The Handbook of Group Research and Practice

Handbooks

Susan A. Wheelan

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  • Part I: Group Research and Practice: Then and Now

    Part II: Theoretical Perspectives on Groups

    Part III: Methods in Group Research and Practice

    Part IV: Applied Group Research

    Part V: Group Practice: Methods and Outcomes

    Part VI: Conclusion: Charting the Future

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    Introduction

    The study of human groups is inherently multidisciplinary. Facilitating individual growth in a group context or group productivity in the workplace is as well. Group researchers and practitioners emerge from a variety of academic disciplines. Researchers continue to study groups, and practitioners apply what they've learned to help groups and their members achieve goals in contexts too numerous to mention. However, group researchers and practitioners do not work very well together.

    Paradoxically, the reasons for this state of affairs can be found in some of the topics that group researchers investigate and the situations that group practitioners encounter in the field. Intergroup conflict among disciplines or professional organizations, perceived status differences among the disciplines and professions involved, and the norms of the larger institutions in which the various professions and disciplines are embedded reduce opportunities for intergroup contact and collaboration. Each discipline and profession has its own conferences, journals, reward structures, and modus operandi, and this severely inhibits discourse and collaboration among the disciplines, between researchers and practitioners, and among the different professions that work with groups. In addition, language is not consistent. Different words are used to describe what is studied or methods used to help groups or group members. For example, some disciplines refer to group research as groups research. Psychoeducational groups are called training groups by some, and group consultation is referred to as group facilitation by others.

    This sorry situation cannot be allowed to continue. We need all hands on deck if we are to make significant progress in understanding how groups operate, how conflict among groups around the world can be ameliorated, how groups can be used to improve workplace productivity, and how groups can be structured to facilitate individual human growth and learning more effectively. These are urgent and important questions and will require sustained collaboration over an extended period of time if we are to find answers.

    Efforts to move the disciplines that study groups from isolation to collaboration have already begun. Some multidisciplinary work has occurred, but more is needed. Additional ideas about increasing collaboration are outlined in Chapters 2 and 29 of this book. This book itself is designed to stimulate dialogue among and across the disciplines and professions. People who represent eight academic disciplines and an equivalent number of subdisciplines authored chapters in The Handbook of Group Research and Practice. One quarter of the authors are full-time practitioners. Finally, the majority of academic authors work in the field, and the majority of practitioner authors teach, conduct research, and write from time to time. The hope is that this “motley crew,” and the readers of their work, will learn from each other, inspiring further collaboration and teamwork. To that end, this handbook is divided into five sections that are briefly described next. The conclusion, Chapter 29, suggests additional ways to increase collaboration.

    Part I: Group Research and Practice: Then and Now

    This section focuses on the history of group research and practice, describes the current state of these two areas, and identifies key issues that need to be addressed to move forward.

    In Chapter 1, Donelson Forsyth and Jeni Burnette explore the fascinating history of group research. The scientific study of groups began in earnest in the early 20th century, as intellectual, social, and political factors combined to shift scientists' attention away from physical processes to social ones. Researchers in a variety of emerging social sciences (psychology, anthropology, sociology) began to ask questions about the nature of groups and developed methods to study groups empirically. Much of the research during this period was conducted with naturally existing groups in applied settings. This steady progress in the first half of the century set the stage for a period of confluence, amplification, and productivity in the 1950s and 1960s, with much of the growth traceable to Kurt Lewin and his colleagues. The authors conclude by noting that although growth slowed during the 1970s, methodological, statistical, theoretical, and societal developments signal a renewed interest in groups that will continue to increase in the future.

    In Chapter 2, Jennifer Berdahl and Kelly Bouas Henry propose that the major challenge facing group researchers is the need to integrate multiple overlapping and complementary perspectives on groups. These perspectives have developed largely in isolation from each other as a result of disciplinary preferences and pressures. This has led researchers to conceptualize groups as relatively simple entities, and it has led to a fragmented set of “facts” about groups. In reality, groups are complex and dynamic systems. Therefore, conceptualizing and studying groups as complex and dynamic systems is essential if we are to increase our understanding of how groups function. To do so, integrative theory development is needed across the multiple perspectives. The authors propose computational modeling and multilevel longitudinal studies of groups as theoretical and empirical tools in this endeavor. They end by discussing the infrastructural challenges that will need to be overcome in order to support collaborative research of this nature.

    Chapter 3, by Sally Barlow, Gary Burlingame, and Addie Fuhriman, explores the past century of research on group psychotherapy and group counseling. Studies spanning 100 years are reviewed. Group psychology and group psychotherapy research help us to understand how, why, and when this intervention form works. The authors conclude that therapeutic groups work for a variety of patients, in a variety of settings, encompassing a variety of problems. However, some underlying processes in groups have yet to be identified or connected to certain outcomes.

    In Chapter 4, Janice DeLucia-Waack and Cynthia Kalodner describe how group interventions have changed significantly in the past two decades. The focus of groups has expanded to include psychoeducational or training groups focused on skill building as well as counseling and therapy. This chapter describes the current state of group practice as well as key issues related to group theory, research, and practice. Contemporary issues related to group theory and research include the relative efficacy of therapeutic factors, group leadership behaviors and interventions, and accurate assessment of group process and dynamics.

    Part II: Theoretical Perspectives on Groups

    This section contains seven different theoretical perspectives on how groups develop a unique culture and structure, change and adapt to accomplish goals, and relate to, adapt to, or influence the environment.

    Chapter 5, by Marvin Geller, offers an overview of the variety of psychoanalytic perspectives that have been applied to the understanding of both group and organizational life. Although psychoanalytic theory and thinking are in flux and conceptual muddles arise due to conflicts created by differing perspectives, there is a basic theme that runs through all psychoanalytic thinking, differentiating it from nonpsychoanalytic points of view. The core concept that unifies all psychoanalytic thinking is the conviction that individuals, groups, and organizations behave both rationally and irrationally and are driven by unconscious thoughts and feelings that in turn evoke a variety of defense mechanisms. It is also a firmly held conviction that for groups, organizations, and societies to function more effectively in pursuit of their stated conscious objectives, they need to have access to the covert and unconscious process that can undermine their efforts. The goal and ideal of psychoanalytic thought and practice is not to eliminate irrational forces in groups but to make them conscious, with the hope that awareness of these forces will lead to more rational behavior, thereby increasing the possibility of achieving desired goals.

    In Chapter 6, Jonathon Cummings and Deborah Ancona review the functional perspective, which is a normative approach to describing and predicting group performance that focuses on the functions of inputs and/or processes. Several principles of the functional perspective are presented, including shared goals, group adaptation, group composition and norms, group culture, and the external environment. The role of interdependence in the functional perspective, distinguishing between member interdependence and contextual interdependence, also is discussed. Finally, concepts (transactive memory, psychological safety, and structural diversity) currently being studied and those concepts (interpersonal trust, formal interventions, and virtual teams) that remain to be explored are outlined.

    Chapter 7, by Susan Wheelan, presents the developmental perspective on groups. From this perspective, the overall goal of group development is to create an organized unit capable of working effectively and productively to achieve specific ends. To accomplish the goal, groups move through stages that can be specifically demarcated and described. The chapter describes these changes across time and explores a substantial body of research that supports this perspective. The chapter concludes by suggesting questions for future research.

    In Chapter 8, Michael Hogg describes the historical development, metatheoretical background, and current state of the social identity approach. Although originally an analysis mainly of intergroup relations among large-scale social categories, and more recently an analysis with a strong social cognitive emphasis, the social identity approach is a general analysis of group membership and group and intergroup processes. It focuses on the generative relationship between collective self-conception and group phenomena. A number of core conceptual components are compatible but focus on different aspects of social identity and group life. These components are described in detail. The chapter concludes with a section describing some developments, extensions, and applications of the social identity approach to understanding group phenomena.

    Chapter 9, by Lawrence Frey and Sunwolf, presents the communication perspective on groups. The communication perspective offers a unique and important approach to the study of groups that views groups as communication sites. From such a perspective, communication demonstrates both a constitutive role, with groups emerging from communication, and a functional purpose, with groups using communication to accomplish important goals. A review of group communication theory, methods used to study group communication, and research conducted about group communication predispositions, practices, processes, and products reveals the significance of communication in creating and sustaining group life, making groups, ultimately, a communication phenomenon.

    In Chapter 10, Yvonne Agazarian and Susan Gantt describe the systems perspective on groups and present Agazarian's theory of living human systems and its systems-centered practice. Defining groups as living human systems has had important implications and impact on group practice. Thinking systems instead of just people offers an alternative to the dichotomy of individual-centered or group-centered approaches by introducing the systems-centered approach, which uses functional subgrouping to simultaneously influence both the individual and the group. The essential methods for developing a systems-centered group are described. Applications of the theory and methods are illustrated with examples from therapy groups, training groups, and organizational work groups.

    Chapter 11, by Holly Arrow, describes the nonlinear dynamics perspective, which considers how processes in groups unfold over time at multiple levels, from the individual who becomes a group member to the ecology of groups that compete for members within society. This perspective draws on concepts from chaos theory, catastrophe theory, and complexity science to explain the emergence and evolution of dynamic structures and activity patterns that stabilize, evolve, and change, sometimes abruptly. It has been applied to a broad variety of groups, including families, therapy groups, work teams, friendship groups, and voluntary organizations, investigating outcomes such as cooperation, creativity, membership stability, and therapeutic effectiveness. Strategies for developing and testing theory include computer simulations, mathematical models, longitudinal studies, and experiments.

    Part III: Methods in Group Research and Practice

    Studying groups presents its own set of unique problems. It can be more time-consuming and labor intensive than research on individuals. Study design and data analysis can be challenging as well. This section focuses on four research methods employed to study groups.

    In Chapter 12, Rick Hoyle describes experimental research methods. He states that research on groups is motivated by the goal of documenting a causal relation between an aspect of group life and one or more outcomes of relevance to individual group members or the group as a whole. Experiments are studies in which one or more putative causes are manipulated, groups or group members are randomly assigned to levels of the manipulated variables, and one or more control conditions are included. These features allow for satisfaction of the criteria for drawing a causal inference when an association between two variables is detected. Experimental research on groups is complicated by the fact that observations often are nonindependent by virtue of the frequent aggregation of individuals into groups. Although group researchers traditionally have not managed such nonindependence in optimal ways, accessible treatments of random coefficient models have made possible the relatively routine management of nonindependence without loss of potentially important information regarding individual group members' responses to causal factors. In this chapter, the primary characteristics of experimental designs are described, illustrated, and compared with alternative research designs. The second major section provides several examples of intragroup and intergroup research questions addressed using experimental designs. The next section offers a formal presentation of experimental designs and a conceptual presentation of data-analytic concerns specific to experiments involving groups. The chapter concludes with a summary of the strengths and limitations of the experimental method for research on groups and recommendations for expanding basic experimental designs to allow for documentation of the richness and complexity of group life.

    Chapter 13, by Maria Riva and Maximillian Wachtel, focuses on methodological and practical considerations in conducting group research in field settings. This chapter takes a broad-based and multidisciplinary approach to group field studies, highlighting strengths, limitations, and examples from such areas as social psychology, social work, business, and psychotherapy. The many different research methodologies used in field studies are discussed, with field taken to mean the environment where the behavior naturally occurs (e.g., neighborhoods, work sites, psychotherapy clinics). By definition, the naturalistic environment as a setting for research poses myriad problems, as well as advantages over other types of research designs that are conducted in the laboratory. Therefore, the difficulties and advantages of group field studies have been outlined, and the authors discuss the importance of increasing the collaboration between research and practice when designing and implementing group studies that occur in settings where groups are conducted. This chapter concludes with recommendations for conducting group field studies.

    In Chapter 14, Stephen Guastello describes how hypotheses in nonlinear dynamics can be tested with relatively short time series such as those that are commonly encountered in social science data, especially group dynamics. Relationships among the fractal dimension, Lyapunov exponent, chaos, self-organization, and catastrophes have been exploited to produce a compact system of statistical analysis that relies on polynomial regression or nonlinear regression. A procedure based on symbolic dynamics is presented for the dynamical analysis of variables that represent sets of categorical states. The statistical methods provide stronger and more specific tests of hypotheses than techniques based on phase portraits or other approaches.

    Chapter 15, by Damon Centola and Michael Macy, describes how sociologists traditionally have studied social life as a structured system of institutions and roles that shape individual behavior from the top down. In contrast, agent-based computational modeling formalizes the social interactionist idea that much of social life emerges from the bottom up, out of local interactions. As in game theory, the intent is to understand the set of assumptions about individual behavior required for a given social phenomenon to emerge at a higher level of organization. However, these new computational tools allow researchers to overcome methodological constraints imposed by the analytical methods in classical game theory. Researchers can now systematically explore the complex interactions of structurally embedded individuals to understand the dynamics and stability of social systems. A burgeoning literature shows how this complexity can often produce surprising global consequences from changes in the rules of local interaction.

    Part IV: Applied Group Research

    This section focuses on efforts to apply what is known about groups to real-world situations in order to understand the consequences and effects of group dynamics in different contexts.

    In Chapter 16, for example, Tjai Nielsen, Eric Sundstrom, and Terry Halfhill concentrate on work groups and the dynamic factors that lead to their success. The authors briefly review the history of applied group research conducted in the field, discuss various theoretical perspectives central to this area of study, and summarize selective empirical research from the past five years. This chapter attempts to address 5 key questions: (1) How have researchers operationally defined work groups? (2) How has the study of work groups in the field been approached? (3) What factors have been examined in an effort to predict success, using what sources of data? (4) What criteria have been used to assess work group effectiveness, using what sources of data? (5) What trends emerge from this body of research? The authors suggest ideas for future research based on answers to these questions.

    In Chapter 17, R. Scott Tindale, Amanda Dykema-Engblade and Erin Wittkowski write that conflict, both within and between groups, is a natural outgrowth of living and working in group settings. As groups work to reach their goals, differences in member efforts, preferences, and goals will strain interpersonal relations and can inhibit goal attainment. Thus, a natural function in almost all groups is conflict management or maintenance. Conflict can serve a positive function if managed appropriately, but it can also cause damage to the group and inhibit its ability to function. Conflict between groups is also a naturally occurring phenomenon and, much like intragroup conflict, can have both positive and negative, sometimes catastrophic consequences. In this chapter, the authors discuss the major theoretical and empirical research on the nature of intra- and inter-group conflict, including the antecedents and potential consequences of both types of conflict in different group settings.

    Chapter 18, by Dominic Abrams, Daniel Frings, and Georgina Randsley de Moura, outlines some key concepts and evidence in research on group identity and self-definition. The authors describe different theoretical and metatheoretical perspectives on group identity, outline some central questions, and briefly recount how conceptions of the relationship between individuals and groups have changed over time. They describe social identity and self-categorization theories, along with theories that use different assumptions about the self, including evolutionary and cultural influences. Evidence about the relationship between group identity and self-definition as it relates to deindividuation, identity in the workplace, multiple identities, and the role of identity in social dilemmas and collective action also is discussed. Next, the authors consider intragroup dynamics such as how groups deal with deviant members and how group identity affects leadership. They conclude by noting some areas of current controversy and important avenues for future research.

    In Chapter 19, Randy Magen and Eugene Mangiardi examine the relationship between groups and individual change with particular focus on groups as the context, medium, or method by which groups help to achieve change in individuals. The chapter addresses one central question: What knowledge and skills are essential to leading groups in the service of individual change? The answer to this question is explored by examining purposes, composition, cohesiveness, development, and communication in treatment groups. The history of research on group therapy is also discussed, and key findings about the prerequisites for training and supervision are identified. The authors conclude that although there is documented consensus about core practice knowledge and skills in group treatment, the specific mechanisms by which groups effect individual change remain elusive.

    Chapter 20, by Marshall Scott Poole and Huiyan Zhang, focuses on virtual teams. The emergence of the virtual team has interested both academics and practitioners, who attempt to map out what makes virtual teams work and how to make them effective. This chapter attempts to organize what we know about virtual teams in terms of the factors that influence how they work and key processes in virtual-team effectiveness. It starts with a definition of team outcomes and then summarizes thinking and evidence on key inputs that influence virtual teams and on processes that occur in virtual teams. Throughout the chapter, the impact of inputs and processes on outputs is discussed. Future directions and trends in research on virtual teams are considered in the conclusion.

    Part V: Group Practice: Methods and Outcomes

    This section describes how practitioners use the group context to facilitate individual change or learning or implement strategies to improve group effectiveness and productivity. The section also explores methods designed to mediate conflict, improve group performance, and facilitate group communication. Finally, research evidence that supports or does not support these methods is reviewed.

    For example, in Chapter 21, Gary Burlingame, Suad Kapetanovic, and Steven Ross focus on group psychotherapy. They present three main facets that help define group treatment as opposed to other forms of treatment: formal theory of change, patient population, and structural features. They use the first facet (formal theory of change) to describe the most common group methods. The second facet (patient population) is used to present the current state of the evidence for the effectiveness of these methods when employed with individuals in the following diagnostic categories: mood disorders, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and several special populations. The authors conclude the chapter by reflecting on the clinical and research implications of the current state of the evidence and use the third facet of group therapy (structural features) to discuss the commonalities between empirically validated group methods.

    Chapter 22, written by Dana Sims, Eduardo Salas, and C. Shawn Burke, focuses on team building and training. Work teams have become embedded in the workplace. Work teams help organizations to remain competitive in a society that constantly demands higher productivity, better performance, and greater profits. Teams offer more complex, innovative, adaptive, and comprehensive solutions than any other working structure. However, research has concluded that not all teams are successful or achieve the degree of performance that is expected of them. One solution to ensuring that teams have the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be effective and meet performance goals is for organizations to provide team training. This chapter discusses the factors that influence the design, delivery, and evaluation of team training strategies. First, the authors discuss the construct of teamwork. Then, using the framework of the three stages of teamwork (i.e., defining the training content, implementing the training, and evaluating the training), they provide a number of literature-based tips that ensure effective team training. They conclude by discussing the effectiveness of several team training strategies.

    In Chapter 23, Felice Tilin and Joanne Broder Sumerson discuss team consultation. The chapter defines and describes the team consultation process and outlines the goals of that process as well. Next, the steps in the consultation process are provided, and a case study helps to bring that process to life. The chapter ends with a discussion of the problems that researchers encounter in attempting to study the effectiveness of team consultation and recommends collaboration between practitioners and researchers as one way to improve the quality and quantity of team consultation research.

    Chapter 24, by David Johnson and Roger Johnson, focuses on learning groups. Learning groups have been used as long as humans have existed. Not all groups, however, are effective. The use of learning groups requires that members have joint goals that are positively correlated. This cooperative structure results in achieving three interrelated goals: increasing the achievement of each student, creating positive relationships among students, and increasing students' psychological health. The rich history of the use of learning groups throughout human history has resulted in an interaction among theory, research, and practice rarely found in the social sciences. Three major theoretical perspectives, social interdependence, cognitive developmental, and behavioral, underlie the use of cooperative learning groups. Of the three, social interdependence theory has most completely subsumed the existing research, inspired the most new research, and been used most closely to develop teaching practices. Cooperative learning tends to be effective to the extent that positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive interaction, appropriate use of social skills, and group processing are all implemented in the procedure. There are a multitude of ways in which cooperative learning has been implemented, but only eight have been systematically evaluated. All eight methods, even though they are quite diverse, result in greater student achievement than do competitive or individualistic learning. These results provide strong validation for the effectiveness of learning groups, indicating that the use of learning groups is one of the most successful and widespread applications of group dynamics theory and research.

    In Chapter 25, Tricia Jones describes how organizations are increasingly dependent on effectively functioning groups and well-coordinated actions between groups. But both processes are undermined by unresolved or poorly managed conflict. One tool for effective intragroup and intergroup conflict management is mediation, a form of third-party intervention. However, there is little theory explaining the critical factors that impact successful mediation in these contexts. This chapter provides an initial overview of mediation and discusses the challenges inherent in intragroup and intergroup conflicts. These challenges require distinct mediation strategies, which are presented in the chapter. Directions for future research are discussed as well.

    Chapter 26, by Sunwolf and Lawrence Frey, explores methods to facilitate group communication. Groups often need facilitation to enact effective communication processes and practices. This chapter provides an overview of facilitation procedures that are designed to structure and improve group communication. After providing a brief historical overview of group communication facilitation, the chapter concentrates on the research conducted on procedures that are designed to facilitate two types of communication: relational group communication (facilitating group formation, relationships in diverse groups, social support, and group conflict management) and task group communication (facilitating structure, analysis, creativity, agreement, and teams). The chapter concludes by identifying gaps in the research literature and suggesting directions for future research on facilitating group communication.

    In Chapter 27, Nina Brown reviews more than 100 studies of psychoeducational groups. Categories for these groups were personal development, support and therapy-related, and life transitions. Significant findings were the global use of psychoeducational groups, a broad application for a variety of topics and conditions, and the many strengths that such groups seem to possess. Although almost all studies reported positive results for participants, little empirical evidence was available to support this conclusion. Other areas lacking sufficient empirical evidence are assessment of learning, training for group leaders, and significant verifiable impact on participants.

    Chapter 28, by Miguel Quiñones and Kelly de Chermont, draws on the published literature on skills training groups to examine their use and effectiveness and explore avenues for future research. Skills training is defined as a group-based method of instruction aimed at giving participants basic life skills that allow them to function more effectively in social contexts, including work and home. Skills taught usually fall under the category of interpersonal or social skills and involve various target populations. Although the literature generally supports the effectiveness of this training method, little research has examined the specific design factors that contribute to its success. Factors such as the mix of participant skill levels, group size, and training content are discussed, and areas in need of further research are identified.

    Conclusion: Charting the Future

    This final section returns the reader to the introduction's theme of collaboration among and between researchers and practitioners from diverse disciplines and professions. George Anderson and Susan Wheelan authored the sole chapter in this section. Chapter 29 focuses on integrating group research and practice and encouraging collaborative endeavors.

    Acknowledgment

    I want to formally recognize the contribution of Barbara Bradley to this work. She is an excellent editor, organizer, calming influence, and friend.

  • About the Editor

    Susan A. Wheelan (PhD, University of Wisconsin, 1974) is president of GDQ Associates, Inc., and an adjunct professor at the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology. Until recently, she was professor of psychological studies and faculty director of the Training and Development Center at Temple University, where she received the university's Great Teacher Award in 1992. Dr. Wheelan has written seven books, edited three more, and published scores of journal articles. She has provided consultation to a wide variety of organizations. Both her research and consultation focus on work teams and groups.

    About the Contributors

    Dominic Abrams (PhD, University of Kent, 1984) is Director of the Centre for the Study of Group Processes at the University of Kent, UK, and his research interests include social identity, intergroup relations, deviance, prejudice, and group decision processes. He is coeditor of the journal Group Processes and Intergroup Relations and has written or edited several books in the area of social identity and group processes. He has been Secretary of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology and is currently chair of the Research Board of the British Psychological Society.

    Yvonne Agazarian (EdD, FAGPA, Temple University, 1968) is the developer of the theory of Living Human Systems and its Systems-Centered™ practice, founder of the Systems-Centered™ Training and Research Institute, and an international consultant on that method. She is a Clinical Professor at Adelphi University and is in private practice in Philadelphia. Author and coauthor of several books, she received the Group Psychologist of the Year award from Division 49 of the American Psychological Association in 1997.

    Deborah G. Ancona (PhD, Columbia University, 1982) is the Seley Distinguished Professor of Management at the Sloan School of Management at MIT. She does small group research, in particular about how teams manage both their internal and external dynamics to obtain high performance. She taught at the Amos Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, before joining the faculty at MIT.

    George Anderson (PhD, University of Louisville, 1994) is Manager of Executive & Customer Education at Crotonville, General Electric's corporate university in Ossining, New York, where he manages a team that designs and administers GE's executive education, strategic customer programming, change management education, and acquisition cultural integration workshops. He has a wide range of experience in occupational development, including managerial positions with GE's Answer Center and its Appliances' Leadership Development Center.

    Holly Arrow (PhD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1996) is a member of both the Psychology Department and the Institute for Cognitive and Decision Sciences at the University of Oregon. She is coauthor of a book on small groups as complex systems and is widely published in books and journals. Trained in complexity theory at the Santa Fe Institute Complex Systems Summer School, class of 1995, she has served two terms as president of the Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences (2002–2004).

    Sally H. Barlow (PhD, University of Utah, 1978) is Professor of Psychology at Brigham Young University in Utah. She is also an Adjunct Professor in Psychiatry at the University of Utah Medical School, a consultant to the Utah State Hospital, and a member of the staff of the Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo. She is coauthor of a book on psychotherapy and has refereed numerous journal articles and publications, including Journal of the Specialists in Group Work.

    Jennifer L. Berdahl (PhD, University of Illinois, 1999) is an Assistant Professor of Management and Psychology at the University of Toronto. Her research investigates the social psychology of power in groups and organizations, and its recent focus is on the effects of power on perceptions, emotions, and behaviors in small groups and on sex harassment as a mechanism for enforcing sex-based distinctions and power inequalities in organizations.

    Nina W. Brown (PhD, College of William and Mary, 1973) is a Professor and Eminent Scholar of Counseling at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. She is also a licensed professional counselor and a nationally certified counselor. Her primary specialties are group counseling/therapy, counseling theories, and destructive narcissism. She is the author of 15 books and numerous articles.

    C. Shawn Burke (PhD, George Mason University, 2000) is a Research Scientist at the University of Central Florida, Institute for Simulation and Training in Orlando, Florida. She has presented at numerous peer-reviewed conferences, has published in several scientific journals and books on the topics of teams and team training, and serves as an ad hoc reviewer for the Human Factors journal and Quality Safety in Health Care.

    Gary M. Burlingame (PhD, University of Utah, 1983) is Professor of Clinical Psychology at Brigham Young University. He regularly contributes to the group psychotherapy and measurement literature: more than 90 books, book chapters, and peer-reviewed articles and more than 150 international, national, and regional presentations. He has served as a consultant to more than 20 federal, state, and private entities including the White House, Department of Labor, Food & Drug Administration, and health maintenance organizations.

    Jeni L. Burnette is a PhD student at Virginia Commonwealth University and holds an undergraduate degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She is studying group dynamics and interpersonal relationships, with a focus on performance in collective endeavors and implicit theories of relationships and forgiveness. She teaches undergraduate social psychology and graduate-level statistics labs.

    Damon M. Centola is a Fellow of the National Science Foundation-funded IGERT program on Non-linear Dynamics and Chaos at Cornell University. His dissertation research concerns the effects of network structure on the dynamics of collective action, and his recent work on computational models of unpopular norms has been accepted for publication in the American Journal of Sociology. He has bachelor's and master's degrees in philosophy.

    Jonathon N. Cummings (PhD, Carnegie Mellon University, 2001) is Assistant Professor of Management at the Sloan School of Management at MIT. Supported by a National Science Foundation Early Career Award, he conducts research on ways that organizations can foster innovation through geographically dispersed teams and networks.

    Kelly de Chermont is a doctoral candidate at Rice University, where she received her master's degree. Based on her research about broad issues of group functioning and organizational diversity, she has published in Psychological Bulletin and has presented papers at professional conferences. She consults with public and private organizations on various issues including training, leadership, and team development.

    Janice L. DeLucia-Waack (PhD, Pennsylvania State University, 1987) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling, School of Educational Psychology at the University at Buffalo, SUNY. She is the author or coauthor of several books in the areas of multicultural counseling and group work, including a session-by-session manual on the use of music in group therapy.

    Georgina Randsley de Moura (PhD, University of Kent, 2004) is a postdoctoral researcher working with Emanuele Castano and Dominic Abrams on a project on collective responsibility, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. She has published in the areas of organizational identity, collective action, and intergroup deviance.

    Amanda Dykema-Engblade is a doctoral student in the Applied Social Psychology Program at Loyola University Chicago. Her dissertation looks at the roles of redundancy and expertise in group decision-making and performance. She teaches Social Psychology and Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Loyola. Her research interests include minority influence, transactive memory, and individual versus group decision-making.

    Donelson R. Forsyth (PhD, University of Florida, 1978) is Professor of Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University. He has written and edited several books and was the founding editor of the journal Group Dynamics. He is a social psychologist whose research interests include group processes, reactions to success and failure, individual differences in moral thought, and applications of social psychology in clinical settings.

    Lawrence R. Frey (PhD, University of Kansas, 1979) is Professor and Associate Chair of the Department of Communication at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He is the author/editor of 12 books, three journal special issues, and 55 book chapters and journal articles. He has received 10 distinguished scholarship awards, including the 2000 Gerald M. Phillips Award for Distinguished Applied Communication Scholarship from the National Communication Association (NCA) and the 2003 and 2000 Ernest Bormann Research Award from NCA's Group Communication Division.

    Daniel Frings is a graduate student at the University of Kent, funded by a scholarship from the Economic and Social Research Council. His research interests include deviance and intergroup emotions. He graduated from Cardiff University in 2003.

    Addie J. Fuhriman (PhD, University of Minnesota, 1969) is Professor Emeritus of Psychology, former Dean of Graduate Studies, and Assistant to the President for Planning and Assessment at Brigham Young University. Previously, she was Chair and Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Utah. Her teaching and research interests are in counseling psychology, specifically group psychotherapy process and outcome. She is active in the American Psychological Association and the American Group Psychotherapy Association.

    Susan Gantt (PhD, Georgia State University, 1984) is a Diplomate in Group Psychology, ABPP, and a licensed psychologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. She is the Director of the Systems-Centered™ Training and Research Institute and works for the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the Emory University School of Medicine. She is coauthor of a book and author of several articles on the systems-centered approach.

    Marvin H. Geller (PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1969) is a practicing psychoanalyst, an organizational consultant, and Codirector of the Organizational Program at the William Alanson White Institute. Previously, he was Director of Counseling Services at Princeton University, where he taught psychoanalytic theory and group and organizational process. He has published numerous articles and book reviews.

    Stephen J. Guastello (PhD, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1982) is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Marquette University in Milwaukee. He has written more than 100 journal articles and book chapters pertaining to personality theory, computer-based test interpretations, and applications of nonlinear dynamics. He is a Past President of the Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences and currently serves as its Treasurer and Trustee.

    Terry R. Halfhill (PhD, University of Tennessee, 2001) is Assistant Professor of Management with the business and economics division, Commonwealth College, at the Pennsylvania State University-New Kensington campus. Previously, he was a member of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology faculty at the University of North Texas and an associate with its Center for the Study of Work teams (CSWT). He has served as an organizational consultant to a variety of academic, governmental, and military organizations.

    Kelly Bouas Henry (PhD, University of Illinois, 1997) is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Missouri Western State College. Her research focuses on a variety of group processes, with special emphasis on developmental patterns and the dynamics of group structure.

    Michael A. Hogg (PhD, Bristol University, 1983) is Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Queensland and an Australian Research Council Professorial Fellow. He is also a Visiting Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The founding journal editor (with Dominic Abrams) for Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, he serves on the editorial board of several publications. He has written more than 200 books, book chapters, and journal articles.

    Rick H. Hoyle (PhD, University of North Carolina, 1988) is a Senior Research Scientist in the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy and the Department of Psychology: Social and Health Sciences at Duke University. He also serves as Associate Director for Data Services in the Center for Child and Family Policy and Director of the Data Core in the Trans-disciplinary Prevention Research Center, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. He is a Fellow of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and editor of the Journal of Social Issues.

    David W. Johnson (PhD, Columbia University, 1966) is a Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota, where he holds the Emma M. Birkmaier Professorship in Educational Leadership. He is Codirector of the Cooperative Learning Center and past Editor of the American Educational Research Journal. He has written more than 350 research articles and book chapters, as well as more than 40 books. An organizational consultant to schools and businesses, he is a recognized authority on experiential learning and a practicing psychotherapist.

    Roger T. Johnson (EdD, University of California at Berkeley, 1969) is a Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction with an emphasis in Science Education at the University of Minnesota. He has broad experience teaching in public schools and is an authority on inquiry teaching and science education. He is the Codirector of the Cooperative Learning Center, which conducts research on cooperative educational strategies, and author of several articles and book chapters.

    Tricia S. Jones (PhD, Ohio State University, 1985) is Professor in the Department of Psychological Studies in the College of Education at Temple University. She has published more than 40 articles and book chapters on conflict and has coedited several volumes. She is the Editor-in-Chief of Conflict Resolution Quarterly (formerly Mediation Quarterly) and the recipient of the 2004 Jeffrey Z. Rubin Theory to Practice Award from the International Association for Conflict Management.

    Cynthia R. Kalodner (PhD, Pennsylvania State University, 1988) is Professor in the Department of Psychology at Towson University, where she is Director of the master's program in Counseling Psychology and works closely with post-master's students seeking licensure. She is author of a book and author or coauthor of more than 40 book chapters and journal articles and is coeditor of a handbook on group counseling.

    Suad Kapetanovic (MD, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Croatia, 1995) completed his psychiatry residency and fellowship in child and adolescent psychiatry in 2004 at the University of Utah's Department of Psychiatry.

    He is a licensed physician in the states of Utah and California. His areas of interest include child, adolescent, and young adult psychiatry and process-oriented group psychotherapy for young adults.

    Michael W. Macy (PhD, Harvard University, 1985) is Professor and Chair of Sociology at Cornell University. His research team uses computational models and laboratory experiments with human subjects to look for elementary principles of self-organization, hoping to find clues as to how simple and predictable local interactions might account for familiar but highly enigmatic global patterns. Recent articles have appeared in American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Randy H. Magen (PhD, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1992) is Associate Professor in the School of Social Work at the University of Alaska, Anchorage. Previously, he was on the faculty at the Columbia University School of Social Work. His scholarly interests and publications have been in group work and in the co-occurrence of domestic violence and child maltreatment.

    Eugene Mangiardi (MSW, Smith College, 1998) is Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Alaska's School of Social Work. His area of focus is the application of clinical social work theory and direct practice skills in mental health, family services, child welfare, and substance abuse.

    Tjai M. Nielsen (PhD, University of Tennessee, 2001) is Assistant Professor in the School of Business at George Washington University. He has written multiple articles, book chapters, and technical reports on executive development, work teams, and corporate citizenship. An international consultant, he previously spent 3 years as a consultant at RHR International Company in the areas of executive selection and development, succession planning, team development, and executive coaching.

    Marshall Scott Poole (PhD, 1979, University of Wisconsin) is Professor of Communication and of Information and Operations Management at Texas A&M University. His articles have appeared in leading journals, and he has coauthored or edited 10 books. His research interests include group and organizational communication, information systems, conflict management, and organizational innovation.

    Miguel A. Quiñones (PhD, Michigan State University, 1993) is Associate Professor of Management and Policy and Lesk Faculty Fellow at the Eller College of Management at the University of Arizona. Previously, he was Assistant and then Associate Professor of Psychology and Management at Rice University. He has published in a range of journals and is coeditor of a book applying research to workplace training. He has consulted with public and private organizations, including several Fortune 500 companies.

    Maria T. Riva (PhD, University of Pittsburgh, 1990) is Associate Professor of Counseling Psychology at the University of Denver and has experience facilitating many types of counseling and psychotherapy groups. In 2001, she was awarded the University of Denver's Distinguished Teaching Award. She has numerous publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, and she is Associate Editor of the Journal for Specialists in Group Work, after serving on its editorial board for 6 years.

    Steven Ross (PhD, University of Utah, 1970) is Associate Professor and Associate Residency Training Director in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Utah's School of Medicine. He is a Diplomate in Counseling Psychology and holds the Certificate of Proficiency in the Treatment of Alcohol and Other Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders from the American Psychological Association. He coedited four volumes on behavioral group therapy.

    Eduardo Salas (PhD, Old Dominion University, 1984) is Trustee Chair and Professor of Psychology at the University of Central Florida, where he directs the Applied Experimental & Human Factors Program. He is also Program Director for the Human Systems Integration Research Department at the Institute for Simulation and Training. He is coauthor of more than 200 journal articles and book chapters and coeditor of 13 books. He is designing tools and techniques to minimize human errors in aviation, law enforcement, and medical environments.

    Dana E. Sims is a doctoral student in Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology at the University of Central Florida, where she earned her master's degree in 2003. Her research interests include teamwork, team training, mentoring, patient safety, and trust in organizational settings. She has presented and published extensively on these topics.

    Joanne Broder Sumerson (PhD, Temple University, 2004) is Adjunct Professor at Temple University, St. Joseph's University, and Walnut Hill College. She also works for the School District of Philadelphia in the Office of Research and Evaluation and was Associate Director of the Training and Development Center at Temple University, which provides training and consultation to public and private sector organizations.

    Eric D. Sundstrom (PhD, University of Utah, 1973) is Professor of Psychology at the University of Tennessee and has combined a career as a university professor and private consultant in research and development focused on effectiveness of teams and organizations. His research on work team effectiveness, physical working environments, and related topics has generated more than 70 professional publications, including two books and articles in more than a dozen refereed scientific journals.

    Sunwolf (PhD, University of California-Santa Barbara, 1998; JD, University of Denver College of Law, 1976) is an Associate Professor of Communication at Santa Clara University. A former trial attorney and Training Director for Colorado's Public Defender Office, she facilitates training groups of attorneys nationally. Her coauthored research on jury deliberations received the 2000 Dennis S. Gouran Research Award from NCA's Group Communication Division.

    Felice Tilin (PhD, Temple University, 1997) is a Senior Consultant with the Teleos Leadership Institute and President of GroupWorks Consulting. Recently, she served as the Academic Director for the Corporate Learning Program at the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education. Previously, she was the Director of the Center for Professional Development at the University of Pennsylvania and a Director of Organizational Development at the Cigna Corporation.

    R. Scott Tindale (PhD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1984) is Chair of the Department of Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, and he coedited a book on social psychology. His research focuses on the social and cognitive processes associated with small group decisionmaking and problem-solving.

    Maximillian Wachtel (PhD, University of Denver, 2001) leads psychotherapy groups with a wide range of clients and training groups for a small business. His dissertation research was a field study on group co-leadership development. He directed the Group Therapy Institute at the Mental Health Corporation of Denver, a group dedicated to group therapy training and practice with individuals who have severe and persistent mental illness.

    Erin Wittkowski is a graduate student in the Applied Social Psychology Program at Loyola University Chicago. She is currently completing her course work and finishing her thesis, which examines subjective norms and the theory of reasoned action. She also works as a research assistant for Dr. Scott Tindale, examining small group decision-making. She is a graduate of the University of Northern Iowa.

    Huiyan Zhang is a PhD candidate at Texas A&M University. Her research interests include organizational communication, communication technologies used in work groups, and culture's impacts on health and organizational life. She has presented her work at several national conferences and is currently working on empirical case studies of interaction in virtual teams in partial fulfillment of her PhD.


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