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Martin Gulliford, Obioha Ukoumunne, Susan Chinn, Jonathan Sterne, Peter Burney & Allan Donner

In: The Advanced Handbook of Methods in Evidence Based Healthcare

Chapter 17: Methods for Evaluating Organisation- or Area-Based Health Interventions

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Methods for Evaluating Organisation- or Area-Based Health Interventions
Methods for evaluating organisation- or area-based health interventions
MartinGullifordObiohaUkoumunneSusanChinnJonathanSternePeterBurneyAllanDonner
Summary

In clinical research, intervention is usually at the level of the individual patient, but in health services research it is often at the level of the health service organisational unit or geographical or administrative area. Areas and organisations represent discrete clusters of individual patients or healthy subjects and evaluation may be difficult. This is because: (i) often only a few clusters may be included in a study; (ii) evaluation may be at the level of the individual subject whilst intervention is at the cluster level; and (iii) individual responses are often correlated within clusters. This chapter discusses the ways that these problems may be addressed in designing and analysing area- ...

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