The Handbook of Counseling

Handbooks

Edited by: Don C. Locke, Jane E. Myers & Edwin L. Herr

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Profession of Counseling

    Part II: Foundations of Counseling

    Part III: Settings and Interventions

    Part IV: Counselor Education and Supervision

    Part V: Research in Counseling

    Part VI: Critical Issues and Emerging Topics

    Part VII: Conclusion

  • Dedication

    To all who promote scholarship, research, professionalism, and excellence in counseling

    —The Editors

    To Marjorie, Tonya, and Regina for your continuing love and support

    —Don C. Locke

    To Tom for the love and encouragement he so freely shares with others

    —Jane E. Myers

    To Pat, Alicia, Amber, and Christopher Herr in gratitude for their love, support, and individual professional achievements

    —Edwin L. Herr

    Copyright

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    Preface

    Counseling as a unique and definitive profession emerged during the latter half of the 20th century. The chief markers of the profession—a body of knowledge, recognized and accredited training programs, supervised clinical training, credentialing of practitioners, legal recognition and licensure, professional organization of peers, and a code of ethics—all were firmly in place by the year 2000. The milestone of the new millennium created an opportunity both for reflection and for developing a vision of the future. With this dual emphasis in mind, this handbook evolved as an attempt to accomplish three main objectives: to capture the rich legacy of the evolution of counseling as a profession, to define the state of the art in counseling as it exists at this point in time, and to project the trends and issues that comprise our challenges for the next decade and beyond.

    As editors, we recognized the tremendous diversity within our profession and devoted considerable effort to the task of determining how best to reflect that diversity in the pages of one text. We sought both the topics and the expertise of experienced authors to define the best in our field. The cooperation and enthusiasm of each of the chapter authors resulted in content that we believe will be of value not only to students and others new to our field but also to experienced counselors and counselor educators. Our request of all authors to envision the future, and to include within the chapters their perspectives on what lies ahead, makes this book unique and helps to provide a sense of direction for the years ahead.

    Also unique is the cooperative relationship between Chi Sigma Iota (CSI), the International Counseling Honor Society, and Sage Publications as partners for this project. The three editors share a common experience as president of CSI, an organization with a single mission—the promotion of excellence in counseling. That mission resulted not only in CSI's endorsement of this handbook but also in the consensus decision of the editors and authors to donate the proceeds of the book to CSI to be maintained in a special fund earmarked for projects that promote excellence in our field.

    The chapters in this handbook are organized into six major areas. Part I, “The Profession of Counseling,” consists of six chapters. The first chapter chronicles the historical development of the field and, in particular, the factors that resulted in the emergence of counseling as a profession separate and distinct from clinical and counseling psychology. The roles of specialties, professional associations, standards, and credentials are described; ethical and legal issues are considered; and advocacy for counseling is broadly defined and described in the remaining five chapters of this section.

    Part II consists of 11 chapters that present the “Foundations of Counseling.” Eight of these chapters provide succinct yet in-depth introductions to theories commonly used by counseling practitioners: cognitive-developmental stage theories, cognitive-behavioral theories, humanistic theories, existential theory, Adlerian theory, systems theories, constructivist theories, and integrative theories. Basic counseling skills; counselor roles; and issues in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment are additional foundation issues covered in subsequent chapters of this section.

    “Settings and Interventions” in which counselors commonly work are described in Part III. These include schools, colleges and universities, community agencies, private practice, and medical settings. “Counselor Education and Supervision,” described in Part IV, is addressed through three chapters dealing with descriptive characteristics of the size and scope of counselor education, the processes and desired outcomes of counselor training and counselor supervision, and multicultural counseling training.

    The importance of “Research in Counseling” is the focus of Part V. The chapters in this section include common epistemological and methodological issues as well as approaches to quantitative and qualitative research design. In addition to a comprehensive summary of the trend toward identifying and incorporating evidence-based counseling practices, practitioner-based and outcome research is discussed and program evaluation is defined and described.

    Part VI, “Critical Issues and Emerging Topics,” provides analyses of the major challenges facing the profession as we enter the new millennium. It begins with the changing demographics of society and an overview of issues affecting people at risk, including substance-abusing individuals. The changing demographics of the profession and how these affect the future are explored, and the importance of professional identification of counselors is examined. Strategies for defining and responding to ethnic and racial diversity as well as gender, sexual, and religious diversity are considered. The emergence of spirituality as a central issue in clinical work, the importance of character and personal responsibility, and strategies for optimizing behavior and promoting wellness are considered. The use of technology in counseling, evolving delivery systems for the provision of needed counseling interventions, and the cost-benefit of counseling services are addressed in the concluding chapters of this section.

    In the “Conclusion” (Part VII), we summarize the issues facing the profession in the future and the collective challenges to be addressed as we attempt to respond to what lies ahead. In developing this summary, we attempted to incorporate the best thinking of the authors of each of the 43 separate chapters as well as our own ideas based on more than 100 years of collective experience as professional counselors. We invite the reader to think with us, to envision with us, and to work with us to create a future where the counseling profession continues to grow in strength and stature and where the services provided by practitioners combine to build a legacy of optimal human growth and development across the life span for all individuals.

    Don C.Locke
    Jane E.Myers
    Edwin L.Herr

    Acknowledgments

    There are many individuals who have contributed to the development and success of this handbook. It was Mark Kiselica who suggested the project to Sage Publications and my involvement as an editor. Jim Nageotte and Kassie Gavrilis nurtured the idea, and Nancy Hale saw the project to completion. I owe a great deal to the chapter authors, who willingly accepted our request to write in their specialties and who completed their tasks enthusiastically and on time. I doubt that a better team of co-editors can be found than Jane and Ed, two of my mentors, who continued their mentoring throughout this process. Annis Lytle always was eager to offer her assistance for the project. Eugene McDowell was quick with an encouraging comment when it seemed that the project was too overwhelming. D. J. Peck was efficient as copy editor. My counselor education colleagues and dean, Joan J. Michael, at North Carolina State University were very supportive of my efforts. My sincere thanks go to all of you.

    —Don C. Locke

    I want to express special thanks to the authors of the chapters of this handbook, who have eagerly shared their expertise, ideas, and enthusiasm for this volume. Their thoughts, research, and visions for the future reflect both the legacy and promise of our profession. In addition, I am grateful to many of these authors as well as other professionals in our field who have mentored and encouraged me through the years, persons too numerous to list but who have left their own legacy through any work that I do. I also am grateful to my students, whose constant thirst for knowledge challenges me to continue to grow as a counselor and as a counselor educator. Matt Shurts has been especially helpful in literature searches for my co-authored chapters for this book. Finally, to my family and friends, I again extend my appreciation for simply being there for me, for freely sharing the joys and sorrows on this journey of experiences toward a life fully lived.

    —Jane E. Myers

    My thanks go to my family and to the many authors of chapters in his handbook who, in their individual ways, have supported the process by which ideas become realities. In addition, it is important to acknowledge that this book is very much a product of the legion of pioneer and contemporary theorists, policy makers, researchers, and practitioners who have given shape and substance to counseling and to counselor education over the past 100 years. It is this latter group of visionaries, humanists, and statespersons for counseling and counselor education on whose legacy this volume rests.

    —Edwin L. Herr
  • Appendix A: American Counseling Association Divisions

    Association for Assessment in Counseling (AAC). Originally the Association for Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, AAC was chartered in 1965. The purpose of AAC is to promote the effective use of assessment in the counseling profession. Membership: 1,077

    Association for Adult Development and Aging (AADA). Chartered in 1986, AADA serves as a focal point for information sharing, professional development, and advocacy related to adult development and aging issues. AADA addresses counseling concerns across the life span. Membership: 1,156

    American College Counseling Association (ACCA). ACCA is one of the newest divisions of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Chartered in 1991, the focus of ACCA is on fostering student development in colleges, universities, and community colleges. Membership: 1,874

    EDITORS' NOTE: Memberships are as of December 31, 2000.

    Association for Counselors and Educators in Government (ACEG). Originally the Military Educators and Counselors Association, ACEG was chartered in 1984. ACEG is dedicated to counseling clients and their families in local, state, and federal government or in military-related agencies. Membership: 367

    Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES). Originally the National Association of Guidance and Counselor Trainers, ACES was a founding association of ACA in 1952. ACES emphasizes the need for quality education and supervision of counselors for all work settings. Membership: 2,456

    Association for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling (AGLBIC). AGLBIC educates counselors about the unique needs of client identity development and a nonthreatening counseling environment by aiding in the reduction of stereotypical thinking and homo-prejudice. Membership: 877

    Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD). Originally the Association of Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, AMCD was chartered in 1972. AMCD strives to improve cultural, ethnic, and racial empathy and understanding by programs to advance and sustain personal growth. Membership: 2,060

    American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA). Chartered in 1978, AMHCA represents mental health counselors, advocating for client access to quality services within the health care industry. Membership: 6,000 +

    American Rehabilitation Counseling Association (ARCA). Chartered in 1958, ARCA is concerned with helping people with physical, mental, and/or emotional disabilities to improve their lives. Membership: 944

    American School Counselors Association (ASCA). Chartered in 1953, ASCA promotes school counseling professionals and interest in activities that affect the personal, educational, and career development of students. ASCA members also work with parents, educators, and community members to provide a positive learning environment. Membership: 11,000+

    Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC). Originally the National Catholic Guidance Conference, ASERVIC was chartered in 1974. ASERVIC is devoted to professionals who believe that spiritual, ethical, religious, and other human values are essential to the full development of the person and to the discipline of counseling. Membership: 2,705

    Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW). Chartered in 1973, ASGW provides professional leadership in the field of group work, establishes standards for professional training, and supports research and the dissemination of knowledge. Membership: 2,073

    Counseling Association for Humanistic Education and Development (C-AHEAD). C-AHEAD, a founding association of ACA in 1952, provides a forum for the exchange of information about humanistically oriented counseling practices, and promotes changes that reflect the growing body of knowledge about humanistic principles applied to human development and potential. Membership: 688

    Counselors for Social Justice (CSJ). CSJ actively promotes individual and collective social responsibility as well as the eradication of oppressive systems of power and privilege. CSJ develops and implements social action strategies through collaborative alliances with ACA entities, community organizations, and the com-munity-at-large. Membership: 413

    International Association of Addiction and Offender Counselors (IAAOC). Originally the Public Offender Counselors Association, IAAOC was chartered in 1972. Members of IAAOC advocate the development of effective counseling and rehabilitation programs for people with substance abuse problems, other addictions, and adult and/or juvenile public offenders. Membership: 1,684

    International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors (IAMFC). Chartered in 1989, IAMFC helps to develop healthy family systems through prevention, education, and therapy. Membership: 4,002

    National Career Development Association (NCDA). Originally the National Vocational Guidance Association, NCDA was one of the founding associations of ACA in 1952. The mission of NCDA is to promote career development for all people across the life span through public information, member services, conferences, and publications. Membership: 2,731

    National Employment Counseling Association (NECA). NECA originally was the National Employment Counselors Association and was chartered in 1966. The commitment of NECA is to offer professional leadership to people who counsel in employment and/or career development settings. Membership: 686

    Appendix B: List of Abbreviations

    This appendix includes abbreviations/acronyms frequently used by counselors. Many of these are used in the chapters in this handbook. All acronyms of associations and divisions are spelled out on their first use in every chapter. Other abbreviations/acronyms are considered to be important enough to be included in this appendix.

    AACAssociation for Assessment in Counseling
    AACDAmerican Association for Counseling and Development
    AADAAssociation for Adult Development and Aging
    AAMFTAmerican Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
    AAPCAmerican Association of Pastoral Counselors
    AASCBAmerican Association of State Counseling Boards
    AATAAmerican Art Therapy Association
    ACAAmerican Counseling Association
    ACCAAmerican College Counseling Association
    ACEGAssociation for Counselors and Educators in Government
    ACESAssociation for Counselor Education and Supervision
    ACGPAAmerican Council of Guidance and Personnel Association
    ACPAAmerican College Personnel Association
    ACTAmerican College Testing Project
    ADTAAmerican Dance Therapy Association
    AERAAmerican Educational Research Association
    AFTAAmerican Family Therapy Association
    AGLBICAssociation for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling
    AHEADAssociation for Humanistic Education and Development
    AMCDAssociation for Multicultural Counseling and Development
    AMECDAssociation for Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development
    AMEGAssociation for Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance
    AMHCAAmerican Mental Health Counselors Association
    ANWCAssociation for Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance
    APAAmerican Psychological Association
    APGAAmerican Personnel and Guidance Association
    ARCAAmerican Rehabilitation Counseling Association
    ASCAAmerican School Counselors Association
    ASERVICAssociation for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling
    ASGWAssociation for Specialists in Group Work
    CAAPComprehensive Academic Achievement Program
    CACDConnecticut Association for Counseling and Development
    CACREPCouncil for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs
    C-AHEADCounseling Association for Humanistic Education and Development
    CCMHCCertified Clinical Mental Health Counselor
    CGPACounsel of Guidance and Personnel Association
    COPACouncil on Postsecondary Accreditation
    CSIChi Sigma Iota Honor Society
    CSJCounselors for Social Justice
    DCTDevelopmental Counseling and Therapy
    DOTDictionary of Occupational Titles
    DSM-IVDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.)
    ERICEducational Resource Information Center
    IAAOCInternational Association of Addictions and Offender Counselors
    IAICInternational Alliance for Invitational Counseling
    IAMFCInternational Association of Marriage and Family Counselors
    MCIMulticultural Counseling Inventory
    MECAMilitary Educators and Counselors Association
    NACACNational Association of College Admission Counselors
    NACBTNational Association of Cognitive Behavioral Therapists
    NACCMHCNational Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors
    NACFTNational Academy for Certified Family Therapists
    NAEPNational Assessment of Educational Progress
    NASPNational Association of School Psychologists
    NASWNational Association of Social Workers
    NAWDACNational Association for Women Deans, Administrators, and Counselors
    NBCCNational Board for Certified Counselors
    NCAANational Collegiate Athletic Association
    NCACESNorth Central Association for Counselor Education and Supervision
    NCATANational Coalition of Art Therapies Association
    NCATENational Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
    NCBLPCNorth Carolina Board of Licensed Professional Counselors
    NCCNational Certified Counslor
    NCCCNational Certified Career Counselor
    NCDANational Career Development Association
    NCGCNational Certified Gerontological Counselor
    NCISNational Career Information System
    NCSCNational Certified School Counselor
    NECANational Employment Counselors Association
    NIMHNational Institute of Mental Health
    NOICCNational Occupational Information Coordinating Committee
    NVGANational Vocational Guidance Association
    PGAPersonnel and Guidance Association

    Name Index

    About the Editors

    Don C. Locke, Ed.D., is Director of the Asheville Graduate Center and Director of the North Carolina State University (NCSU) doctoral program in Adult and Community College Education at the Asheville Graduate Center. Prior to moving to the Asheville Graduate Center, he was a professor and head of the Department of Counselor Education at NCSU. He earned a B.S. in history and an M.Ed, in history education from Tennessee State University. He began his career as a high school social studies teacher in Fort Wayne, Indiana, where he also worked as a high school counselor for 2 years. He earned his doctorate at Ball State University and currently serves on the Teachers College board of visitors at Ball State. He has been active in state, regional, and national counseling organizations. Prior professional service includes stints as president of the North Carolina Counseling Association, chair of the Southern Region Branch of the American Counseling Association (ACA), president of the Southern Association of Counselor Education and Supervision, member of ACA's Governing Council, chair of the Counseling and Human Development Foundation, associate editor of the Mental Health Counselors Journal, president of Chi Sigma Iota, and president of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. He is a recipient of the Ella Stephens Barrett Leadership Award from the North Carolina Counseling Association, the Professional Development Award from ACA, and the Professional Recognition Award from the ACA Foundation. He is the author or coauthor of more than 60 publications, with a current focus on multicultural issues. His 1992 book, Increasing Multicultural Understanding, was a Sage Publications best-seller, and the second edition was released in 1998. The second edition of Psychological Techniques for Teachers was published in 1995. His coauthored book, Culture and Diversity Issues in Counseling, was published in 1996.

    Jane E. Myers, Ph.D., is Professor of Counselor Education at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She received her master's in rehabilitation counseling (specialist in counseling and educational administration) and doctorate in counselor education (with certificate in gerontology) from the University of Florida. She has worked as a rehabilitation counselor and an administrator of state service programs for older persons. She also directed five national grant projects on aging for the American Counseling Association (ACA), with funding in excess of $1 million, that developed curriculum materials and competencies for training counselors to work with older persons. She is a former president of the American Association for Counseling and Development (now ACA). She is a former president of two ACA divisions, the Association for Assessment in Counseling and the Association for Adult Development and Aging, for which she served as founding president. She has been an officer, a member, and a committee chair for national and division committees of ACA; has served on the editorial boards of ACA journals; and was selected as the founding editor of the Journal of Adult Developmentand Aging. She also has served as president of both Chi Sigma Iota and Rho Chi Sigma. She has been chair of the Counseling and Human Development Foundation, the ACA Executive Director Search Committee, and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. She has written or edited more than 180 publications and has coproduced 7 training videotapes for gerontological counseling. Her recent books include Adult Children and Aging Parents and Competencies for Gerontological Counseling. She also is a coauthor of a model of wellness and an assessment instrument designed to promote individual evaluation and enhancement of holistic wellness across the life span.

    Edwin L. Herr, Ed.D., is Distinguished Professor of Education (Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology); Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Research, and Faculty Development; and Interim Department Head for Adult Education, Instructional Systems, and Workforce Education and Development in the College of Education at Pennsylvania State University. Prior to 1992, he served as head of the Department of Counselor Education, Counseling Psychology, and Rehabilitation Services Education or earlier department iterations for 24 years. He received his B.S. in business education from Shippensburg State College and received his M.A. in psychological foundations, professional diploma in coordination of guidance services, and Ed.D. in counseling and student personnel administration from Teachers College, Columbia University, where he was an alumni fellow. A former business teacher, school counselor, and director of guidance, he previously served as assistant and associate professor of counselor education at the State University of New York at Buffalo and as the first director of the Bureau of Guidance Services and the Bureau of Pupil Personnel Services in the Pennsylvania Department of Education. He has been a visiting professor, researcher, or coordinator of international conferences at some 20 European universities as well as those in Africa, Canada, Japan, and Taiwan. He is a past president of the American Association for Counseling and Development, past president of the National Vocational Guidance Association, and past president of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. He also served as president of Chi Sigma Iota during 2000–2001. He is the author or coauthor of more than 275 articles and book chapters as well as 31 books and monographs. He is a past editor of the journal of Counseling and Development and of Counselor Education and Supervision. He is a member of several other editorial boards including that of the British Journal of Guidance and Counselling. He is a recipient of the Eminent Career Award of the National Career Development Association, the ACA Distinguished Professional Service Award, and the ACES 50th Anniversary Leadership Award.

    About the Contributors

    Patricia Arredondo, Ed.D., is Associate Professor at Arizona State University and founder and president of Empowerment Workshops in Boston. She is known for her leadership in multicultural counseling competencies, the woman factor in multicultural counseling, reshaping counselor education, and Latino perspectives in counseling. She has served as president of the Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development and of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic and Racial Minority Issues.

    Sandra B. Barker, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Internal Medicine, and Anesthesiology in the Medical College of Virginia at Virginia Commonwealth University, where she serves as Associate Director of Inpatient Psychiatry Programs. She is also Adjunct Professor of Small Animal Clinical Sciences at Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. Her research and clinical interests include trauma resolution, substance abuse, and the human-companion animal interaction. She has published and presented extensively in these areas. She is president of the Research and Assessment Corporation for Counseling board of advisers and is a past president of the International Association of Addictions and Offender Counselors (IAAOC), past chair of the Addictions Academy of the National Board of Certified Counselors, and recipient of the Distinguished Service Award and President's Award from IAAOC.

    Stanley B. Baker, Ph.D., is Professor of Counselor Education and Head of the Department of Educational Research and Leadership and Counselor Education at North Carolina State University. A former school counselor, he has supervised school counseling interns and published research related to school counseling for nearly 30 years. His book, School Counseling for the Twenty-First Century, is used as a text for training school counselors in a number of training programs. From 1993 to 1999, he was the field editor of The School Counselor and Professional School Counseling.

    Lori Bechtel, Ph.D., is Professor of Biobehav-ioral Health and Department Head of the Division of Education, Human Development, and Social Sciences at Altoona College of Pennsylvania State University. She has published widely in health education and has conducted numerous workshops for teachers that involve the integration of health into school curricula. She is a coinvestigator on Project ADAPT (Adoption of Drug Abuse Prevention Training), a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study focusing on rural adolescent drug use.

    John W. Bloom, Ph.D., is Professor of Counselor Education at Butler University. Previously, he taught at Northern Arizona University for 19 years. He has edited and authored books and articles related to technology applications in counseling and teaching. He currently is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Technology in Counseling and is professional editor of a Web site (http://www.cybercounsel.uncg.edu). He is a former chair of the board of directors of the National Board for Certified Counselors, former member of the Governing Council of the American Counseling Association, and former member of the board of directors of the American School Counselors Association.

    L. DiAnne Borders, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Counseling and Educational Development at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She is coauthor of the Handbook of Counseling Supervision, has published numerous conceptual and empirical works on supervision practice and supervisor training, and has received several awards for her work. She has conducted supervision workshops for counselor educators and counseling practitioners across the United States and in Australia. She also has published extensively on professional issues, school counseling, and adoptive children and their families.

    Loretta J. Bradley, Ph.D., is Professor of Counselor Education and past chair of the Division of Educational Psychology and Leadership at Texas Tech University. She was president of the American Counseling Association in 1998–99 and president of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision in 1995–96. Previously, she was Associate Professor of Human Development Counseling at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University and an assistant dean of the College of Education at Temple University. She received the ACES Publication Award for the second edition of her book, Counselor Supervision: Principles, Process, and Practice. She is a recipient of the ACA Research Award and of the Association for Counselor Education Research Award. She was chair of the editorial board of the American Counselor and was a member of editorial boards for several other journals. She has authored or coauthored six books and numerous manuscripts and book chapters.

    Richard W. Bradley, Ph.D., is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. He has authored or co-authored more than 75 publications and recently was recognized as among the top 1% of contributors to the Journal of Counseling and Development and the Career Development Quarterly. He has served on several American Counseling Association journal editorial boards and was the editor for four volumes of Counselor Education and Supervision. He was awarded the first American Association for Counseling and Development Extended Research Award for “Career Patterns of School Counselors: A 15-year Follow-Up” published in Vocational Guidance Quarterly.

    Mary Thomas Burke, Ph.D., is Professor and Coordinator of Counseling at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. She is the author or coauthor of numerous journal articles and has coedited two books on spirituality in counseling. She has served as president of Chi Sigma Iota, as president of the Association of Spiritual Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling, and as chair of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. She is a recipient of the Counselor of the Year Award from the American Counseling Association.

    Jon Carlson, Psy.D., Ed.D., is Professor of Psychology and Counseling at Governors State University in Illinois and Psychologist at the Lake Geneva Wellness Clinic in Wisconsin. He is a past president of the International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors, the founding editor of The Family Journal, and a former editor of the Journal of Individual Psychology. He holds a diplomate in family psychology and in marital and family therapy. He has authored 25 books and 120 articles.

    Brooke B. Collison, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Counselor Education at Oregon State University. He is a past president of the American Counseling Association (ACA) and has published work in the areas of counselors as social advocates, school counseling, and counseling men. He is a former editorial board member of the Journal of Counseling and Development and is a recipient of the David Brooks Distinguished Mentor Award from the ACA Foundation. He and his spouse, Joan, are corecipients of the Joe Norton Service Award from the Association for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Counseling.

    Jane A. Cox, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Her areas of research and scholarly interest include the use of social construction concepts in counseling practice and training (including collaborative methods for supervision of counselors-in-training) and counseling with couples and families. She is active in the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) and currently is chair of the ACES Doctoral Program Interest Network and as secretary of North Central ACES (NCACES). She also has served as the NCACES Conference program chair and as secretary for the Illinois Counselor Educators and Supervisors.

    Michael D'Andrea, Ed.D., is Professor in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Hawaii. He has authored or coauth-ored more than 100 journal articles, book chapters, books, and other scholarly works on a broad range of issues related to multicultural counseling. In addition to his extensive research in the area of multicultural counseling, he is best known for his political and social activism in the counseling profession.

    Judy Daniels, Ed.D., is Professor in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Hawaii. Her research and publications focus primarily on issues related to multicultural counseling, the needs of homeless children, and the psychology of White racism. She is well-known for her efforts to promote changes in the counseling profession that reflect an increased level of understanding, sensitivity, and respect for cultural differences.

    Patricia B. Elmore, Ph.D., is Associate Dean for Administrative Services in the College of Education and Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. She specializes in educational measurement and statistics. She is a past president of the Association for Assessment in Counseling and is a recipient (with Ruth B. Ekstrom and Esther E. Diamond) of the American Counseling Association Research Award. She is editor of Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development and is on the editorial boards of Applied Measurement in Education and Educational and Psychological Measurement. She coauthored Basic Statistics with Paula L. Woehlke.

    Dennis W. Engels, Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Counselor Education at the University of North Texas at Denton. He teaches or supervises courses in career counseling, counseling theory and methods, counseling pre-practicum, ethics, life career development, and school counseling internship. His research and scholarly interests center on career development, decision making, ethics, human resource development, multipotentiality, and organizational and disciplinary history. He has published extensively in books, refereed journals, and other publications. He has held numerous offices and chairs in state and national professional organizations, has served as a consulting editor on several nationally refereed journals, has consulted with public and private sector organizations and agencies throughout the United States, and serves as editor of Counseling and Values. He is a past president of the National Career Development Association, was chair-elect of the American Counseling Association's Council of Journal Editors in 2000, and has served as president of the Texas Counseling Association.

    Mary A. Fukuyama, Ph.D., is Clinical Professor and Psychologist at the University of Florida Counseling Center, where she has devoted most of her professional career to working with college students. Her other professional interests include training and teaching in the Department of Counselor Education. She is coauthor (with Todd Sevig) of Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling and teaches a newly developed course on spiritual issues in counseling.

    Michael Tlanusta Garrett, Ph.D., Eastern Band of Cherokee, is Assistant Professor of counseling in the Department of Human Services at Western Carolina University. He is the author of numerous articles and chapters dealing with wellness, spirituality, and cultural issues of counseling Native Americans. He also authored the book, Walking on the Wind: Cherokee Teachings for Harmony and Balance, and coauthored the book, Medicine of the Cherokee: The Way of Right Relationship. His experience with Native people, both professionally and personally, lends a unique perspective and expertise with Native American issues and concerns. He has worked with children and adolescents in the schools, with Native American and other minority students in higher education, as an individual and group therapist in a community agency setting, and as a project director in an urban Indian center serving the local Native American community.

    Edwin R. Gerler, Jr., Ed.D., is Professor of Counselor Education and recently served as Associate Dean for Research and External Affairs in the College of Education of Psychology at North Carolina State University. A former elementary school counselor, he has published extensively in the counseling literature and has been the editor of two national counseling journals. He is the founding coeditor of Meridian, an online journal for professionals interested in middle school computer technologies (http://www.ncsu.edu/meridian), and the codirector of MEGA, an online computer technologies network for middle school educators (http://www.ncsu.edu/mega).

    Hildy Getz, Ed.D., is Assistant Professor of Counselor Education at Virginia Tech. She has made numerous presentations and published on the topic of clinical supervision and is developing clinical supervision distance education courses and training. A focus of the courses she teaches is treatment planning and evaluation. She is a licensed professional counselor and marriage and family therapist in Virginia with many years of experience in community and private practice settings.

    Earl J. Ginter, Ph.D., is Professor at the University of Georgia. He currently is editor of the Journal of Counseling and Development, the official journal of the American Counseling Association. His publications focus primarily on issues that comprise the theoretical and practice base of counseling. His research and assessment interests pertain to the application of developmental-based approaches to working with individuals, couples, families, and groups. He is a licensed professional counselor and a licensed marriage and family therapist affiliated with Psych-Health Associates in Athens, Georgia.

    Samuel T. Gladding, Ph.D., is Professor and Director of the Counselor Education Program at Wake Forest University. His previous academic appointments were at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and at Fairfield University in Connecticut. He also has worked in mental health counseling. He is the author of more than 100 counseling publications, including 8 books. He is a former editor of the Journal for Specialists in Group Work and a past president of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, the Association for Specialists in Group Work, and Chi Sigma Iota.

    Harriet L. Glosoff, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Counselor Education and Director of the Counseling and School Psychology Lab at Mississippi State University. In addition to being a counselor educator, she has extensive experience in clinical supervision and more than 20 years experience in the provision of counseling services in diverse settings such as community agencies, psychiatric facilities, public schools, and the private sector. Her primary research interests are in the areas of professional ethics, clinical supervision, and process variables related to treatment outcomes. She is the author of several book chapters and articles on professional ethics and on issues related to the counseling profession and credentialing.

    Jane Goodman, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Counseling and Director of the Adult Career Counseling Center at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. She is the 2001–2002 president of the American Counseling Association and a past president of the National Career Development Association. She has written in the area of career development, adult transitions, and basic counseling skills.

    Richard J. Hazier, Ph.D., is Professor of Counselor Education at Ohio University. His professional experience has spanned more than 30 years as a faculty member; as a counselor in schools, prisons, the military, and private practice; and as a public school teacher. His current research focuses on the development, intervention, and prevention of youth violence as well as on the human factors involved in the counseling profession. He is a former editor of the Journal of Humanistic Education and Development and has authored or coauthored numerous humanistically oriented articles as well as current books, including Core Conditions of the Facilitative Environment, Helping in the Hallways, What You Never Learned in Graduate School, The Emerging Professional Counselor, and Breaking the Cycle of Violence.

    Kimberly L. Henry, M.S., is a doctoral student of biobehavioral health at Pennsylvania State University. Her interests include program evaluation of intervention and prevention programs; adolescent health; and issues surrounding alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. She currently works as a research assistant on Project ADAPT (Adoption of Drug Abuse Prevention Training), a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study focusing on rural adolescent drug use. She also serves as a research assistant for the Penn State-Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board Partnership for Prevention, a coalition dedicated to preventing binge drinking.

    Barbara Herlihy, Ph.D., is Professor in the Counseling Graduate Program at the University of New Orleans. Her scholarly work has focused on the area of counseling ethics. She is a former chair of the American Counseling Association (ACA) Ethics Committee and is a coauthor of the ethics casebook published by ACA. She conducts workshops nationally in the area of ethical issues in counseling and has written numerous journal articles, book chapters, and books on the topic. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling and Development, Directions in Mental Health, and The School Counselor. She also has served as editor of The Wisconsin Counselor and the Texas Counseling Association Journal. She is a licensed professional counselor and a national certified counselor.

    Thomas H. Hohenshil, Ph.D., is Professor of Counselor Education and Psychology at Virginia Tech. He is experienced as a counselor and psychologist in community mental health settings and in the public schools. He is widely published and has presented numerous workshops on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders throughout the United States, Europe, and Canada. He is associate editor of the Journal of Counseling and Development and has served on the editorial boards of seven other national journals in counseling and psychology. He is a licensed professional counselor in Virginia and a licensed professional clinical counselor in Ohio.

    Janice Miner Holden, Ed.D., is Associate Professor of Counseling at the University of North Texas, where she is Coordinator of the Counseling Program. She is the featured counselor in the video, Cognitive Counseling: An Educational Video, produced by the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision and Chi Sigma Iota. Most of her professional publications and presentations have addressed her primary area of professional interest—the role of transpersonal experiences in psychospiritual development. She also is interested in the interface between cognitive counseling and the transpersonal perspective in counseling.

    Thomas W. Hosie, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Counselor Education and Educational Psychology at Mississippi State University. He also is a professor emeritus at Louisiana State University. He is the author or coauthor of more than 50 journal articles and book chapters. He has national research awards from the American Counseling Association (ACA), the Association of Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES), and the American Mental Health Counselors Association for his published research studies on counselor training and employment roles. He also has served as ACES president and treasurer, as editor of Counselor Education and Supervision, as an ACA Governing Council member, as a Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs member, and as a member and chair of the Louisiana Professional Counselors board of examiners.

    Allen E. Ivey, Ed.D., is Distinguished University Professor (Emeritus) at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is president of Micro-training Associates, an educational publishing firm. He also serves on the board of directors of the National Institute for Multicultural Competence. He received his undergraduate degree from Stanford University, followed by a year as a Fulbright scholar at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. He earned his doctorate at Harvard University. He is the author or coauthor of more than 25 books and 200 articles and chapters, translated into at least 16 languages. He is the originator of the influential microskills approach to counselor training. A past president of the Division of Counseling Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA), he is a fellow of APA and a diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology. He also is a fellow of APA's Society for the Study of Ethnic and Minority Psychology. A lifetime member of the American Counseling Association, he is a recipient of its Professional Development Award.

    Mary Bradford Ivey, Ed.D., is Vice President of Microtraining Associates, an educational publishing firm, and is a former school counselor in Amherst, Massachusetts. She has served as a visiting professor or counselor at Amherst College; the University of Massachusetts, Amherst; the University of Hawaii, Manoa; and Keene State College. She is on the board of directors of the National Institute for Multicultural Competence. She is the author or coauthor of 8 books, several articles and chapters, and more than 10 counseling videotapes translated into multiple languages. She has presented workshops and keynote lectures throughout the world. She received national recognition in 1988 when her elementary counseling program at the Fort River School was named one of the 10 best in the nation at the Christa McAullife Conference. She also is a recipient of the O'Hana Award of the American Counseling Association for her work in multicultural counseling in the schools.

    Karyn Dayle Jones, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Counselor Education Program at the University of Central Florida. She has published research articles and book chapters in the area of child abuse and counselor education. She has many years of counseling experience working with children, adolescents, adults, and families, particularly in the field of child abuse and sexual trauma. She is a national certified counselor and a licensed mental health counselor in the state of Florida. She also is on the board of the Counseling Association of Humanistic Education and Development.

    Patricia Anne Davis Kennington, Ph.D., is Assistant Director, Success Programs, Division of Student Affairs, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. She specializes in teaching and training from a primary prevention and psychological development perspective. Her work focuses on academic support and counseling, and she is faculty advisor for One to One Tutoring, SPAARC, a peer advising student organization, and the Team Leader Advisory Board, a student group composed of peer leaders for the first-year experience seminar. She has extensive experience in training and curriculum development for programs with adult groups representing the mentally disabled, the homeless, and agency volunteers. With a particular focus on spirituality and counseling and women's issues, she is cofounder of the Center for Spiritual Formation at St. James' Episcopal Church in Marietta, Georgia, providing spiritual direction, retreats, and classes on spirituality issues.

    Mark S. Kiselica, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Counselor Education at the College of New Jersey. He has conducted 52 convention presentations and is the author or editor of 45 refereed publications, including Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide; Confronting Prejudice and Racism During Multicultural Training; and Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner's Guide. He is a former consulting scholar to the Clinton administration's federal Fatherhood Initiative and is a past president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity (American Psychological Association [APA], Division 51). He has been named Counselor Educator of the Year and Researcher of the Year by the American Mental Health Counselors Association, is a recipient of the Publication in Counselor Education and Supervision Award, and has been named an APA fellow.

    Courtland C. Lee, Ph.D., is Dean of the School of Education and Professor of Counselor Education at Hunter College of the City University of New York. He is the author, editor, or co-editor of four books on multicultural counseling and the author of two books on counseling African American males. He has published numerous book chapters and articles on adolescent development and counseling across cultures. He is a past president of the American Counseling Association, the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development, and Chi Sigma Iota (CSI). He is a charter member of CSI's Academy of Leaders for Excellence. He is a former editor of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development and the Journal of African American Men. He serves on the editorial boards of the International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling and Career Development Quarterly. A former teacher and school counselor, he has served as an educational consultant in both the United States and abroad.

    Judy Lewis, Ph.D., is Professor in the College of Health Professions at Governors State University in Illinois. She is the 2000–2001 president of the American Counseling Association as well as a past president of the International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors. She has published books on adolescent, family, community, substance abuse, employee assistance, health, and women's counseling. Her current consultation and training efforts focus on diversity initiatives and innovative helping strategies.

    Larry C. Loesch, Ph.D., is Professor in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida. His research and writing interests are focused on measurement and evaluation as well as counselor preparation and credentialing. He has served as measurement and research consultant for the National Board for Certified Counselors since 1981. Among other professional recognitions, he is a co-recipient of the American Counseling Association's (ACA) Research Award and of the ACA Hitchcock Distinguished Professional Service Award. He is a past president of Chi Sigma Iota and a current member of its Academy of Leaders for Excellence.

    Judy Miranti, Ed.D., is Professor of Counselor Education and an Academic Dean at Our Lady of Holy Cross College in Louisiana. She has published articles and book chapters and has coedited texts on the topic of spirituality in counseling. She is on the board of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs and has held leadership positions at the state and national levels. She has presented nationally and internationally and is a frequent presenter of workshops on the spiritual dimensions of counseling.

    Spencer G. Niles, Ed.D., is Professor-in-Charge of the Counselor Education Program at Pennsylvania State University. Previously, he served as a professor and an assistant dean at the University of Virginia. He is a licensed professional counselor and licensed psychologist. He currently serves as editor of Career Development Quarterly and is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Career Development, International Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance, International Journal of Counselling, Journal of College Student Development, and International Career Journal.

    Pamela O. Paisley, Ed.D., is Associate Professor and School Counseling Program Coordinator at the University of Georgia. She is a past president of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision and currently serves as an associate editor of the Journal of Counseling and Development. She is the principal investigator for a national grant focused on transforming school counseling. She has written and consulted nationally and internationally on school counseling program development. Her research, using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, focuses on restructuring school counseling preparation and practice, applications of developmental theory, and efficacy of interventions with children and adolescents.

    Artis J. Palmo, Ed.D., is a full-time private practitioner and chief executive officer of Bethlehem Counseling Associates in Pennsylvania. Prior to full-time practice, he served as a professor of counseling psychology at Lehigh University. He specializes in the treatment of individuals and couples facing issues such as divorce, remarriage, parenting, stepparenting, and relationship problems. He has published extensively on a wide range of topics including important issues facing mental health professionals in the future, blended families, adolescent and children's problems, and group counseling.

    Randall M. Parker, Ph.D., is Melissa Elizabeth Stuart Centennial Professor of Education, Professor of Special Education, and Director of Rehabilitation Counselor Education at the University of Texas at Austin. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) and Division 22 (Rehabilitation Psychology). He is coeditor of the Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin and is a past president of the American Rehabilitation Counseling Association and the Texas Psychological Association. He is a recipient of the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education Alumni Achievement Award, the University of Texas at Austin College of Education Outstanding Faculty Award, and the American Rehabilitation Counseling Association James F. Garrett Award for Career Research.

    Sandra DeAngelis Peace, Ed.D., is Associate Director of the Model Clinical Teaching Program at North Carolina State University. She has held counselor education faculty appointments at North Carolina Central University (as department chair) and at North Carolina State University. She has been a school counselor in New York City and North Carolina. Her research and publications have focused on school counselor developmental supervision and on promoting counselor and teacher development.

    Mary Lou Ramsey, Ed.D., is Professor and Coordinator of the School Counseling Program in the Department of Counselor Education at the College of New Jersey. She is a national train-the-trainer of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development and is a member of the curriculum development committee of the Counselors for Social Justice. Her scholarly achievements include 15 state and federal grants, 25 refereed publications, and more than 100 professional conference and workshop presentations, many of which are devoted to issues of diversity and multiculturalism.

    Patricia M. Reeves, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Social Work at the University of Georgia. She serves as an adviser to several local/state social service agencies. Her research interests include coping and adapting in marginalized populations, empowerment fostered by the use of information technologies, and school social work. She is investigating how access to information through the Internet challenges the traditional relationship between physicians and HIV-AIDS patients as well as the mental health needs/issues of women in a homeless shelter.

    Theodore P. Remley, Jr., Ph.D., is Coordinator of the Counseling Graduate Program at the University of New Orleans. He is a member of the bar in Virginia and Florida and is a licensed professional counselor in Virginia, Mississippi, and Louisiana. He is a member of the counselor licensure board in Louisiana and also has served on the licensure boards in the District of Columbia as well as in Mississippi and Virginia. He is a former executive director of the American Counseling Association and was the founding president of the American Association of State Counseling Boards. He conducts workshops nationally in the area of legal issues in mental health and has written numerous journal articles, book chapters, and books on the topic.

    Sandra Rigazio-DiGilio, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Commission on Accreditation of Marriage and Family Therapy Education master's and doctoral programs at the University of Connecticut, Storrs. She is a licensed psychologist, a licensed marriage and family therapist, and an American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy-approved supervisor. She is associate editor of the Teachers College Press Book Series in Counseling and Development, has served as associate editor of the Practice section of the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, and has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Counseling and Development. She has written numerous articles and chapters on a co-constructive-developmental model of therapy and supervision and has presented internationally and nationally on these topics.

    E. H. “Mike” Robinson, III, Ph.D., is Professor in the Department of Human Service and Wellness at the University of Central Florida (UCF), where he also serves as Coordinator of Counselor Education Programs and as Graduate Director of the Ph.D. Program in the College of Education. He is the founder and codirector of the Consortium for Social Responsibility and has received grants for his work in the consortium with children and adults from the AT&T Foundation; The Celebration Company; and the UCF Academy for Teaching, Learning, and Leadership. His research has focused on the human relationships in counseling and teaching and on the developmental nature of fear and anxiety. He has served on the boards of a number of professional associations including the American Counseling Association. He is a recipient of the Distinguished Mentor Award from the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision.

    Tracy L. Robinson, Ed.D., is Professor of Counselor Education at North Carolina State University (NCSU). Prior experience includes stints as director of research for the Quality Education for Minorities Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, research associate with the New England Research Institute, and director of the Counseling and Testing Center at Johnson C. Smith University in North Carolina. She recently participated in an invited sabbatical at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. She is a recipient of the NCSU College of Education and Psychology Board of Governors' Excellence in Teaching Award. She is a coauthor of The Convergence of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Multiple Identities in Counseling and serves as an associate editor of the Journal of Counseling and Development.

    Michael Ryan is a graduate student at Wake Forest University specializing in school counseling. This is his first publication. He is working on a variety of projects including a team council project for middle schools using praise and encouragement with children and the use of rational emotive behavior therapy with teenagers.

    James P. Sampson, Jr., Ph.D., is Professor in the Psychological Services in Education Program and coDirector of the Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development at Florida State University. He is a national certified counselor and a national certified career counselor. He is a member of the American Counseling Association, the Association for Assessment in Counseling, the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, the National Career Development Association, the American Psychological Association (Counseling Psychology and Psychology of Religion divisions), and the Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information. His areas of interest are computer applications in counseling and human services as well as career decision making and the delivery of career services.

    Thomas L. Sexton, Ph.D., is Professor in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at Indiana University, where he is Director of the Clinical Training Center, is Director of the Centor for Adolescent and Family Studies, and teaches in the nationally accredited Counseling Psychology Program. He has written extensively in the areas of outcome research and its implications for clinical practice and training. He is a national expert on family-based treatment interventions for at-risk adolescents. He is the author of 4 books and more than 35 professional articles and chapters in the areas of marriage and family therapy and counseling outcome research. As the clinical training and externship coordinator for the Functional Family Therapy Project, he has presented workshops on functional family therapy both nationally and internationally. He is a licensed psychologist, a member of both the American Psychological Association and the American Counseling Association, and an approved supervisor in the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy.

    Michael J. Shosh, M.S., is Director of Training and Business Development at Bethlehem Counseling Associates in Pennsylvania. He has more than 20 years experience as a human resources/organizational development consultant. His work has focused on maximizing individual and organizational performance and on managing problem employees. His expertise extends to the issues of employee drug testing and critical incident management. He has authored articles on a variety of topics and a book chapter on counseling in business and industry.

    Ed Smith, D.P.H., is Director of Evaluation Research in the Prevention Research Center at Pennsylvania State University. Previously, he was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins University, the University of Waterloo in Ontario, the University of North Carolina, and the University of Georgia. He has authored more than 70 articles, book chapters, and reports centered around preventing unwanted teenage pregnancy, repeat pregnancy, substance use, and the promotion of healthy lifestyles. For the past 20 years, he has been concerned with the design, implementation, and evaluation of programs aimed at improving the lives of adolescents and young adults. As part of this area of study, he works with program providers, developers, and administrators to improve programs by incorporating pragmatic evaluation findings. The settings for these programs have included schools, health clinics, camps, and community and recreation centers.

    Howard B. Smith, Ed.D., is Senior Director for Professional Affairs of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Previously, he served as head of the Educational Leadership and Counseling Department at the University of Louisiana-Monroe. Prior to that, he served as department head of Counseling and Human Resource Development at South Dakota State University. He has held national, regional, and state elected and appointed offices within ACA, its divisions, and its state branches during his career.

    Len Sperry, Ph.D., is Professor and Vice Chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin. He also holds appointments as Professor of Family and Community Medicine and as Professor of Preventive Medicine. He is board certified in clinical psychology, preventive medicine, and psychiatry and is a fellow of both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association. He is a member of the American Family Therapy Academy, the American College of Preventive Medicine, and the American College of Psychiatry. He has published 28 professional books, including The Disordered Couple, and more than 200 chapters and journal articles. He is on the editorial boards of 10 professional journals including the American Journal of Family Therapy and The Family Journal.

    Norman A. Sprinthall, Ed.D., is Professor Emeritus at North Carolina State University, where he served as department head. Previously, he held faculty appointments at the University of Minnesota and Harvard University. He has authored a number of textbooks as well as numerous book chapters and research articles. His main interests always have been to promote a preventive developmental model for counseling.

    Patricia W. Stevens, Ph.D., is Director of the Marriage and Family Training Program at the University of Colorado at Denver. She currently is president of the International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors and is a past chair of its Ethics Committee. She is a past cochair of the Women's Mentoring and Interest Network of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. She is a clinical member and approved supervisor with the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, a certified family therapist, a licensed professional counselor, a licensed marriage and family therapist, and a licensed clinical supervisor. She has written and presented extensively at the local, regional, national, and international levels in the areas of marriage and family training, substance abuse, gender issues, and ethical and legal issues in marriage and family therapy. She is a recent recipient of a Fulbright scholarship and traveled to Malaysia, where she assisted the National University in developing a marriage and family training program.

    Thomas J. Sweeney, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus in Counseling and Higher Education at Ohio University and is Executive Director of Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) and a member of its Academy of Leaders for Excellence. He is a past president of the American Counseling Association (ACA), the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, and CSI, and he was the founding chair of CACREP. He is a recipient of the ACA Carl Perkins Legislative Award and the Arthur A. Hitchcock Distinguished Professional Service Award. His professional interests include the theory and practice of the individual psychology of Alfred Adler, child guidance, marriage and family counseling, career counseling, group work, and counselor education.

    John D. Swisher, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Education at Pennsylvania State University. His research specialty has been the evaluation of prevention programs for schools and colleges. He has been a school counselor and counselor educator, and most recently he was the department head for programs in counselor education, counseling psychology, and rehabilitation. He was co-principal investigator for a research grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse that evaluated the cost-effectiveness of prevention programs. He has been involved in several projects focusing on the integration of prevention programs in schools. He currently is a senior research scientist on Project ADAPT (Adoption of Drug Abuse Prevention Training) through the Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation at Penn State.

    Edna Mora Szymanski, Ph.D., is Dean of the College of Education at the University of Maryland, College Park. Previously, she served in a variety of capacities at the University of Wisconsin-Madison including professor in the Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Special Education, department chair, associate dean, director of the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Career Development and Advancement, and chair of the campus committees on retirement and disability. Her major areas of scholarship have focused on disability and career development, rehabilitation counselor education, and research instruction. Her most influential research has demonstrated the relationship of rehabilitation counselor education to employment outcomes of people with severe disabilities. She has authored or coauthored numerous refereed articles and book chapters and has received national recogition for her research, including awards from the American Counseling Association, the American Rehabilitation Counseling Association, the American Association of Counselor Education and Supervision, and the National Council on Rehabilitation Education.

    Judith R. Vicary, Ph.D., is Professor of Bio-behavioral Health at Pennsylvania State University and recently served as Senior Research Fellow at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. She has conducted research and published in the area of substance abuse prevention in school, community, and workplace settings. She was the principal investigator for a Center for Substance Abuse Prevention community health project targeting alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by pregnant and parenting young adult women that received the National Exemplary Prevention Program Award. She also has been the principal investigator for a longitudinal study of adolescent development and health, focusing on both teen pregnancy and substance abuse, following the participants for 14 years into young adulthood. She has been a National Institute on Drug Abuse postdoctoral fellow. She has served for 3 years as chair of the Planning Committee for the Penn State-Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board Partnership for Prevention, developing campus-community partnerships at the 20 Penn State campuses.

    Sherry K. Watt, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor at the University of Iowa. Previously, she held a faculty appointment at Radford University. She is a licensed professional counselor in the state of North Carolina. She has varied experience in the student affairs administration and community agency field. Over the past 10 years, she has held a variety of positions in student affairs administration including career counselor, resident director, and college instructor. She founded and operated a private consulting firm through which she provided individual and group counseling; conducted programmatic evaluations; and facilitated a wide range of workshops on topics such as adolescent development, diversity, time management, and community building. She is a recipient of the Annuit Coeptis Award for Emerging Professionals from the American College Personnel Association and of the Chi Sigma Iota Outstanding Teacher Award from Radford University. Her teaching and research interests include administrative operations in student affairs, identity development, student development, racial identity development, gender issues, and spirituality development.

    William J. Weikel, Ph.D., is Professor in the Counseling Program at Morehead State University and has been in private practice for more than 20 years. He is a past president of the American Mental Health Counselors Association and of the Kentucky Counseling Association. He is the author of numerous journal articles and books in the field of mental health.

    J. Melvin Witmer, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus at Ohio University, where he taught in Counselor Education for 32 years. He is a professional clinical counselor, consultant, and workshop leader in counseling and human development. His 1985 book, Pathways to Personal Growth, and subsequent publications describe the process of developing one's potential, striving for wellness, and coping with stress. His application of a model of wellness has been presented throughout the United States and overseas to groups in education, mental health, community agencies, and business and industry. He continues to refine the wellness model in collaboration with colleagues Thomas Sweeney and Jane Myers.

    Richard Yep, M.P.A., is Executive Director of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Prior to his current appointment, he served in a variety of positions with ACA including director of government relations and associate executive director for corporate planning. He has been involved in education and human services work for more than 20 years. He began his career in a human services agency by working with the Native American population as a Volunteer in Service to America (VISTA). He went on to do direct service work in the TRIO programs focusing on youths from underrepre-sented populations as they transitioned from high school to postsecondary education. He served as project director for an Asian American AIDS education program. He worked in the California state legislature and in the U.S. Congress as a legislative assistant, focusing on education, human services, and civil rights issues. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his master's degree from the University of Southern California.


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