The Employment Interview Handbook

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Edited by: Robert W. Eder & Michael M. Harris

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    Dedication

    To my wife, Janice, and my two sons, Collin and Derek

    —Robert W. Eder

    To my wife, Pat

    —Michael M. Harris

    Preface

    Overview

    When the The Employment Interview: Theory, Research, and Practice, edited by Robert W. Eder and Gerald R. Ferris, was published by Sage Publications in 1989, scholars and advanced practitioners were just beginning to rethink the employment interview's value. Up to that time, the general consensus in the literature was that the interview was a poor selection device, tolerated primarily because it was the only personal opportunity for applicants and interviewers to exchange information with one another. Researchers lamented the widespread practitioner reliance on the relatively unstructured, face-to-face interview to arrive at employee selection decisions, despite the interview's questionable validity in predicting job success when compared with other selection techniques (such as biographical information, work samples, and ability testing).

    In perhaps the single most important development in the 1980s, validation studies on a new type of interview, the “structured interview,” offered the promise of superior selection accuracy, resurrecting the value of the interview as an employee selection method. A series of meta-analytic studies (i.e., quantitative reviews of the literature) published in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as well as continued primary research, consistently reported a larger mean validity for structured interviews than for unstructured interviews.

    With a less cynical attitude toward the employment interview, researchers began to explore new theoretical frameworks for studying the interview event and to address methodological challenges in testing these more dynamic theories. It became clear that myriad factors (e.g., applicant strategies, preinterview impressions, interviewer-applicant interaction dynamics, interview content, and interview context) influence interview decisions. Scholars and advanced practitioners began to ask how the interview might be used to assess expanded notions of applicant “it” with the organization's values and culture and how applicants were reacting to these new structured interviewing procedures. Practitioners quickly adopted these structured interviewing techniques through books and workshops, raising practitioner confidence in the improved efficacy of their interviewing. Using a medical metaphor, the health of the employment interview has greatly improved over this past decade.

    Development of This Handbook

    This handbook builds on the successful format of Eder and Ferris's 1989 edited volume. The basic integrative structure is retained, respective streams of research are updated, and new lines of promising research are examined. Thirteen authors from the Eder and Ferris volume return, and they are joined by 28 new authors, all of whom make significant contributions to the advancement of employment interview knowledge. In the 1989 volume, an integrated framework was constructed and then contributing authors were sought to write chapters on different facets of the framework. In this handbook, we decided not to be constrained initially by the framework, but instead began by asking leading interview scholars of the past decade to share their latest thinking on promising lines of research that have the potential of advancing interview practice. The result is a handbook that reflects original, cutting-edge scholarship and advanced practice.

    Coherence across the chapters was accomplished, in part, through the editing process on initial drafts to minimize redundancies across chapters, improve readability, and, where needed, enlarge a chapter's scope. Authors were asked to summarize the existing research and were encouraged to stretch their thinking to propose new needed research, and to comment on the importance of their research for testing theory and enhancing interview practice.

    As in the 1989 volume, we provide an organizing framework at the end of Chapter 1 to group research efforts that address similar key variables; we also offer introductory comments at the opening of each part of the handbook to describe how the chapters relate to one another within the organizing framework. Finally, the handbook concludes with a commentary/discussion section that highlights key contributions across the contributing chapters to advancing employment interview research and practice.

    The handbook is particularly appropriate for use by (a) researchers and graduate students, as a resource for stimulating new research streams on employee selection in general and the employment interview in particular; (b) instructors, as a textbook supplement for industrial/organizational psychology and human resource management seminars on employment practices; and (c) advanced practitioners, as a reference source for auditing and updating employment interview procedures and policies. Edited research volumes, with their emphasis on advanced empirical work, frequently create initial difficulty for readers unfamiliar with the topic. Therefore, in Chapter 1 we provide the reader with the history of employment interview research, placing many of today's diverse research efforts and ongoing debates in historical perspective.

    Becoming an Informed Consumer of Research

    Also, we would like the reader of this book to become an informed consumer of employment interview research–past, present, and future. No single empirical study is ever perfect, methodologically. Trade-offs are often made between concerns over controlling for a variety of internal validity threats to hypothesis testing in a study and concerns over the external validity, or generalizability, of the study's findings to actual interview practice. The employment interview is a complex phenomenon that still mystifies interviewers and applicants alike. When we attempt to study actual interviews and the outcomes of interest to us, there are so many subtle dynamics operating that it is difficult to rule out something we did not observe or measure as a plausible alternative explanation for what we think we have found.

    Not surprisingly, researchers have often conducted interview research in relatively controlled settings, where specific subtleties of interest can be examined and the potential efficacy of an intervention can be tested. However, the more removed these studies are from actual interviews, the greater is the concern over what the study's findings mean for real employment interviews. In place of “live” employment interviews, the stimulus studied may be a narrative description, audiotape, or videotape of an interviewer-applicant exchange. Often, these stimuli are responded to by college students who are asked to take on the role of interviewer or applicant in the situation. Unlike supervisors or coworkers with a great deal at stake in making correct hiring decisions, students as study participants experience no comparable consequences for their judgments when they know the context of the study is for “research purposes only.” And finally, despite our primary interest in the employment interview as a selection technique, many studies assess interviewer judgment in screening interviews, where recruitment and assessment of general applicant suitability is the primary purpose, not final selection of the best-qualified candidate. We actually know very little about the effects that each of these factors (i.e., simulated interview stimuli, student stand-ins for actual interviewers, interview purpose) has on understanding how a particular study's results generalize, but all three are potentially important.

    Whether your interest is in conducting employment interview research, gaining insight from what has been learned about interviewing processes and outcomes, or incorporating promising innovations into your employment interview practices, it is our sincere hope that this handbook will become a valuable resource for you.

    Acknowledgments

    We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the many people who made this handbook possible. As lead editor, it was my good fortune to have Mike Harris join me as coeditor. Mike authored the last qualitative review of the employment interview published in Personnel Psychology in 1989 and brought a fresh perspective and complementary expertise to enrich this project. I am also thankful to Jerry Ferris, my coeditor on The Employment Interview, who agreed to be a contributing author and who extended his counsel in the development of this handbook.

    A special thank-you goes to our contributing authors for the high-quality manuscripts they produced; they responded in a timely fashion and demonstrated a willingness to work with us in making their chapters even better. It was truly an honor and a pleasure to work with them. A personal note of gratitude goes to Astrid Virding and Judy Selhorst for their diligence in the final copyediting and production process, and especially to Marquita Flemming, our editor at Sage Publications, for her belief in this project and for providing the support necessary to help us deliver a high-quality product. The logistics of monitoring the progress of 21 manuscripts and 41 authors, keeping the correspondence and faxes flowing smoothly, and making what seemed to be an endless number of short deadlines would not have been possible without the help of the faculty support staffs in the School of Business Administration at both Pordand State University and the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Finally, and in many respects most important, we would like to thank our families, who indulged us in this endeavor by putting up with our long hours at the office.

    Robert W.EderPortland
    Michael M.HarrisSt. Louis
  • About the Editors

    Robert W. Eder (Ph.D., business administration, University of Colorado-Boulder) is Professor of Human Resources at Portend State University, School of Business Administration. Trained in organizational behavior and human resource management, he has research interests in the areas of the employment interview, strategic staffing, managerial effectiveness, and human resource management practices in a quality business environment. He has authored or coauthored more than 40 articles, which have been published in scholarly outlets such as Journal of Management, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Advances in International Comparative Management, and Educational and Psychological Measurement. He is also coeditor, with Gerald R. Ferris, of The Employment Interview: Theory, Research, and Practice (1989). Dr. Eder has held managerial and professional positions in both the private and public sector, and regularly conducts research and/or consults with numerous service and high-technology firms. He has conducted many workshops in the areas of management development, strategic staffing, employment interviewing, and employee relations in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa. He was honored in 1979, 1985, and 1997 with teaching excellence awards, with the Ascendant Scholar Award for his research from the Western Division of the Academy of Management in 1992, and with his election as the 1997 Chair of the Research Methods Division of the Academy of Management.

    Michael M. Harris (Ph.D., industrial and organizational psychology, University of Illinois-Chicago) is Professor of Management at the School of Business Administration, University of Missouri-St. Louis. His area of interest is human resource management, and he has conducted research on a variety of related topics, including interviewing, assessment centers, and performance management. His work has appeared in such publications as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and the Journal of Management. He has served on the editorial boards of several journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, and is author of the textbook Human Resource Management: A Practical Approach. He is the columnist for “Practice Network,” which appears in The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, the official newsletter of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He regularly conducts workshops on employment interviewing and has served as an expert witness in several legal cases, three of which involved the use of an interview.

    About the Contributors

    Anthony J. Adorno is a partner of the DeGarmo Group, a human resources/management consulting firm located in Bloomington, Illinois. He received his B.S. degree in psychology and M.S. degree in industrial/ organizational psychology from Illinois State University. He conducts research on the fairness and validity of personnel selection processes, focusing primarily on assessment center and employment interview contexts. He has presented research and served as an invited speaker at both regional and national conferences, and he currently manages an Internet-based HR forum for professionals of the call center industry. He has consulted with organizational clients on projects such as turnover reduction, employee career development, managerial assessment, selection system design and validation, EEO compliance, and training design and implementation. In collaboration with John Binning, he is developing structured personality assessment systems to measure job candidates' congruence with discomforting and stressful job demands, to better manage employee turnover in organizations. As part of this effort, he has coordinated an international research study that includes organizational representatives from five countries.

    Richard D. Arvey (Ph.D., University of Minnesota) is Professor and Land Grant Chair in the Department of Industrial Relations at the University of Minnesota. He has taught at the University of Tennessee and the University of Houston, and has been a Visiting Professor at the University of California at Berkeley as well as UC-Irvine. His areas of interest and research include the selection and placement of employees, training and development, and organizational behavior. He has served as academic adviser to more than 50 graduate students working toward their master's or Ph.D. degrees and has published more than 75 articles, chapters, or technical reports. One of his best-known works is his book Fairness in Selecting Employees (1979; revised edition, 1988). He serves or has served on the editorial boards of several national professional journals, is a Fellow of the Division of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, American Psychological Association, and has held a variety of professional offices and positions. He has served as an expert witness in a number of court cases and has been a consultant to such firms as Mead Paper Company, Shell Oil Company, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Petroleum Institute.

    Howard M. Berkson is a doctoral student at the Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has research interests in organizational politics, employment interviews, performance appraisals, and absence. He has published in peer-reviewed journals, including Human Resource Management Review, and has consulted on a variety of human resources topics with local and regional nonprofit organizations.

    John F. Binning is Associate Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Illinois State University. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Akron, and a B.A. from Butler University. His research focuses on factors affecting selection decisions in assessment center and employment interview contexts and has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, and Human Resource Management Journal. For 18 years he has consulted with organizational clients on selection system design and validation, EEO compliance, performance appraisal, training program design, and managerial succession planning. He currently is developing personality assessment systems to measure job candidates' congruence with discomforting and stressful job demands, thus enhancing predictions of emotional exhaustion and assisting clients in managing employee turnover.

    M. Ronald Buckley is Professor of Management and Professor of Psychology and the John and Mary Nichols Research Fellow at the University of Oklahoma. His current research interests encompass the employee socialization process, specifically the efficacy of the employment interview and those processes that facilitate the socialization of new organization entrants. He has published more than 70 articles in scholarly research journals and practitioner-oriented journals.

    Daniel M. Cable (Ph.D., Cornell University) is Assistant Professor of Human Resource Management at the Kenan-Flagler Business School at the University of North Carolina. His current research interests include person-organization fit, the organizational entry process, organizational selection systems, job choice decisions, and career success. His research has been published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Human Relations.

    James E. Campion (Ph.D., University of Minnesota) is Professor of Psychology at the University of Houston, where he heads the Ph.D. program in I/O psychology and directs the Personnel Psychology Services Center and the Interviewing Institute. The Interviewing Institute was created in 1952, when the first employment interviewing workshop was conducted. These workshops have been offered on a continuous basis since then, making this program the longest running of its kind in the country. His research interests and consulting practice are in the areas of assessment, training, recruitment, and the employment interview.

    Michael A. Campion is Professor of Management at Purdue University. His previous industrial experience includes 4 years each at IBM and Weyerhaeuser Company. He holds an M.S. and a Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology and has published more than 50 articles in scientific and professional journals. He has also given numerous presentations at professional meetings on such topics as interviewing, teams, work design, testing, training, turnover, promotion, and motivation. He is past editor of Personnel Psychology and past president of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He is an active consultant with a wide range of private and public sector organizations on a broad variety of topics.

    Robert L. Dipboye is Chair of Psychology and Professor of Psychology and Management at Rice University. Previous to his current position, he held faculty positions at the University of Tennessee and Purdue University. He graduated from Purdue University with his M.A. (1970) and Ph.D. (1973) degrees. His research interests include staffing, training, job analysis, group behavior, and organizational behavior. He is associate editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology and is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Organizational Behavior and SIOP's Frontier Series. He is the author of Selection Interviews: Process Perspectives and Industrial and Organization Psychology: An Integrative Approach (with C. Smith and W. C. Howell). He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the American Psychological Society. In addition to teaching courses in organizational psychology, he has served as a consultant to organizations on problems of human resources management.

    Thomas W. Dougherty is Professor of Management at the University of Missouri in Columbia, where he has worked since starting as an Assistant Professor in 1979. He received his B.B.A. degree in accounting as well as his M.A. and Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Houston. While a doctoral student, he served as an intern in the Personnel Research Group at Exxon Company US.A. in Houston, where he also conducted his dissertation research on the measurement of role stress. His research interests include mentoring processes and career success, employment interviewing and recruiting, role stress, and job burnout. He has published in journals including the Journal of Applied Psychology Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Personnel Psychology, and 0rg2ni%ational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

    Gerald R. Ferris (Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is Professor of Labor and Industrial Relations, of Business Administration, and of Psychology, and Caterpillar Foundation University Scholar at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He also served as the Director of the Center for Human Resource Management at the University of Illinois from 1991 to 1996. In July 1999 he will move to the University of Mississippi, where he will hold the Robert M. Hearin Endowed Chair in Business Administration. He has research interests in the areas of interpersonal and political influence in organizations, performance evaluation, and strategic human resources management, and he is the author of numerous articles that have appeared in such publications as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Personnel Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, and Academy of Management Review. He serves as editor of the annual series Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management and has authored or edited a number of books, including Handbook of Human Resource Management, Strategy and Human Resources Management, and Method and Analysis in Organizational Research.

    Stephen W. Gilliland (Ph.D., Michigan State University) is Associate Professor and the FINOVA Fellow of Management and Policy in the College of Business and Public Administration at the University of Arizona. His primary research interests are in the justice and fairness of human resource practices and policies. Through a merging of social, legal, and managerial issues in this area, he has authored or coauthored more than 50 published papers and conference presentations. He serves on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Personnel Psychology. He is the 1997 recipient of the Ernest J. McCormick Award for distinguished early career contributions from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. His consulting and executive education work has addressed issues involving managerial communication and goal setting, team development, and designing and implementing effective performance management systems.

    David C. Gilmore is an industrial/organizational psychologist and has been on the psychology faculty at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte since 1979. He received his MA. and Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology at the Ohio State University. He has taught at Illinois State University and the University of Southampton, England. In addition to teaching, he has consulted with many organizations on a variety of human resource issues and currently has an adjunct relationship with the Center for Creative Leadership. His research interests are in leadership, organizational politics, job design, and the employment interview. He was one of the founding members of the North Carolina Industrial/Organizational Psychologists and is a member of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the Academy of Management.

    Laura M. Graves is Associate Professor of Management at the Graduate School of Management at Clark University. Prior to joining the faculty at Clark, she worked in Corporate Human Resources at Aetna. Her research has addressed issues related to leadership, employee selection, and workforce diversity. Her current work examines bias in employment interviewers, decision processes and the effects of demographic diversity on work groups. Her research has appeared in the Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Personnel Psychology, as well as other journals, and she is currently Chair-Elect of the Gender and Diversity in Organizations Division of the Academy of Management.

    Paul C. Green began consulting in 1970, when he earned his doctorate in industrial organizational psychology from the University of Memphis. During the first 20 years of his professional life he conducted approximately 5, 000 individual assessments. His research and consulting have been focused primarily on the selection interview, with his most recent interests being directed to the development of behavioral competencies to link interviews to appraisal, coaching, and training. He introduced the “Behavioral Interviewing/reg Seminar” in the early 1980s. A unique aspect of this seminar was the introduction of a special-purpose job analysis technique that enables job experts to create a structured interview very quickly. He is also the primary contributor to eight training videos, including More Than a Gut Feeling, a widely adopted dramatization of behavior-based interviewing. Paralleling these activities, his book Get Hired is designed to instruct job candidates on how to prepare for a behavior-based interview.

    Gloria Harrell-Cook is Assistant Professor of Management in the College of Business and Industry at Mississippi State University. She received her Ph.D. from the Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her main research interests are in the areas of strategic human resources management and organizational politics with regard to human resource management and decision making. Her work has appeared in such journals as the Journal of Management, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Human Resource Management Review as well as a number of other scholarly publications.

    Fredric M. Jablin is the E. Claiborne Robins Chair in Leadership Studies in the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond. His research has been published in a wide variety of communication, psychology, personnel, and management journals, and he is coeditor of Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (1987). He is also coeditor of the New Handbook of Organizational Communication (1999, Sage Publications). His research has examined various facets of leader-member communication in organizations, group problem solving, interaction in the employment interview, and communication processes associated with organizational entry, assimilation, and exit. He has been a member of the editorial boards of more than a dozen professional journals and has been the recipient of numerous awards for his research.

    Stacy L. Jackson is Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Olin School of Business at Washington University in St. Louis. Prior to his current position at Olin, he spent several years as a Senior Manager with Ernst and Young's Management Consulting Practice and in Organization Development at NASA/Johnson Space Center. In the former position, he advised a variety of Fortune 100 clients on selection and performance assessment issues. He received his Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from Rice University in 1997. In addition to human resource selection, his research interests include power and politics as well as performance assessment (e.g., 36-degree assessments). He has a specific interest in applying his understanding of these areas to nonprofit organizations.

    K. Michele Kacmar (Ph.D., Texas A&M University) is Director of the Center for Human Resource Management and Associate Professor of Management at Florida State University. Her research interests include impression management and organizational politics. She has published more than 35 articles in such journals as Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, and Human Relations. She has received numerous teaching awards, a variety of research awards, and was selected as one of five Developing Scholars at Florida State for 1998. She is on the board of directors of the Society for Human Resource Management Foundation, is Editor-designate for the Journal of Management, and serves as the Newsletter Coeditor for the Human Resource Division of the Academy of Management.

    Paula R. Kaiser holds M.S. and Ed.D. degrees from Indiana University. She currently teaches management communications and organizational behavior at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She has held several administrative positions at her current institution and formerly held administrative positions at the University of Cincinnati, Xavier University, and Indiana University. She has also key leadership roles in graduate management education, including serving as a member of the board of directors of the Graduate Management Admission Council, an international corporation that sponsors the Graduate Management Admission Test and other activities to benefit graduate business schools. She has consulted with corporate clients in several major cities in the United States and Canada and is the author of several articles in management communications areas.

    Ronald J. Karren is Associate Professor 1of Management at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. He received his B.A. degree (1971) from Rutgers University in psychology, his M.A. degree (1973) from the New School for Social Research in psychology, and his Ph.D. degree (1978) from the University of Maryland in psychology. He has served as a Research Personnel Psychologist at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management and as the Ph. D Director for the School of Management at the University of Massachusetts. His research on utility assessment, drug testing, the interview, person-organization fit, and human resource decision making has appeared in several scholarly journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

    Gary P. Latham is the Secretary of State Professor of Organizational Effectiveness at the University of Toronto. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, the Canadian Psychology Association, the Academy of Management, and the Royal Society of Canada. In 1997 he was the first recipient of the award for “Distinguished Contributions to Industrial-Organizational Psychology” from the Canadian Psychological Association. In 1998 he was awarded the Distinguished Contributions to Psychology as a Profession” from the Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology. He is currently President of the Canadian Psychological Association. Among his creative accomplishments is the development of the situational interview for selecting employees and behavioral observation scales for performance appraisal.

    James M. LeBreton received his B.S. in psychology (1995) and his M.S. in industrial/organizational psychology (1997) from Illinois State University. He is currently a doctoral candidate in the Industrial/Organizational Psychology Program at the University of Tennessee. His research interests and publications are in the areas of alternative methods of personality assessment, assessing nonnormal personality types, person-organization fit issues, and assessment center technology. He is particularly interested in the application of structural equation modeling to personality and assessment center data. He also has published research on the effects of cognitive load on interviewers' preinterview impressions of job candidates.

    Robert C. Liden (Ph.D., University of Cincinnati) is Professor of Management at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where he is Director of the Ph.D. Program. His research focuses on interpersonal processes as they relate to such topics as leadership, groups, and employment interviews. He has published more than 45 articles, including 21 in the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Personnel Psychology. He has served on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Journal and the Journal of Management since 1994. He is the 1999 Program Chair for the Academy of Management's Organizational Behavior Division, a position that will be followed by Division Chair-Elect (1999–2000) and Division Chair (2000–2001).

    Steven D. Maurer is Associate Professor of Management at Old Dominion University. His research has focused on recruitment, selection, and retention of engineering and scientific employees, with special emphasis on the potential of the situational interview for recruiting graduate engineers. His work has appeared in The Employment Interview: Theory, Research, and Practice (edited by Robert W. Eder and Gerald R. Ferris, 1989) as well as in the Academy of Management Review, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Human Resource Management Review, and the Journal of High Technology Management Research. He was employed for 10 years as a project engineer and engineering employment manager for AT&T and has served for 5 years as the coeditor of the Academy of Management's HRM newsletter. He also has published articles on legal issues in employee selection, has served as an expert witness in federal court pleadings, and has presented numerous management seminars on employment methods, sexual harassment, and HR skills.

    Vernon D. Miller (Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at Michigan State University. His research interests in the communicative aspects of newcomer assimilation into organizations include campus and on-site employment interviews, organizational socialization tactics and content, new hire information-seeking behaviors, and employee role negotiation activities. He has also examined the role of communication in organizational change efforts, including reorganizations and downsizings.

    Stephan J. Motowidlo is the Huber Hurst Professor of Management and Director of the Human Resource Research Center in the Warrington College of Business Administration at the University of Florida. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1976 in Industrial and organizational psychology. His current research interests are in the areas of performance models, performance evaluation, and behavioral assessment procedures such as job simulations and selection interviews. With his students, he has done several studies on effects of nonverbal interview cues on the favorability and validity of interviewers' judgments and effects of interviewer accountability and note-taking on interview validity. His research has been published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Human Performance, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and other journals. He serves or has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Human Performance, and the Journal of Management.

    David K. Palmer is Assistant Professor in the College of Business and Technology at the University of Nebraska at Kearney. He holds a Ph.D. from Purdue University's Krannert Graduate School of Management in organizational behavior and human resource management. His previous work experience includes 3 years in international trade/customhouse brokerage and 10 years in the food service/hospitality industry. His research interests include interviewing and selection, job search behaviors, and the perception and use of time by individuals in organizations. His articles have appeared in Current Directions in Psychological Science, Journal of Business and Psychology, Journal of Managerial Psychology, and Personnel Psychology, and he has participated in more than 25 conference presentations.

    Charles K. Parsons is Professor of Organizational Behavior in the DuPree College of Management at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in 1980 from the University of Illinois in industrial/organizational psychology. He has been on the faculty of the DuPree College of Management since 1979. He has also performed in various administrative capacities in the college, including Acting Associate Dean and Director of the Ph.D. Program (most recent). He has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in organizational behavior and human resource management. His special teaching interests are in the areas of (a) human resource management in the legal and regulatory environment and (b) organizational and behavioral aspects of advanced manufacturing technology. He has also recently begun teaching a course on international human resource management. His research interests include employment interviewing, the impact of performance feedback on employee motivation and performance, and employee responses to technological change.

    Mark V. Roehling is currently Assistant Professor of Management in the Haworth College of Business, Western Michigan University. He received his Ph.D. in human resource management from Michigan State University, and juris doctor degree from the University of Michigan. His research focuses on recruitment, selection, and legal issues associated with human resource practices. His work has appeared in leading academic journals such as Personnel Psychology and the Journal of Applied Psychology. He teaches courses in staffing, and human resource management. He also has professional experience as a HRM practitioner and as an attorney in the field of employment law.

    Craig J. Russell received his Ph.D. in business administration from the University of Iowa in 1982, majoring in human resource management and minoring in applied statistics. He is currently the J. C. Penney Chair of Leadership at the University of Oklahoma, where he teaches in the undergraduate, M.B.A., and Ph.D. programs. He also holds a joint appointment in the Department of Psychology, where he teaches in the master's and doctoral industrial/organizational psychology programs. His research focuses on advancing theory and practice in selection and development of organizational leaders. His work has appeared in the Academy of Management Journal, Applied Psychological Measurement, Human Resource Management Review, Human Relations, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Leadership Quarterly, Personnel Psychology, and Research in Personnel/ Human Resources Management. He also serves on a number of editorial boards.

    Neal Schmitt received his Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1972 in industrial/organizational psychology and is currently University Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Management at Michigan State University. On sabbatical from the university this year, he is also serving as Director of Applied Research at the Human Resources Consulting Group of Aon. He served as editor of Journal of Applied Psychology from 1988 to 1994 and has served on the editorial boards of 10 journals. He has also been a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. He is coauthor of the textbooks Staffing Organizations (with Ben Schneider), Research Methods in Human Resource Management (with Richard Klimoski), and Personnel Selection (with David Chan), and is coeditor of Personnel Selection in Organizations (with Walter Borman). He has also published approximately 130 articles in a large number of different journals.

    Patricia M. Sias is Associate Professor of Communication in the Edward R. Murrow School of Communication at Washington State University. Her research centers on workplace relationships—in particular, on the development of peer relationships and workplace friendships and the ways such relationships influence, and are influenced by, the organizational context. She has published articles in a variety of academic journals, including Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Communication Research, Western Journal of Communication, Communication Quarterly, Communication Reports, and Communication Research Reports. In 1993, she received the W Charles Redding Award for the Outstanding Dissertation in Organizational Communication.

    Dirk D. Steiner is Professor of Psychology at the Universitè de Nice-Sophia Antipolis in Nice, France. He earned his Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology at the Pennsylvania State University and began his academic career at Louisiana State University before moving to France. He has published research on topics such as job satisfaction, selection-related attitudes, and performance appraisal in journals such as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, and Human Relations. Currently, he is working on research related to organizational justice in personnel selection and on individual differences in time orientation. He is an Associate Editor of the journal Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale/International Review of Social Psychology, which publishes articles in both French and English.

    Cynthia Kay Stevens (Ph.D., University of Washington) is Associate Professor of Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior at the University of Maryland Business School at College Park. Her research interests are in the areas of staffing (interviews, job search and choice, recruitment), training (interpersonal skill acquisition, maintenance and transfer), decision making, and the creation of intellectual capital. Her work has been published in Personnel Psychology, the Academy of Management Journal, and the Journal of Applied Psychology. She worked for three years as an instructional development consultant at the University of Washington and has won several awards for teaching effectiveness at the University of Maryland. She has also consulted with several organizations on diversity-related issues and on the development and implementation of behavioral performance-appraisal procedures.

    Christina Sue-Chan earned her Ph.D. in management, specializing in organizational behavior and human resource management, from the Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, in 1998. She is currently a lecturer in the Department of Organisational and Labour Studies, the University of Western Australia, where she teaches human resource management and organizational behavior. Her research interests encompass social cognitive, goal-setting, and institutional theories as applied to selection, performance appraisal, and other human resources management issues in the not-for-profit sector. She has presented her work at numerous conferences, including those of the Academy of Management, the American Psychological Association, the Canadian Psychological Association, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. She has published her work, coauthored with her doctoral supervisor, Gary P. Latham, in monographs as well as journals.

    William L. Tullar is Associate Professor in the Department of Business Administration of the Bryan School of Business and Economics at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. He was a Research Fellow at the International Research Institute for Management Science in Moscow, Russia, in 1990 and 1991, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Worms, Germany, in 1993–1994. He has consulted for a number of organizations in both North America and Europe. His most recent publications are Compensation Consequences of Reengineering and Group and Electronic Meeting Systems. His current research interests include panel interviewing via the Internet, cognitive processes in interviewing decisions, organizational life cycles and organizational trust during the last days of the Soviet Union, and Russian entrepreneurial motivation.

    Daniel B. Turban is Associate Professor of Management at the University of Missouri, Columbia. He earned his B.A. in psychology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa and his M.A. and Ph.D. in industrial organizational psychology from the University of Houston. His research interests include employment interviewing, recruitment processes and organizational attractiveness as an employer, supervisor-subordinate relationships, and mentoring relationships. He has published research in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Journal of Organizational Behavior, and he currently serves on the editorial board of the Academy of Management Journal.

    Angela M. Young received her Ph.D. in organizational behavior and human resource management from Florida State University and is currently an Assistant Professor at California State University, Los Angeles. She teaches several different human resource management and related management courses. Additionally, she is on the board of directors of the Professionals in Human Resources Association (PIHRA) as the Student Chapter Liaison and Cochair of the PIHRA Foundation, which is active in providing scholarships to deserving students. She has published research in the areas of mentoring, employment interviewing, and other human resource topics, and has presented her research at numerous academic conferences. Her current research interests include mentoring relationships and other dyadic exchanges in the organization (e.g., leader-member exchange), the interview process, and perceptions of equity in the workplace. Prior to her academic experience, she worked in corporate management information systems for several years and started her own business, which dealt with developing and conducting computer training classes.


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