Encyclopedia of Terrorism


Edited by: Harvey W. Kushner

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      Reader's Guide

      This list is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries into 32 general topical categories. Some entry titles appear in more than one category.


      The Encyclopedia of Terrorism is a very important addition to our understanding of this complicated subject.

      What is terrorism? Why does it exist in the world, and why do so many act out this hatred? These are critical questions that this outstanding work by Dr. Harvey Kushner and Sage Reference helps us answer.

      President Ronald Reagan once observed that “one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter.” The FBI defined terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment there of, in furtherance of political or social objectives.”

      Osama bin Laden and his leadership council claim that their acts of terrorism are on behalf of the Islamic world against the West and specifically against the United States. In bin Laden's mind, the bombings of the United States embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were attacks on the ultimate evil, the United States. But of the 252 people killed, 225 were Muslims, and only 12 were citizens of the United States. The deaths of 225 Muslims were not important to bin Laden. Fanatical religious terrorists such as bin Laden and his followers have no regard for public opinion, and the killing of large numbers of innocent people, including women and children, does not weigh on their conscience. They have thousands of supporters, some in the United States, who assist outright or applaud from the sidelines.

      History hopefully will record 2001 as a turning point in the international fight against terrorism. September 11, 2001 was the bloodiest day in America since the Civil War. The heroic responders from the New York City Fire Department, the Port Authority Police Department, and the New York City Police Department will never be forgotten, nor will the victims at the Pentagon or those brave patriots who crashed in a Pennsylvania field.

      It's not that these issues were not known; to the contrary, thousands of dedicated patriots worked day and night to protect this country from this threat. It was a combination of the great big heart of our policies, our traditional short memory, a general feeling that “it won't happen here,” and, the vast silent majority in the United States who did not participate in shaping public policy. I believe the greatest threat to civil liberties and our freedom is our “inability to act” when action is necessary—waiting until events get out of hand or heavy loss of life pushes us into action!

      Dr. Kushner has produced an authoritative and easy-to-use resource. It will be a handy reference for students, the media, law enforcement, the intelligence community, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels, as well as for the public in general, who I pray daily will play a larger role in shaping public policy that contributes to the first responsibility of government—the protection of our country, our way of life, and our children's futures.

      James K.Kallstrom Director of the New York State, Office of Public Security, Former Assistant Director of the, New York Office of the FBI


      Work on the Encyclopedia of Terrorism began almost one year prior to the events of September 11, 2001. At that time, there was the need for a thumbthrough type of reference work that could be consulted on the subject of terrorism. Yes, it is certainly true that for some time the Internet provided a veritable explosion of information, but how does the neophyte judge accuracy? Until such time as cyberspace reliability improves, the encyclopedia will remain the reference of choice for the educated consumer. Unfortunately, the aftermath of September 11 further exacerbated the situation surrounding the accuracy of information pertaining to terrorism; the rush to publish everything and anything purportedly related to terrorism only added to the confusion. Bookstore shelves abound with questionable matter related to terrorism, and cyberspace is full of problematic material. The need for a thumb-through type of reference work remained.

      Although not a textbook, and certainly not a monograph, the encyclopedia provides detailed discussions of the who, what, where, when, and why of terrorism, including the September 11 attacks and their ramifications. Providing a comprehensive, global coverage of terrorism with more than 300 in-depth entries, readers have the wherewithal to understand the component parts of terrorism or develop a more exhaustive study of a topic. The latter is made possible by crossreferences to related entries at the end of each entry, as well as a detailed list of further readings.

      In addition to a variety of valuable appendixes, this volume contains the most detailed list of terrorist events ever assembled in one reference work. This chronology is a handy guide for documenting attacks within the United States and on its interests abroad. No longer will it be necessary to search for a date or place of an incident; it's all here. The value of such easy access should be clear to all, and it will be especially valuable for researchers and law enforcement authorities. I welcome all who visit the Encyclopedia of Terrorism to digest the information within. Keep it nearby as you expand your knowledge of what is currently one of the world's most important topics.

      Many people helped make this project possible. At the beginning, there was Jerry Westby, senior acquisitions editor, Sage Publications, who cajoled and convinced me to undertake this arduous, albeit rewarding, project. His advice and counsel will always be cherished. And then there was Rolf A. Janke, vice president and publisher, Sage Publications. Rolf helped me get through deadlines that seemed unattainable and work that appeared insurmountable. I wish every author, as well as anyone else for that matter, such unconditional support. The senior developmental editor, Vince Burns, also provided much appreciated assistance.

      Others at Sage also require many thanks for their technical expertise. Diana E. Axelsen, senior books production editor, was invaluable in her coordination efforts. Kate Peterson's copyediting skills were greatly appreciated, as were Nevair Kabakian's proofreading and Mary Mortensen's indexing.

      The Moschovitis Group under the careful guidance of Valerie Tomaselli, president of the Publishing Division, and Christos J. P. Moschovitis, chairman and CEO, worked tirelessly to contribute to the making of this encyclopedia. That said, however, it was Moschovitis's executive editor for publishing, Hilary W. Poole, who was my right-hand person and shadowed my every thought about this project. Moschovitis's associate editor, Sonja Matanovic, also provided significant assistance to the team. Editing assistance was also provided by Carole Campbell.

      My great fortune continues with a splendid staff of contributing researchers and writers. The list is alphabetical for lack of a better of way of highlighting their equally significant contributions: Nancy Egan, Maria Kiriakova, Laura Jin Loo Lambert, Lisa Magloff, Rich McHugh, Erica Pearson, Ellen Sexton, and Colleen Sullivan. Denise Pagliarulo, a bright, young college student from the University of Pennsylvania, helped with some of the preliminary research and fact checking.

      Noted experts also contributed their expertise to help write a number of entries. Alphabetically listed, they were Randy Blazak, Portland State University (Skinheads and White Supremacy); Phil Hirshkorn, producer, CNN (East African Embassy Bombings, United States v. Usama bin Laden et al. Indictment, Khalfan Khamis Mohamed, and Mohamed Sadeek Odeh); Richard Horowitz, attorney (Patriot Act); Larry C. Johnson, former CIA officer and deputy director of the U.S. State Department Office of Counterterrorism (Counterterrorism); Pat Jones, U.S. Customs Service (Financing Terrorism); Lester Paldy, Distinguished Service Professor, SUNY at Stony Brook (Nuclear Terrorism, Biological Terrorism, Chemical Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Agricultural Terrorism); Mark Pitcavage, national director of fact finding, Anti-Defamation League (Patriot Movement); and Jonathan Schanzer, Middle East Forum (Al Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, and Militant Islam). As always, merit belongs to their efforts and mistakes fall under my jurisdiction

      Along the way to gathering a significant amount of information contained in this encyclopedia, I had the distinct pleasure of discussing matters of terrorism with a wide variety of individuals. They all helped shape my thoughts about the subject matter at hand, lending direction and clarity. Some are fully aware of their impact and others might be hearing about their influence for the first time. Although my thanks are long overdue for the latter group, it is never too late to say thank you to all: Avi Bachar (former head of staff for the Israeli Home Front Command), Eric J. Carrone (U.S. Customs Service), Brian Cremin (Crime Management Group, Ireland), Maximilian Edelbacher (Federal Police of Vienna, Austria), Jim Hoffer (WABC-TV), Steven Emerson (The Investigative Project), James M. Fox (U.S. Probation), Jerome Glazebrook (former security adviser to Henry A. Kissinger), Bill Jensen (freelance writer), Carl J. Jensen, III (Behavioral Science Unit, FBI), Larry C. Johnson (former deputy directory of the U.S. State Department Office of Counterterrorism), Pat Jones (U.S. Customs Service), James K. Kallstrom (former assistant director, FBI), Moorehead Kennedy (former foreign service officer, U.S. State Department and Iranian embassy hostage), Janusz Kochanowski (LUS ET LEX Foundation and Warsaw University, Poland), Steven Kuhr (former deputy director of the New York City Mayor's Office of Emergency Management), Brian Levin (California State University, San Bernardino), Vernon Loeb (Washington Post), Niles Latham (New York Post), George Millard (director of police, São Paulo, Brazil), W. A. (Wendy) Nicol (intelligence analyst, RCMP, Canada), the late John P. O'Neill (former deputy director of counter terrorism for the FBI and victim of the September 11 terror attacks), Mark Pitcavage (Anti-Defamation League), Theodore G. Shackley (former associate deputy director of operations for the CIA), John Spice (assistant commissioner, RCMP, Canada), Kenneth S. Trump (president, National School Safety and Security Services), Jonathan R. White (Grand Valley State University), and Nena Wiley (major, Southwest Region, Civil Air Patrol). And always informative, insightful, and helpful was my good friend Bruce Bobbins.

      Always there at my side is my partner and my bride, Sara. Her love and encouragement are the stuff that makes it all possible. No thought is kept silent; all is shared. The fruit of our love is our daughter, Meredith Hope. Merry is a lovely young woman who further unites our souls. I have only to confer with them to gain an understanding of how to cut the Gordian knot.


      Terrorism, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history and across a wide variety of political ideologies. There are as many definitions for the word terrorism as there are methods of executing it; the term means different things to different people, and trying to define or classify terrorism to everyone's satisfaction proves impossible. However, most definitions of terrorism hinge on three factors: the method (violence), the target (civilians or the government), and the purpose (to instill fear and force political or social change).

      The adoption of terrorist techniques by insurgent groups, especially in the developing world, led to a perception of terrorism as a natural outgrowth of the anticolonial struggle—merely another weapon of revolutionary guerrillas in their campaigns for independence. This understanding—or, in the eyes of many terrorism experts, misunderstanding—of the term terrorism is also expressed in the cliché, “One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter.”

      Although terrorism is often thought of as the province of relatively small nongovernmental groups, governments may use terrorism for a variety of reasons: to maintain political power, to put down struggles of liberation, or to pacify populations after an annexation. Some would even argue that the United States itself conducts terrorist activities against selected targets while attacking other counties for promoting terrorist activities.

      Defining state terrorism is complicated because all nations rely on violence to some degree. War, for example, is a violent and deadly way for countries to settle their differences. All functioning governments have systems of law enforcement that rely on various forms of violence—for example, armed police, imprisonment, forced labor, and the physical mutilation or killing of certain criminals—to maintain order. State terrorism differs from these forms of violence in part because of the unpredictability and secrecy with which it is carried out. Its goal is usually to strengthen government control by complete intimidation of the population.

      Origins of Terrorism

      Terrorism as a practice is thought to have begun in firstcentury Judea, where Jewish men would use a short dagger (sica) to slit the throats of occupying Romans and their collaborators in full view of the public. Sicarri, as these dagger-men were called, were among the group known as Zealots, who opposed Roman occupation. Hidden in crowds, the Zealots would also attack wealthy Jews and kidnap their servants for ransom. Later on in seventh-century India, members of the thuggee cult (the origin for the modern-day word thug) ritually strangled their victims in an apparent act of sacrifice to the Hindu goddess Kali.

      The philosophical antecedents of modern-day terrorism were also formed by the Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin in the middle of the 19th century. In his Principles of Revolution (1869), Bakunin wrote that no other action except terrorism by individuals or small groups could cleanse the Russian soil. Later in 19th-century Russia, the anarchist organization known as Narodnaya Volya, or People's Will, launched a wave of bombings and assassinations. The group targeted the czar, the royal family, and other government officials, whom it believed to be the embodiment of a corrupt regime.

      At the turn of the 19th century, terrorism in the form of political assassination became a major global phenomenon. In the post-World War II years, other types of terrorism became strategies of choice for nationalist groups in the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia in their struggles for independence. In predominantly agrarian societies, this terrorism took the form of guerrilla warfare, with China and Indochina as the classic examples. In urban areas such as Palestine and Cyprus, acts of terror were committed within city limits.

      A number of these national political movements, which owed much of their success to violence, adopted a strategy that would have lasting significance in the war of semantics surrounding the use of violence. These newly created Third World countries, as well as their brethren from the communist bloc states, advanced the argument that their fight against colonial oppression was not terrorism but rather the hard work of dedicated freedom fighters.

      The 1960s saw terrorism spring up throughout the world. This upsurge was not limited to Europe and Asia. It affected the United States in a number of ways. Frustrated with the slow pace of social change (and, in the eyes of some, simply bored with their middle-class privilege), some radical activists broke off from Students for a Democratic Society to found the violent group Weatherman. Puerto Rican nationalists and Jewish extremists also became active in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s, a variety of terrorist groups espousing a virulent philosophy of white supremacy became active throughout the United States, as did single-issue terrorist organizations such as the ecoterrorist group Earth First!. Although a combination of aggressive law enforcement and a lack of support by the general public weakened these groups toward the end of the decade, the ranks grew again in the 1990s, inspired by events at Ruby Ridge, Idaho (a bungled federal government attempt to arrest a white separatist) and at Waco, Texas (the tragic FBI siege of the Branch Davidian compound).

      Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, many Middle Eastern terrorist groups sent their recruits to the Soviet Union for training in low-intensity warfare, which is a benign-sounding name for terrorism. The Soviets viewed terrorism as compatible with their efforts to support wars of national liberation, even though violence against civilian populations is inconsistent with traditional Marxist-Leninist thinking on class struggle. The Soviets also hoped that their support of Palestinian terrorism against Israel would enhance their position within the Arab world. For nearly a decade, Soviet-trained and -supported terrorism operated with impunity in the Middle East and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. However, as events in the Middle East or Europe threatened to affect public opinion—or more significantly, threaten to inspire U.S. intervention—Soviet leaders reined in their client terrorists.

      A significant turning point in the history of terrorism was the formation of Hezbollah (Party of God), formed in 1982 in response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. This Lebanon-based radical Shi'a group takes its ideological inspiration from the Iranian revolution and the teachings of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Its members not only were interested in carrying out the goals of the revolution but also were concerned with the social conditions of their fellow Shiites throughout the Middle East. Hezbollah's outreach in Lebanon during the 1980s solidified Lebanese Shiite support and helped spawn smaller terrorist groups, the most recognizable of which was the Islamic Jihad.

      Hamas, the main Islamic movement in the Palestinian territories, was formed by Sheik Ahmed Yassin in 1987 during the first intifada, or uprising, against Israeli occupation of the territories. Hamas members seek their identity in their Islamic roots. Hamas is uncompromising and maximalist, insisting on the total liberation of the sacred land of Palestine they interpret as demanded by Allah, who will repay martyrs for this cause with life everlasting

      The militancy of Hamas is a common feature of the new terrorists. When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to prop up an embattled communist government, thousands of young warriors of Islam, including the Saudi Osama bin Laden, from as far away as Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United States answered the call to fight a jihad (jihad is commonly translated as “holy war”) at the side of their Afghan brothers. Stirred by the preaching of incendiary clerics, 10,000 or more Muslims streamed into Peshawar, Pakistan, for weapons training and indoctrination. Veterans of these Afghan classrooms have taken their jihad abroad not only to Sudanese terror camps but also to Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bosnia, Myanmar, Egypt, India, Morocco, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, Yemen, and the United States.

      The new terrorists are less hierarchically organized than their secular predecessors and, consequently, more difficult to spot, track, and intercept. In the past, terrorist groups organized themselves very much like a large corporation, that is, pyramidally and linearly, with a discernible descending or ascending power structure. Knowing the structure of the terrorist group made fighting terrorism easier. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies could contain terrorist organization by infiltrating them at either the top or the bottom. It is much more difficult for today's law enforcement agencies to infiltrate militant Islamic groups, such as bin Laden's Al Qaeda, that are fluid and not structured the same way as secular groups of earlier periods

      However, the lack of obvious hierarchy does not mean that the work of this new breed is less devastating than earlier generations of terrorists—indeed, the willingness of members of terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda to participate in suicide attacks opens up heretofore unknown possibilities for devastation. Without a doubt, the events of September 11, 2001, illustrate in no uncertain terms the extent of their destruction. In many ways, the destructive capabilities of this new breed of terrorists will exceed terrorist events of the past and will be considerably enhanced by new opportunities created by innovation and invention.

      These new terrorist organizations live and operate in a world made smaller by cheap airline tickets and carriers that circumnavigate the globe in hours rather than days. Their global reach is further enhanced by instantaneous financial transactions, economical telecommunication systems, and continuous worldwide media coverage. Unfortunately, extraordinary technological advances that further enhance humankind's capabilities also open up new venues for terrorist use and abuse. Cyberspace is particularly illustrative of this new frontier of vulnerabilities.

      Innovation and invention in this new century will clearly necessitate international cooperation to deal with the scourge of terrorism. The use of the Internet to recruit potential terrorists is widely practiced throughout the world. Incendiary rhetoric in cyberspace excludes not even those lacking computer access. All will be affected by the cyber reach of the terrorist. No longer is it possible to withdraw into political or geographical isolation. Communicating, or for that matter, tampering with cyberspace, affects the world in much the same way as the threat of nuclear or radiological terrorism. This is the reality, as well as the alarming reach, of the new terrorism.

      About the Author

      Harvey W. Kushner is Professor and Chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at Long Island University. An internationally recognized authority on terrorism, Kushner has shared his expertise with numerous government agencies, including the FBI, Federal Aviation Administration, Immigration and Naturalization Service, and U.S. Customs Service. He currently works as a special consultant to the U.S. Probation Department/Eastern District of New York on matters related to criminal investigations, intelligence, and terrorism. He has also advised and lectured on matters of international terrorism at the Naval War College, the FBI Academy, the FBI's Behavioral Science Unit, and the United Nations in Vienna, Austria, among others.

      Kushner has experience with a variety of highprofile court cases involving international terrorism. He wrote the expert's report, for example, in a successful multi-million-dollar civil litigation arising out of the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. He also served as an expert during the U.S. embassy bombing trial and wrote the expert's report in a landmark matrimonial case involving the risk of international terrorism after the destruction of the World Trade Center. After the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States, Kushner was asked to testify on terrorism and safety in New York City's public spaces before the Committee of Public Safety of the Council of the City of New York.

      A variety of publications, including the New York Times, have called Kushner the “go-to guy” for plain talk about the subject of terrorism. He can be seen regularly on CNN, the Fox News Channel, and MSNBC and in articles in the Associated Press, the Washington Post, and the New York Times. As a member of the working press, Kushner writes a monthly column on civil aviation security for the Airport Press. A widely published author on the subject of terrorism, his latest books include Terrorism in America (1998), The Future of Terrorism (1998), and Essential Readings on Political Terrorism (2002). He also edits an annual issue on terrorism for American Behavioral Scientist and serves on the journal's distinguished editorial board.

      Kushner holds a B.A. degree from Queens College, City University of New York, and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in political science from New York University.

    • Appendix A: Maps

      MAP 1: AFRICA
      MAP 2: ASIA
      MAP 3: EUROPE




      Appendix B: Web Sites

      Government and International Antiterrorist Agencies

      United States

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/

      Biological Terrorism Information http://www.bt.cdc.gov/

      Central Intelligence Agency http://www.cia.gov

      War on Terrorism http://www.cia.gov/terrorism/index.html

      DCI Counterterrorist Center http://www.cia.gov/terrorism/ctc.html

      Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC) http://www.cbiac.apgea.army.mil/

      Department of Defense http://www.defenselink.mil/

      DefendAmerica (War on Terrorism news from the Department of Defense) http://www.defendamerica.mil/

      Department of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov

      War on Terrorism http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/terrorismaftermath.html

      Department of the Treasury http://www.ustreas.gov

      Law Enforcement and the War on Terrorism (with links to Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; U.S. Customs Service; Secret Service, etc.) http://www.ustreas.gov/topics/law-enforcement/index.html

      Drug Enforcement Administration http://www.usdoj.gov/dea

      Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov

      EPA and Counter Terrorism page http://www.epa.gov/swercepp/cntr-ter.html

      Federal Aviation Administration http://www.faa.gov

      Federal Bureau of Investigation http://www.fbi.gov

      Federal Emergency Management Agency http://www.fema.gov

      Terrorism Background Information http://www.fema.gov/hazards/terrorism/terror.shtml

      Immigration and Naturalization Service http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/index.htm

      National Intelligence Council http://www.odci.gov/nic/

      National Security Agency http://www.nsa.gov/

      Office of Homeland Security http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/

      U.S. Postal Inspection Office http://www.usps.com/websites/depart/inspect/

      U.S. State Department Counterterrorism Office http://www.state.gov/s/ct/

      White House Archives http://www.whitehouse.gov

      Other Governments

      Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies http://www.ciss.ca/

      New York City Emergency Response Services http://www.nyc.gov/html/em/home.html


      http://UN.org: UN Treaties Against International Terrorism http://www.un.org/News/dh/latest/intreaterror.htm

      http://ODCCP.org: UN Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention: Terrorism http://www.odccp.org/terrorism.html

      Nongovernmental Organizations

      Air Security International (provides security and intelligence services to corporate business interests) http://www.airsecurity.com/

      Anti-Defamation League http://www.adl.org/

      Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies http://www.biu.ac.il/Besa/

      Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) Project: Northern Ireland conflict (1968 to the present) http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/

      Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies http://www.hopkins-biodefense.org

      Center for Defence and International Security Studies http://www.cdiss.org/hometemp.htm

      Center for Defense Information http://www.cdi.org/

      Center for Democracy & Technology: Counter Terrorism page http://www.cdt.org/policy/terrorism/

      Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism http://www.hatemonitor.org

      Council on Foreign Relations http://cfrterrorism.org/home/

      Center for Strategic and International Studies http://www.csis.org/index.htm

      Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center http://iac.dtic.mil/cbiac/

      Electronic Privacy Information Center: Counter-Terrorism Proposals http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/

      Emergency Response and Research Institute http://www.emergency.com/index.htm

      Counter Terrorism Operations Page http://www.emergency.com/cntrterr.htm

      Federation of American Scientists http://www.fas.org


      IntelCenter http://www.intelcenter.com/

      International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism http://www.ict.org.il/

      International Relations and Security Network (site by Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research at ETH Zurich) http://www.isn.ethz.ch/

      Jaffe Center for Strategic Studies at Tel Aviv University http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/

      Kashmir Information Network: Terrorism Index http://www.kashmir-information.com/Terrorism

      Middle East Intelligence Bulletin http://www.meib.org/

      Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) http://www.memri.org/

      Military and Conflict Studies Center (University of New Brunswick) http://www.unbf.ca/arts/CCS/

      Monterey Institute Center for Nonproliferation Studies http://www.cns.miis.edu

      National Interagency Civil-Military Institute http://www.nici.org/

      National School Safety and Security Services (has some links to terrorism-related safety precautions and concerns) http://www.schoolsecurity.org/terrorist_response.html

      Safeguarding America for Everyone (SAFE) Foundation http://www.safefoundation.org/

      Security & Political Risk Analysis (SAPRA) India http://www.subcontinent.com/sapra.html

      Simon Wiesenthal Center (international human rights organization dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust and confronting contemporary issues such as terrorism, racism, etc.) http://www.wiesenthal.com/

      South Asia Terrorism Portal http://www.satp.org/

      Southern Poverty Law Center http://www.splcenter.org

      Stimson Center Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project http://www.stimson.org/cwc

      Terrorism Web Site—FORSNET http://www.teror.gen.tr/english/index.html

      Terrorism: Q & A—Council on Foreign Relations http://www.terrorismanswers.com/terrorism/introduction.html

      Terrorism Research Center http://www.terrorism.com/index.shtml



      Oklahoma City National Memorial http://www.oklahomacitynationalmemorial.org

      This Is Baader-Meinhof: Germany in the Post-War Decade of Terror, 1968–77 http://www.baader-meinhof.com

      University of Virginia Religious Movements Library http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/

      Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org

      FBI Dossier on the Omega 7 Group (October 29, 1993) http://cuban-exile.com/menu1/!group.html

      Journals and Reports

      African Conflict Journalhttp://www.africanconflict.org

      American Diplomacy Vol. 4, No. 3 http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/

      Canadian Foreign Policy (La Politique étrangère du Canada)http://temagami.carleton.ca/npsia/cfpj/cfpj.html

      Current Historyhttp://www.currenthistory.com/

      Journal of the Federation of American Scientistshttp://www.fas.org/terrorism/index.html

      Foreign Affairshttp://www.foreignaffairs.org

      Foreign Policyhttp://www.foreignpolicy.com/

      Georgetown Journal of International Affairshttp://journal.georgetown.edu/

      Harvard International Reviewhttp://www.hir.harvard.edu/

      Human Rights Quarterlyhttp://muse.jhu.edu/journals/human_rights_quarterly/

      International Interactionshttp://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/03050629.html

      Issues in Foreign Affairshttp://www.issuesinforeignaffairs.com/

      Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International (at International Association for Counterterrorism and Security Professionals site) http://www.iacsp.com/

      Middle East Intelligence Bulletinhttp://www.meib.org/

      Studies in Conflict and Terrorismhttp://www.tandf.co.uk

      The National Interesthttp://www.nationalinterest.org/

      The Nonproliferation Review (CNS)http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/npr/

      Patterns of Global Terrorism, 2001http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2001/html/10235.htm

      Terrorism and Political Violencehttp://www.frankcass.com

      OJPCR: The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolutionhttp://www.trinstitute.org/ojpcr/

      World Policy Journalhttp://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/

      World Politicshttp://www.wws.princeton.edu/world_politics/


      Terrorist Attacks in the United States and on U.S. Interests Abroad

      In this chronology, the location of the terrorist acts and the perpetrators are shown in bold after the date (separated by a slash).


      December 24 : Pulaski, TN/Ku Klux Klan Six Confederate veterans, Frank O. McCord, Richard R. Reed, John B. Kennedy, John C. Lester, James R. Crowe, and Calvin E. Jones, form the Ku Klux Klan; the name was taken from the Greek word for circle, kuklos.


      May 4 : Chicago, IL/Anarchists Bombing in Chicago's Haymarket Square during a strike at McCormick Harvesting Machine Company; one police officer is killed and several others are injured.


      September 6 : Buffalo, NY/Polish anarchist President William McKinley is shot. He dies nine days later.


      November 25 : Stone Mountain, GA/Ku Klux Klan On Thanksgiving eve, the Ku Klux Klan's “second era” begins with a cross burning.


      September 16 : New York City, NY/Anarchists Bombing on Wall Street kills 35 and injures nearly 300.


      November 16 : New York City, NY/George Metesky The “Mad Bomber” places his first bomb outside a Con Ed office.


      November 1 : Washington, DC/Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola Assassination attempt on President Harry S. Truman by two Puerto Rican nationalists.


      March 1 : The Capitol, Washington, DC/Puerto Rican nationalists Shooting in the visitor's gallery in U.S. House of Representatives Chamber wounds five House members.


      May 1 : Miami, Florida/Antuilo Ramirez Ortiz A National Airlines Corvair 440 is the first-ever U.S. aircraft hijacked and forced to fly to Cuba.


      September 15 : Birmingham, AL/Ku Klux Klan members Bombing at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church kills four girls and injures more than 20 others. Nearly 40 years pass before all the suspects are brought to trial.


      April 4 : Memphis, TN/James Earl Ray Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated.

      June 5 : Los Angeles, CA/Sirhan Bishara Sirhan Presidential candidate Robert Kennedy is murdered by Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan. Once in custody, Arab terrorist groups vigorously demand Sirhan's release.

      August 28 : Guatemala City, Guatemala/Rebel faction U.S. Ambassador John Gordon Mein is murdered by gunmen.


      August 29 : Rome, Italy/Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) TWA flight leaving Rome is hijacked to Damascus, Syria. All the passengers and crew are released unharmed, but the terrorists, led by Leila Khaled, explode a bomb in the cockpit of the aircraft.

      September 4 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil/Left-wing terrorists U.S. Ambassador Charles Elbrick is kidnapped; he is freed after 15 terrorists are released from jail.

      October 8 : Chicago, IL/Weatherman “Days of Rage” looting and riots in downtown last for four days.


      February 23 : Halhoul, West Bank/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Gunmen open fire on a bus, killing U.S. citizen Barbara Ertle and wounding two others.

      March 28–29 : Beirut, Lebanon/Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Seven rockets are fired at the U.S. embassy, the Bank of America, the American Insurance Company, and the John F. Kennedy library.

      July 21 : Montevideo, Uruguay/Tupamaros terrorists U.S. Agency for International Development adviser Dan Mitrione is kidnapped. His body is found on August 10.

      September 14 : Zurich, Switzerland/Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) A TWA flight from Zurich, Switzerland, is hijacked and forced to land in Amman, Jordan. Four U.S. citizens are injured.


      March 1 : The Capitol, Washington, DC/Weather Underground Bomb causes no injuries but does extensive damage to seven rooms in the original Senate wing of the Capitol.


      May 30 : Lod, Israel/Japanese Red Army (JRA) Three members carry out a machine gun and grenade attack at Israel's Ben-Gurion Airport (Lod Airport), killing 26 and wounding 78 others. Many casualties are U.S. citizens.

      September 5 : Munich, West Germany/Black September Eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team are taken hostage; all are killed, including weightlifter and U.S. citizen David Berger.


      March 2 : Khartoum, Sudan/Black September U.S. Ambassador to Sudan Cleo A. Noel and George C. Moore, also a U.S. diplomat, are assassinated at the Saudi Arabian embassy.

      May 4 : Guadalajara, Mexico/People's Revolutionary Armed Forces U.S. Consul General Terrance Leonhardy is kidnapped.


      February 4 : Berkeley, CA/Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) Patty Hearst, heiress to the Hearst newspaper empire, is kidnapped.

      August 19 : Nicosia, Cyprus/Unknown perpetrator U.S. Ambassador Roger Davies is killed by a sniper in Nicosia during a riot at the embassy; no one has been convicted for this shooting.


      January 24 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of Fraunces Tavern; four are killed and nearly 60 are injured.

      January 29 : Washington, DC/Weather Underground Bombing of the U.S. State Department.

      February 1 : New York, NY/Omega 7 Bombing of Venezuelan consulate.

      June 29 : Beirut, Lebanon/Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) U.S. military attaché Ernest Morgan is kidnapped, then soon after released.

      September 27 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Pipe bombing of National Westminster Bank and First National City Bank in Financial District, two Chase Manhattan Banks in midtown area, and U.S. Mission to the United Nations.

      September 27 : Washington, DC/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Pipe bombing of U.S. State Department.

      September 27 : Chicago, IL/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Pipe bombings of Continental Bank, Marina City, office buildings, and apartments.

      October 4 : Portland, ME/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of Northeast Bank of Westbrook.

      November 10 : Washington, DC, New York, NY, and Chicago, IL/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombings of buildings.

      November 14 : Jerusalem, Israel/Al Fatah Bomb attack kills six people and wounds 38, including U.S. citizen Lola Nunberg.

      November 21 : Ramat Hamagshimim, Israel/Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) Ax-wielding members of the DFLP attack students in the Golan Heights. U.S.-Israeli citizen Michael Nadler is killed.

      December 12 : Augusta, ME/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Robbery of the Bank of Maine.

      December 23 : Athens, Greece/Revolutionary Organization 17 November U.S. embassy official Richard Welch is assassinated outside of his home.

      December 29 Queens, NY/Croatian National Liberation Forces (suspected) Bombing of crowded luggage area in the main terminal of La Guardia Airport kills 11 and injures more than 75.


      February 14 : San Simeon, CA/New World Liberation Front Bombing of the former Hearst estate. Patty Hearst's kidnappers demand that her parents pay $250,000 to Symbionese Liberation Army members Emily and William Harris within 48 hours or face more bombings.

      April 1 : New York, NY/Jewish Armed Resistance (JAR) Shots fired into Soviet Mission to the United Nations.

      April 15 : San Francisco, CA/Red Guerrilla Family Bombing of office building.

      April 22 : Boston, MA/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Suffolk County Courthouse.

      June 6 : New York, NY/Omega 7 Bombing of Cuban delegation to the United Nations.

      June 16 : Beirut, Lebanon Gunmen kidnap and kill U.S. Ambassador Francis E. Meloy, Economic Officer Robert O. Waring, and their driver.

      June 21 : Lowell, MA/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Middlesex County Courthouse.

      July 2 : Boston, MA/Fred Hampton People's Force and unnamed anti-busing group Bombings destroy airliner at Logan International Airport and two National Guard trucks at city armory.

      July 2 : Newburyport, MA/Fred Hampton People's Force and unnamed anti-busing group Bombing at Essex County Courthouse.

      July 4 : Revere, MA/Fred Hampton People's Force and unnamed anti-busing group Bombing of First National Bank of Boston.

      August 11 : Istanbul, Turkey/Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Four people, including U.S. citizen Harold Rosenthal, are killed and 20 others injured in attack on El Al Israeli Airlines terminal at the Istanbul Airport.

      September 10 : New York, NY/Fighters for a New Croatia Hijacking of TWA Flight 355 by five men and one woman. The terrorists also placed a bomb in a Grand Central Station subway locker; the bomb kills one New York City Police Department officer.

      September 16 : Port Elizabeth, NJ/Omega 7 Bombing of the Soviet ship Ivan Shepetkov.

      September 21 : Washington, DC/Commandos of the United Revolutionary Organization Car bomb kills Orlando Letelier, former foreign minister in Chilean government, and his assistant Ronni Moffit.

      December 12 : Needham, MA/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Union Carbide Corporation.


      February 19 : Seattle, WA/Weather Underground Bombing of the federal building.

      March 9 : Washington, DC/Hanafi Muslims 134 hostages are held in three buildings: International Headquarters of the B'nai B'rith, the Islamic Center, and the District Building.

      March 12 : Marlboro, MA/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Ideal Roller and Graphics.

      August 3 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of Mobil Oil building and U.S. Department of Defense offices; one person is killed and seven are injured.

      September 8 : Washington, DC/Pedro Luis Boitel Commandos and El Condor Bombings of the Soviet embassy and the Aeroflot office as President Jimmy Carter and various Latin American leaders gather for signing the Panama Canal treaties.

      October 8 : North Hollywood, CA/Jewish Armed Resistance (JAR) Bombing of the Beth Star Shalom Religious Center.

      October 19 : Los Angeles, CA/Weather Underground Attempted bombing of the office of California State Senator John Briggs.


      February 11 : Tel Aviv, Israel/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) The niece of Senator Abraham Ribicoff is shot to death along with 38 others on an Israeli beach.

      February 15 : Fairbanks, AK/El Condor Bomb blows a hole in the Alaska pipeline; thousands of barrels of oil spray onto the snow-covered tundra.

      May 25 : Evanston, IL/Unabomber Mail bomb at Northwestern University injures a security guard.

      June 2 : Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Bus bombing kills six, including U.S. citizen Richard Fishman, and injures others, including U.S. citizen Chava Sprecher.

      July 5 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Pablo Marcano Garcia and Nydia Cuevas Rivers Chilean Consul Ramon Gonzalez Ruiz and Sergio Alejandro Nunez are held hostage for more than 17 hours. The kidnappers demand the release of those prisoners convicted of wounding five congressmen on March 1, 1954, and the prisoner convicted of attempting to assassinate President Harry S. Truman on November 1, 1950.

      July 31 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/People's Revolutionary Commandos A bomb, intended to kill two FBI agents, explodes under a car in the parking lot of a federal building; no one is hurt.

      August 24 : Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican terrorist elements Two Puerto Rican police officers ambushed; one killed.

      October 27 : Wakefield, MA, Waltham, MA, and Eastchester, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombings of Mobil Oil Corporation offices.

      December 28 : New York, NY/Omega 7 Bombing of Avery Fisher Hall at Lincoln Center and the Cuban Mission to the United Nations; no injuries.


      March 25 : New York, NY/Omega 7 Bomb explodes in a suitcase about to be loaded onto a Los Angeles-bound TWA flight, injuring four baggage handlers.

      March 25 : Newark, NJ/Omega 7 Bombs explode at two New Jersey storefronts that have Cuban ties.

      May 4 : Tiberias, Israel/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Bombing injures U.S. citizens Haim and Haya Mark.

      May 9 : Evanston, IL/Unabomber Mail bombing at Northwestern University injures a student.

      August 31 : San Diego, CA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Violence at Hare Krishna temple.

      October 17 : Puerto Rico/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation), Forces of Popular Resistance, and the Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution Bombing of U.S. Armed Forces government installations island-wide, timed to coincide with a series of bombings in Chicago and New York.

      October 17 : Chicago, IL/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation), Forces of Popular Resistance, and the Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution Time bomb explodes at a downtown office building; other bombs are defused at the offices of the Republican Central Committee and the headquarters of a Democratic committee.

      October 17 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation), Forces of Popular Resistance, and the Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution Devices rigged to look like bombs but containing no explosive material are found at a hotel in midtown Manhattan.

      October 21 : Queens, NY/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Violence at Islamic-Iranian temple.

      October 27 : New York, NY/Omega 7 Bombing of Cuban Mission to the United Nations; the building's windows are blown out, as are the windows in the surrounding buildings, but no injuries are reported.

      November 4 : Tehran, Iran/Islamic militants The U.S. embassy is seized and 66 people are taken hostage.

      November 15 : Chicago, IL/Omega 7 Bomb explodes on American Airlines Flight 444, 12 passengers are treated for smoke inhalation.

      November 22 : Islamabad, Pakistan/Islamic militants The U.S. embassy is attacked and burned following rumors of U.S. involvement in the violent takeover of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

      December 3 : Sabena Seca, Puerto Rico/Macheteros, FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Ambush of a bus in which 2 Navy personnel are killed and 10 others are wounded.

      December 7 : New York, NY/Omega 7 Bombing of the Cuban Mission to the United Nations.

      December 11 : New York, NY/Unknown anti-Soviet group Bombing of the Soviet Mission to the United Nations, no injuries are reported.


      March 12 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican Nationalists (suspected) Armed assault of two U.S. Army officers and an enlisted man en route to the University of Puerto Rico.

      March 17 : New York, NY/Croatian freedom fighters (suspected) Bombing of a Yugoslav bank.

      March 18 : Chicago, IL/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Takeover of the Carter-Mondale presidential campaign office.

      March 18 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Takeover of the Bush campaign office.

      March 25 : New York, NY/Omega 7 Attempted bombing of the car of the Cuban ambassador to the United Nations, Raul Roa.

      May 2 : Hebron, West Bank/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Jewish worshippers are attacked while walking home from a synagogue; U.S.-Israeli citizen Eli Haze'ev is killed.

      June 3 : Washington, DC/Unknown perpetrator Bombing of the home of Yugoslavia's Minister Counselor Vladimir Sindjelic.

      June 3 : Liberty (Bedloe's) Island, NY/Croatian freedom fighters (suspected) Bombing of the museum section of the Statue of Liberty.

      June 10 : Lake Forest, IL/Unabomber Mail bomb injures president of United Airlines, Percy Woods.

      September 11 : Queens, NY/Omega 7 The Cuban embassy attaché, Felix Garcia Rodriquez, is killed while driving along Queens Boulevard.


      January 12 : Isla Verde, Puerto Rico/Macheteros Bombs blow up nine military planes at the Puerto Rican National Guard at Muniz Airport.

      March 15 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Armed Forces of National Resistance Attempted bombing of the convention center where former secretary of state Henry Kissinger is to deliver a speech.

      June 25 : New Britain, CT/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of New Britain Bank & Trust.

      August 31 : Ramstein, West Germany/German Red Army Faction Bomb explodes at the U.S. Air Force base.

      October 8 : Salt Lake City, UT/Unabomber Mail bombing at the University of Utah.

      October20 : Nanuet, NY/May 19th Communist Organization and the Black Liberation Army Robbery of a Brinks armored truck carrying $1.6 million; two police officers are killed.

      November 11 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Macheteros Bombing of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority substations cuts power to San Juan's tourist area.

      November 27 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Macheteros Bombings of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority substations black out the Condado beachfront hotel district, causing $2 million in damages; a smaller facility less than a mile away also loses power, causing limited damage.

      December 4 : San Salvador, El Salvador/Right-wing death squad (suspected) Three U.S. nuns and one missionary are found dead outside San Salvador.

      December 17 : Milan, Italy/Red Brigade U.S. Army general James Dozier is kidnapped by Red Brigade terrorists. The general is later rescued by Italian counterterrorist squads on January 28, 1982, in Padua. Five Red Brigades members are arrested in association with the kidnapping.


      January 29 : Los Angeles, CA/Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG) Assassination of the Turkish Consul General Kemal Arikan.

      February 19 : Washington, DC/Jewish Defense League (JDL) Two bombs explode outside the Soviet airline Aeroflot, shattering glass doors; no injuries.

      February 19 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Attempted bombing of the Republica Publishing Company, which has supported economic trade with Cuba; no injuries are reported.

      February 19 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Bombing in front of the Trans Cuba Inc. freight forwarding firm, which specializes in shipping packages to Cuba; no injuries are reported.

      February 21 : Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico/Antonia Martinez Student Commandos Bombing outside a dormitory at the University of Puerto Rico; no injuries but some damage is reported.

      February 28 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of Merrill Lynch headquarters; some damage but no injuries reported.

      February 28 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing at the New York Stock Exchange; some damage but no injuries reported.

      February 28 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing at the American Stock Exchange; some damage but no injuries reported.

      February 28 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of Chase Manhattan Bank; some damage but no injuries reported.

      March 22 : Cambridge, MA/Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG) Bombing of the office of the honorary Turkish consul general.

      April 2 : Burlington, VT/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of Chittenden Trust Company.

      April 5 : Brooklyn, NY/Jewish Defense League (JDL) Fire in Tripoli Restaurant kills one and injures eight.

      April 28 : New York, NY/Jewish Defense League (JDL) Twin bombings, one at the Lufthansa office and the other outside the Iraqi Mission to the United Nations; no injuries but some damage reported.

      April 29 : Bayamon, Puerto Rico/Provisional Coordination of Labor Self-Defense Group Bombing of the Department of Natural Resources; no damage or injuries reported.

      April 29 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Provisional Coordination of Labor Self-Defense Group Shooting at the home of the Communications Authority; doors shattered but no injuries reported.

      April 29 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Provisional Coordination of Labor Self-Defense Group Bombing destroys a power station.

      May 4 : Somerville, MA/Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG) Assassination of the honorary Turkish Consul General Orham R. Gunduz.

      May 5 : Nashville, TN/Unabomber Mail bombing at Vanderbilt University injures one person.

      May 16 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Vieques Pro-Liberation Group and Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Shooting of U.S. sailors; one is killed and three are injured.

      May 17 : Union City, NJ/Omega 7 Firebombing.

      May 19 : Rio Grande, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Police officer is shot when members storm the small village of Villa Sin Miedo; officer later dies of his wounds.

      May 20 : Santurce, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Attempted bombing, bombs seized by police during the storming of Villa Sin Miedo.

      May 25 : San German, Puerto Rico/Star Group Assault.

      May 30 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Provisional Coordinating Committee of the Self-Defense Labor Group Power station bombed, plunging several suburbs into darkness; no injuries are reported.

      May 30 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Provisional Coordinating Committee of the Self-Defense Labor Group Assaults on the home of the head of the Communications Authority, front door of the Department of Justice, and the entrance of a field office of the Department of Natural Resources; no injuries are reported.

      May 30 : Los Angeles, CA/Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia Attempted bombing of Air Canada building at Los Angeles International Airport.

      June 10 : Carolina, Puerto Rico/Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP) Two bombings and one attempted bombing.

      June 25 : Onondaga, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of Syracuse Savings Bank.

      July 2 : Berkeley, CA/Unabomber Bomb at University of California injures Professor Diogenes Angelakos.

      July 4 : Astoria, NY/Croatian Freedom Fighters Bombing of Yugoslav travel agency and nearby house.

      July 4 : New York, NY/Croatian Freedom Fighters Attempted bombing of Yugoslav Airlines office.

      July 5 : New York, NY/Jewish Defense League (JDL) Pipe bombing of Lebanese consulate damages windows and doors at both the French and Lebanese consulates.

      July 5 : New York, NY/Jewish Defense League (JDL) Pipe bombing of French consulate damages windows and doors.

      July 8 : Phoenix, AZ/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bomb damages a car parked outside the home of Rauf Diab, the son of a trustee of the Islamic Cultural Center in Tempe.

      July 19 : Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah David Dodge, president of the American University of Beirut, is kidnapped and released a year later.

      August 19 : Paris, France/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) The PLO bombs a Jewish restaurant killing two U.S. citizens, Anne Van Zanten and Grace Cutler.

      August 20 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Boricua Armed Anti-Imperialist Commandos jointly with Guerrilla Column 29 September and FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing in Old San Juan.

      September 1 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros and Star Group Attempted armed robbery of Wells Fargo truck carrying more than $800,000.

      September 1 : Tempe, AZ/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Pipe bombing of the Islamic Cultural Center; minor damage.

      September 2 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Attempted bombing of the Nicaraguan consulate.

      September 3 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Bombing of the Venezuelan consulate.

      September 8 : Chicago, IL/Omega 7 Bombing.

      September 20 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of Bankers Trust building on Park Avenue.

      September 25 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Attempted bombing of the Nicaraguan consulate.

      October 15 : Washington, DC/Disassociated members of the Muslim religion Attempted takeover of a mosque.

      October 22 : Philadelphia, PA/Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG) Attempted bombing of the home of the honoree consul general of Turkey.

      November 16 : Carolina, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Armed robbery of a supermarket and $300,000 from a Wells Fargo armored truck, killing an innocent bystander.

      December 8 : Washington, DC/Antinuclear activist Norman Mayer Attempted bombing of Washington Monument with an explosive-laden van.

      December 16 : Elmont, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of South African Airways.

      December 16 : Harrison, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of IBM building.

      December 21 : New York, NY/United Jewish Underground Attempted pipe bombing of a diplomat's car at the Soviet Mission to the United Nations; no injuries are reported.

      December 22 : McLean, VA/People of Omar–Anti-Gadhafi Libyans Takeover of McLean office building by Libyan students; peaceful surrender and no injuries.

      December 31 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of police headquarters, three police officers injured.

      December 31 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of a federal detention center; glass shatters but no injuries reported.

      December 31 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of federal courthouse in Brooklyn; glass shatters but no injuries reported.

      December 31 : New York, NY/FALN (Armed Forces of National Liberation) Bombing of federal office building in lower Manhattan; glass shatters but no injuries.


      January 11 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Bombing of Little Havana business in retaliation for U.S. Department of Justice probe of Omega 7.

      January 12 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Attempted bombing of Little Havana business.

      January 12 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Bombing of Little Havana business.

      January 28 : Staten Island, NY/Revolutionary Fighting Group (RFG) Bombing of FBI office.

      February 15 : Killeen, TX/Hussein Shey Kholifa A Rio Airlines flight is hijacked and ordered to land in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico.

      February 16 : Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah and Al-Amal A hand grenade attack north of Beirut International Airport injures five U.S. Marines on patrol.

      February 18 : Washington, DC/Jewish Defense League (JDL) Bombing outside Aeroflot Airlines; windows shatter but no injuries.

      February 23 : Utica, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of Marine Midland Bank.

      March 20 : San Antonio, TX/Republic of Revolutionary Bombing of a vehicle owned by Rep. Bill Archer; car is destroyed but no injuries are reported.

      April 18 : Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah A car bomb explodes in front of the U.S. embassy in Beirut, killing 63 people, including 17 U.S. citizens. More than 100 others are wounded.

      April 18 : Colombia/FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) A U.S. citizen was seized by the FARC and held for ransom.

      April 26 : Washington, DC/Armed Resistance Unit (ARU) Bombing of National War College at Fort McNair and firebomb thrown at Environmental Crimes Unit of U.S. Department of Justice, resulting in minor damage.

      April 27 : Miami, FL/Haitian extremists Four attempted bombings.

      April 29 : Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Attempted robbery.

      May 12 : Uniondale, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Roosevelt Army Reserve Center.

      May 13 : Queens, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Naval Reserve Center.

      May 25 : El Salvador/Farabundo Marti Front for National Liberation (FMLN) U.S. naval officer assassinated.

      May 27 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Bombing of Little Havana offices of Continental Bank.

      July 1 : Hebron, West Bank/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Terrorist stabs a U.S. citizen to death in a marketplace.

      July 6 : Rotterdam, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of Marine Midland Bank.

      July 8 : Miami, FL/Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo Kidnapping of Cecilia Sol de Quiones, the wife of the former Salvadoran ambassador; she was held for $1.5 million ransom.

      July 15 : Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros One person is killed in $600,000 robbery of Wells Fargo truck.

      July 28 : Montgomery, AL/Members of the Ku Klux Klan Firebombing of the Klanwatch offices of the Southern Poverty Law Center; moderate damage is reported.

      July 29 : Portland, OR/Stephan P. Paster, Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Three pipe bombs explode in a 4th-floor room of the Hotel Rajneesh; one person is seriously injured.

      August 8 : Canton, MI/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Assassination of Ahmadiyya movement leader Dr. Mozaffar Ahmad.

      August 8 : Detroit, MI/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Firebombing of an Ahmadiyya movement official's home; no injuries reported.

      August 9 : Detroit, MI/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Firebombing destroys Ahmadiyya mosque; the suspected killer of Dr. Ahmad (murdered on August 8, 1983), William Cain, is killed while setting the fire.

      August 9 : Springfield, MS/James Ellison and Bill Thomas (Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord [CSA]) Metropolitan Community Church is burned for its support of gay rights.

      August 16 : Bloomington, IN/Bill Thomas (Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord [CSA]) Jewish community center is burned.

      August 18 : Washington, DC/Armed Resistance Unit (ARU)/FMLN Bombing of Computer Operations Center at Washington Navy Yard.

      August 21 : Bronx, NY/United Freedom Front Bombing of J. Muller Army Reserve Center.

      August 27 : Washington, DC/Unknown perpetrator Firebombing of Philippine embassy after assassination of Ninoy Aquino; no injuries reported.

      September 16 : West Hartford, CT/Macheteros $7.2 million in cash taken in armed robbery of Wells Fargo truck.

      October 5 : Washington, DC/Armed Resistance Unit (ARU) and Red Guerrilla Resistance (RGR) Bombing of the U.S. Capitol.

      October 12 : Miami, FL/Omega 7 Firebombing of El Titan market in Little Havana, moderate damage reported.

      October 18 : Dewitt, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of Onondaga Savings Bank.

      October 23 : Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah Bombings kill 254 U.S. Marines and 58 French paratroopers.

      October 30 : Hato Rey, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Bazooka attack aimed at the U.S. federal building, which housed an FBI office. The attack, in retaliation for the U.S.-led invasion of Grenada, hit the deserted offices of the U.S. Department of Agriculture one floor below.

      November 2 : Fulton, AR/Bill Thomas, Richard Wayne Snell, and Stephen Scott (Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord [CSA]) Bombing of natural gas pipeline where it crosses the Red River; minimal damage.

      November 6 : Washington, DC/Armed Resistance Unit (ARU) Bombing of Senate side of Capitol Building; no injuries.

      November 7 : Washington, DC/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of the U.S. Capitol building.

      November 7 : The Capitol, Washington, DC/Unidentified perpetrator A group expressing solidarity with Lebanon and Grenada claims responsibility for a bomb explosion outside the Capitol cloakroom that caused no injuries.

      November 11 : Texarkana, AR/Richard Wayne Snell (Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord [CSA]) Killing of pawnshop proprietor William Stumpp, mistakenly identified as Jewish.

      November 15 : Athens, Greece/Revolutionary Organization 17 November U.S. Navy captain George Tsantes and his chauffeur are shot and killed while on the way to work.

      December 2 : Basque region, Spain/Basque terrorists Eight U.S. facilities are bombed to protest U.S. involvement in Central America.

      December 12 : Kuwait City, Kuwait/Hezbollah The U.S. and French embassies are bombed by Al-Dawa party members. Similar attacks occur at a U.S. housing compound, a Kuwaiti oil facility, an airline terminal, and a Kuwaiti government office.

      December 13 : East Meadow, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Navy recruiting office.

      December 14 : Queens, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Honeywell Corporation.

      December 19 : Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Bus bombing injures U.S. citizen Serena Sussman, who later dies from her wounds.


      January 18 : Beirut, Lebanon/Two pro-Iranian militant Muslims U.S. citizen and president of the American University in Beirut, Malcolm Kerr, is killed outside his office.

      January 29 : Queens, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of the Motorola Corporation.

      February 11 : Beirut, Lebanon/Pro-Iranian Shiite Muslims Frank Reiger, engineering professor at the American University in Beirut, is kidnapped and held captive for two months until his rescue by Lebanese Amal militiamen on Palm Sunday.

      February 15 : Rome, Italy/Red Brigade U.S. diplomat Leamon Hunt is assassinated.

      February 23 : Bronx, NY/Jewish Direct Action (JDA) Bombing of Soviet residential compound destroys one vehicle with diplomatic plates.

      March 7 : Western Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah U.S. Bureau Chief of Cable News Network Jeremy Levin is kidnapped; 11 months later, he manages to escape and reach Syrian army barracks.

      March 16 : Seattle, WA/The Order Robbery of an armored truck; approximately $43,000 taken.

      March 16 : Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah Political officer and embassy official William Buckley is kidnapped and later murdered.

      March 19 : Harrison, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of IBM building; terrorists claim the incident was in protest for the company's business operations in South Africa.

      April 5 : New York, NY/Red Guerrilla Resistance (RGR) Bombing of an Israeli aircraft manufacturer; no injuries reported.

      April 12 : Torrejon, Spain/Hezbollah Eighteen U.S. servicemen are killed and 83 injured in a bomb attack on a restaurant near a U.S. Air Force base.

      April 20 : Washington, DC/Red Guerrilla Resistance (RGR) Bombing of Officers Club at Washington Naval Yard, no injuries reported.

      April 22 : Seattle, WA/The Order Attempted bombing of Embassy Theater; this incident is intended to be a diversion for a robbery scheduled to take place the following day.

      April 23 : Seattle, WA/The Order Robbery of armored truck belonging to the Continental Armored Transport Service; more than $230,000 taken.

      April 26 : Norfolk, VA/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of First VA Bank of Tidewater.

      April 30 : Boise, ID/The Order Congregation Ahavath Israel Synagogue is torched.

      May 5 : New York, NY/Red Guerrilla Resistance (RGR) Bombing of an Israeli aircraft manufacturer.

      May 8 : Western Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah (suspected) Rev. Benjamin Weir is kidnapped near a western Beirut police station; he is released after 16 months in captivity.

      May 20 : Washington, DC/Red Guerrilla Resistance (RGR) Bombing of Navy Officers Club.

      May 23 : Seattle, WA/Red Guerrilla Resistance (RGR) Robbery of Continental Armored Transport Company.

      June 5 : Norfolk, VA/United Freedom Front (UFF) Robbery of Sovean Bank.

      June 16 : Philadelphia, PA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Hare Krishna temple is firebombed.

      June 17 : Seattle, WA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Vedanta Society temple and Integral Yoga Society are bombed.

      June 18 : Denver, CO/Bruce Carroll Pierce, David Eden Lane, and Robert Jay Mathews (The Order) Assassination of radio talk show host Alan Berg.

      June 30 : DeQueen, AR/Richard Wayne Snell (Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord [CSA]) Assassination of Louis Bryant, an African American Arkansas state trooper.

      July 19 : Ukiah, CA/The Order $3.6 million robbery of Brinks Armored Car Company; the money is reputedly distributed to white supremacist groups across the country.

      August 1 : Seattle, WA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra John Liczwinko, affiliated with the Seattle Vedanta Society, is attacked.

      August 1 : Denver, CO/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Hare Krishna temple is firebombed.

      August 1 : Overland Park, KS/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Hindu physician, Srinivasu Dasari, is kidnapped and currently presumed dead.

      August 1 : Tacoma, WA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Three East Indians are shot to death.

      August 22 : Melville, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of General Electric Corporation.

      September 20 : Aukar, Lebanon/Hezbollah Members detonate a bomb-laden van at the U.S. embassy annex, killing more than 20 people, including two U.S. servicemen, and injuring many more, including U.S. Ambassador Reginald Bartholomew.

      September 26 : New York, NY/Red Guerrilla Resistance (RGR) Bombing of South African consulate.

      September 26 : Tarrytown, NY/United Freedom Front (UFF) Bombing of Union Carbide Corporation.

      November 9 : Newark, NJ/Omega 7 Eduardo Arocena, leader of Omega 7, is sentenced to life plus 35 years in prison for ordering the murder of a Cuban diplomat and masterminding a score of bombings in New York, New Jersey, and Miami.

      November 21 : Brussels, Belgium/Communist Combatant Cells claimed responsibility Members bomb the offices of U.S. electronics company Motorola, seriously damaging the building.

      November 25 : Lisbon, Portugal/Popular Forces of 25 April The U.S. embassy is hit by four 60 mm mortar rounds.

      December 3 : Beirut, Lebanon/Libyan agents Peter Kilburn, an American University librarian, is kidnapped; 16 months later, he is shot to death and his body dumped in the mountains east of Beirut. Libyan agents carried out his assassination in response to President Ronald Reagan's bombing of Tripoli, Libya.

      December 4 : Tehran, Iran/Hezbollah Terrorists hijack a Kuwait Airlines plane en route from Dubai, United Emirates, to Karachi, Pakistan. The plane eventually flies to Tehran, where the terrorists murder two of the passengers, U.S. citizens Charles Hegna and William Stanford, both employees of the American Agency for International Development.

      December 10 : Mayagüez, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing at National Guard complex.

      December 10 : Levittown, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Bombing at the University of Puerto Rico.

      December 10 : Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Bombing of Army recruiting office; no injuries reported.

      December 10 : Ponce, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Bombing of Army recruiting office.

      December 10 : Cayey, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing of Army recruiting office.

      December 30 : Mannheim, West Germany/Red Army Faction (RAF) The U.S. Army communications center is bombed.


      January 9 : Western Beirut, Lebanon/Eight pro-Iranian Shiite Muslims The ailing Rev. Lawrence Martin Jenco is abducted and held hostage for 18 months before being released.

      January 25 : Old San Juan, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Light antitank weapon is fired at the federal courthouse.

      February 1 : Leetsdale, CO/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Arson at a power station.

      February 7 : Guadalajara, Mexico/Narcotrafficker Rafael Cero Quintero believed responsible U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration agent Enrique Salazar and his pilot Alfredo Zavala Avelar are kidnapped, tortured, and executed.

      February 23 : New York, NY/May 19 Communist Organization Bombing of Patrolman's Benevolent Association.

      March 16 : Western Beirut, Lebanon/Pro-Iranian Shiite Muslims Terry Anderson, Bureau Chief of the Associated Press, is kidnapped and held hostage for more than six years. Anderson will later win a successful lawsuit against the Iranian government.

      April 13 : Ridgedale, MO/Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSA) Missouri state trooper Jimmie Linegar is killed and one of his colleagues is wounded during a gun battle with David Tate at a traffic spot check.

      May 3 : Brooklyn, NY/Sikh terrorist Federal arrest warrant issued for Lal Singh and other Sikh terrorists for conspiracy to assassinate a foreign official.

      May 15 : Northridge, CA/Jewish terrorist element Bombing at the home of George Ashley, who claimed Holocaust never occurred; some damage reported but no injuries.

      May 15 : Berkeley, CA/Unabomber Mail bomb at University of California injures one person.

      June 13 : Auburn, WA/Unabomber Mail bomb sent to Boeing Company.

      June 14 : Greece and Lebanon/Hezbollah TWA Flight 847 is hijacked en route from Athens to Lebanon. The hijackers shoot and kill U.S. Navy diver Robert Stethem at an airport in Beirut. It is not until June 30 in Damascus, Syria, that the remaining hostages, including 39 U.S. citizens, are released.

      June 22 : Houston, TX/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Islamic mosque is attacked.

      June 24 : Tigerton, WI/Posse Comitatus Law enforcement authorities confiscate property housed in an illegal township and paramilitary camp called “Tigerton Dells.”

      July 5 : Rockford, IL/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra The Vat Thothikalam, a Laotian temple, is attacked.

      August 15 : Paterson, NJ/Jewish terrorist elements Pipe bombing of the home of Tscherin Soobzokov, alleged member of the German World War II Waffen SS division; the victim dies.

      August 15 : Wuppertal, West Germany/Unidentified perpetrator A branch of the U.S.-based Westinghouse Corporation is bombed.

      September 6 : Brentwood, NY/Jewish terrorist elements Bombing of the home of Elmars Sprogis, reported to be a member of Adolf Hitler's SS; a passerby is seriously injured.

      October 7 : Eastern Mediterranean Sea/Palestine Liberation Front–Abu Abbas Faction (PLF) Four gunmen hijack the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro en route to Haifa, Israel, while off the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. The terrorists kill a wheelchair-bound U.S. citizen and dump his body overboard.

      October 11 : Santa Ana, CA/Jewish terrorist elements Bombing at the office of the American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee; committee leader Alex Odeh dies from his wounds.

      November 6 : Bayamon, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Shooting at Army recruiting office near Fort Buchanan.

      November 15 : Ann Arbor, MI/Unabomber Mail bomb sent to University of Michigan injures Professor James McConnell's research assistant.

      December 1 : Rockford, IL/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Laotian temple is attacked.

      December 11 : Sacramento, CA/Unabomber Bomb kills computer store owner Hugh Scrutton.

      December 27 : Rome, Italy/Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) Four members attack Israel's El Al offices at the Leonardo da Vinci Airport, killing 13 people, including five U.S. citizens, and wounding 74 others, including two U.S. citizens.


      January 6 : Cidra, Puerto Rico/National Revolutionary Front of Puerto Rico Bombing of U.S. post office; windows and doors shatter but no injuries reported.

      January 6 : Guanica, Puerto Rico/National Revolutionary Front of Puerto Rico Bombing of U.S. post office; windows and doors damaged but no injuries.

      January 6 : Santurce, Puerto Rico/National Revolutionary Front of Puerto Rico Bombing of U.S. post office; no injuries or damage reported.

      January 6 : Toa Baja, Puerto Rico/National Revolutionary Front of Puerto Rico Attempted bombing of Army recruiting office.

      January 7 : Coamo, Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican nationalists (suspected) Attempted bombing of U.S. post office.

      February 18 : Lisbon, Portugal/The Popular Forces of 25 April (FP-25) A bomb explodes at the U.S. embassy.

      March 17 : Ponce, Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican Nationalists (suspected) Attempted bombing of Esso service station, killing four U.S. citizens.

      April 2 : Athens, Greece/Al Fatah's Special Operations Group (suspected) A bomb detonates as TWA Flight 840 approaches Athens Airport. Four U.S. citizens are killed and nine people, including five U.S. citizens, are injured. The aircraft is able to land safely at Athens Airport.

      April 5 : Berlin, West Germany/Libya La Belle Discotheque, a nightclub in West Berlin frequented by U.S. service members, is bombed, killing two U.S. soldiers and one Turkish woman. Two hundred others were wounded in the bombing, including 41 U.S. soldiers.

      April 14 : Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) An explosive device detonates in a women's restroom on the University of Puerto Rico campus.

      April 29 : San Juan, Puerto Rico/Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Former police officer Alejandro Gonzalez Malave is assassinated in a drive-by shooting in front of his mother's home.

      May 14 : Phoenix, AZ/Unknown perpetrator Sabotage of power lines that supply Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona and California electric customers.

      May 28 : Bethany, WV/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Randell Gorby, who was linked to the Hare Krishna temple in Philadelphia, is attacked and injured.

      August 6 : Hayden Lake, ID/Order II Bomb sent to Gary Solomon, Jewish owner of trucking company.

      August 7 : Kootenai County, ID/Order II Pipe bombing of Fred Bower's Classic Auto Restoration.

      September 2 : New York, NY/Jewish terrorist element Tear gas grenade bombing of Soviet Union's Moiseyev Dance Company at the Metropolitan Opera; no injuries reported.

      September 5 : Karachi, Pakistan/Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) Pan Am Flight 73 is hijacked en route from Frankfurt, West Germany, to New York with 379 passengers aboard, including 89 U.S. citizens. The flight is forced to land in Larnaca, Cyprus. The terrorists kill 22 passengers, including two U.S. citizens, and wound many others.

      September 9 : Western Beirut, Lebanon/Organization of Islamic Dawn (alleged) Frank Reed, U.S. citizen and director of the Lebanese International School, is kidnapped while on his way to play golf. Three and a half years later, a group calling itself the Organization of Islamic Dawn claims responsibility. Reed is then released by his captors.

      September 12 : Beirut, Lebanon/Revolutionary Justice Organization Pro-Iranian Shiite Muslim gunmen kidnapped Joseph Cicippio, an American University of Beirut school official. More than five years after his kidnapping, Cicippio is released by his captors.

      September 15 : Coeur d'Alene, ID/Order II The home of Father William Wassmuth, Roman Catholic pastor and critic of Aryan Nations, is firebombed.

      September 18 : Toa Baja, Puerto Rico/El Movimiento Revolutionario Independentista (EMRI) Two incendiary devices are thrown through a plate glass window at an Army recruiting office.

      September 27 : Fayetteville, NC/Wendell Lane, member of the White Patriot Party (WPP) Attempted robbery of the local Pizza Hut.

      September 29 : Coeur d'Alene, ID/Order II Bombing of New Era Telephone Company.

      September 29 : Coeur d'Alene, ID/Order II Bombing of Jax Restaurant.

      September 29 : Coeur d'Alene, ID/Order II Bombing of the Beneficial Finance Company.

      September 29 : Coeur d'Alene, ID/Order II Attempted bombing of local federal building that houses the FBI's Resident Agency.

      September 29 : Rathdrum, ID/Order II Attempted robbery of the First National Bank of North Idaho.

      September 29 : Post Falls, ID/Order II Attempted robbery of the Idaho First National Bank.

      September 29 : Post Falls, ID/Order II Attempted robbery of the Idaho Army National Guard Armory.

      October 15 : Jerusalem, Israel/Al Fatah A grenade attack at the Western Wall kills U.S. citizen Gali Klein.

      October 20 : New York, NY/Jewish terrorist element Firebombing at Lincoln Center Concert Hall where the Moscow State Orchestra was scheduled to perform; no injuries reported.

      October 21 : Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah Members kidnapped U.S. citizen Edward A. Tracy and released him from captivity five years later.

      October 24 : Detroit, MI/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bombing of Dimic's Restaurant and Bar that had served the Yugoslavian delegation earlier that day.

      October 28 : Fajardo, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Pipe bombing of the Navy recruiting office, one person injured, one truck destroyed.

      October 28 : Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Pipe bombing of Army Reserve base, one truck destroyed; two additional devices were found in the same area.

      October 28 : Santurce, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing of Army Reserve recruiting office.

      October 28 : Aguadilla, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing of Army Reserve center.

      October 28 : Aguadilla, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing of Army recruiting office.

      October 28 : Mayagüez, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing of National Guard Armory.

      October 28 : Bayamon, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing of Army-Navy recruiting office.

      October 28 : Cayey, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), and Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) Attempted bombing of Army Reserve recruiting office.

      November 4 : Puerta De Tierra, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Attempted bombing of the National Guard Armory.

      December 28 : Yauco, Puerto Rico/Unknown Puerto Rican group Bombing of a Puerto Rican National Guard truck; slight damage but no injuries reported.

      December 28 : Guayama, Puerto Rico/Unknown Puerto Rican group Attempted bombing of a U.S. post office; no injuries reported.


      January 24 : Beirut, Lebanon/Hezbollah Alann Steen, Robert Pohill, Jesse Turner, and U.S. resident Mithileshwar Singh are taken hostage. All are eventually released by their kidnappers; Steen, the last hostage to be released, was held for nearly five years.

      February 20 : Salt Lake City, UT/Unabomber Bomb found near computer store.

      March 2 : Laguna Niguel, CA/Unknown perpetrator Five explosive devices are placed in the vicinity of the federal building; four detonate adjacent to the federal building, where several IRS offices are located, and the fifth device is recovered on the roof of the building.

      April 16 : Davis, CA/Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Fire is set to the new Veterinary Medicine Research Building at the University of California, Davis, causing more than $3.5 million in damages.

      April 19 : Missoula, MT/Aryan Nations (AN) A bomb detonates under a police vehicle at the Missoula Police Department.

      April 24 : Fort Smith, AR/Various groups, such as the Order; the Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord; and Aryan Nations Ten white supremacists, including Louis Beam, Richard Butler, and Robert Miles, are indicted on seditious conspiracy charges.

      April 24 : Athens, Greece/Revolutionary Organization 17 November Sixteen U.S. servicemen aboard a Greek Air Force bus are injured in a bomb attack.

      May 1 : Hialeah, FL/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bomb detonates at the Almacen El Español, a business that sends medicine and other supplies to Cuba from Miami; slight structural damage occurs.

      May 2 : Miami, FL/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bomb detonates against the front door of Cubanacan, a pharmacy supply house that ships pharmaceuticals to Cuba.

      May 25 : Miami, FL/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bombing of Cuba Envíos, a business that ships medicine and packages to Cuba.

      May 25 : Mayagüez, Puerto Rico/Guerrilla Forces of Liberation (GFL) Pipe bombing of a branch of the Western Federal Bank.

      May 25 : Caguas, Puerto Rico/Guerrilla Forces of Liberation (GFL) Pipe bombing of a department store.

      May 25 : Ponce, Puerto Rico/Guerrilla Forces of Liberation (GFL) Pipe bombing of U.S.

      Customs Service building.

      May 25 : Aibonito, Puerto Rico/Guerrilla Forces of Liberation (GFL) Pipe bombing of U.S. Postal Service mailbox in front of post office building.

      May 25 : Mayagüez, Puerto Rico/Guerrilla Forces of Liberation (GFL) Attempted pipe bombing of Citibank branch.

      May 25 : Carolina, Puerto Rico/Guerrilla Forces of Liberation (GFL) Attempted pipe bombing of a Bank of Boston branch office.

      May 25 : Cidra, Puerto Rico/Guerrilla Forces of Liberation (GFL) Attempted pipe bombing of a U.S. post office.

      June 9 : Rome, Italy/Junzo Okudaira, Japanese Red Army member (suspected) A car bomb explodes outside the back gate of the U.S. embassy, and rockets are fired at the compound. One passerby is injured in the attacks.

      July 30 : Miami, FL/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bomb explodes in front of Machi Community Services, a business that sends packages and airline tickets to Cuba.

      August 27 : Hialeah, FL/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bomb explodes next to Va Cuba, a business that ships packages and medicine to Cuba.

      October 24 : Richford, VT/Syrian Social Nationalist Party Walid Nicholas Kabbani is detained after illegally crossing the Canadian border into the United States and is later charged with illegal interstate and foreign transfer of firearms and explosives.

      October 25 : Flagstaff, AZ/Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC) Members cause more than $20,000 in damage by destroying bolts that anchor power lines on the chair lift at Fairfield Snow Bowl ski resort.

      November 9 : Flagstaff, AZ/Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC) Malicious destruction of property.

      November 28 : Livermore, CA/Nuclear Liberation Front (NLF) A vehicle belonging to a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory employee blows up in the laboratory's parking lot.

      December 26 : Barcelona, Spain/Catalan separatists A bar frequented by U.S. service members is bombed, killing one U.S. citizen.


      January 12 : Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico/Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces (PACRF) Firebombing.

      February 17 : Ras-al-En Tyre, Lebanon/Hezbollah U.S. Marine Corps Lt. Col. William Higgins is kidnapped and later murdered.

      April 12 : New Jersey Turnpike, NJ/Japanese Red Army (JRA) Yu Kikumura is arrested by police at a service area on the New Jersey Turnpike; his car contains three powerful pipe bombs, tools and material to make additional bombs, and a false passport.

      April 14 : Naples, Italy/Japanese Red Army (JRA) Car bomb explodes in front of the U.S.O. Club killing five people, including a U.S. servicewoman, and wounding 15 others, including four U.S. servicemen. Junzo Okudaira, JRA member, is indicted in the United States on April 9, 1993, for the bombing.

      May 26 : Coral Gables, FL/Organization Alliance Cuban Intransigence (OACI) Bombing at the home of an executive of the Cuban Studies Institute; $3,000 in damages is reported.

      June 28 : Athens, Greece/Unknown perpetrator The defense attaché of the U.S. embassy in Greece is killed when a car bomb explodes outside his home.

      September 17 : Augusta, GA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra A physician is shot to death in front of Humana Hospital.

      September 19 : Los Angeles, CA/Up the IRS, Inc. Bombing of garage beneath the 6th story of the City National Bank building; no injuries reported.

      September 25 : Grand Canyon, AZ/Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC) Members destroy power lines leading to uranium mines owned by Energy Fuels Nuclear.

      November 1 : Rio Pedras, Puerto Rico/Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces (PACRF) Pipe bombing of the General Electric company office; no injuries but heavy damage reported.

      November 1 : Rio Pedras, Puerto Rico/Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces (PACRF) Attempted pipe bombing.

      November 11 : Norwalk, CT/Fran Stephanie Trutt An animal rights activist places a pipe bomb in the bushes of U.S. Surgical Corporation near the parking spot reserved for Leon Hirsh, the company's founder. Following a tip from an informant, the Norwalk police found the bomb before it detonated.

      December 21 : United Kingdom, United States Pan Am Flight 103, outbound from London for New York with 259 people aboard, is destroyed by a bomb over Lockerbie, Scotland. All aboard the aircraft were killed, as were 11 persons on the ground.


      January 27 : Istanbul and Ankara, Turkey/Revolutionary People's Liberation Front (Dev Sol) Three simultaneous bombings occur at the Turkish American Businessmen Association and the Economic Development Foundation in Istanbul, and at the Metal Employees Union in Ankara.

      March 6 : Cairo, Egypt/January 15 Organization, Egyptian Revolutionary Organization, and Nasserite Organization Two explosive devices are safely removed from the grounds of the U.S. and British Cultural Centers.

      April 3 : Tucson, AZ/Animal Liberation Front (ALF) More than 1,000 lab animals are released from the University of Arizona, and two campus buildings, the Pharmacy Microbiology Building and the Office of the Division of Animal Resources, are set afire.

      April 21 : Manila, Philippines/New People's Army (NPA) Colonel James Rowe of the U.S. Army is assassinated by the NPA.

      May 1 : Frankfurt, West Germany Mohammad Ali Hamadei is convicted of hijacking TWA Flight 847 en route from Athens to Rome on June 14, 1985, and of the murder of a passenger, U.S. Navy diver Robert Stethem. He is sentenced to life in prison.

      May 30 : Wenden, AZ/Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC) Members are arrested while training for a series of attacks on nuclear facilities in Arizona, California, and Colorado.

      June 12 : Bosphorus Straits, Turkey/Warriors of the June 16th Movement A bomb explodes aboard an unoccupied boat used by the U.S. consular staff, causing extensive damage to the boat but injuring none.

      June 18 : Caguas, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Pipe bombing at a Chase Manhattan Bank branch.

      June 19 : Bayamon, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Pipe bombing of a Bank of Boston branch; damage is minor and no injuries are reported.

      June 19 : Bayamon, Puerto Rico/Boricua People's Army–Macheteros Pipe bombing of the Army recruiting office; damage is minor and no injuries are reported.

      July 4 : Lubbock, TX/Animal Liberation Front (ALF) The Health Sciences Center at Texas Tech University is raided. Laboratory animals are released, lab equipment destroyed, records and data for lab experiments are stolen, and animal rights slogans are painted on walls.

      October 4 : Washington, DC/Islamic Amal Fawaz Younis is sentenced to several concurrent terms—5 years for conspiracy to commit air piracy, 30 years for taking U.S. hostages, and 25 years for aircraft piracy.

      October 11 : Izmir, Turkey/Revolutionary People's Liberation Front (Dev Sol) An explosive charge is detonated outside the U.S. Military Post Exchange.


      January 12 : Santurce, Puerto Rico/Brigada Internacionalista Eugenio Maria De Hostos de las Fuerza Revolucionarias Pedro Albizu Campos (Eugenio Maria de Hostos International Brigade of the Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces) Pipe bombing of the Navy recruiting office; the windows shatter but there are no injuries.

      January 12 : Carolina, Puerto Rico/Brigada Internacionalista Eugenio Maria De Hostos de las Fuerza Revolucionarias Pedro Albizu Campos (Eugenio Maria de Hostos International Brigade of the Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces) Pipe bombing at the Westinghouse Electric Company; no injuries reported.

      January 15 : Lima, Peru/Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) U.S. embassy is bombed.

      January 31 : Tucson, AZ/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Rashid Khalifa, controversial Muslim leader, is stabbed to death.

      February 22 : Los Angeles, CA/Up the IRS, Inc. An explosive device detonates in a vehicle parked 60 feet from the Olympic Plaza Building that houses the offices of the IRS.

      March 30 : Quincy, MA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra The Islamic center is attacked.

      April 22 : Santa Cruz County, CA/Earth Night Action Group Two power poles are sawed in half, disrupting electrical power for four hours.

      May 13 : Clark Air Force Base, Philippines/New People's Army (NPA) Two U.S. Air Force servicemen are assassinated near Clark Air Force Base.

      May 27 : Mayagüez, Puerto Rico/Unknown Puerto Rican group Two Puerto Rican Army National Guard vehicles are set on fire, resulting in the destruction of one vehicle and considerable damage to the other.

      September 17 : Arecibo, Puerto Rico/Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces (PACRF) Bombing of a Citibank branch; minimal damage but no injuries reported.

      September 17 : Vega Baja, Puerto Rico/Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces (PACRF) Bombing of Harvey Hubber electrical plug factory; damage is reported but there are no injuries.

      November 5 : New York, NY/El Sayyid Nosair Assassination of Rabbi Meir Kahane.


      January 2 : San Miguel, El Salvador/Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) A U.S. helicopter is shot down, killing Chief Warrant Officer Daniel Scott. The two other crewmen on board, Lt. Col. David Pickett and crew chief PFC Earnest Dawson, are executed after the helicopter crashes.

      January 2 : Chicago, IL/Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Break-in at Hektoen Lab, a Cook County Hospital research laboratory; perpetrators free rabbits and guinea pigs.

      January 11 : San Diego, CA/Jamaat-ul-Fuqra Islamic Cultural Center is attacked.

      January 18 : Jakarta, Indonesia/Iraqi agents (suspected) Bomb discovered outside the U.S. ambassador's residence.

      January 19 : Manila, Philippines/Iraqi agents Bomb explodes near the United States Information System library, prematurely killing one perpetrator and seriously injuring another.

      January 31 : Sanaa, Yemen Gunmen throw dynamite at the residences of two foreign ambassadors and attack the U.S. embassy.

      January 31 : Lima, Peru/Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) Terrorists fire shots and an antitank weapon at the U.S. embassy.

      February 3 : Mayagüez, Puerto Rico/Popular Liberation Army (PLA) Two Puerto Rican Army National Guard vehicles are set afire.

      February 7 : Adana, Turkey/Revolutionary People's Liberation Front (Dev Sol) A U.S. civilian contractor is shot and killed at the Incirlik Air Base.

      February 13 : Bonn, Germany/Red Army Faction (RAF) Hundreds of rounds of small-arms are fired at the U.S. embassy.

      February 16 : Santiago, Chile/Manuel Rodriquez Patriotic Front (FPMR/D) Antitank rocket attack on a U.S. Marine security guard vehicle, injuring one U.S. Marine.

      February 18 : Sabana, Grande, Puerto Rico/Popular Liberation Army (PLA) Two Puerto Rican Army National Guard vehicles are set afire.

      February 23 : Yokohama, Japan/Chukaku-ha A U.S. Navy housing compound is attacked with projectiles, causing minor damages.

      February 28 : Izmir, Turkey/Revolutionary People's Liberation Front (Dev Sol) Two gunmen shoot and wound a U.S. Air Force officer entering his residence.

      March 12 : Athens, Greece/Revolutionary Organization 17 November Remote-control bomb kills U.S. Air Force Sergeant Odell Stewart at the entrance of his residence.

      March 17 : Carolina, Puerto Rico/Unknown Puerto Rican group Arson of A-7D combat jet at Air Force National Guard base.

      March 22 : Istanbul, Turkey/Revolutionary People's Liberation Front (Dev Sol) Three members assassinate U.S. civilian contractor John Gandy in his office.

      March 28 : Jubail, Saudi Arabia/Unknown perpetrator Three U.S. Marines escape injury when they are shot at while driving near Camp Three, Jubail.

      March 31 : Fresno, CA/Up the IRS, Inc. Bombing of the National Treasury Employee Union; no injuries are reported.

      April 1 : Fresno, CA/Up the IRS, Inc. Pipe bombs explode in a parking lot and on the roof of an IRS building; no injuries are reported but several cars are damaged.

      July 6 : Punta Borinquen, Puerto Rico/Popular Liberation Army (PLA) Bombing of a Hercules C-130 aircraft; the front portion of the fuselage burns.

      July 7 : Joghere, Afghanistan/Afghan extremists Two U.S. agricultural consultants are kidnapped; one is released approximately three months later and the other nearly five months later.

      September 11 : Yauco, Puerto Rico/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bomb explodes in front of the U.S. post office, causing moderate damage.

      October 28 : Ankara, Turkey/Turkish Islamic Jihad Car bomb kills U.S. soldier Victor Marwick and wounds his wife.

      October 28 : Istanbul, Turkey/Turkish Islamic Jihad Two car bombs kill a U.S. Air Force sergeant and wound an Egyptian diplomat.

      October 29 : Beirut, Lebanon/Arab Revolutionary Brigades A rocket hits the edge of the U.S. embassy, causing no injuries.


      January 17 : Manila, Philippines/Communist rebel gang Michael Barnes, a U.S. executive, is abducted from the Makati business district. Barnes is rescued 61 days later by police when they stormed several hideouts of the kidnapping gang, killing 13 of his suspected captors.

      January 21 : Bagre, Colombia/National Liberation Army (ELN) (suspected) U.S. citizen Edward Faught is kidnapped and released more than 10 months later.

      January 21 : Mutata, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) (suspected) U.S. citizen Michael James is kidnapped and released almost two weeks later.

      February 2 : East Lansing, MI/Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Fire is started at the Mink Research Facility at Michigan State University.

      February 11 : Lima, Peru/Shining Path (suspected) The U.S. ambassador's residence is bombed, causing the death of three policemen and wounding four others, as well as several passersby.

      March 27 : Bogota, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) A bomb explodes outside the U.S.-owned Diners Club, killing one employee and injuring five passersby; the façade of the building is destroyed.

      April 5 : New York, NY/Mujahedin-e-Khalq (MEK) Five MEK members forcibly enter and seize control of the Iranian Mission to the United Nations; no injuries result, and all five members are subsequently arrested.

      June 10 : Panama City and Colon, Panama/Unknown perpetrator A U.S. Army vehicle is sprayed with gunfire as it traveled between Panama City and Colon, killing the driver and injuring a passenger and a civilian bystander.

      November 19 : Urbana, IL/Mexican Revolutionary Movement Attempted firebombing of the Levis Faculty Center at the University of Illinois, during the “Latin America 2000” conference.

      December 10 : Chicago, IL/Boricua Revolutionary Front Car fire and attempted pipe bombing of Marine recruiting office.

      December 29 : Aden, Yemen/Afghan-trained militants (suspected) Bomb explodes at the Gold Mohur Hotel, targeting the one hundred U.S. servicemen who had just left the hotel on their way to duty in Somalia. An Austrian tourist and a hotel employee are killed.


      January 17 : Chicago, IL/Unknown perpetrator Three Molotov cocktails cause a fire at the Serbian National Defense Council (SNDCA); threatening telephone calls were received prior to the attack.

      January 25 : Langley, VA/Mir Aimal Kasi Shooting outside CIA headquarters kills two and wounds three. Frank Darling, a 28-year-old covert for the CIA, and Lansing Bennett, a 66-year-old physician and intelligence analyst, are shot in their cars while waiting in morning traffic.

      January 31 : Pucuro, Panama/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Three U.S. missionaries—Mark Rich, David Mankins, and Rick Tenenoff—are kidnapped; they are killed three years later.

      February 23 : Choco area, Colombia/Eight National Liberation Army (ELN) terrorists U.S. citizen Lewis Manning, an employee of the Colombian gold-mining company Oresom, is kidnapped.

      February 26 : New York, NY/Ramzi Yousef, Mohamed Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Mahmoud Abouhalima, and others Car bombing of the World Trade Center kills six people, injures more than 1,000, and results in more than $500 million in damage.

      February 26 : Cairo, Egypt/Unknown perpetrator A bomb explodes inside a café, killing three people and wounding 18, including two U.S. citizens, Jill Papineau and Raymond Chico.

      March 2 : Belgrade, former Yugoslavia/Unknown perpetrator Terrorists explode a bomb, possibly a hand grenade, in front of the U.S. embassy, causing minor damage.

      March 10 : Pensacola, FL/Antiabortion activist Michael Griffin Griffin shoots Dr. David Gunn outside a women's clinic; Gunn dies hours later.

      April 14 : Kuwait City, Kuwait/Iraqi intelligence service Attempted assassination of former U.S. president George Bush.

      June 22 : Tiburon, CA/Unabomber Mail bomb injures Charles Epstein, geneticist at University of California, San Francisco.

      June 24 : New Haven, CT/Unabomber Mail bomb injures Yale University professor David Gelernter.

      June 24 : New York, NY/Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman Eight militant Muslim fundamentalists associated with Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman are arrested for suspicion of planning several terrorist attacks, including the bombing of U.N. buildings, the bombing of several major access tunnels in New York City, and the assassination of public officials, including a U.S. senator and the secretary-general of the United Nations. Sheik Rahman and his followers were later convicted of charges related to the arrest.

      July 5 : Southeast Turkey/Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) In a series of eight separate incidents, members of the PKK kidnap 19 tourists, including U.S. citizen Colin Patrick Starger, who is released after several weeks of captivity.

      July 7 : Camp Zama, Japan/Unknown perpetrator Terrorists launch four homemade projectiles at U.S. Air Force headquarters. Projectiles do not explode, and damage is minimal.

      July 15 : Los Angeles, CA/A variety of skinhead and neo-Nazi groups, including White Aryan Resistance (WAR) Eight suspects are arrested in a plot to start a race war by assassinating prominent African American and Jewish leaders.

      July 20 : Tacoma, WA/American Front Skinheads (AFS) Pipe bombing and firebombing of NAACP building.

      July 22 : Tacoma, WA/American Front Skinheads (AFS) Bombing of the Elite Tavern gay bar.

      July 27 : Lima, Peru/Unknown perpetrator Terrorists explode a bomb-laden van outside the U.S. embassy, injuring one person and causing extensive damage to the embassy's façade and perimeter fence.

      October 3 : Mogadishu, Somalia/Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden claims he supplied weapons and fighters to Somalis involved in a fierce battle that left 18 U.S. servicemen dead.

      November 14 : Pangutaran Island, Sulu Batu, Philippines/Abu Sayyaf Group Members kidnap U.S. missionary Charles M. Watson and release him three weeks later.

      November 20 : Lima, Peru/Unknown perpetrator Terrorists explode a satchel bomb outside the offices of the U.S.-Peruvian Binational Center, causing minor damage.

      November 27–28 : Chicago, IL/Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Nine firebombs are planted in different department stores, and fires result at Saks Fifth Avenue, Marshall Field's, and Carson Pirie Scott; no injuries reported in all bombings.


      January 5 : New York, NY/Unknown perpetrator Two explosive devices are found outside buildings housing Jewish American organizations that actively support the Middle East peace process.

      March 1 : New York, NY/Middle Eastern terror group (suspected) Rashid Baz, Lebanese immigrant, shoots at car carrying Jewish rabbinical students on the Brooklyn Bridge and injures four; Aaron Haberstam dies of his wounds.

      July 29 : Pensacola, FL/Antiabortionist activist Paul Hill Hill shoots Dr. John Britton, Britton's bodyguard, and the bodyguard's wife outside a women's clinic; Dr. Britton and the bodyguard are killed. Dr. Britton was the successor to Dr. David Gunn, who had been shot and killed in 1993.

      September 23 : Cali, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). U.S. citizen Thomas Hargrove is kidnapped.

      December 10 : North Caldwell, NJ/Unabomber Mail bomb kills Thomas Mosser of Young and Rubicam.


      March 8 : Karachi, Pakistan/Unknown perpetrator Employees of the U.S. consulate are attacked with gunfire when two unknown gunmen riddle their bus with gunfire. Jacqueline Van Landingham and Gary Durell are killed, and Mark McCloy is wounded.

      March 11 : Lakewood, CA/Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) supporter Benjamin Ruiz Valencia makes threatening telephone calls to First Data Corporation.

      April 1 : Spokane, WA/Phineas Priesthood The Spokesman-Review newspaper headquarters is robbed, and a nearby bank is bombed and robbed.

      April 9 : Netzarim, Gaza Strip/Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) A suicide bomber crashes an explosives-rigged van into an Israeli bus, killing U.S. citizen Alisa Flatow and seven Israelis. More than 50 other individuals, including two U.S. citizens, are injured.

      April 19 : Oklahoma City, OK/Timothy McVeigh and Terry Lynn Nichols Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building kills 168 and wounds hundreds.

      April 24 : Sacramento, CA/Unabomber Mail bomb kills timber industry lobbyist Gilbert Murray.

      May 15 : Chimbote, Peru/Shining Path Five members hold up a bus and rob about 50 passengers, including three U.S. citizens.

      May 31 : Zaragoza, Colombia/National Liberation Army (ELN) Seven militants kidnap a U.S. citizen and three Colombians. All of the captives are freed except for one Colombian, who died during the rescue.

      June 25 : Monroe County, OH/Ohio Unorganized Militia Michael Hill, a 50-year-old militia member, is shot and killed by a police officer after he exits his car, carrying a .45 caliber pistol in his waistband; additional weapons and ammunition are found in his truck.

      June 28 : Los Angeles, CA/Ohio Unorganized Militia Bomb threat slows traffic at Los Angeles International Airport.

      July 4 : Pahalgam, Kashmir/Al-Faran A group of mountain trekkers, which includes two U.S. citizens, is taken hostage. One American will later escape, and the other is believed to have been killed by his captors.

      July 12 : Spokane, WA/Phineas Priesthood A Planned Parenthood clinic is bombed, and a nearby bank is robbed.

      July 25 : Jamaica, NY/Hamas Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook is detained by the Immigration and Naturalization Service at Kennedy International Airport after his name surfaces on a terrorist watch list; he is held for possible extradition to Israel.

      August 8 : Istanbul, Turkey/Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) A bombing in Taksim Square injures two U.S. citizens.

      August 21 : Jerusalem, Israel/Hamas A bomb kills six and injures more than 100 individuals, including U.S. citizen Joan Davenny.

      September 5 : Ramallah, West Bank/Unknown perpetrator An Israeli settler of British origin is stabbed to death and his U.S.-born wife is wounded in an attack at the settlement of Ma'ale Mikmas.

      September 13 : Moscow, Russia/Sergei Gavryushin is charged with the crime in October 2000; motive unknown A rocket-propelled grenade is fired through the window of the U.S. embassy.

      October 9 : Hyder, AZ/Sons of the Gestapo Derailment of Amtrak's Sunset Limited train, killing one person and injuring more than 100.

      November 9 : Algiers, Algeria/Armed Islamic Group (GIA) (suspected) Islamic extremists set fire to a warehouse belonging to the U.S. embassy.

      November 11 : Vernon, OK/Militiamen (suspected) Ray Willie Lampley, Cecilia Lampley, and John Dare Baird are arrested for conspiring to build and possess a destructive device for use against civil rights offices, abortion clinics, and federal agencies.

      November 13 : Riyadh, Saudi Arabia/Al Qaeda sympathizers A car bomb at a U.S.-run training facility for the Saudi National Guard kills five U.S. citizens and two Indian citizens, and wounds 60 others. Four Saudis later confessed on national television, saying they were inspired by Osama bin Laden.

      December 10 : Quito, Ecuador/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Treasurer for the Nazarine missions, a U.S. citizen, is kidnapped.

      December 16 : Valencia, Spain/Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Several bombs detonate in a department store, killing one person and wounding eight others, including a U.S. citizen.

      December 18 : Reno, NV/Joseph Martin Bailie and Ellis Edward Hurst (suspected) A bomb made from a 30-gallon plastic drum is found in the parking lot of an IRS building. The accused attempted to ignite the fuse the previous evening, but were unable to detonate the bomb.

      December 20 : Onia, AR/Right-wing survivalist group (suspected) Law enforcement arrest Thomas Lewis Lavy smuggling 130 grams of ricin, a poisonous white powder distilled from castor beans, across Alaska's border with Canada.


      January 19 : Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) U.S. citizen is kidnapped and a $1 million ransom is demanded. The hostage is later released.

      January 31 : Colombo, Sri Lanka/Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) (suspected) An explosives-laden truck is driven into the Central Bank building, killing 90 civilians and injuring more than 1,400 others, including two U.S. citizens.

      February 9 : London, United Kingdom/Irish Republican Army (IRA) Bombing of a parking garage in the Docklands area of London, killing two persons and wounding more than 100 others, including two U.S. citizens.

      February 15 : Athens, Greece/Revolutionary Organization 17 November (suspected) A rocket is fired at the U.S. embassy compound, causing minor damage.

      February 16 : La Guajira, Colombia/National Liberation Army (ELN) U.S. citizen Marc Bossart, manager of a coal mine, is kidnapped and released after nine months of captivity.

      February 25 : Jerusalem, Israel/Hamas A suicide bomber blows up a bus, killing 26 people, including three U.S. citizens, and injuring about 80 more.

      March 4 : Tel Aviv, Israel/Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad A bombing outside Tel Aviv's largest shopping mall, Dizengoff Center, kills 20 people and injures 75 others, including two U.S. citizens.

      April 6 : Spokane, WA/Phineas Priesthood Pipe bombing of suburban office of the Spokesman-Review newspaper.

      April 6 : Spokane, WA/Phineas Priesthood Bombing and robbery of Spokane Valley Bank; the building is damaged but there are no reported injuries.

      April 12 : Sacramento, CA/Unknown perpetrator Pipe bomb found near post office; an attached note says, “Timothy McVeigh lives on.”

      May 3 : Beit-El, West Bank/Hamas or Palestinian Islamic Jihad (suspected) A gunman opens fire on a hitchhiking stand, killing U.S.-Israeli citizen David Boim and wounding three Israelis.

      May 20 : Laredo, TX/Unknown perpetrator Bomb is detonated outside building where FBI offices are located.

      May 31 : Rural northern Nicaragua/Gang of former Contra guerrillas Cynthia Garzony, an employee of the Agency for International Development (USAID), is kidnapped and later released.

      June 9 : Zekharya, Israel/Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) A gunman opens fire on a car, killing a U.S.-Israeli citizen, Yaron Ungar, and his wife, Efrat.

      June 25 : Dhahran, Saudi Arabia/Saudi Hezbollah members Terrorists explode a fuel truck outside the northern fence of the Khobar Towers complex near King Abdul Aziz Air Base, Saudi Arabia, killing 19 U.S. military service members and wounding 515, including 240 U.S. personnel.

      July 1 : Phoenix, AZ/Viper Militia A dozen members of a militia-type organization are arrested for allegedly plotting to blow up seven government buildings in Phoenix, including the Phoenix Police Department and National Guard Headquarters.

      July 17 : South Jordan, UT/Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Clinton Ellerman, Kevin Dexter Clark, and several others break into the Holt Mink Ranch and free 3,000 mink. They also spray-paint the words “ALF” and “blood money” on the buildings.

      July 27 : Atlanta, GA/Eric Robert Rudolph charged with crime A crude pipe bomb detonates nails and screws at Centennial Olympic Park during the Summer Olympic Games, killing one and wounding more than 100 people. A cameraman at the scene also dies of a heart attack.

      August 17 : Mapourdit, Sudan/Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) Six missionaries, including a U.S. citizen, are kidnapped and released 11 days later.

      August 23 : Afghanistan/Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden issues a decree declaring jihad against Americans and Jews.

      October 11 : Stonewall, Lewis County, Fairmont, Lavalette, WV; Maple Heights and Cleveland, OH; and Waynesburg, PA/West Virginia Mountaineer Militia Seven members of a West Virginia militia group are arrested for allegedly planning to blow up an FBI complex in Clarksburg, West Virginia.

      December 3 : Paris, France/Algerian extremists (suspected) Bomb explodes aboard a Paris subway train as it arrives at the Port Royal station, killing four and wounding 86 others, including one U.S. citizen.

      December 10 : La Guajira, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Five armed men kidnap and later kill U.S. geologist Frank Pescatore.

      December 17 : Lima, Peru/Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) Twenty-three members of the MRTA take several hundred people hostage, including U.S. officials, at a party given at the Japanese ambassador's residence. The terrorists will release most of the hostages later that month but will hold 81 Peruvians and Japanese citizens for several months.


      January 2–3 : Washington, DC/Suspected Middle East group A series of letter bombs is found in the Washington area—four bombs are sent to the Arabic-language newspaper Al-Hayat at the National Press Club, and one is found at a Washington-area post office.

      January 2–3 : Fort Leavenworth, KS/Suspected Middle East group Letter bombs are sent to the federal prison where a key figure in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, Mohammed Salameh, is serving a life sentence.

      January 13 : New York, NY/Suspected Middle East group Letter bomb is found at the United Nations bureau of the Arabic-language newspaper Al-Hayat.

      January 16 : Sandy Springs, GA/Eric Robert Rudolph Two bombs shatter an abortion clinic at the Sandy Springs Professional Building; the second, more powerful bomb is programmed to detonate when police and other emergency personnel respond.

      February 14 : Apure, Venezuela/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Six armed members kidnap a U.S. oil engineer and his Venezuelan pilot.

      February 15 : Wilmington, OH/Patriot adherents Chevie and Cheyne Kehoe engage in a shootout with Ohio police following a traffic stop; Chevie was wanted on federal firearm charges in connection with the June 1996 murder of an Arkansas gun dealer, as well as the dealer's wife and 8-year-old daughter.

      February 22 : Atlanta, GA/Eric Robert Rudolph Bomb explodes at the gay/lesbian Otherside Lounge nightclub, injuring five people.

      February 23 : New York, NY/Anti-Zionist perpetrator Ali Hassan Abu Kamal, a 69-year-old Palestinian and English teacher from the Gaza Strip, fires a gun into a crowd on the Empire State Building's 86th-floor observation deck, killing one and injuring six others.

      February 24 : Colombia/National Liberation Army (ELN) U.S. citizen and employee of a Las Vegas gold-mining corporation is kidnapped and ransom is demanded.

      February 25 : Jacksonville, FL/Radical Jewish element Harry Shapiro is charged with planting a bomb at a Conservative Jewish synagogue on February 13, only hours before Shimon Peres, the former prime minister of Israel, spoke to 1,500 people there.

      March 7 : Payan, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Members kidnap geologist Frank Skee, a U.S. mining employee, and his Colombian colleague Hermes Torres and release them after ransom is paid.

      July 23 : Fort Hood, TX/Elements of the Southern Kansas Regional Militia Seven men and a woman are arrested in connection with a plot to use antipersonnel bombs and other weapons at the Fort Hood Army base.

      July 30 : Jerusalem, Israel/Hamas Two bomb explosions at the Mahane Yehuda Market kill 15 people, including a U.S. citizen, and wound 168.

      July 31 : Brooklyn, NY/Hamas (suspected) Ghazi Ibrahim Abu Maizer and Lafi Khalil are arrested for allegedly planning a suicide bombing attack of the New York subway system.

      September 4 : Jerusalem, Israel/Hamas Suicide bombers blow themselves up in the Ben Yehuda shopping mall, killing eight individuals, including a U.S.-Israeli citizen, and wounding nearly 200 others, of which seven were U.S. citizens.

      October 30 : Sanaa, Yemen/Al-Sha'if tribesmen A U.S. businessman is kidnapped and released almost one month later.

      November 12 : Karachi, Pakistan/Islamic Revolutionary Council and Aimal Secret Committee claim responsibility Four U.S. oil company employees and their Pakistani driver are shot to death by two unidentified gunmen.

      November 25, 26 : Yemen/Yemeni tribesmen Five hostages are kidnapped, including a U.S. citizen, to protest the eviction of a tribe member from his home. All the hostages are released the next day.


      January 29 : Birmingham, AL/Eric Robert Rudolph Head nurse of the New Women All Women Clinic, Emily Lyons, is severely injured and off-duty police officer Robert D. Sanderson is killed in what is believed to be the first fatal abortion clinic bombing in U.S. history.

      March 21 : Sabaneta, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Members kidnap a U.S. citizen and release the hostage six months later.

      March 23 : Bogota, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Terrorists kill three, wound 14, and kidnap 27, including four U.S. citizens. One of the U.S. hostages escaped on April 2. The remaining hostages were released.

      March 25 : Cupiagua, Colombia A terrorist bomb is detonated at a British oil field, injuring one U.S. citizen and two British workers.

      April 15 : Mogadishu, Somalia/Somali militiamen Nine Red Cross and Red Crescent workers, including one U.S. citizen, are abducted.

      April 19 : Maon, Israel/Al Fatah A gunman kills U.S.-Israeli citizen Dov Driben.

      June 21 : Beirut, Lebanon/Unknown perpetrator Three rocket-propelled grenades explode near the U.S. embassy compound, resulting in little damage and no reported injuries.

      August 7 : Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania/Al Qaeda Nearly simultaneous bombings occurred at the U.S. embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. In Nairobi, 291 people were killed, including 12 U.S. citizens, and more than 5,000 wounded, including 6 U.S. citizens. Eleven people were killed and 77 injured in the bombing at Dar es Salaam.

      October 5 : Sucumbios Province, Ecuador/Extortionist criminals with no political motive Three employees of the Santa Fe Oil Company, two U.S. citizens and one Ecuadorian, were kidnapped. One of the U.S. captives escaped the next day.

      October 23 : Amherst, NY/James Charles Kopp Kopp shoots and kills Dr. Barnett Slepian, an abortion provider.

      November 15 : Cundinamarca, Colombia/Leftist Revolutionary Armed Commandos for Peace in Colombia U.S. businessman's 11-year-old son is kidnapped; he is released early the next year.

      November 21 : Tehran, Iran/Fedayeen Islam Shouting anti-U.S. slogans and wielding sticks and carrying stones, members attack a group of U.S. citizens, inflicting minor injuries.

      December 28 : Mawdiyah, Yemen/Members of the Islamic Army of Aden-Abyan 2 U.S., 12 British, and 2 Australian citizens are kidnapped. One British citizen manages to escape before being taken to Mawdiyah. Four hostages are later killed, and two are wounded, including a U.S. citizen.


      January 2 : Huambo, Angola/National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (suspected) A U.N. plane carrying one U.S. citizen and others is shot down; 4 U.N. personnel and 4 crew members perished.

      February 14 : Kampala, Uganda/Allied Democratic Forces (suspected) Pipe bomb explodes inside a bar, killing five persons and wounding 35 others, including one U.S. citizen.

      February 25 : Colombia-Venezuela border/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Three U.S. citizens kidnapped and later killed.

      May 30 : Cali, Colombia/National Liberation Army (ELN) Members attack a church and kidnap 160 members of the congregation, including six U.S. citizens.

      June 27 : Port Harcourt, Nigeria/Enough Is Enough in the Niger River U.S. citizen kidnapped.

      June 27 : Bogota, Colombia/National Liberation Army (ELN) ELN members kidnap a 5-year-old U.S. citizen and his Colombian mother.

      August 4 : Occra, Sierra Leone/Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) faction 33 U.N. representatives are kidnapped, including one U.S. citizen.

      October 1 : Bangkok, Thailand/Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors Dissidents seize the Burmese embassy, taking 89 people hostage, including one U.S. citizen.

      November 4 : Athens, Greece/Revolutionary Organization 17 November (suspected) Gas bomb detonates at a car dealership in protest of President Bill Clinton's visit to Greece.

      November 12 : Islamabad, Pakistan/Unknown perpetrator Six rockets are fired at the U.S. Information Services Cultural Center and United Nations offices, injuring six individuals; Osama bin Laden is suspected of having organized the attack.

      December 14 : Port Angeles, WA/Ahmed Ressam Al Qaeda operative Ressam is apprehended crossing into the United States from Canada with bomb-making materials in the trunk of his rented sedan. Authorities later uncover Ressam's involvement in a plot to bomb Los Angeles International Airport around New Year's 2000 (the Y2K plot).

      December 23 : Santander Mountain region, Colombia/Colombian People's Liberation Army (PLA) A U.S. citizen is kidnapped and later released unharmed after the kidnappers determined that their captive had no ties to the U.S. government.


      January 26 : Ma'rib, Yemen/Unknown perpetrator U.S. citizen and Halliburton oil company executive Kenneth White is kidnapped and released less than two weeks later.

      August 11 : Antioquia, Colombia/National Liberation Army (ELN) ELN members kidnap 27 members of a regional ecological group, including a U.S. citizen. All the hostages are released the following day.

      August 12 : Kara-Su Valley, Kyrgyzstan/Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Four U.S. citizens and one Kyrgyzstan soldier are taken hostage. The soldier is later murdered and the U.S. hostages released.

      October 8 : Nablus, West Bank/Unknown perpetrator U.S. citizen Hillel Lieberman's body is found riddled with bullets in the Jewish settlement of Elon Moreh.

      October 12 : Aden Habor, Yemen/Al Qaeda A boat laden with explosives rams the U.S.S. Cole killing 17 sailors and wounding more than 30.

      October 12 : Sucumbios, Ecuador/Former members of defunct Popular Liberation Army (EPL) Kidnappers hijack helicopter, taking 10 employees of Spanish energy consortium REPSOL hostage, including five U.S. citizens. On January 3, 2001, American hostage Ronald Sander is murdered. All other hostages are released when $13 million in ransom is paid by the oil companies.

      October 30 : Jerusalem, Israel/Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade Gunmen murder U.S.-Israeli citizen Eish Kodesh Gilmor, a 25-year-old security guard at his post at the National Insurance Institute.

      December 30 : Manila, Philippines/Moro Islamic Liberation Front (suspected) Bomb explodes in a plaza across the street from the U.S. embassy in Manila, injuring nine people.


      January 3 : Sanaa, Yemen/Yemeni national In Sanaa, Yemen, the U.S. Ambassador to Yemen and the Yemeni Ambassador to Washington were aboard a Yemeni airliner that was hijacked by a Yemeni national during an internal flight, according to press reports. The plane, which had 91 passengers on board, landed safely at Djibouti Airport. No passengers or crew members were injured.

      January 29 : Lombok, Indonesia/Unknown perpetrator In Lombok, a bomb exploded, causing no injuries but damaging the subsidiary office of the U.S. firm Newmont Mining Corporation, according to press reports. No one claimed responsibility.

      February 2 : Cesar, Colombia/Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) (suspected) Explosion causes major damage to railroad tracks used to transport coal by the U.S. multinational firm Drummond. According to Drummond officials, the company was being extorted and blackmailed by FARC rebels.

      March 28 : Kfar Sara, Israel/Hamas A suicide bomber at a bus stop kills two individuals and wounds four others, including a U.S. citizen.

      May 2 : Dhahran, Saudi Arabia/Unknown perpetrator Letter bomb delivered to a U.S. physician at the Saad Medical Center explodes, severely injuring the doctor.

      May 9 : Tekoa, West Bank/Islamic Jihad and a Palestinian splinter group of Hezbollah Stoning deaths of 14-year-old U.S.-Israeli citizens Kobi Mandell and Yossi Ish-Ran in a cave near the Jewish settlement.

      May 26 : Palawan, Philippines/Abu Sayyaf Group Twenty people, including three U.S. citizens, are kidnapped from a beach resort and taken to Basilan Island. In June, the group beheaded one of the U.S. hostages. At year's end, two of the 20 original hostages (both U.S. citizens) and one Filipino taken later from a Lamitan hospital remained captive.

      May 29 : Gush Etzion, West Bank/Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade Drive-by shooting kills two U.S.-Israeli citizens, Samuel Berg and his mother, Sarah Blaustein, and wounds 40 others.

      June 14 : Abereke, Nigeria/Nigerian militants In Abereke, militant youths kidnap two Nigerian employees of U.S. oil company who were inspecting an oil spillage, according to press reports. No one claimed responsibility.

      June 16 : Tovildara region, Tajikistan/Islamic guerrillas 15 members of a German humanitarian group, including one U.S. citizen, are taken hostage; they are later released unharmed.

      August 9 : Jerusalem, Israel/Hamas suicide bomber Bombing at Sbarro's Pizzeria kills 15 people, including 31-year-old U.S. citizen Judith Shoshana Greenbaum.

      August 17 : Minneapolis, MN/Zacarias Moussaoui Zacarias Moussaoui, who aroused suspicions at a Minnesota flight school, is detained on immigration charges. The 33-year-old Frenchman of Moroccan descent is later believed to be the 20th hijacker involved with the September 11, 2001, terror attacks.

      September 11 : New York City, Washington, DC, rural Pennsylvania/Al Qaeda Nineteen suicide bombers hijack four passenger airliners and crash them into New York City's World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a field in rural Pennsylvania. Approximately 3,000 are killed.

      September 27 : Santiago, Chile/Unknown perpetrators In Santiago, bomb squad experts safely detonated a letter bomb delivered to the U.S. embassy, according to U.S. Department of State reporting. No one claimed responsibility.

      October 6 : Basilan, Philippines/Abu Sayyaf Group The remains of American hostage Guillermo Sobero are found.

      October 6 : Al Khubar, Saudi Arabia/Unknown suicide bomber Suicide bomber explodes a device in a busy shopping area, killing U.S. citizen Michael Jerrald Martin, Jr., and injuring five others.

      November 4 : French Hill, Israel/Palestinian Islamic Jihad operative U.S. citizen Shoshana Ben Yashai is killed in a shooting incident on a bus; 35 others injured.

      December 22 : Paris to Miami/Richard C. Reid Al Qaeda operative Reid tries to light explosives hidden in his sneakers while aboard American Airlines Flight 63 from Paris to Miami. Flight attendants and passengers subdue him using belts and plastic cords.


      January 15 : Bethlehem, West Bank/Unknown perpetrators U.S.-Israeli citizen Avraham Boas is kidnapped at a checkpoint in Beit Jala and later murdered.

      January 23 : Karachi, Pakistan/Islamic militantsWall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl is kidnapped and later executed by his abductors. Four suspects, including Ahmed Omar Sheikh, are later convicted of murder and kidnapping in a Karachi court.

      January 27 : Jerusalem, Israel/Palestinian suicide bomber Palestinian woman blows herself up, killing one and injuring more than 150 others, including U.S. citizen Mark Sokolow, his wife, and his 16- and 12-year-old daughters.

      March 7 : Ariel, Israel/Palestinian suicide bomber Suicide bombing at the Eshel Hashomron Hotel; a U.S. citizen loses her right eye.

      March 15 : Sanaa, Yemen/Samir Yahya Awadh A grenade is thrown onto the grounds of the U.S. embassy.

      March 20 : Lima, Peru/Leftist rebels (suspected) Car bombing outside the U.S. embassy kills nine people.

      May 8 : Chicago, IL/Jose Padilla Padilla, also known as Abdullah al-Mujahir, is arrested at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport returning from Pakistan; he is suspected of participating in a plot to use a radiological bomb somewhere inside the United States.

      June 7 : Zamboanga, Philippines/Abu Sayyaf Group Hostages Martin Burnham, an American missionary, and Deborah Yap, a Filipina nurse, are killed during a rescue attempt by a Philippine commando team.

      June 20 14 : Karachi, Pakistan/Al-Almi, an offshoot of the radical Harkat-ul-Mujahideen organization An explosives-laden car plowed into a guard post near the U.S. consulate building, killing 12 Pakistanis and injuring 26, including a U.S. Marine.

      July 4 : Los Angeles, CA/Hesham Mohamed Hadayet Shooting at the El Al Israeli Airlines ticket counter at Los Angeles International Airport by an Egyptian gunman. The attack left two dead, a 46-year-old jewelry shop owner, Yaakov Aminov, and Victoria Yen, a 25-year-old ticket agent; Hadayet was shot dead by an El Al guard.

      July 30 : Jerusalem, Israel/Hamas A bomb blast in the cafeteria of Hebrew University kills seven, including five U.S. citizens, and wounds 70, including two U.S. citizens.

      August 29 : Detroit, MI/Terrorist cell Farouk Ali-Haimoud, Ahmed Hannan, Karim Koubriti, and a fourth man, identified only as Abdella, allegedly linked to an Algerian terrorist group, the Salafi Group for Call and Combat, were charged with being part of a terrorist cell planning attacks in the United States, Jordan, and Turkey.

      August 29 : Seattle, WA/James Ujaama James Ujaama, a 36-year-old U.S. citizen whose birth name is James Earnest Thompson, is charged with conspiring to aid Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda network since 1999. The indictment states that part of the conspiracy was to establish a terrorist training camp in Oregon.

      September 11 : Karachi, Pakistan/Ramzi Binalshibh Ramzi Binalshibh, a key Al Qaeda figure accused of helping to plot the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States and considered by many to be the intended 20th hijacker, is arrested.

      September 14 : Buffalo, NY/Al Qaeda-trained terrorist cell Faysal Galub, Sahim Alwan, Yaya Goba, Shafal Moused, and Yasein Taher, all native-born citizens of the United States, are charged with providing material support to Al Qaeda.

      September 16 : Buffalo, NY/Al Qaeda-trained terrorist cell Mukhtar al-Bakri, the sixth member of the terrorist cell arrested on September 14, 2002, in Buffalo, is charged with providing material support to Al Qaeda.

      October 2 : Zamboanga, Philippines/Abu Sayyaf Authorities blame the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group for a bombing attack that kills a member of the U.S. Green Berets and two Filipinos outside a restaurant frequented by troops of both countries.

      October 4 : Portland, Oregon/Al Qaeda sympathizers Six U.S. citizens are arrested in Portland, Oregon, and charged with conspiring to aid the Taliban and Al Qaeda.

      October 12 : Kuta, Indonesia/Jemaah Islamiah Terrorist explosion, thought to be the work of the Islamic radical group Jemaah Islamiah, and ensuing fires destroy two nightclubs and kill hundreds on the Indonesian island of Bali. At least seven U.S. citizens are thought to be among the dead, and at least three others are wounded.


      Adams, James. The Financing of Terror. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
      Alali, A. Odasuo, and Kenoye KelvinEke, eds. Media Coverage of Terrorism: Methods of Diffusion. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991.
      Alexander, Yonah, and RichardLatter, eds. Terrorism & the Media: Dilemmas for Government, Journalists & the Public. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1990.
      Alexander, Yonah, and Michael S.Swetnam, eds. Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare: Threats and Responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2001.
      Anderson, Sean, and StephenSloan. Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2002.
      Antokol, Norman, and MayerNudell. No One a Neutral: Political Hostage-Taking in the Modern World. Medina, OH: Alpha, 1990.
      Arquilla, J., and D.Ronfeldt, eds. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001.
      Atkins, Stephen E.Terrorism: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA1992.
      Bell, J. Bower. Transnational Terror. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1975.
      Burton, Anthony. Urban Terrorism: Theory, Practice, Response. London: Cooper, 1975.
      Carr, Caleb. The Lessons of Terrorism: A History of Warfare Against Civilians: Why It Has Always Failed and Why It Will Fail Again. New York: Random House, 2002.
      Chaliand, Gerald. Terrorism: From Popular Struggle to Media Spectacle. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Saqi, 1987.
      Clutterbuck, Richard. The Media and Political Violence. London: Macmillan, 1981.
      Clutterbuck, Richard. Terrorism in an Unstable World. New York: Routledge, 1994.
      Combs, Cindy C.Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.
      Cortright, David, and George A.Lopez, with Richard W.Conroy, JalehDashti-Gibson, and JuliaWagler. The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.
      Crelinsten, Ronald D., and DenisSzabo. Hostage-Taking. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1979.
      Crenshaw, Martha. Terrorism, Legitimacy, and Power. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983.
      Dajami-Shakeel, Hadia, and Ronald A.Messier, eds. The Jihad and Its Times. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, 1991.
      Freedman, Lawrence Zelic, and YonahAlexander, eds. Perspectives on Terrorism. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1983.
      Gay, Kathleen. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999.
      George, Alexander, ed. Western State Terrorism. New York: Routledge, 1991.
      Gurr, Ted Robert. Handbook of Political Conflict: Theory and Research. New York: Free Press, 1980.
      Hacker, Frederick J.Criminals, Crusaders, Crazies: Terror and Terrorism in Our Time. New York: Norton, 1976.
      Han, Henry H., ed. Terrorism & Political Violence: Limits & Possibilities of Legal Control. New York: Oceana, 1993.
      Hanle, Donald. Terrorism: The Newest Face of Warfare. Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1989.
      Harmon, Christopher C.Terrorism Today. London: Frank Cass, 2000.
      Herman, Edward S.The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End, 1982.
      Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
      Huntington, Samuel P.The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
      Jenkins, Brian. International Terrorism: The Other World War. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1985.
      Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Updated ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
      Kelsay, John, and James TurnerJohnson, eds. Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Tradition. New York: Greenwood, 1991.
      Köcher, Hans, ed. Terrorism and National Liberation: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Question of Terrorism. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1988.
      Kushner, Harvey W., ed. The Future of Terrorism: Violence in the New Millennium. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243702
      Kushner, Harvey W.Terrorism in America: A Structured Approach to Understanding the Terrorist Threat. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1998.
      Kushner, Harvey W., ed. Essential Readings on Political Terrorism: Analyses of Problems and Prospects for the 21st Century. New York: Gordian Knot, 2002.
      Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
      Laqueur, Walter. History of Terrorism. New York: Transaction Publishers, 2001.
      Lesser, Ian O., et al. Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999.
      Levitt, Geoffrey M.Democracies Against Terror: The Western Response to State-Sponsored Terrorism. New York: Praeger, 1988.
      Lewis, Bernard. The Political Language of Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
      Lipset, Seymour Martin, and EarlRaab. The Politics of Unreason: Right-Wing Extremism in America, 1790–1977. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
      Lutherer, Lorenz Otto, and Margaret SheffieldSimon. Targeted: The Anatomy of an Animal Rights Attack. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.
      MacWillson, Alastair C.Hostage-Taking Terrorism: Incident-Response Strategy. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.
      McKnight, Gerald. The Terrorist Mind: Why They Hijack, Kidnap, Bomb and Kill. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974.
      Merkl, Peter H., ed. Political Violence and Terror: Motifs and Motivations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
      Miller, Abraham H.Terrorism and Hostage Negotiations. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1980.
      Mohaddessin, Mohammad. Islamic Fundamentalism: The New Global Threat. Washington, DC: Seven Locks, 1993.
      Morgan, Robin. The Demon Lover: On the Sexuality of Terrorism. New York: Norton, 1989.
      Moss, Robert. Urban Guerrilla Warfare. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1971.
      Mullins, Wayman C.A Sourcebook on Domestic and International Terrorism: An Analysis of Issues, Organizations, Tactics, and Responses. 2nd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1997.
      Nash, Jay Robert. Terrorism in the 20th Century: A Narrative Encyclopedia From the Anarchists, Through the Weathermen, to the Unabomber. New York: M. Evans, 1998.
      Netanyahu, Benjamin. The Terrorism Reader. New York: Meridian, 1986.
      Netanyahu, Benjamin. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorism. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995.
      Ochberg, Frank M., and David A.Soskis, eds. Victims of Terrorism. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1982.
      Oliverio, Annamarie. The State of Terror: SUNY Series in Deviance and Social Control. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.
      O'Neill, Bard E.Insurgency and Terrorism: Inside Modern Revolutionary Warfare. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1990.
      Parry, Albert. Terrorism From Robespierre to Arafat. New York: Vanguard, 1976.
      Pennock, Roland J., and John W.Chapman. Anarchism. New York: New York University Press, 1978.
      Peters, Rudolph. Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1996.
      Picard, Robert G.Media Portrayal of Terrorism: Functions and Meaning of News Coverage. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1993.
      Pillar, Paul R., and Michael H.Armacost. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2001.
      Poland, James M., and Michael J.McCrystle. Practical, Tactical, and Legal Perspectives of Terrorism and Hostage-Taking. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellon, 1999.
      Purkis, Jon, and JamesBowen, eds. Twenty-First Century Anarchism: Unorthodox Ideas for a New Millennium. London: Cassell, 1997.
      Rapoport, David C., and YonahAlexander, eds. The Morality of Terrorism: Religious and Secular Justifications. New York: Pergamon, 1982.
      Rapoport, David C., and YonahAlexander, eds. The Rationalization of Terrorism. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1982.
      Rashid, Ahmed. Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
      Reich, Walter, ed. Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, and State of Mind. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, 1998.
      Rose, Gideon, and James F.Hoge. How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War. New York: PublicAffairs, 2001.
      Rosie, George. The Directory of International Terrorism. New York: Paragon House, 1987.
      Rubenstein, Richard E.Alchemists of Revolution: Terrorism in the Modern World. New York: Basic Books, 1987.
      Scarce, Rik. Eco-warriors: Understanding the Radical Environmental Movement. Chicago: Noble, 1990.
      Schamis, Gerardo Jorge. War and Terrorism in International Affairs. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1980.
      Schmid, Alex P.Political Terrorism: A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Data Bases and Literature. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1983.
      Schmid, Alex P., and Jannyde Graaf. Violence as Communication: Insurgent Terrorism and the Western News Media. London: Sage, 1982.
      Schmid, Alex P., and Albert J.Jongman. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories and Literature. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1988.
      Schweitzer, Glenn E., with Carole C.Dorsch. Super-terrorism: Assassins, Mobsters, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. New York: Plenum Trade, 1998.
      Segaller, Stephen. Invisible Armies: Terrorism in the 1990s. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987.
      Snyder, Rodney A.Negotiating With Terrorists: TWA Flight 847. Pew Case Studies in International Affairs Case 333. Pittsburgh, PA: Pew Charitable Trusts, 1994.
      Sofaer, Abraham D., and Seymour E.Goodman. The Transnational Dimension of Cyber Crime and Terrorism. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 2001.
      Sonn, Richard D.Anarchism. New York: Twayne, 1992.
      Stern, Jessica. The Ultimate Terrorists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
      Surrat, Robin, ed. The Middle East. 9th ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 2000.
      Tanter, Raymond. Rogue Regimes: Terrorism & Proliferation. New York: St. Martin's, 1998.
      U.S. Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism. Washington, DC[Annual].
      Wardlaw, Grant. Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics, and Counter-Measures. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511598821
      Weber, Eugen. Apocalypses: Prophesies, Cults, and Millennial Beliefs Through the Ages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
      Weiss, Thomas George, David P.Forsythe, and Roger A.Coate. The United Nations and Changing World Politics. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001.
      White, Jonathan R.Terrorism: An Introduction. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001.
      Whittaker, David J., ed. The Terrorism Reader. London and New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Zinn, Howard. Terrorism and War. New York: Seven Stories, 2002.
      Ziring, Lawrence, Robert E.Riggs, and Jack C.Plano. The United Nations: International Organization and World Politics. 3rd ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College, 2000.
      Dorn, Nicholas, KarimMurji, and NigelSouth. Traffickers: Drug Markets and Law Enforcement. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.
      Gregg, Judd, ed. Counterterrorism and Infrastructure Protection: Hearing Before the Committee on Appropriations. Collingdale, PA: Diane Publishing, 1999.
      Harclerode, Peter. Secret Soldiers: Special Forces in the War Against Terrorism. London: Cassell, 2000.
      Harris, Daniel C.Combating Terrorism: FBI's Use of Federal Funds for Counterterrorism and Related Activities, 1995–98. Collingdale, PA: Diane Publishing, 1998.
      Hewitt, Christopher. The Effectiveness of Anti-Terrorist Policies. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984.
      International Policy Institute for Counter Terrorism. Countering Suicide Terrorism. 2nd ed. New York: Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 2002.
      Jamieson, Alison, ed. Terrorism and Drug Trafficking in the 1990s. Aldershot, UK, and Brookfield, VT: Darmouth, 1994.
      Livingston, Neil C., and Terrell E.Arnold, eds. Fighting Back: Winning the War Against Terrorism. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986.
      McCoy, Alfred W., Cathleen B.Read, and Leonard PalmerAdams. The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. Rev. and exp. ed. New York: Lawrence Hill, 1991.
      Motley, James B.U.S. Strategy to Counter Domestic Political Terrorism. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1983.
      Rogan, Randall G., Mitchell R.Hammer, and Clinton R.Van Zandt, eds. Dynamic Processes of Crisis Negotiation: Theory, Research, and Practice. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.
      Rubin, Barry, ed. The Politics of Counterterrorism: The Ordeal of Democratic States. Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University Foreign Policy Institute, 1990.
      Schwartau, Winn. CyberShock: Surviving Hackers, Phreakers, Identity Thieves, Internet Terrorists, and Weapons of Mass Disruption. New York: Thunder's Mouth, 2000.
      Seger, Karl A.The Antiterrorism Handbook: A Practical Guide to Counteraction Planning and Operations for Individuals, Businesses, and Government. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990.
      Shulsky, Abram N.Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence. 2nd ed., rev./revised by Gary J. Schmitt. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1993.
      Siljander, Raymond P.Terrorist Attacks: A Protective Service Guide for Executives, Bodyguards and Policemen. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1980.
      Sloan, Stephen. Simulating Terrorism. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.
      St.John, Peter. Air Piracy, Airport Security, and International Terrorism: Winning the War Against Hijackers. New York: Quorum, 1991.
      Tophoven, Rolf. GSG 9: German Response to Terrorism. Koblenz, Germany: Bernard and Graefe, 1984.
      Whitcomb, Christopher. COLD ZERO: Inside the FBI Hostage Rescue Team. New York: Little, Brown, 2001.
      Wilkinson, Paul. British Perspectives on Terrorism. London: Allen and Unwin, 1981.
      Wolf, John B.Fear of Fear: A Survey of Terrorist Operations and Controls in Open Societies. New York: Plenum, 1981.
      Yallop, H. J.Protection Against Terrorism. Chichester, UK: Barry Rose, 1980.
      Primary Documents, Biographies, and Autobiographies
      Aburisk, Said K.Arafat: From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury, 1999.
      Alegría, Claribel, and DarwinFlakoll. Tunnel to Canto Grande. Translated by Darwin Flakoll. Willimantic, CT: Curbstone, 1996.
      Anderson, Jon Lee. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. New York: Grove, 1997.
      Anderson, Terry A.Den of Lions: Memoirs of Seven Years. New York: Crown, 1993.
      Baer, Robert. See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. New York: Crown, 2002.
      Bar-Zohar, Michael, and EitanHaber. The Quest for the Red Prince. New York: William Morrow, 1983.
      Becker, Jillian. Hitler's Children: The Story of the Baader-Meinhof Terrorist Gang. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1977.
      Blundy, David, and AndrewLycett. Qaddafi and the Libyan Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.
      Bodansky, Yossef. Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America. Rocklin, CA: Forum, 1999.
      Carlson, Kurt. One American Must Die: A Hostage's Personal Account of the Hijacking of Flight 847. New York: Congdon and Weed, 1986.
      Castellucci, John. Big Dance: The Untold Story of Weather-Man Kathy Boudin and the Terrorist Family That Committed the Brinks Robbery Murders. New York: Dodd Mead, 1986.
      Collins, Aukai. My Jihad: The True Story of an American Mujahid's Amazing Journey From Usama bin Laden's Training Camps to Counterterrorism With the FBI and CIA. New York: Lyons, 2002.
      Daoud, Abu. Palestine: From Jerusalem to Munich. Paris, France: Editions Anne Carriere1999.
      Emerson, Steven, and ChristinaDel Sesto. Terrorist: The Inside Story of the Highest Ranking Iraqi Terrorist Ever to Defect to the West. New York: Villard, 1991.
      Follain, John. Jackal: The Complete Story of the Legendary Terrorist, Carlos the Jackal. New York: Arcade, 1998.
      Foner, Philip S., ed. The Black Panthers Speak. New York: Da Capo, 1995.
      Gowers, Andrew, and TonyWalker. Behind the Myth: Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian Revolution. New York: Olive Branch, 1991.
      Guevara, Ernesto Ché. Guerrilla Warfare. Translated by J. P. Morray. New York: Monthly Review, 1961.
      Hart, Alan. Arafat: A Political Biography. Rev. ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
      Hearst, Patricia Campbell. Patty Hearst: Her Own Story. New York: Avon, 1988.
      Hoffman, David. The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror. Venice, CA: Feral House, 1998.
      Kaczynski, Theodore. The Unibomber Manifesto. Berkeley, CA: Jolly Roger, 1995.
      Katz, Robert. Days of Wrath: The Ordeal of Aldo Moro—The Kidnapping, the Execution, the Aftermath. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980.
      Katz, Samuel M.Israel Versus Jibril: The Thirty-Year War Against a Master Terrorist. New York: Paragon, 1993.
      Khaled, Leila. My People Shall Live: The Autobiography of a Revolutionary. Edited by George Hajjar.London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1973.
      Marighella, Carlos. Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla. Chapel Hill, NC: Documentary Publications, 1985.
      Martinez, Thomas, and JohnGuinther. Brotherhood of Murder. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.
      Melman, Yossi. The Master Terrorist: The True Story Behind Abu Nidal. New York: Adama, 1986.
      Mishel, Shaul. The PLO Under Arafat: Between Gun and Olive Branch. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.
      Newkirk, Ingrid. Free the Animals! The Untold Story of the U.S. Animal Liberation Front & Its Founder, “Valerie.” Chicago: Noble, 1992.
      Newton, Huey P.To Die for the People: The Writings of Huey P. Newton. Edited by Toni Morrison.New York: Writers and Readers, 1999.
      Proll, Astrid. Baader Meinhof: Pictures on the Run 67–77. Berlin and New York: Scalo, 1998.
      Robinson, Adam. Bin Laden: Behind the Mask of Terrorism. New York: Arcade, 2002.
      Seale, Patrick. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire. New York: Random House, 1992.
      Tarrants, Tomas A.The Conversion of a Klansman: The Story of a Former Ku Klux Klan Terrorist. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1979.
      Timmerman, Kenneth R.In Their Own Words: Interviews With Leaders of Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Muslim Brotherhood: Damascus, Amman, and Gaza. Los Angeles: Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1994.
      Verbitsky, Horacio. The Flight: Confessions of an Argentine Dirty Warrior. Translated by Esther Allen. New York: New Press, 1996.
      Wakhlu, Khem Lata. Kidnapped: 45 Days With Militants in Kashmir. Delhi: Konark, 1993.
      Wallach, Janet, and JohnWallach. Arafat: In the Eyes of the Beholder. New York: Birch Lane, 1997.
      Weir, Ben, and CarolWeir. Hostage Bound, Hostage Free. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987.
      Wells, Tim. 444 Days: The Hostages Remember. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986.
      Allen, Peter. Interesting Times: Life in Uganda Under Idi Amin. Philadelphia: Trans-Atlantic, 2000.
      Baer, Robert. See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. New York: Crown, 2001.
      Beckwith, Charlie A.Delta Force: The Army's Elite Counterterrorism Unit. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.
      Bolz, Frank, Kenneth J.Dudonis, and David P.Schulz. The Counterterrorism Handbook: Tactics, Procedures, and Techniques. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002.
      Chapman, Robert D., and M. LesterChapman. The Crimson Web of Terror. Boulder, CO: Paladin, 1980.
      Clancy, Tom, et al. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.
      Clutterbuck, Richard. Guerrillas and Terrorists. Chicago: Ohio University Press, 1980.
      Clutterbuck, Richard. The Future of Political Violence: Destabilization, Disorder and Terrorism. Houndmills, UK: Macmillan, 1986.
      Cole, Richard B.Executive Security: A Corporate Guide to Effective Response to Abduction and Terrorism. New York: Wiley, 1980.
      Conteh-Morgan, Earl. Sierra Leone at the End of the Twentieth Century: History, Politics, and Society. New York: P. Lang, 1999.
      Crenshaw, Martha, ed. Terrorism in Africa. New York: G. K. Hall; Toronto, Ontario: Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1994.
      Deng, Francis M.War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.
      Hodges, Tony. Angola: From Afro-Stalinism to Petro-Diamond Capitalism. Oxford, UK: Fridtjof Nansen Institute & International African Institute in association with James Currey; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.
      Johnson, Phyllis, and DavidMartin. Apartheid Terrorism: The Destabilization Report. London: Commonwealth Secretariat in association with J. Currey; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
      Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.
      Peterson, Scott. Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda—A Journalist Reports From the Battlefields of Africa. New York: Routledge, 2000.
      Petterson, Donald. Inside Sudan: Political Islam, Conflict, and Catastrophe. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1999.
      Ruedy, John. Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
      Vines, Alex. Renamo: From Terrorism to Democracy in Mozambique. Rev. and updated ed. York, UK: Centre for Southern African Studies, University of York, 1996.
      Wrong, Michela. In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.
      Alexander, Yonah, and AlanO'Day, eds. Terrorism in Ireland. London: Croom Helm, 1984.
      Alexander, Yonah, Michael S.Swetnam, and Herbert M.Levine. ETA: Profile of a Terrorist Group. Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2001.
      Aust, Stefan, The Baader-Meinhof Group. London: Bodley Head, 1985.
      Barker, Ralph. Not Here, But in Another Place. New York: St. Martin's, 1980.
      Becker, Jillian. Hitler's Children. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1977.
      Catanzaro, Raimondo. The Red Brigades and Left-Wing Terrorism in Italy. New York: St. Martin's, 1991.
      Chalk, Peter. West European Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: The Evolving Dynamic. New York: St. Martin's, 1996.http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230374195
      Collin, Richard Oliver, and Gordon L.Friedman. Winter of Fire. New York: Dutton, 1990.
      Columbus, Frank, ed. Kosovo-Serbia: A Just War?Commack, NY: Nova Science, 1999.
      Cusack, Jim, and HenryMcDonald. The UVF. Dublin: Poolbeg, 1997.
      Daalder, Ivo H., and Michael E.O'Hanlon. Winning Ugly: NATO's War to Save Kosovo. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2000.
      Dixon, Paul. Northern Ireland: The Politics of War and Peace. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
      Drake, Richard. The Aldo Moro Murder Case. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
      Goren, Roberta. The Soviet Union and Terrorism. Winchester, MA: Allen and Unwin, 1984.
      Greer, Steven. Supergrasses: A Study in Anti-Terrorist Law Enforcement in Northern Ireland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
      Gutteridge, William, ed. Contemporary Terrorism. New York: Facts on File, 1986.
      Heskin, Ken. Northern Ireland: A Psychological Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
      Holland, Jack. Hope Against History: The Course of Conflict in Northern Ireland. New York: Henry Holt, 1999.
      Holland, Jack, and HenryMcDonald. INLA: Deadly Divisions. Dublin: Torc, 1994.
      Horchem, Hans Josef. West Germany's Red Army Anarchists. London: Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1974.
      Kassimeris, George. Europe's Last Red Terrorists: The Revolutionary Organization 17 November. New York: New York University Press, 2001.
      Layne, Christopher. Blunder in the Balkans: The Clinton Administration's Bungled War Against Serbia. Washington, DC: CATO Institute, 1999.
      Levy, Carl. Gramsci and the Anarchists. Oxford, UK, and New York: Berg, 1999.
      Lewis, Rand C.A Nazi Legacy: Right-Wing Extremism in Postwar Germany. New York: Praeger, 1991.
      Lodge, Juliet, ed. Terrorism: A Challenge to the State. Oxford, UK: Martin Robertson, 1981.
      McKay, Susan. Northern Protestants: An Unsettled People. Belfast: Blackstaff, 2000.
      McKittrick, David. Making Sense of the Troubles. Belfast: Blackstaff, 2000.
      Mommsen, Wolfgang J., and GerhardHirschfeld, eds. Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century Europe. London: Berg, 1982.
      Moxon-Browne, Edward, ed. European Terrorism. New York: G. K. Hall; Toronto, Ontario: Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1994.
      O'Brien, Brendan. The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Fein. 2nd ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999.
      Reeve, Simon. One Day in September: The Full Story of the 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and the Israeli Revenge Operation, Wrath of God. New York: Arcade, 2000.
      Sterling, Claire. The Terror Network: The Secret War of International Terrorism. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981.
      Taylor, Peter. Loyalists: War and Peace in Northern Ireland. New York: TV Books, 1999.
      Vercher, Antonio. Terrorism in Europe: An International Comparative Legal Analysis. Oxford, UK: Clarendon; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
      Weinberg, Leonard, and WilliamLee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987.
      Woodworth, Paddy. Dirty Wars, Clean Hands: ETA, the GAL, and Spanish Democracy. Cork, Ireland: Cork University Press, 2001.
      Woolf, S. J.Fascism in Europe. London and New York: Methuen, 1981.
      Yallop, David. To the Ends of the Earth: The Hunt for the Jackal. London: Jonathan Cape, 1993.
      Latin America
      Ball, Patrick, PaulKobrack, and Herbert F.Spirer. State Violence in Guatemala, 1960–1996: A Quantitative Reflection. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1999.
      Bergquist, Charles, RicardoPeñaranda, and GonzaloSánchez, eds. Violence in Colombia, 1990–2000: Waging War and Negotiating Peace. Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 2001.
      Constable, Pamela, and ArturoValenzuela. A Nation of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet. New York: Norton, 1991.
      Corradi, Juan E., Patricia WeissFagen, and Manuel AntonioGarretón, eds. Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
      Dillon, Sam. Commandos: The CIA and Nicaragua's Contra Rebels. New York: Henry Holt, 1991.
      Fisher, Jo. Mother of Disappeared. Boston: South End, 1989.
      Fontaine, Roger W.Terrorism: The Cuban Connection. New York: C. Russak, 1988.
      Garvin, Glenn. Everybody Had His Own Gringo: The CIA & the Contras. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1992.
      Giraldo, Javier. Colombia: The Genocidal Democracy. Monroe, ME: Common Courage, 1996.
      Gorriti Ellenbogen, Gustavo. The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru. Translated by Robin Kirk. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
      Hodges, Donald C.Argentina's “Dirty War”: An Intellectual Biography. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991.
      Kirk, Robin. The Monkey's Paw: New Chronicles From Peru. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.
      Kline, Harvey F.Democracy Under Assault. New York: Westview, 1995.
      Kline, Harvey F.State Building and Conflict Resolution in Colombia, 1986–94. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999.
      Koonings, Kees, and DirkKruijt. Societies of Fear: The Legacy of Civil War, Violence and Terror in Latin America. London and New York: Zed, 1999.
      Lewis, Paul H.Guerrillas and Generals: The “Dirty War” in Argentina. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
      McClintock, Cynthia. Revolutionary Movements in Latin America: El Salvador's FMLN and Peru's Shining Path. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998.
      Menzel, Sewall H.Bullets Versus Ballots: Political Violence and Revolutionary War in El Salvador, 1979–1991. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1994.
      Pardo-Maurer, R.The Contras, 1980–1989: A Special Kind of Politics. New York: Praeger, 1990.
      Pearce, Jenny. Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth. New York: Monthly Review, 1990.
      Roniger, Luis, and MarioSznajder. The Legacy of Human-Rights Violations in the Southern Cone: Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198296157.001.0001
      Rosenberg, Tina. Children of Cain: Violence and the Violent in Latin America. New York: Penguin, 1992.
      Safford, Frank, and MarcoPalacios. Colombia: Fragmented Land, Divided Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
      Simpson, John, and JanaBennett. The Disappeared and the Mothers of the Plaza: The Story of the 11,000 Argentineans Who Vanished. New York: St. Martin's, 1985.
      Stanley, William Deane. The Protection Racket State: Elite Politics, Military Extortion, and Civil War in El Salvador. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.
      Stern, Steve J., ed. Shining and Other Paths: War and Society in Peru, 1980–1995. Durham, NC, and London: Duke University Press, 1998.
      Strong, Simon. Shining Path: Terror and Revolution in Peru. New York: Times Books, 1992.
      Waller, J. Michael. The Third Current of Revolution: Inside the “North American Front” of El Salvador's Guerrilla War. Lanham, VA: University Press of America; Washington, DC: Council for Inter-American Security Foundation, 1991.
      Middle East and Asia
      Aburish, Saïd K.Arafat: From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury, 1998.
      Adler, Jerry, and AllanGerson. The Price of Terror: One Bomb, One Plane, 270 Lives—The History-Making Struggle for Justice After Pan Am 103. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.
      Ahmad, Hisham H.Hamas: From Religious Salvation to Political Transformation—The Rise of Hamas in Palestinian Society. Jerusalem: PASSIA, Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, 1994.
      Alexander, Yonah, and Michael S.Swetnam. Usama bin Laden's al-Qaida: Profile of a Terrorist Network. Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2001.
      Arnold, Guy. The Maverick State: Gaddafi and the New World Order. London: Cassell, 1996.
      Becker, Elizabeth. When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution. New York: PublicAffairs, 1998.
      Bergen, Peter L.Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden. New York: Free Press, 2001.
      Chand, Attar. Pakistan Terrorism in Punjab and Kashmir. Delhi: Amar Prakashan, 1991.
      Chandler, David P.A History of Cambodia. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2000.
      Chapman, William. Inside the Philippine Revolution: The New People's Army and Its Struggle for Power. New York: Norton, 1987.
      Cooley, John K.Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism. Sterling, VA: Pluto, 1999.
      Davidson, Lawrence. Islamic Fundamentalism. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998.
      Deora, Man Singh, ed. Aftermath of Operation Bluestar. New Delhi: Anmol, 1992.
      Dobson, Christopher. Black September: Its Short, Violent History. New York: Macmillan, 1974.
      Drake, Laura. Hegemony and Its Discontents: United States Policy Toward Iraq, Iran, Hamas, the Hezbollah and Their Responses. Annandale, VA: United Association for Studies and Research, 1997.
      Ellis, Deborah. Women of the Afghan War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.
      Esposito, John L.The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
      Farrell, William. Blood and Rage: The Story of the Japanese Red Army. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1990.
      Ferguson, Ian, and JohnAshton. Cover Up of Convenience: The Hidden Scandal of Lockerbie. Edinburgh: Mainstream, 2001.
      Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War. London: Deutsch, 1990.
      Ganguly, Sumit. Conflict Unending: India-Pakistan Tensions Since 1947. New York: Columbia University Press; Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, 2001.
      Garrity, Patrick J.“Implications of the Persian Gulf War for Regional Powers.” Washington QuarterlyVol. 16No. 31993150.
      Goodson, Larry P.Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.
      Grossman, Patricia. Punjab in Crisis: Human Rights in India. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991.
      Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
      Gunter, Michael M.Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People: A Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism. New York: Greenwood, 1986.
      'Izz al-Din, Ahmad Jalal. Terrorism and Political Violence: An Egyptian Perspective. Translated by Sanaa Ragheb. Chicago: Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1987.
      Jabbur, Nabil. The Rumbling Volcano: Islamic Fundamentalism in Egypt. Pasadena, CA: Mandate, 1993.
      Jaber, Hala. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
      Johnson, James Turner, and JohnKelsay. Cross, Crescent, and Sword: The Justification and Limitation of War in Western and Islamic Tradition. New York: Greenwood, 1990.
      Kaplan, David E. and Andrew Marshall. The Cult at the End of the World: The Incredible Story of Aum. London: Hutchinson, 1996.
      Kaplan, Robert D.Soldiers of God: With the Mujahidin in Afghanistan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.
      Katz, Samuel M.The Hunt for the Engineer: The Fascinating True Story of How Israeli Agents Tracked and Killed the Hamas Master Bomber. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2002.
      Kessler, Richard J.Rebellion and Repression in the Philippines. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.
      Khalid, Harub. Hamas: Political Thought and Practice. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2000.
      Lee, Martin A.“Turkish Dirty War Revealed, but Papal Shooting Still Obscured.” Los Angeles TimesApril 12, 1998M2
      Lifton, Robert Jay. Destroying the World to Save It: Aum Shinrikyō, Apocalyptic Violence, and the New Global Terrorism. New York: Henry Holt, 1999.
      Maley, William, ed. Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Margolis, Eric S.War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Tibet. New York: Routledge, 2000.
      Marks, Thomas A.Maoist Insurgency Since Vietnam. London: Frank Cass, 1996.
      Marsden, Peter. The Taliban: War, Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan. London: Zed, 1998.
      McFadden, Robert D., et al. No Hiding Place: The New York Times Inside Report on the Hostage Crisis. New York: Times Books, 1981.
      Miller, Judith. God Has Ninety-Nine Names: Reporting From a Militant Middle East. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
      Mishal, Shaul. The PLO Under Arafat: Between Gun and Olive Branch. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.
      Mussalam, Sami. The PLO: The Palestine Liberation Organization, Its Function and Structure. Brattleboro, VT: Amana, 1988.
      Nasr, Kameel B.Arab and Israeli Terrorism: The Causes and Effects of Political Violence, 1936–1993. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997.
      Nusse, Andrea. Muslim Palestine: The Ideology of Hamas. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 1998.
      O'Ballance, Edgar. Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism, 1979–95: The Iranian Connection. New York: New York University Press, 1997.
      O'Connell, Joseph T., et al. Sikh History and Religion in the Twentieth Century. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto, 1988.
      Oren, Michael B.Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Oxford, UK, and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
      Pelletiere, Stephen C.Hamas and Hizbollah: The Radical Challenge to Israel in the Occupied Territories. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 1994.
      Pinto, Constâncio. East Timor's Unfinished Struggle: Inside the Timorese Resistance. Boston: South End, 1997.
      Pradhah, Bansidhar. From Confrontation to Hostile Intimacy: PLO and the US. New Delhi: Sehyog Prakashan, 1994.
      Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.
      Reader, Ian. Religious Violence in Contemporary Japan: The Case of Aum Shinrikyo. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series No. 82. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Curzon, 2000.
      Reeve, Simon. The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden, and the Future of Terrorism. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999.
      Reeve, Simon. One Day in September: The Full Story of the 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and the Israeli Revenge Operation, Wrath of God. New York: Arcade, 2000.
      Rotberg, Robert I.Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation. Cambridge, MA: World Peace Foundation and Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs; Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1999.
      Seale, Patrick. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire. London: Hutchinson, 1992.
      Sharma, Sanjay, and YatishMishra. Kashmir, Tourism to Terrorism. Columbia, MO: South Asia Books, 1996.
      Shaul, Mishal. The Palestinian Hamas: Vision, Violence, and Coexistence. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
      Sick, Gary. All Fall Down: America's Tragic Encounter With Iran. New York: Random House, 1985.
      Sicker, Martin. The Making of a Pariah State: The Adventurist Policies of Muamar Qaddafi. New York: Praeger, 1987.
      Solakov, Stefan. The Wolves of Terror. Translated by Mark Cole. Sofia, Bulgaria: Sofia Press, 1986.
      Steinhoff, Patricia G., and YoshinoriIto. Rengo Sekigun to Oumu Shinrikyo. Tokyo: Sairyusha, 1996.
      Taheri, Amir. Holy Terror: The Inside Story of Islamic Terrorism. London: Hutchinson, 1987.
      Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja. Buddhism Betrayed? Religion, Politics, and Violence in Sri Lanka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
      Tremless, George. Gaddafi: The Desert Mystic. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1993.
      Tucker, Shelby. Burma: The Curse of Independence. London and Sterling, VA: Pluto, 2001.
      Yallop, David. To the Ends of the Earth: The Hunt for the Jackal. London: Jonathan Cape, 1993.
      Ziser, Eyal. Asad's Legacy: Syria in Transition. New York: New York University Press, 2001.
      North America
      Baird-Windle, Patricia, and Eleanor J.Bader. Targets of Hatred: Anti-Abortion Terrorism. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
      Barkun, Michael. Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. Rev. ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
      Blanchard, Dallas A.The Anti-Abortion Movement and the Rise of the Religious Right: From Polite to Fiery Protest. New York: Twayne; Toronto, Ontario: Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1994.
      Brodie, Renee. “The Aryan New Era: Apocalyptic Realizations in the Turner Diaries.” Journal of American CultureVol. 21Fall 199813–22.
      Bushart, Howard L., John R.Craig, and MyraBarnes. Soldiers of God: White Supremacists and Their Holy War for America. New York: Kensington, 1998.
      Chambers, David M.Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan. New York: Franklin Watts, 1981.
      Christensen, Loren W.Skinhead Street Gangs. Boulder, CO: Paladin, 1994.
      Coates, James. Armed and Dangerous: The Rise of the Survivalist Right. New York: Hill & Wang, 1987.
      Dees, Morris, with JamesCorcoran. Gathering Storm: America's Militia Threat. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
      Dobratz, Betty A., and Stephanie L.Shanks-Meile. White Power, White Pride! The White Separatist Movement in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
      Dyer, Joel. Harvest of Rage: Why Oklahoma City Is Only the Beginning. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.
      Emerson, Steven. American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
      Ezekiel, Raphael S.The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen. New York: Penguin, 1996.
      Farrington, Jay P.Domestic Terrorism. Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2001.
      Fernandez, Ronald. Los Macheteros: The Wells Fargo Robbery and the Violent Struggle for Puerto Rican Independence. New York: Prentice Hall, 1987.
      Flynn, Kevin, and GaryGerhardt. The Silent Brotherhood: Inside America's Racist Underground. New York: Free Press, 1989.
      George, John, and LairdWilcox. American Extremists: Militias, Supremacists, Klansmen, Communists & Others. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 1996.
      Gorney, Cynthia. Articles of Faith: A Frontline History of the Abortion Wars. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
      Guither, Harold D.Animal Rights: History and Scope of a Radical Social Movement. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1998.
      Hamm, Mark. American Skinheads: The Criminology and Control of Hate Crimes. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
      Hurtt, Waller A.Posse Comitatus. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Ashley, 1979.
      Jacobs, Ron. The Way the Wind Blew: A History of the Weather Underground. New York: Verso, 1997.
      Jakes, Dale, ConnieJakes, and ClintRichmond. False Prophets: The Firsthand Account of a Husband-Wife Team Working for the FBI and Living in Deepest Cover With the Montana Freemen. New York: Newstar, 1998.
      Jones, Stephen. Others Unknown: The Oklahoma City Bombing Case and Conspiracy. New York: Public-Affairs, 1998.
      Levin, Jack, and JackMcDevitt. Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. New York: Plenum, 1993.
      Mello, Michael. The United States of America Versus Theodore John Kaczynski: Ethics, Power and the Invention of the Unabomber. New York: Context Books, 1999.
      Michel, Lou, and DanHerbeck. American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: Regan Books, 2001.
      Morf, Gustave. Terror in Quebec. Toronto, Ontario: Irwin, 1970.
      Mylroie, Laurie. Study of Revenge: Saddam Hussein's Unfinished War Against America. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2000.
      Neiwert, David A.In God's Country: The Patriot Movement and the Pacific Northwest. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1999.
      Perry, Barbara. In the Name of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Ridgeway, James. Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. 2nd ed. New York: Thunder's Mouth, 1995.
      Riley, Kevin Jack, and BruceHoffman. Domestic Terrorism: A National Assessment of State and Local Preparedness. Washington, DC: RAND, 1995.
      Scarce, Rik. Eco-warriors: Understanding the Radical Environmental Movement. Chicago: Noble, 1990.
      Serrano, Richard A.One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: Norton, 1998.
      Sikora, Frank. Until Justice Rolls Down: The Birmingham Church Bombing Case. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1991.
      Smith, Brent L.Terrorism in America: Pipe Bombs and Pipe Dreams. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.
      Stanton, Bill. Klanwatch: Bringing the Ku Klux Klan to Justice. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991.
      Stern, Kenneth. A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
      Tabor, James D., and Eugene V.Gallagher. Why Waco? Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
      Vohryzek-Bolden, Miki, GayleOlson-Raymer, and Jeffrey O.Whamond. Domestic Terrorism and Incident Management: Issues and Tactics. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 2001.
      Walter, Jess. Every Knee Shall Bow. New York: Regan Books, 1995.
      September 11 and its Aftermath
      AbuKhalil, As'ad. Bin Laden, Islam, and America's New “War on Terrorism.” New York: Seven Stories, 2002.
      Barreveld, Dirk J.Can America Win the War on Terrorism: A Look Into the Root Causes of World Terrorism. New York: Writer's Club, 2002.
      Bennett, William J.Why We Fight: Moral Clarity and the War on Terrorism. New York: Doubleday, 2002.
      Chomsky, Noam. 9/11. New York: Seven Stories, 2001.
      El-Nawawy, Mohammed et al. Al Jazeera: How the Free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002.
      Gingrich, Newt. How to Win: A Battle Plan for Victory in the War on Terror. New York: Regan Books, 2002.
      Hagee, John. America: New York, Jerusalem, and the Role of Terrorism in the Last Days. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2001.
      Heuvel, Katrina Vanden. A Just Response: The Nation on Terrorism, Democracy, and September 11. New York: Thunder's Mouth, 2002.
      Mahajan, Rahul. The New Crusade: America's War on Terrorism. New York: Monthly Review, 2002.
      Murphy, John F.Sword of Islam: Muslim Extremism from the Arab Conquests to the Attack on America. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2002.
      Parenti, Michael. The Terrorist Trap: September 11 and BeyondSan Francisco: City Lights Books, 2002.
      Satloff, Robert B.War on Terror: The Middle East Dimension. Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2002.
      Snow, Donald. September 11, 2001: The New Face of War?New York: Pearson Higher Education, 2001.
      Talbott, Strobe, and NayanChanda. The Age of Terror: America and the World After September 11. New York: Basic Books; Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, 2001.
      Talbott, Strobe, and NayanChandra, eds. The Age of Terror: America and the World After September 11. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
      21st Century Complete Guide to Bioterrorism, Biological and Chemical Weapons, Germs and Germ Warfare, Nuclear and Radiation Terrorism—Military Manuals and Federal Documents With Practical Emergency Plans, Protective Measures, Medical Treatment and Survival Information. Washington, DC: Progressive Management [CD-ROM], 2001.
      Adams, Jeffrey A., and StephenMarquette. First Responders' Guide to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): Practical Techniques and Procedures for Responding to a Terrorist Incident Involving WMD. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Industrial Security, 2001.
      Alexander, Yonah, and Milton M.Hoenig, eds. Super Terrorism: Biological, Chemical, and Nuclear. New York: Transnational Publishers, 2001.
      Alibek, Ken, with StephenHandelman. Biohazard: The Chilling Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the History of the World. New York: Random House, 1999.
      Bailey, A., and S. G.Murray. Explosives, Propellants, and Pyrotechnics. London and Washington: Brassey's, 1989.
      Black and Smokeless Powders: Technologies for Finding Bombs and the Bomb Makers. Committee on Smokeless and Black Powder, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.
      Brodie, Thomas Graham. Bombs and Bombings: A Handbook to Detection, Disposal and Investigation for Police and Fire Departments. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1972.
      Cilluffo, Frank J., Sharon L.Cardash, and Gordon NathanielLederman. Combating Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Terrorism: A Comprehensive Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2001.
      Croddy, Eric, ClarisaPerez-Armendariz, and JohnHart. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Comprehensive Survey for the Concerned Citizen. New York: Copernicus Books, 2001.
      Davis, Tenney L.The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives: Complete in One Volume. Las Vegas, NV: Angriff, 1994.
      Falkenrath, Richard A., RobertNewman, and Bradley A.Thayer. America's Achilles' Heel: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998.
      First, Bill. When Every Moment Counts: What You Need to Know About Bioterrorism From the Senate's Only Doctor. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
      Graves, Barbara. Chem-Bio: Frequently Asked Questions. Alexandria, VA: Tempest, 1998.
      Guillemin, Jeanne. Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
      Harris, Robert, and JeremyPaxman. A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York: Hill & Wang, 1982.
      Hoffman, Bruce. Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Analysis of Trends and Motivations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999.
      Miller, Judith, StephenEngelberg, and WilliamBroad. Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
      Osterholm, Michael T., and JohnSchwartz. Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bio-Terrorist Catastrophe. New York: Dell, 2001.
      Salvucci, Angelo, Jr., ed. Biological Terrorism: Responding to the Threat—A Personal Safety Manual. Carpinteria, CA: Public Safety Medical, 2001.
      Sidell, Frederick R., William C.PatrickIII, and Thomas R.Dashiell. Jane's Chem-Bio Handbook. Alexandria, VA: Jane's Information Group, 1998.
      Somani, Satu M., and James A. Romano, Jr.Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology at Low Levels. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001.
      Tucker, Jonathan B.Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
      Tucker, Jonathan B.Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2001.
      U.S. Army Survival Manual. Apple Pie Publishers, 1992. http://www.applepienow.com/
      Venzke, Ben N.First Responder Chem-Bio Handbook. Alexandria, VA: Tempest, 1998.
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