Hall, intercultural courses slowly began being developed in communication as many speech communication departments eventually changed their names to human communication. Teaching about intercultural communication required a frame shift for those teaching about interpersonal communication at that time. Interpersonal communication was based on the premise of similarity whereas, by definition, intercultural relationships involve difference.

      LaRay Barna and Edward T. Hall each initiated courses in intercultural communication. At Portland State University (Oregon), Barna realized that international students experience severe culture shock due to their lack of understanding of American culture. At the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, Hall realized that members of the foreign service need more than history and political science to succeed in their work. During the 1960s and 1970s, culture became salient in communication. Indeed, Hall is often called the father of intercultural communication, whereas Barna might be called the mother. Each opened a door to a new field with enormous potential to improve human interaction.

      Intercultural communication is the interactive process of negotiating shared meanings across cultures and is central to intercultural competence. While different disciplines debate the validity of any specific perspective, they agree on a few core elements that emerge from intercultural communication, including interaction analysis and based on subjective culture with a primary focus on difference rather than similarity.

      Intercultural communication brings an interactive framework to the study of culture. The nature of the exploration is not only what preferred patterns exist in any given context in any given culture but also what happens when different patterns come into contact. If a person from a particular culture prefers to solve conflicts directly, what transpires when that person faces a conflict in a society where most people prefer to address such issues indirectly and promote harmony? And while focusing on similarity is a useful strategy in one’s own culture, it is rarely useful for a deep exploration of other cultures. Finally, attention to patterns does not imply a focus on stereotypes. While there may be learned and shared patterns, it is unlikely that anyone you meet will subscribe to those patterns precisely; that is the nature of statistical norms.

      Interculturalists are professionals who put these theories into practice by working with and researching individuals and groups, with cultural topics as the focus of the interface. They come from many disciplines and ground their work in a wide range of theoretical perspectives. What they often share in common is a commitment to understanding, analyzing, and highlighting significant intercultural issues, issues that matter to the relevant culture groups. Thus the life work of interculturalists is to build bridges among differences, softening the barriers to experiencing life with cultural others and probing the mysteries of unknown places and peoples. Intercultural competence is the foundation of this life work, without which the work becomes intensely more difficult, less credible, and potentially offensive.

      Why Do We Need an Encyclopedia of Intercultural Competence?

      We are well past the time when clichés about the global village provide a rationale for developing our knowledge, skills, and attitudes about cultural others. Instead, our daily lives have provided the proof. Our contact with unfamiliar others is continuous. We are also recognizing that cultural differences affect the bottom line of the corporation, the effectiveness of our healthcare, the welcoming of our religious institutions, the safety of our military, the retention of our students, and the very nature of our lives and work.

      What this means is that cultural competence while sharing the planet with others is no longer merely a nicety but a necessity. As a necessity, it cannot remain the purview only of professionals; intercultural competence is now intrinsic to all aspects of our lives. The goal of this encyclopedia, therefore, is to bring a large body of concepts and theories related to intercultural competence to a wide range of readers in an accessible format.

      The Development of the Encyclopedia

      SAGE Publications’ ever-attentive editors discovered that a demand exists for a readable publication that explains central perspectives on intercultural concepts. They suggested forming an editorial board to facilitate the project.

      Engaging an editorial board is a diplomatic endeavor, inviting colleagues and friends to jump into the abyss with you for the sheer pleasure of making a contribution. Luckily, a splendid team of experienced editors was willing to make that leap, bringing with them alternative disciplinary and cultural perspectives. Kim Brown, Robert Hayles, Bruce LaBrack, Michael Paige, Nagesh Rao, and Stella Ting-Toomey signed on to determine the topics, nominate authors, provide advice, and in general support the editorial team in quality assurance.

      To narrow the enormous possible areas of exploration, members of the team discussed broad topics that relate importantly to intercultural competence from the point of view of anthropology, communication, counseling, education, languages, linguistics, psychology, sociology, and training and development. Within each general area, various editorial board members suggested headwords, the individual entries, to be included. In addition, the editor combed a vast number of resources seeking contemporary subjects in dozens of other encyclopedias, handbooks, textbooks, and recent publications. A list of headwords was circulated to the team members who added, deleted, and eventually suggested leading senior scholars as contributors. When possible, we selected the original author of the theory or model to write the entry. We made a serious effort to ensure that contributing authors were culturally and globally diverse, bringing their own cultural styles to bear on the topics. Further, the authors were asked to apply an intercultural perspective to the topic, by which we meant that the entry should reflect interaction at the interpersonal or group level between people with different cultural identities. Those topics for which we could not immediately find authors were labeled “lonely headwords,” and we pursued recommendations and references to find highly qualified headword writers. Authors expressed an unusual degree of enthusiasm for this venture, even suggesting new headwords and, better yet, agreeing to write about them.

      Ultimately, the project includes 540,884 words, 20 themes, 261 headword entries, and 202 authors.

      The Structure

      From the reader’s perspective, there are several approaches to using the encyclopedia in pursuit of an area of interest. The alphabetical list of entries allows the reader to locate topics, or the reader can turn to the Reader’s Guide, which lists all the entries under a single theme, for instance, all the entries on Adaptation. The entries are of varying lengths, from 1,000 to 4,000 words. Each entry follows a similar outline in which the purpose of the entry is stated, followed by the development of the concept, model, or theory, examples, a list of cross-references, and a brief set of further readings. The cross-references, titled “See also,” suggest related entries for the reader pursuing a specific topic.

      The Reader’s Guide organizes the range of headwords into the following 20 themes:

      • Adaptation: The various forms of adjusting to or internalizing another cultural context
      • Applications of Intercultural Competence: The role of intercultural competence in various professional contexts
      • Culture: Forms of culture as well as different disciplinary approaches to culture
      • Culture Change: What makes change effective or offensive across cultures
      • Diversity and Inclusion: Contemporary viewpoints as practiced by professionals focusing on diversity, equity, and inclusion
      • Education: The role of intercultural competence in teaching and learning
      • Ethics: The interface between culture and ethics
      • Globalization: The impact of globalization as culture influences organizational functions
      • Identity Development: The psychosocial impact of identity development
      • Intercultural Communication: Nonverbal communication, communicating across specific cultures, and the development of the field of intercultural communication in selected countries
      • Intercultural Competence: Definitions, attributes, and assessments of intercultural competence
      • Intercultural Conflict and Negotiation: Mindfulness, crisis intervention, and negotiation in intercultural contexts
      • Intercultural Training and Teaching: Designing, implementing, and delivering culturally responsive education and training
      • Language/Linguistics: The interface between intercultural competence and language fluency
      • Leadership Across Cultures: Current perspectives on core global leadership topics
      • Media and Social Networks: A selection of media topics related to education and training
      • Research Paradigms and Research Methods: How researchers explore hypotheses in interculturally sensitive ways
      • Social Justice: An intercultural perspective on significant issues of power and justice
      • Theories and Concepts: A collection of primary theories that influence the development of intercultural competence and human interaction
      • Values: Overviews of research on values, certain specific values, and their impact on human interaction across cultures

      Every effort has been made to retain the writer’s voice in each entry. While the encyclopedia guidelines demand a jargon-free, citation-free style, the voice of the writer is a compelling part of the submission. Because each entry brings a disciplinary viewpoint, a cultural stance, and a personal writing style, they are distinct and vibrant with cultural differences; in this case, the medium is part of the message.

      In the process of limiting the topics, certain difficult choices inevitably needed to be made. For instance, it was decided not to include the many biographies of leading academic figures whose work has had a major influence on intercultural relations.

      Further, despite the pervasive impact of certain simulations, assessment instruments, and other products, it was beyond the scope of this work to cover each of them. The reader may also wonder why some obviously relevant topic is not included. It depends. Sometimes it relates to the availability of an author to compose the entry, sometimes it relates to the limits of the scope, and (heaven forfend) it could be that it is an oversight.

      Several appendices include material to flesh out the reader’s sense of this field.

      • In Appendix A, we have provided Selected Readings on Intercultural Relations, a bibliography of more recent intercultural texts on education, global corporate competence, domestic diversity competence, team building, conflict, intercultural communication training, and intercultural training.
      • Appendix B lists the major associations related to the topic culture, communication, and competence. While by no means comprehensive, it supplies the contact information and basic purpose of each association.
      • Appendix C, the Intercultural Timeline, highlights the historical context of significant developments in intercultural communication, training, and research.
      The Future of Intercultural Competence

      Although soothsayers tread on precarious ground, the world in 2015 does not incline one to surmise that intercultural competence will be a passing trend. Rather it suggests that new contexts and approaches may be needed to heal a riling planet. Hazarding a few prognostications, one might observe the following future directions.

      First, considerable research is reinforcing the notion that diminishing prejudice and stereotypes requires reduction of anxiety as our starting point. We live in an anxious world, fearful of the stranger. In the future, anxiety reduction will more clearly be viewed as the foundation for meeting cultural others.

      Second, while most mission statements currently reflect the need for intercultural competence, few institutions and organizations have mastered the means to make those visions reality. They may increase representation of various cultural groups in an organization, but when those cultural groups meet, the employee may experience an unwelcoming environment; the student, an alienating classroom. Pressure from accrediting agencies and associations will continue to foster the development of intercultural competence.

      Third, assessing intercultural competence is already a significant demand in a wide range of organizations, and this will continue to flourish, with more training and education forthcoming on how to improve results. In some parts of the world, assessment of intercultural competence or its related skills will be increasing, as practitioners are required to demonstrate the effectiveness of their methods and educators must prove that they have prepared global-ready graduates. As of this date, there are more than one hundred instruments in existence designed to measure intercultural patterns, values, development, and competencies. Both proprietary and published research will require expertise in such assessments.

      Fourth is the probability that intercultural competence (or a similar concept by another name) will become a part of teaching about domestic diversity as well as global diversity. As we view world conflict in 2015, it is apparent that, due to domestic wars and migrations, immigrants and refugees have taken new positions throughout the world, and their interface with their host countries sometimes makes the headlines. Minority groups often state: “We take two steps forward and one step back.” While intercultural competence is not a panacea for poverty, crime, joblessness, and hunger, it can support a more productive dialogue as we seek to resolve these social justice issues. Within organizations, intercultural competence is taking a more prominent role, again in both domestic and global contexts.

      Fifth, recent experiments in the neurosciences have provided tantalizing data that relate to intercultural competence (for instance, the inverse relationship between empathy and anxiety). The role of neuroscience research and its relationship to human interaction will bring new insights for intercultural learning.

      The sixth prediction is that the increasing number of bicultural and biracial marriages, the accessibility of learning abroad, the requirements for business interchange, and the likelihood that the neighbor at home or at work will be culturally different will lead to the recognition that becoming interculturally competent has many intrinsic rewards.

      Finally, it must be asserted that the outcry for social justice will be heard—perhaps not a prediction, but a fervent desire.

      As for any other predictions, it depends.


      While preparing an encyclopedia, there are many people who rescue you from the abyss and support you to reach the top of the mountain. It is through the wisdom of many that this encyclopedia exists. You will meet them as you peruse these pages, and perhaps you have met some of them before in some non-encyclopedic way. It is a pleasure to recognize each of them.

      To my hearty associate editor Franki Trujillo-Dalbey, who never seems to be cranky, a special thanks for her roles as a friend full of laughter, as an editor, and as the highly organized geek who has kept me above water the entire time. Whether editing a wayward entry or rejoicing at some new insight, she has been a bright and flexible companion on this journey.

      Deserving the deepest gratitude is the editorial board, the marvelous team of on-call intercultural experts who helped conceptualize the parameters of the volumes and develop the links to the contributors. Special thanks to Kim Brown for your partnership in linguistics and things intercultural and your support in many special ways; to Robert Hayles for your deft touch in selecting contributors and handling special topics with superb judgment; to Bruce LaBrack for his encyclopedic mind (every encyclopedia needs one); to Michael Paige for his laserlike focus and editorial instincts in formulating themes and topics; to Nagesh Rao for knowing just when to step in with an insight and recommendations from Asia; and to Stella Ting-Toomey for the depth, breadth, and height of your wisdom in all things intercultural. A dream team, indeed.

      The professionals at SAGE seem to have taken classes in Tough Love, Appreciative Inquiry, and Handling the Angry Customer. Sanford Robinson, the senior development editor for this project, juggled everything with his eight arms and maintained a sense of humor throughout. We share a passion for the Oxford comma. Jane Haenel, the project editor, worked faster than we could match. Her copyediting team in India led by Shamila Swamy, proofreaders Scott Oney and Sue Irwin, and indexer Virgil Diodato were thorough and thoughtful. And Anna Villaseñor, the reference systems coordinator, led many a lost soul through the SAGE Reference Tracking System with grace and forbearance.

      To the 202 authors, my deepest gratitude for the stimulating conversations, charming e-mails, lucid copy, and your willingness to share your expertise in this format. It has been a pleasure to work with each and every one of you.

      To my friends and colleagues that are part of the faculty network at the Intercultural Communication Institute, thank you for sharing your ideas on various drafts and recommending contributors. And being contributors!

      And finally, to all the helpers at the Intercultural Communication Institute who helped me research and edit, as well as stay nourished and sane, you are very special people! For Sandy Whitmore Garrison, Kelli Fritsche, Mike Fuentes, Lori Welch, Sara Oakland, Steven Dowd, Kent Warren, Greg Walker, Elsa Wallace, Chris Cartwright, Karla Ricarda Schiller, Mellissa Shaw, and Grey Wiltshire, please know that you are very appreciated.

      In an endeavor such as this, the editors must assume responsibility for the inevitable omissions and errors that have escaped our watchful eyes, knowing that with things intercultural, the operant term is forgiveness, not perfection. In that light, those mistakes that are hidden within are ours, and we ask for your gracious indulgence.

    • Selected Readings on Intercultural Relations

      Developed by the Intercultural Communication Institute, Portland, Oregon

      This bibliography is divided into six sections:

      • Education in U.S. Domestic and International Contexts
      • Global Business
      • Diversity and Inclusion in Organizations
      • Multicultural/Virtual Teams
      • Culture and Conflict Resolution
      • General Intercultural
      Education in U.S. Domestic and International Contexts
      Anderson, J. (2008). Driving change through diversity and globalization: Transformative leadership in the academy. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Asante, M. K., Miike, Y., & Yin, J. (Eds.). (2007). The global intercultural reader. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Baldwin, J. R., Faulkner, S. L., & Hecht, M. L. (Eds.). (2006). Redefining culture: Perspectives across the disciplines. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
      Banks, J. A. (2006). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum, and teaching (
      5th ed.
      ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
      Banks, J. A. (2006). Race, culture, and education: The selected works of James A. Banks. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Banks, J. A. (Ed.). (2007). Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Banks, J. A. (2008). An introduction to multicultural education (
      4th ed.
      ). Seattle: University of Washington.
      Banks, J. A. (Ed.). (2009). The Routledge international companion of multicultural education. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Banks, J. A. (2009). Teaching strategies for ethnic studies (
      8th ed.
      ). Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
      Banks, J. A. (2010). Multicultural education (major themes in education). New York, NY: Routledge.
      Banks, J. A., & McGee Banks, C. A. (2012). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (
      8th ed.
      ). New York, NY: Wiley.
      Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
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      Berry, J. W. (2006). The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
      Berry, J. W., Mishra, R. C., & Tripathi, R. C. (Eds.). (2003). Psychology in human and social development: Lessons from diverse cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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      Chun, E., & Evans, A. (2009). Bridging the diversity divide: Globalization and reciprocal empowerment in higher education. ASHE Higher Education Report, 35 (1), 1144.
      Chun, K. M., Organista, P. B., & Marin, G. (Eds.). (2003). Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Clayton-Pederson, A. R., Parker, S., Smith, D. G., Moreno, J. F., & Hiroyuki Teraguchi, D. (2007). Making a real difference with diversity. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Cornell, S., & Hartman, D. (2007). Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world (
      2nd ed.
      ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
      Cornwell, G. H. (2000). Global multiculturalism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
      Cornwell, G. H., & Stoddard, E. W. (1999, Fall). Globalizing knowledge: Connecting international and intercultural studies. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Cortés, C. E. (2002). Making and remaking of a multiculturalist. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
      Cress, C. M., Collier, P. J., & Reitenaur, V. L. (2005). Learning through serving: A student guidebook for service-learning across the disciplines. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Cullingford, C., & Stan, S. (2005). Globalization, education and culture shock. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
      Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Safford, P. (2011). Human diversity in education: An intercultural approach (
      7th ed.
      ). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
      Deardorff, D. K. (Ed.). (2009). The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Deardorff, D. K., Banta, T. W., & de Wit, H. (2014). Demystifying outcomes assessment for international educators: A practical approach. Herndon, VA: Stylus.
      Deardorff, D. K., & Bowman, K. (2011). Beneath the tip of the iceberg: Improving English and understanding of U.S. cultural patterns. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
      Deardorff, D. K., de Wit, H., Heyl, J., & Adams, T. (Eds.). (2012). The SAGE handbook of international higher education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Feng, A., Byram, M., & Fleming, M. (Eds.). (2009). Becoming interculturally competent through education and training. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
      Fong, M., & Chuang, R. (Eds.). (2004). Communicating ethnic and cultural identity. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
      Fouad, N. A., & Arredondo, P. (2007). Becoming culturally oriented: Practical advice for psychologists and educators. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.
      Garcia, M., Hudgins, C., Musil, C. M., Nettles, M. T., Sedlacek, W. E., & Smith, D. G. (Eds.). (2002). Assessing campus diversity initiatives: A guide for campus practitioners. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Grant, C. A., & Sleeter, C. E. (2011). Doing multicultural education for achievement and equity (
      2nd ed.
      ). New York, NY: Routledge.
      Grineski, S., Landsman, J., & Simmons, R., III. (2013). Talking about race: Alleviating the fear. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Hale, F. W., Jr. (2006). What makes racial diversity work in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Hansel, B. (2007). Exchange student survival kit (
      2nd ed.
      ). Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Hogan-Garcia, M. (2012). The four skills of cultural diversity competence: A process for understanding and practice (
      4th ed.
      ). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
      Hovland, K. (2006). Shared futures: Global learning and liberal education. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Ibanez, B. P., & Lopez-Saenz, M. C. (Eds.). (2006). Interculturalism: Between identity and diversity. Bern, NY: Peter Lang.
      Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (2013). Joining together: Group theory and group skills (
      11th ed.
      ). Boston, MA: Pearson.
      Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2004). Assessing students in groups: Promoting group responsibility and individual accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
      Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2005). Teaching students to be peacemakers (
      4th ed.
      ). Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
      Jones, E., & Brown, S. (Eds.). (2007). Internationalising higher education. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Jowell, R., Roberts, C., Fitzgerald, R., & Eva, G. (2007). Measuring attitudes cross-nationally. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
      Kitchen, R. S., DePree, J., Celedon-Pattichis, S., & Brinkerhoff, J. (2007). Mathematics education at highly effective schools that serve the poor: Strategies for change. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
      Lange, D. L., & Paige, R. M. (Eds.). (2003). Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
      Lindsey, R. B., Diaz, R. M., Nuri-Robins, K., Terrell, R. D., & Lindsey, D. B. (2013). A culturally proficient response to LGBT communities. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
      Lowman, R. L. (2013). Internationalizing multiculturalism: Expanding professional competencies in a globalized world (
      1st ed.
      ). London, UK: American Psychological Association.
      Luk, J. C. M., & Lin, A. (Eds.). (2006). Classroom interactions as cross-cultural encounters. New York, NY: Erlbaum.
      Mestenhauser, J. A. (2011). Reflections on the past, present, and future of internationalizing higher education: Discovering opportunities to meet the challenges. Minneapolis, MN: Global Programs & Strategy Alliance.
      Mikk, B. K., Cohen, A. D., & Paige, R. M. (2009). Maximizing study abroad: An instructional guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.
      Musil, C. M. (2006). Assessing global learning: Matching good intentions with good practice. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Nisbett, R. E. (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
      Olson, C. L., Evans, R. L., & Shoenberg, R. F. (2007). At home in the world: Bridging the gap between internationalization and multicultural education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
      Paige, R. M. (Ed.). (1993). Education for the intercultural experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
      Paige, R. M., Cohen, A. D., Kappler, B., Chi, J. C., & Lassegard, J. P. (2006). Maximizing study abroad: A students’ guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.
      Parillo, V. N. (2008). Diversity in America (
      3rd ed.
      ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
      Pedersen, P. B., Draguns, J., Lonner, W., & Trimble, J. (Eds.). (2008). Counseling across cultures (
      6th ed.
      ). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
      Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of multicultural counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Powell, R. G., & Powell, D. L. (2010). Classroom communication and diversity: Enhancing instructional practice (
      2nd ed.
      ). New York, NY: Routledge.
      Preskill, S., & Brookfield, S. D. (2008). Learning as a way of leading: Lessons from the struggle for social justice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Reagan, T. (2005). Non-Western educational traditions: Indigenous approaches to educational thought and practice (
      3rd ed.
      ). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
      Rhodes, T. L. (Ed.). (2010). Assessing outcomes and improving achievement: Tips and tools for using rubrics. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Rodriguez, A. J., & Kitchen, R. S. (Eds.). (2005). Preparing mathematics and science teachers for diverse classrooms: Promising strategies for transformative pedagogy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
      Rosenblum, K. E., & Travis, T. C. (2006). The meaning of difference: American constructions of race, sex, and gender, social class, and sexual orientation. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
      Savicki, V. (Ed.). (2008). Developing intercultural competence and transformation: Theory, research, and application in international education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Sedlacek, W. E. (2004). Beyond the big test: Noncognitive assessment in higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Shotton, H. J., Lowe, S. C., & Waterman, S. J. (2013). Beyond the asterisk: Understanding native students in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Smith, D. G. (2011). Diversity’s promise for higher education: Making it work. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
      Smith, D. G. (2014). Diversity and inclusion in higher education: Emerging perspectives on institutional transformation. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Smith, D. G., & Associates. (2000). A diversity research agenda: Campus diversity initiatives. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Smith, D. G., & Associates. (1997). Diversity works: The emerging picture of how students benefit. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
      Smith, D. G., & Wolf-Wendel, L. E. (2005). The challenge of diversity: Involvement or alienation in the academy? ASHE Higher Education Report, 31 (1), 1100.
      Stearns, P. (2008). Educating global citizens in colleges and universities: Challenges and opportunities. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Sue, D. W. (2006). Addressing racism: Facilitating cultural competence in mental health and educational settings. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
      Suzuki, L. A., Ponterotto, J. G., & Meller, P. J. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (
      3rd ed.
      ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Taylor, E. W. (Ed.). (2006, Spring). Teaching for change: Fostering transformative learning in the classroom [Special issue]. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2006 (109), 195.
      Taylor, E. W., Gillborn, D., & Ladson-Billings, G. (Eds.). (2009). Foundations of critical race theory in education. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Tileston, D. W. (2010). What every teacher should know about diverse learners (
      2nd ed.
      ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Ting, S. R. (2008). Structured groups for non-traditional college students: Noncognitive assessment and strategies. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
      Vande Berg, M., Paige, R. M., & Lou, K. H. (Eds.). (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they’re not, and what we can do about it. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Verma, G. K., Bagley, C., & Jha, M. (Eds.). (2007). International perspectives on diversity and inclusive education. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Weaver, G. (2008). America’s midlife crisis: The future of a troubled superpower. Boston, MA: Intercultural Press.
      Weaver, G. (2013). Intercultural relations: Communication, identity and conflict (
      1st ed.
      ). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.
      Global Business
      Adler, N. J. (2010). Leadership insight. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Adler, N. J., & Gundersen, A. (2007). International dimensions of organizational behavior (
      5th ed.
      ). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College.
      Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (2004). The nature of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Brake, T. (2002). Essential managers: Managing globally. New York, NY: DK Publishing.
      Chhokar, J., Brodbeck, F. C., & House, R. J. (Eds.). (2007). Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
      Christian, J., & Scholz, Z. (Eds.). (2006). Strategic management: New rules for Old Europe. Wiesbaden, Germany: Gabler.
      Comfort, J., & Franklin, P. (2014). The mindful international manager: How to work effectively across cultures. London, UK: Kogan Page.
      Deal, J. J., & Prince, D. W. (2004). Developing cultural adaptability: How to work across differences. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.
      Earley, P. C., Ang, S., & Tan, J. S. (2010). CQ: Developing cultural intelligence at work. Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.
      Ferraro, G. P. (2012). The cultural dimension of global business (
      7th ed.
      ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Fisher-Yoshida, B., & Geller, K. D. (2009). Transnational leadership development: Preparing the next generation for the borderless business world. New York, NY: AMACOM.
      Gannon, M. (2012). Cultures: Metaphorical journeys through 29 nations, clusters of nations, continents, and diversity (
      5th ed.
      ). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
      Gardenswartz, L., Cherbosque, J., & Rowe, A. (2008). Emotional intelligence for managing results in a diverse world: The hard truth about soft skills in the workplace. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black.
      Gardenswartz, L., Rowe, P., Digh, A., & Bennett, M. (2003). The global diversity desk reference: Managing an international workforce. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Granered, E. (2005). Global call centers: Achieving outstanding customer service across cultures and time zones. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Gundling, E. (2010). Working GlobeSmart: 12 people skills for doing business across borders. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Gundling, E., Hogan, T., & Cvitkovich, K. (2011). What is global leadership? 10 Key behaviors that define great global leaders. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Gundling, E., & Zanchettin, A. (2010). Global diversity: Winning customers and engaging employees within world markets. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Harris, P. R., & Moran, R. T. (2010). Managing cultural differences: Global leadership strategies for cross-cultural business success (
      8th ed.
      ). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
      Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Michael, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software for the mind (
      3rd ed.
      ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Javidan, M., Steers, R. M., & Hitt, M. A. (2007). Advances in international management: Vol. 19. The global mindset. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
      Lane, H. W., Maznevski, M. L., Deetz, J., & DiStefano, J. (2009). International management behavior: Leading with a global mindset (
      6th ed.
      ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
      Lane, H. W., Maznevski, M., DiStefano, J. J., & Dietz, J. (2013). International management behavior: Changing for a sustainable world (
      7th ed.
      ). Malden, MA: Wiley.
      Lane, H. W., Maznevski, M. L., Mendenhall, M. E., & McNett, J. (Eds.). (2004). The Blackwell handbook of global management: A guide to managing complexity. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
      LeBaron, M. (2000). Why the “foreign” matters in foreign affairs. Harvard International Review, 22 (3), 54.
      Livermore, D. (2010). Leading with cultural intelligence. New York, NY: American Management Association.
      Maude, B. (2011). Managing cross-cultural communication: Principles and practice. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
      Mendenhall, M. E., Kuhlmann, T. M., & Stahl, G. K. (Eds.). (2000). Developing global business leaders: Policies, processes, and innovations. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
      Mendenhall, M. E., Oddou, G., & Stahl, G. K. (2011). Readings and cases in international human resource management and organizational behavior (
      5th ed.
      ). New York, NY: Routledge.
      Mendenhall, M., Osland, J., Bird, A., Oddou, G., Maznevski, M., Stevens, M., & Stahl, G. (2012). Global leadership: Research, practice, and development (
      2nd ed.
      ). New York, NY: Routledge.
      Mobley, W. H., & Dorfman, P. W. (Eds.). (2003). Advances in global leadership (Vol. 3). Boston, MA: JAI (Elsevier).
      Moodian, M. A. (Ed.). (2009). Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Exploring the cross-cultural dynamics within organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Moore, C. W., & Woodrow, P. J. (2010). Handbook of global and multicultural negotiation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Osland, J. S., Ming, L., & Ying, W. (2014). Advances in global leadership (Vol. 8). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.
      Rosinski, P. (2010). Global coaching: An integrated approach for long-lasting results. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Sadri, H. A., & Flammia, M. (2011). Intercultural communication: A new approach to international relations and global challenges. New York, NY: Continuum.
      Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (
      4th ed.
      ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Schmidt, W. V., Conaway, R., Wardrope, W., & Easton, S. (2007). Communicating globally: Intercultural communication and international business. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Thomas, A., Kinast, E., & Schroll-Machl, S. (2010). Handbook of intercultural communication and cooperation (
      2nd ed.
      ). Oakville, CT: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
      Thomas, D. C. (2008). Cross/cultural management: Essential concepts (
      2nd ed.
      ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Thomas, D. C., & Inkson, K. (2009). Cultural intelligence: Living and working globally. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
      Thomas, D. C., & Peterson, M. (2014). Cross-cultural management: Essential concepts (
      3rd ed.
      ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2004). Managing people across cultures. Oxford, UK: Capstone.
      Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2010). Riding the waves of innovation: Harness the power of global culture to drive creativity and growth (Kindle ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2011). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business (
      3rd ed.
      ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Trompenaars, F., & Voerman, E. (2010). Servant-leadership across cultures: Harnessing the strengths of the world’s most powerful management philosophy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Varner, I., & Beamer, L. (2010). Intercultural communication in the global workplace (
      5th ed.
      ). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
      Vulpe, T., Kealey, D., Protheroe, D., & MacDonald, D. (2001). A profile of the interculturally effective person (
      2nd ed.
      ). Quebec, Quebec, Canada: Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Centre for Intercultural Learning.
      Wood, P., & Landry, C. (2008). The intercultural city: Planning for diversity advantage. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
      Diversity and Inclusion in Organizations
      Aguilar, L. C. (2006). Ouch! That stereotype hurts: Communicating respectfully in a diverse world. Dallas, TX: The Walk the Talk Company.
      Carr-Ruffino, N. (2009). People skills for a multicultural workplace (
      9th ed.
      ). Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Custom.
      Cherbosque, J., Gardenswartz, L., & Rowe, A. (2012). Emotional intelligence for managing results in a diverse world. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Citkin, F., & Spielman, L. (2012). Transformational diversity: Why and how intercultural competencies can help organizations to survive and thrive. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management.
      Connerley, M. L., & Pederson, P. B. (2005). Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: Developing awareness, knowledge, and skills. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Gardenswartz, L., & Rowe, A. (2003). Diverse teams at work: Capitalizing on the power of diversity. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resources Management.
      Gardenswartz, L., & Rowe, A. (2010). Managing diversity: A complete desk reference and planning guide (
      3rd ed.
      ). Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resources Management.
      Hubbard, E. E. (2010). Diversity training ROI: How to measure the return on investment of diversity training initiatives [Online]. Global Insights.
      Karp, H., Fuller, C., & Sirias, D. (2002). Bridging the Boomer-Xer gap. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.
      Kochman, T., & Mavrelis, J. (2009). Corporate tribalism: White men/White women and cultural diversity at work. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
      Konrad, A. M. (2006). Cases in gender and diversity in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Konrad, A. M., Prasad, P., & Pringle, J. (2005). Handbook of workplace diversity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Laroche, L. (2003). Managing cultural diversity in technical professions. New York, NY: Butterworth Heinemann (Elsevier Science).
      Norman-Major, K. A., & Gooden, S. T. (2012). Cultural competency for public administrators. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
      Page, S. E. (2007). The difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools and society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
      Scarborough, J. (2001). The origins of cultural differences and their impact on management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
      Thomas, R. R. (2010). World class diversity management: A strategic approach. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
      Wood, P., & Landry, C. (2008). The intercultural city: Planning for diversity advantage. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
      Multicultural/Virtual Teams
      Brake, T. (2008). Where in the world is my team? Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
      Duarte, D. L., & Snyder, N. T. (2006). Mastering virtual teams: Strategies, tools, and techniques that succeed (
      3rd ed.
      ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Earley, P. C., & Gibson, C. B. (2002). Multinational work teams: A new perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
      Fisher, K., & Fisher, M. D. (2001). The distance manager: A hands-on guide to managing off-site employees and virtual teams. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Garton, C., & Wegryn, K. (2006). Managing without walls: Maximize success with virtual, global, and cross-cultural teams. Lewisville, TX: MC Press.
      Gibson, C. B., & Gohen, S. G. (Eds.). (2003). Virtual teams that work: Creating conditions for virtual team effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass (Wiley).
      Hoefling, T. (2001). Working virtually: Managing people for successful virtual teams and organizations. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
      Huijer, M. (2006). The cultural advantage: A new model for succeeding with global teams. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Marquardt, M. J., & Horvath, L. (2001). Global teams: How top multinationals span boundaries and cultures with high-speed teamwork. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.
      Nemiro, J., Beyerlein, M. M., Bradley, L., & Beyerlein, S. (2010). The handbook of high performance virtual teams: A toolkit for collaborating across boundaries. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      Pauleen, D. J. (Ed.). (2004). Virtual teams: Projects, protocols and processes. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.
      Culture and Conflict Resolution
      Abu-Nimer, M., Khoury, A. I., & Welty, E. (2007). Unity in diversity: Interfaith dialogue in the Middle East. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.
      Augsburger, D. W. (1992). Conflict mediation across cultures: Pathways and patterns. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press.
      Avruch, K. (2012). Context and pretext in conflict resolution: Culture, identity, power, and practice. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
      Avruch, K., & Mitchell, C. (Eds.). (2013). Conflict resolution and human needs: Linking theory and practice (
      1st ed.
      ). New York, NY: Routledge.
      Avruch, K., Narel, J. L., & Combelles-Siegel, P. (2000). Information campaigns for peace operations. Washington, DC: C41SR Cooperative Research Program.
      Cohen, R. (1997). Negotiating across cultures: International communication in an interdependent world. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute for Peace Press.
      Cupach, W., Canary, D., & Spitzberg, B. H. (2010). Competence in interpersonal conflict (
      2nd ed.
      ). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
      Faure, G. O., & Rubin, J. Z. (Eds.). (1993). Culture and negotiation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Healy, J. F. (2012). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class: The sociology of group conflict and change (
      6th ed.
      ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2005). Conflict resolution and peer mediation. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
      Landis, D., & Albert, R. D. (2012). Handbook of ethnic conflict: International perspectives. New York, NY: Springer Science.
      LeBaron, M. (2003). Bridging cultural conflicts: A new approach for a changing world. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
      LeBaron, M., MacLeod, C., & Acland, A. F. (2013). The choreography of resolution: Conflict, movement, and neuroscience. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.
      LeBaron, M., & Pillay, V. (2006). Conflict across cultures: A unique experience bridging differences. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
      Lederach, J. P. (2010). The moral imagination: The art and soul of building peace. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
      Lederach, J. P. (2011). Building peace (Kindle ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace.
      Oetzel, J. G., & Ting-Toomey, S. (Eds.). (2013). The SAGE handbook of conflict communication: Integrating theory, research, and practice (
      2nd ed.
      ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Ting-Toomey, S., & Oetzel, J. G. (2001). Managing intercultural conflict effectively. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Weaver, G. R. (Ed.). (2000). Culture, communication and conflict: Readings in intercultural relations (
      3rd ed.
      ). Boston, MA: Pearson Custom.
      General Intercultural
      Anthias, F., & Lloyd, C. (Eds.). (2002). Rethinking anti-racisms: From theory to practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
      Asante, M. K., Miike, Y., & Yin, J. (Eds.). (2013). The global intercultural communication reader (
      2nd ed.
      ). London, UK: Routledge.
      Asitimbay, D. (2009). What’s up America? A foreigner’s guide to understanding Americans (
      2nd ed.
      ). San Diego, CA: Culturelink Press.
      Baldwin, J. R., Coleman, R. M., Gonzalez, A., & Shenoy-Packer, S. (2014). Intercultural communication for everyday life. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
      Baldwin, J. R., Faulkner, S. L., Hecht, M. L., & Lindsley, S. L. (Eds.). (2006). Redefining culture: Perspectives across the disciplines. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
      Bell-Villada, G. H., Sichel, N., Eidse, F., & Orr, E. N. (2011). Writing out of limbo: International childhoods, global nomads, and third culture kids. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars.
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      Professional Associations and Organizations

      The following is a listing of professional associations and organizations that focus on intercultural relations or that have a major division that addresses that topic. Most have periodical publications, annual conferences, and other services.

      America-Mideast Educational & Training Services, Inc. (AMIDEAST)

      AMIDEAST is an organization engaged in international education, training, and development activities in the Middle East and North Africa. For more information, see

      American Council on Education (ACE)

      The ACE is a national umbrella higher education association that serves as a forum for the discussion of major issues related to higher education. For more information, see

      American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)

      The ACTFL is a national organization representing teachers of languages at all education levels. For more information, see

      American Counseling Association (ACA)

      ACA is a national organization of mental health professionals, which has various organizations addressing specific areas: for example, Association for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling (AGLBIC); Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD); and Counselors for Social Justice (CSJ). For more information, see

      American Field Service (AFS)

      AFS is an international, voluntary, nongovernmental, nonprofit organization that provides intercultural learning opportunities. For more information, see

      American Forum for Global Education—“The American Forum” (TAF)

      TAF is a private, nonprofit organization serving as a forum for the exchange of ideas about the directions of global education. For more information, see

      American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)

      ASTD is a 70,000-member professional association in the field of workplace learning and performance. For more information, see

      Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith (ADL)

      ADL is the world’s leading organization fighting anti-Semitism through programs and services that counteract hatred, prejudice, and bigotry. For more information, see

      Arab West Foundation

      The Arab West Foundation aims to encourage and promote tolerance, understanding, and dialogue between Muslim and non-Muslim communities and societies, as well as between the Arab and Western worlds. For more information, see

      Asia Society

      The Asia Society is one of the leading institutions in the United States dedicated to fostering an understanding of Asia, and communication between Americans and the peoples of Asia and the Pacific. For more information, see

      Association for Asian Studies (AAS)

      The AAS is the largest society of its kind in the world—a scholarly, nonpolitical, nonprofit, professional association open to all persons interested in Asia. For more information, see

      Association for International Education Administrators (AIEA)

      AIEA members are institutional leaders engaged in advancing the international dimensions of higher education. For more information, see

      Association for International Practical Training (AIPT)

      The AIPT arranges overseas training in 46 countries for undergraduate and graduate students who specialize in engineering, architecture, math, science, computer science, hospitality, tourism, and agriculture. Fluency in the host country’s language is preferred. For more information, see

      Association of American Colleges & Universities (AACU)

      The mission of the AACU is to make liberal education and inclusive excellence the foundation for institutional purpose and educational practice in higher education. For more information, see

      Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi)

      The ABPsi is an international resource for addressing the psychological needs of African people in the diaspora. For more information, see

      Association of International Educators (NAFSA)

      NAFSA is a professional organization for those who promote and manage the exchange of students and scholars to and from the United States and engage in international education activities. For more information, see

      Australian Intercultural Society (AIS)

      AIS has been operating in Melbourne since 2000 with the aims of promoting multiculturalism and fostering intercultural and interfaith dialogue. It provides a platform for cultural and information exchange. For more information, see

      Business Association of Latin American Studies (BALAS)

      BALAS is the first international business and economics professional association to focus exclusively on the study of economics, management, leadership, and industry in Latin America and the Caribbean. For more information, see

      Center for Creative Leadership (CCL)

      The CCL is an international, nonprofit educational institution committed to enhancing the understanding and effectiveness of leadership in an increasingly complex and demanding world. For more information, see

      China Institute in America

      China Institute in America is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, educational and cultural institution promoting the understanding of China’s civilization, culture, history, and current affairs. For more information, see

      The Forum on Education Abroad

      The Forum is a global membership association whose exclusive purpose is to serve the field of education abroad. It was created by experts in the field specifically to meet the needs of the profession. For more information, see

      Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network (GLSEN)

      GLSEN is the largest national organization bringing together teachers, parents, students, and concerned citizens to work together to end homophobia in schools. For more information, see

      Independent Scholars of Asia (ISA)

      ISA is an organization dedicated to making the expertise of scholars of Asia available to the public. It also publishes a quarterly newsletter. For more information, see

      Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA)

      IDRA is an independent, nonprofit organization that is dedicated to ensuring educational opportunity for every child. For more information, see

      International Academy of Intercultural Research (IAIR)

      The aim of the IAIR is to provide a forum where senior intercultural researchers, academics, and trainers can exchange ideas, theories, research, and successful training approaches. All disciplines are welcome in the academy. For more information, see

      International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP)

      The IACCP has a membership of more than 800 persons in more than 65 countries. It aims to facilitate communication among persons interested in a diverse range of issues involving the intersection of culture and psychology. For more information, see

      International Association for Intercultural Education (IAIE)

      The IAIE brings together professional educators interested in diversity and equity issues in education. For more information, see

      International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies (IATIS)

      The IATIS is a worldwide forum designed to enable scholars from different regional and disciplinary backgrounds to debate issues relating to translation and other forms of intercultural communication. For more information, see

      International Association of Universities (IAU)

      The IAU is the UNESCO-based worldwide association of higher education institutions. It brings together institutions and organizations from some 120 countries for reflection and action on common concerns and collaborates with various international, regional, and national bodies active in higher education. For more information, see

      International Communication Association (ICA)

      One of the ICA’s primary goals is to promote the exchange of knowledge among scholars studying communication across cultures. For more information, see

      International Federation of Training & Development Organisations, Ltd. (IFTDO)

      The IFTDO is a worldwide network committed to identifying, developing, and transferring knowledge, skills, and technology to enhance personal and organizational growth, human performance, productivity, and sustainable development. For more information, see

      The International Schools Association (ISA)

      The ISA works to supply teachers to outlying areas where recruitment is difficult. For more information, see

      International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)

      The ISPI is an international association dedicated to improving human production and performance in the workplace. Its international membership base represents more than 40 countries, with more than 10,000 chapters in the United States and internationally. It seeks to develop quality workplace improvements in systematic and reproducible ways. For more information, see

      International Studies Association (ISA)

      The ISA sponsors an annual convention as well as regional and sectional meetings. It also holds world assemblies of international studies. For more information, see

      International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS)

      The mission of the IUPsyS is the development, representation, and advancement of psychology as a basic and applied science nationally, regionally, and internationally. For more information, see

      Latin American Studies Association (LASA)

      The LASA is an international educational organization whose members are professionals of various disciplines engaged in the study of Latin America. Its membership numbers more than 4,800, at least 25% of whom live outside the United States. For more information, see

      League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)

      The LULAC is the largest and oldest Hispanic organization in the United States. It advances the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, health, and civil rights of Hispanic Americans through community-based programs operating at more than 700 LULAC councils nationwide. The organization involves and serves all Hispanic nationality groups. For more information, see

      Meridian International Center

      Meridian International Center is a private, nonprofit, educational institution committed to cross-cultural research, training, consulting, publications, business, development, and student exchange. For more information, see

      National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE)

      The NABE is the only national organization exclusively concerned with the education of language-minority students in American schools. For more information, see

      National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME)

      The NAME brings together individuals and groups with an interest in multicultural education from all levels of education, different academic disciplines, and diverse educational institutions and occupations. For more information, see

      National Association of Japan-America Societies (NAJAS)

      The NAJAS is a private, nonprofit organization offering educational, cultural, and business programs about U.S.–Japan relations. For more information, see

      National Communication Association (NCA)

      NCA is a nonprofit organization with a mission to promote the study, criticism, research, teaching, and application of the artistic, humanistic, and scientific principles of communication. For more information, see

      National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)

      NCSS is the largest association in the United States devoted to social studies education, with members in all 50 states and in 69 countries worldwide. For more information, see and

      National Council on U.S.-Arab Relations

      The National Council on U.S.-Arab Relations is an educational organization dedicated to improving American knowledge and understanding of the Arab world. For more information, see

      National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF)

      The NGLTF is a leading progressive civil rights organization that supports grassroots organizing and advocacy for issues related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights. For more information, see

      Organizational Development Network (OD-NET)

      The OD-NET is an association of organizational development practitioners representing a range of professional roles in a wide variety of organizations. For more information, see

      Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)

      SHRM is the leading voice of the human resource profession, representing the interests of more than 95,000 professional and student members from around the world. For more information, see

      Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research—Europe (SIETAR Europa)

      SIETAR is Europe’s largest association of interculturalists and is part of the worldwide SIETAR network. For more information, see (this website contains links to most SIETAR Europa chapter sites).

      Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research—Japan (SIETAR Japan)

      The purpose of SIETAR Japan is to foster international and intercultural communication and cooperation through the promotion of intercultural education, training, and research in Japan. For more information, see

      Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research—USA (SIETAR USA)

      SIETAR USA is a point of connection for people who explore differences on many levels; engage in cutting-edge research related to the cultural dimensions of interactions between and among individuals, organizations, and political entities; continually search for and provide avenues to effective relations across cultures; and work with students and others to expand worldviews and build skills for successful interactions in intercultural arenas. For more information, see

      Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research—Young SIETAR

      Young SIETAR is an organization for people under 30. Young SIETAR is an international association that combines the efforts of students and young professionals from a wide range of practical and academic disciplines who share a common concern for intercultural relations. For more information, see

      Society for International Development (SID)

      SID is a global network of individuals and institutions concerned with pluralistic, participative, and sustainable international development. For more information, see

      Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)

      TESOL is an organization dedicated to developing the expertise of its members and others involved in teaching English to speakers of other languages. For more information, see

      World Education, Inc.

      World Education is a private, nonprofit organization committed to cross-cultural education, consulting, publications, and development, as well as assisting refugees. Language fluency and an advanced degree with field experience in a developing country are required for training and consulting positions. For more information, see

      Youth For Understanding (YFU) USA

      YFU is a nonprofit, educational organization that offers opportunities for young people around the world to spend a summer, semester, or year with a host family in a culture different from their own. For more information, see

      Intercultural Tim eline

      The Intercultural Timeline lists chronologically some of the significant landmarks in the nascent field of intercultural relations. Because of the wide variety of disciplines that influenced the development of the field, the chronology is limited to events that illustrate the growth in intercultural communication and training over the last seven decades. For those interested in the origins of the field, this brief and admittedly incomplete timeline provides an introduction to this material.

      The 1940s and 1950s: The Decades of Early Interdisciplinary Explorations

      1930–1940s The seeds of intercultural communication were planted in the work of Margaret Mead and the Institute for Intercultural Studies, whose assumptions, terminology, and research were the predecessors of intercultural work.

      1946 The American Graduate School of International Management (Thunderbird) was founded.

      1948 The National Association of Foreign Student Advisers (NAFSA) was founded in 1948 to promote professional development for academic officials in international education. It is now called NAFSA: Association for International Educators (thus retaining the acronym).

      1932–1951 International educational programs grew as travel became easier and global curiosity increased. International exchange and study programs abroad proliferated (Council for International Educational Exchange, 1947; American Field Service, 1947; Experiment in International Living, 1932; Institute of International Education, 1932; 4-H Youth Exchange, 1948; Youth for Understanding, 1951).

      1951 Anthropologist Cora DuBois is often credited with coining the term culture shock in her presentations.

      1954 Standard Vacuum Oil Company established the first documented in-house training program for employees in Indonesia.

      1954 Gordon Allport published the now-classic text The Nature of Prejudice.

      1955 Sverre Lysgaard first identified the U-curve of cultural adjustment, which was later extended by Gullahorn and Gullahorn’s W-curve in 1963.

      1955 Anthropologist Edward T. Hall became the director of the U.S. State Department’s Point IV Training Program at the Foreign Service Institute. Along with George L. Trager and Raymond Bird-whistle, he developed a culture-learning program for foreign service officers that emphasized, for the first time, experiential training techniques for intercultural learning. In 1956, Hall wrote Orientation and Training in Government for Work Overseas. Hall was attempting to extend the purview of anthropology into intercultural interactions.

      1958 Kalvero Oberg initially discussed culture shock in 1958 at the Foreign Service Institute; he published “Culture Shock: Adjustments to New Cultural Environments” in 1960.

      1958 The Business Council for International Understanding (BCIU) was founded to provide training for the corporate world.

      1959 Edward T. Hall’s first book on intercultural communication, titled The Silent Language, outlined, for the first time, the impact of nonverbal communication on intercultural communication. This book and his article “The Anthropology of Manners” in Scientific American (1955) offered a new model for experiential intercultural training. Edward T. Hall is often called the father of the field of intercultural communication.

      The 1960s: Decade of Identifying and Addressing Intercultural Needs

      1960s Washington International Center was established; it is now called Meridian House International. Created to enhance global leadership, the center works with governments, NGOs, and corporations to offer programs.

      1960 Communication scholars began organizing university courses and programs in intercultural communication, wrote books and articles, and joined specialized academic organizations.

      1960 The East-West Center was developed at the University of Hawaii to promote intercultural relations in the Pacific and Asia.

      1961 The Peace Corps was created, inspired by the vision of John F. Kennedy, and many young people joined to work overseas in a host country. Initial training was conducted at universities in the United States. Many of the past and present leaders in the intercultural field emerged from the Peace Corps.

      1961 Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck wrote their seminal work Variations in Value Orientations, a model still recognized as a pioneering explanation of value structures and a process for cultural comparison and contrast.

      1962 Everett Rogers published Diffusion of Innovations, a useful review of research and models for intercultural change agents. It is now in its fifth edition.

      1962–1966 Edward Stewart, Jack Danielian, Robert Foster, and (later) Alfred Kraemer conducted a project at the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) at George Washington University, which led to the development of the Contrast-American Training Model, sometimes known as Mr. Khan.

      1962 Dean C. Barnlund wrote a seminal theoretical article titled “Toward a Meaning-Centered Philosophy of Communication” in which he provided a conceptual perspective on meaning making.

      1964 The Experiment in International Living (now called World Learning) created the School for International Training (SIT), offering degrees, study abroad, language learning, and intercultural communication training for the Peace Corps and other organizations applying an experiential approach. SIT later designed simulations such as The Albatross and The Owl.

      1964 Richard Hoggart founded the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham, U.K. The field of cultural studies later expanded to the United States in English and communication departments, among others.

      1966 Edward T. Hall published The Hidden Dimension, his second examination of intercultural nonverbal behavior, in this case examining spatial issues.

      1966 The first intercultural communication workshop was conducted under the auspices of the Regional Council for International Education in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Clifford Clark also trained facilitators at Cornell University to conduct Intercultural Workshops (ICW), a program format that became widespread throughout universities in the United States.

      1966 LaRay Barna, at Portland State University in Oregon, is often called the mother of the field and was one of the first to develop and teach an academic course in intercultural communication. She was the first to use what would come to be known as intercultural training techniques in an academic course.

      1966 The U.S Navy used the Cultural Assimilator developed by Harry Triandis, Fred Fiedler, Lawrence Stoluron, and Charles Osgood, which they later published in 1972. They developed sets of culture-specific critical incidents based on the countries and cultures where the navy had installations.

      1966 TESOL, the association devoted to issues concerning Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, was founded with the support of five other associations in language learning, communication, and international education.

      1967 Loren Ekroth, the first PhD with an indepth focus on intercultural communication, graduated from the Speech Communication Department at the University of Minnesota, under the direction of William S. Howell.

      1967 Overseas Briefing Associates, operated by Alison R. Lanier, published Updates and, in 1973, Living in the USA.

      1968 The United States Information Agency began offering an intercultural communications course.

      1969 Yehuda Amir wrote “The Contact Hypothesis in Ethnic Relations,” elaborating on the initial work of Gordon Allport.

      The 1970s: Decade of Education and Innovation

      1970s Early in the 1970s, Michael Tucker developed the Overseas Assignment Inventory (OAI), one of the earliest assessment instruments in the intercultural field.

      1970s During this decade, critical theory came to U.S. departments of communication from the Frankfurt School in Germany and the Institute for Cultural Studies.

      1970s During the 1970s, Critical Race Theory (CRT) was developed by Derrick Bell, Kimberle Crenshaw, Mari Matsuda, and Patricia Williams to address the role race and racism plays in society.

      1970s Many small intercultural consulting companies were created to address the growing need for intercultural training and education.

      1970 The first intercultural training manual was developed for the Peace Corps, Guidelines for Peace Corps Cross-Cultural Training by Albert White, Mary Anne Hammons, and William Wight. This manual transformed the university model of training to one that was more experiential.

      1970 The Regional Council for International Education (RCIE) published the newsletter Communique to provide a way to communicate widely about intercultural training. RCIE also published a series called Readings in Intercultural Communication edited by David Hoopes, with articles about research, theory, and programs in the field.

      1971 LaRay Barna published her popular article “Stumbling Blocks to Intercultural Communication” in Readings in Intercultural Communication: Vol. I. The Intercultural Communication Workshop, edited by David Hoopes, executive director of the Intercultural Communications Network.

      1971 Garry Shirts developed the first intercultural simulation for the U.S. Navy to teach naval personnel to interact more sensitively. BaFa BaFa became available to the public in 1974, and it is the mostly widely used simulation.

      1972 Edward Stewart published American Cultural Patterns: A Cross-Cultural Approach, which was often used in intercultural communication courses. It was one of the earliest culture-specific academic books in intercultural communication.

      1972 In his position of leadership with the International Communications Network (later called the Intercultural Network), David Hoopes edited Readings in Intercultural Communication: Vol. II. Teaching Intercultural Communication: Concepts and Courses, which contained seventeen syllabi for teaching in this new field.

      1972 Larry Samovar and Richard Porter published the first edition of their edited book Intercultural Communication: A Reader, now in its 14th edition.

      1972 Harry Triandis, Fred Fiedler, Lawrence Stoluron, and Charles Osgood developed and researched the cultural assimilator, a paper-and-pencil training method.

      1974 The professional association SITAR (now known at SIETAR), the Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research, was born during a meeting with consultants working on a contract with the Peace Corps. David Hoopes was selected as the first executive director.

      1974 SIETAR, a professional organization for interculturalists, held its first conference in 1974. It became SIETAR International in 1982. SIETAR produced some of the first publications in the field. SIETAR has since expanded to include SIETAR Europa (1991) and SIETAR Japan and SIETAR USA in 2000.

      1974 The Speech Communication Association (now the NCA) published the first International and Intercultural Communication Annual, edited by Frederick Casmir.

      1974–1984 George Renwick conducted the State of the Art Study on the intercultural field from 1932 to 1984.

      1975 John Condon and Fathi Yousef published An Introduction to Intercultural Communication.

      1975 Founded by Clifford H. Clarke and King Ming Young, the Stanford Institute of Intercultural Communication held its first of ten summer programs at Stanford University.

      1975 In the United States, Nessa Loewenthal began pioneering work with Bechtel Corporation, offering services for families living overseas. This was believed to be the first time families were required to receive relocation services in addition to the workers themselves.

      1976 The late 1970s produced an array of new intercultural communication textbooks to serve the rapidly increasing number of intercultural courses being offered.

      1977 Milton J. Bennett built on LaRay Barna’s efforts at Portland State University, where he instituted the ICW model as part of the curriculum and, with Janet M. Bennett, expanded its graduate student facilitator training component.

      1977 The International Journal of Intercultural Relations, edited by Dan Landis, began publication.

      1977 The Intercultural Press was formed by David Hoopes, Margaret Pusch, and George Renwick to support publication of intercultural theory, training, and culture-specific books.

      1977 In the field of counseling, Paul Pedersen developed the triad model of cross-cultural counseling.

      1978 CIDA offered the first reentry programs, called Canadian World Youth, for Canadian Crossroads International.

      1978 Michael Prosser published the 1977 Proceedings of the Intercultural Communication Course at the International Communication Agency.

      1979 Interest from the corporate world prompted publication of the Survival Kit for Overseas Living by Robert Kohls, as well as Managing Cultural Differences by Philip R. Harris and Robert T. Moran.

      1979 The first Handbook of Intercultural Communication was edited by Molefi Kete Asante, Eileen Newmark, and Cecil Blake.

      The 1980s: Decade of Intercultural Theory and Domestic Diversity

      1980 About 60 U.S. universities offered graduate-level courses in intercultural communication, and about 200 offered one or more undergraduate-level courses.

      1980 In Europe, Geert Hofstede founded the Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation and published the landmark study Culture’s Consequences.

      1980 The simulation Barnga was created by Sivasailam “Thiagi” Thiagarajan in 1980 while working for USAID in Gbarnga, Liberia.

      1981 David Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory (1976) and experiential learning cycle became a major influence in intercultural training and teaching.

      1982 SIETAR became SIETAR International.

      1983 Going International, a series produced by Copeland Griggs Productions, was the first video material produced for corporate training and made culture shock a household term.

      1983 The Multicultural Institute in Washington, DC, was formed to address domestic diversity issues and provided diversity training techniques and learning modules.

      1985 SIETAR JAPAN was founded in 1985 as an affiliate group of SIETAR. SIETAR Japan has been publishing an academic journal, Journal of Intercultural Communication, annually since 1997.

      1986 The Intercultural Communication Institute was founded by Janet M. Bennett and Milton J. Bennett. The Stanford Institute became the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication (SIIC), moving to Portland, Oregon.

      1986 The International Journal of Intercultural Relations published a special edition on Theories and Methods in Cross-Cultural Orientation that focused on state-of-the-art training methods.

      1987 In Europe, Fons Trompenaars founded the Center for Intercultural Business Studies, as interest in intercultural effectiveness increased in the corporate context.

      1987 The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) was created by Colleen Kelley and Judith Meyers to help trainees assess their ability to successfully adapt to different cultures.

      1987 Harry Triandis published the classic Individualism vs. Collectivism: A Reconceptualization of a Basic Concept in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

      1987 Copeland Griggs created Valuing Diversity, a video training series focused on domestic diversity to address the growing need for materials on U.S. domestic ethnic diversity.

      1987 The Hudson Institute Report on Workforce 2000, by William B. Johnston and Arnold E. Packer, alerted the corporate leadership in America to the changing demographics transforming its world.

      1989 As management programs began to recognize the need for intercultural competence, publications from academics in those areas became more frequent, such as Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Goshal’s Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution.

      The 1990s: Decade of Intercultural Competence

      1990 The National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME) was founded in 1990 to bring together professionals from all disciplines and diverse educational institutions, with a focus on multicultural education.

      1991 SIETAR Europa was formed.

      1993 Milton Bennett published “The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity,” creating a model for recognizing the individual’s response to cultural difference and a theoretical rationale for sequencing training.

      1993 Charles Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars published The Seven Cultures of Capitalism and Riding the Waves of Culture.

      1993 Jaime Wurzel produced a video for classroom use called A Different Place: the Intercultural Classroom to teach communication styles and cultural values.

      1993 Lee Gardenswartz and Anita Rowe combined ethnic domestic diversity with intercultural training strategies in their influential book Managing Diversity: A Complete Desk Reference and Planning Guide.

      1993 Dianne Hofner Saphiere of Nipporica Asso ciates created a now widely used simulation, Ecotonos.

      1994 George Simons and his colleagues developed a board game, Diversophy, that is now available online.

      1994 To address the classroom need for diverse voices, Alberto Gonzalez, Marsha Houston, and Victoria Chen published Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity and Communication, now in its fifth edition.

      1997 Richard W. Judy and Carol D’Amico published Workforce 2020 as a follow-up to the earlier study, this time including globalization as a force for greater workplace diversity.

      1997 The International Academy for Intercultural Relations (IAIR) was created to bring together practitioners and researchers, hosting their first conference in April 1998.

      1998 William Gudykunst wrote the AUM theory, describing Anxiety and Uncertainty Management as core to intercultural learning.

      1998 Milton Bennett and Mitchell Hammer created the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) based on Bennett’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity.

      1999 David Pollock developed the Global Nomad Profile.

      1999 Addressing the racial concerns of privilege and identity, Judith Martin and Tom Nakayama wrote Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity.

      1999 In Communicating Across Cultures, Stella Ting-Toomey brought together both global and domestic perspectives on intercultural concerns.

      The 2000s: Decade of Disciplinary Dissemination

      2000 Gary Wederspahn created a resource directory of trainers and consultants to address the many firms and organizations that had begun in the 1990s, called Intercultural Services: A Worldwide Buyer’s Guide and Sourcebook.

      2000–2003 Funded in part by a U.S. Department of Education grant, What’s Up With Culture? was developed by Bruce LaBrack at the University of the Pacific. With online units on pre-departure as well as reentry, the website ( offers material for cultural adaptation and learning.

      2001 A synthesis of existing research and perspectives on culture shock titled The Psychology of Culture Shock was published by Colleen Ward, Stephen Bochner, and Adrian Furnham.

      2001 Mark Orbe and Tina Harris published Interracial Communication: Theory Into Practice, as the field embraced both domestic and global differences.

      2002 To reach the growing number of students studying abroad, a student’s guide titled Maximizing Study Abroad, along with a faculty handbook, were published by R. Michael Paige, Andrew Cohen, Barbara Kappler, Julie Chi, and James Lassegard.

      2002 Jaime Wurzel produced the video Cross-Cultural Conference Room, which explored negotiating styles in the workplace.

      2003 The term cultural intelligence gained traction in the business world, with multiple texts using the term, including those by P. Christopher Earley and Soon Ang, David Thomas, and others.

      2003 The first instrument to measure both intracultural and intercultural adaptation was developed by David Matsumoto, titled the Intercultural Adjustment Potential Scale (ICAPS-55).

      2004 Cultural Detective, a core process for improving cross-cultural collaboration that had been used on a proprietary basis since 1989, was made publicly available for training and education.

      2004 The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) team published a report on values studies titled Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies by Robert J. House, Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta.

      2006 John G. Oetzel and Stella Ting-Toomey (2006) edited The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice.

      2007 Kichiro Hayashi and Ryuhei Yagi explored a significant communication construct in their work “Construction and Validation of a Psychometric Test for Measuring Analog and Digital Mindsets of Individuals.”

      2007 One of the first books to relate intercultural communication to online learning was Globalized E-Learning: Cultural Challenges by Andrea Edmundson.

      2008 Interest in global leadership has long surpassed interest in do’s and don’ts, and a significant number of texts have been published, such as the 2008 Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development by Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, Martha Maznevski, Michael Stevens, and Gunter Stahl.

      2007–2009 The Kozai Group developed two psychometric instruments to assess intercultural competence. The Global Competencies Inventory became publicly available in 2007, and the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale, in 2009.

      2009 Michael Vande Berg, Jeffrey Connor-Linton, and Michael Paige completed the Georgetown Study, an influential investigation of study abroad.

      2009 The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, edited by Darla Deardorff, summarized models and research on intercultural competence, the term of choice for the 2000s.

      2010 to 2015: Years of Intercultural Handbooks, Encyclopedias, and Media

      2010–2015 These years brought new ways to bring intercultural material to the contemporary student, including a variety of encyclopedias such as The Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education by James Banks and Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia, edited by Carlos Cortes.

      2010–2015 Equally significant has been the appearance of handbooks that bring interdisciplinary perspectives to bear on intercultural topics, such as the Handbook of Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives edited by Dan Landis and Rosita Albert and the Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication edited by Jane Jackson.

      2010 Michael Page and Gerald Fry and their research team completed a longitudinal research project on the impact of study abroad as it relates to global engagement, the SAGE project.

      2011 In response to a need for international standards on diversity practices, Julie O’Mara and Alan Richter and 79 expert panelists developed Global Diversity and Inclusion Benchmarks: Standards for Organizations Around the World.

      2011 Thomas F. Pettigrew and Linda Tropp published their important meta-analysis of more than 500 studies on intergroup contact, When Groups Meet: The Dynamics of Intergroup Contact.

      2014 Indicative of the burgeoning interest in global leadership, Advances in Global Leadership by Joyce Osland and Ming Li represents the salience of international research on this topic.

      Janet M. Bennett and Franki Trujillo-Dalbey

      Clarke, C. H., & Takashiro N. (n.d.). Evolving paradigms and research applications in intercultural training: A personal historical perspective of fifty-five years. Unpublished.
      Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (1998). Notes in the history of intercultural communication: The Foreign Service Institute and the mandate for intercultural training. In J. N. Martin, T. K. Nakayama, & L. A. Flores (Eds.), Readings in cultural contexts (pp. 1529). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
      Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (2008). Writing the intellectual history of intercultural communication. Presentation to the International Communication Association, May 22–26, 2008, Montreal, Canada.
      Pusch, M. D. (2004). Intercultural training in historical perspective. In D. Landis, J. M. Bennett, & M. J. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of Intercultural Training (
      3rd ed.
      , pp. 1336). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Rogers, E. M., & Hart, W. B. (2002). The histories of intercultural, international, and development communication. In W. B. Gudykunst & B. Mody (Eds.), Handbook of international and intercultural communication (pp. 118). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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