Sociology of Work: An Encyclopedia

Sociology of Work: An Encyclopedia

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Vicki Smith

Abstract

The simple act of going to work every day is an integral part of all societies across the globe. It is an ingrained social contract: we all work to survive. But it goes beyond physical survival. Psychologists have equated losing a job with the trauma of divorce or a family death, and enormous issues arise, from financial panic to sinking self-esteem. Through work, we build our self-identity, our lifestyle, and our aspirations. How did it come about that work dominates so many parts of our lives and our psyche? This multi-disciplinary encyclopedia covers curricular subjects that seek to address that question, ranging from business and management to anthropology, sociology, social history, psychology, politics, economics, and health.

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Digital and Computer Revolution: Reshaping Jobs and Workplaces
    • Employment Relationships
    • Everyday Life at Work
    • Globalization and Cross-National Perspectives on Work
    • Inequality, Stratification, and Power at Work
    • Labor Movement and Other Forms of Collective Action
    • Occupations and Professions, Labor Processes, Jobs, and Careers
    • Theories of Work and Economy Key Concepts
    • Unpaid Work
    • Work and Identity, Social Psychology of Work
    • Work, Family, and Personal Life
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      Reader's Guide

      About the Editor

      Vicki Smith is professor of sociology at the University of California, Davis. She received her B.A. in sociology from the University of California, Santa Cruz, and her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1987. Smith has spent her entire academic career researching and writing about work. For her first major research project, her dissertation, she analyzed the transformation of middle management at the Bank of America, at the time (mid-1980s) the most powerful bank in the world. Interested in middle managers' labor process, Smith looked at how managers' experiences varied by organizational context and how their perceptions were conditioned by moving from the stable employment and organizational conditions of the postwar era, to the turbulent and unpredictable conditions of the late 20th century. The book that resulted from this project—Managing in the Corporate Interest: Control and Resistance in an American Bank(1990)—stands as one of the few on-the-ground field studies of the corporate restructuring processes that have swept through the American economy over the last 30 years.

      Smith followed up by conducting research on how other groups of American workers were affected by corporate restructuring, including the spread of subcontracting and outsourcing, the increased use of temporary workers, and the erosion of the stable employment contract. Her case study analyses of workers in three diverse industrial/work settings, along with a group of unemployed professional workers, was published in Crossing the Great Divide: Worker Risk and Opportunity in the New Economy(2001), a book that has shaped the debate over how jobs and employment relations have changed with respect to implications for American workers. It was awarded the 2002 Distinguished Publication Award by the Labor Studies Division of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.

      With Esther Neuwirth, Smith co-authored The Good Temp(2008), a study of the historical marketing of the idea of good temporary workers, and of the ways in which temporary help agencies endeavor to produce reliable and high-quality temporary employees. She has published a host of articles on work and employment in Social Problems, Work and Occupations, and Human Relations, and in various edited volumes. She edited a special issue of Research in the Sociology of Work on worker participation, co-edited a special issue of Human Relations on workers, risk, and the new economy, and is co-editing a special issue of Academy of Management Review on theories of work and working. Before attending graduate school, Smith held many different types of jobs, including working full-time as a bagel roller and baker (and manager) for several years, and part-time as a waitress, short-order cook, dishwasher, housecleaner, hotel maid, deli worker, office assistant, retail sales person, childcare worker, home health care worker, library staff person, and assorted other positions.

      List of Contributors

      Karin Abel

      Utah State University

      Randall Adams

      LaGrange College

      Tracey L. Adams

      University of Western Ontario

      Sophia D. Addy

      Columbia University

      Sharla N. Alegria

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Lydia Aletraris

      University of Georgia

      Jake Alimahomed-Wilson

      California State University, Long Beach

      Renee Skeete Alston

      Georgia State University

      Michel Anteby

      Harvard Business School

      Lauren D. Appelbaum

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Amy Armenia

      Randolph-Macon College

      Dustin Avent-Holt

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Dianne Avery

      State University of New York, Buffalo

      Chardie Baird

      Kansas State University

      Chris Baldry

      University of Stirling

      Kirstie S. Ball

      Open University

      Kristen Barber

      Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

      Franco Barchiesi

      Ohio State University

      Medora W. Barnes

      John Carroll University

      Angel Barrasa

      University of Zaragoza

      Parul Baxi

      University of California, Davis

      Melissa Bayne

      University of California, Santa Cruz

      Barbara Bechter

      University of Vienna

      Richard A. Benton

      North Carolina State University

      Peter Berg

      Michigan State University

      Catherine White Berheide

      Skidmore College

      Yasemin Besen-Cassino

      Montclair State University

      Katerina Bezrukova

      Santa Clara University

      Denise D. Bielby

      University of California.

      Santa Barbara

      Magdalena Bielenia-Grajewska

      University of Gdansk, Poland and SISSA, Italy

      David Bills

      University of Iowa

      Sharon R. Bird

      Iowa State University

      Dina Biscotti

      University of California, Davis

      Mary Blair-Loy

      University of California, San Diego

      Fred Block

      University of California, Davis

      Linda M. Blum

      Northeastern University

      Heike Boeltzig-Brown

      University of Massachusetts, Boston

      Sharon Bolton

      University of Strathclyde

      Joseph Bongiovi

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Teresa M. Boyer

      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

      Karen Bradley

      Western Washington University

      Helen Brambrink

      Annie E. Casey Foundation

      Enobong Hannah Branch

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Bernd Brandl

      University of Vienna

      Sarah Brayne

      Princeton University

      Malcolm Brynin

      University of Essex

      John W. Budd

      University of Minnesota

      Michelle J. Budig

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Colin S. Campbell

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Peter Cappelli

      University of Pennsylvania

      Françoise Carré

      University of Massachusetts, Boston

      A. Scott Carson

      Queen's University

      Angel Castro

      University of Zaragoza

      Lisa Catanzarite

      San Diego State University

      Curtis K. Chan

      Harvard Business School

      Maria Charles

      University of California, Santa Barbara

      Ali R. Chaudhary

      University of California, Davis

      George Cheney

      Kent State University

      Noelle Chesley

      University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

      Jennifer Jihye Chun

      University of British Columbia

      Stewart R. Clegg

      University of Technology, Sydney

      Sharon M. Collins

      University of Illinois

      Catherine Connell

      Boston University

      James Connor

      University of New South Wales at the

      Australian Defence Force Academy

      Faye J. Crosby

      University of California, Santa Cruz

      Jamie Cross

      University of Edinburgh

      Martha Crowley

      North Carolina State University

      George B. Cunningham

      Texas A & M University

      Deborah Cutler-Ortiz

      Wider Opportunities for Women

      Denise Daniels

      Seattle Pacific University

      Robin Dearmon Muhammad

      Ohio University

      Cynthia H. Deitch

      George Washington University

      Ileen A. DeVault

      Cornell University

      Nancy DiTomaso

      Rutgers Business School, Newark

      and New Brunswick

      Lisa Dodson

      Boston College

      Virginia Doellgast

      London School of Economics and Political Science

      Sarah Donley

      Kansas State University

      Elaine Draper

      California State University, Los Angeles

      Gili Sima Drori

      Hebrew University of Jerusalem

      Mignon Duffy

      University of Massachusetts, Lowell

      Rachel E. Dwyer

      Ohio State University

      Michelle Edwards

      Washington State University

      Doris Ruth Eikhof

      Stirling Management School, University of Stirling

      Julia R. Eisenberg

      Rutgers Business School, Newark and New Brunswick

      Shane Elliot

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Aimee Dars Ellis

      Ithaca College

      Kimberly D. Elsbach

      University of California, Davis

      Kim England

      University of Washington

      Lorraine Evans

      Georgia Health Science University

      Melissa Evans-Andris

      University of Louisville

      David Fasenfest

      Wayne State University

      Janice Fine

      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

      William Finlay

      University of Georgia

      Richard Florida

      University of Toronto

      Eva Fodor

      Central European University

      Shanyuan Foo

      Washington State University

      Peter Frase

      City University of New York, The Graduate Center

      Lori Freedman

      University of California, San Francisco

      Alexandre Frenette

      City University of New York, The Graduate Center

      Lewis A. Friedland

      University of Wisconsin, Madison

      Andrew Fullerton

      Oklahoma State University

      Craig Furneaux

      Queensland University of Technology

      Constance T. Gager

      Montclair State University

      Mary Gatta

      Wider Opportunities for Women

      Molly George

      California Lutheran University

      Robert Giloth

      Center for Community and Economic Opportunity

      Patti Giuffre

      Texas State University, San Marcos

      Christy Glass

      Utah State University

      Rebecca Glauber

      University of New Hampshire

      Shannon Gleeson

      University of California, Santa Cruz

      Ruth Gomberg-Munoz

      Loyola University of Chicago

      George Gonos

      State University of New York, Potsdam

      Tonie Marie Gordon

      University of Virginia

      Janet Gornick

      City University of New York, The Graduate Center

      Heidi Gottfried

      Wayne State University

      Sasha Grant

      University of Texas at Arlington

      Edward Granter

      Manchester Business School

      Benjamin F. Gray

      University of California, Santa Cruz

      Terje Grønning

      University of Oslo

      Mauro F. Guillén

      University of Pennsylvania

      Stephen Halebsky

      State University of New York, Cortland

      Brian W. Halpm

      University of California, Davis

      Lindsay Hamm

      North Carolina State University

      Michael J. Handel

      Northeastern University

      Adia Harvey Wingfield

      Georgia State University

      Erin Hatton

      State University of New York, Buffalo

      Megan Henly

      University of New Hampshire

      Jody L. Herman

      University of California, Los Angeles School of Law

      Rosanna Hertz

      Wellesley College

      Wolf Heydebrand

      New York University

      Jeremy Hickman

      University of Kentucky

      Andrea L. Hill

      Northeastern University

      Paul M. Hirsch

      Northwestern University

      Karen Ho

      University of Minnesota

      Kimberly Kay Hoang

      Rice University

      Tracey Hoover

      Central Washington University

      Kenneth Hudson

      University of South Alabama

      Vilja Hulden

      Independent Scholar

      Jacqueline Soteropoulos Incollingo

      University of Maryland

      Leslie Irvine

      University of Colorado, Boulder

      Thomas E. Janoski

      University of Kentucky

      Keith R. Johnson

      Oakton Community College

      Tom Juravich

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Stephen Kalberg

      Boston University

      Alexandra Kalev

      Tel Aviv University

      Arne L. Kalleberg

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Ali Kazemi

      University of Skövde

      J. R. Keller

      University of Pennsylvania

      William E. Kiernan

      University of Massachusetts, Boston

      Elizabeth Kiester

      Utah State University

      Howard Kimeldorf

      University of Michigan

      Nicola B. Klaus

      University Bw Munich

      Julie A. Kmec

      Washington State University

      Arielle Kuperberg

      University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Bill Kt'epi

      Independent Scholar

      Gordon Lafer

      University of Oregon

      Daniel J. Lair

      University of Michigan, Flint

      Joshua Lambert

      North Carolina State University

      Jack Lam

      University of Minnesota

      Pei-Chia Lan

      National Taiwan University

      Kevin T. Leicht

      University of Iowa

      Kari Lerum

      University of Washington, Bothell

      Moran Levy

      Tel Aviv University

      David Lewin

      University of California, Los Angeles

      John Liptak

      Radford University

      Jessica Looze

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Marcos E. López

      Middlebury College

      Travis Scott Lowe

      University of Connecticut, Storrs

      David Luke

      University of Kentucky

      Katherine Maich

      University of California, Berkeley

      Keith A. Mann

      Cardinal Stritch University

      Anna Manzoni

      North Carolina State University

      Kristin Marsh

      University of Mary Washington

      Nathan Martin

      Arizona State University

      Patricia Yancey Martin

      Florida State University

      Todd E. (Forrest) Martin

      University of British Columbia

      Jamie K. McCallum

      Middlebury College

      Leo McCann

      University of Manchester

      David McCanna

      Carroll College

      Marta McClintock-Comeaux

      California University of Pennsylvania

      Rob McCusker

      Teesside University Business School

      Steve McDonald

      North Carolina State University

      Frances McKee Ryan

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Fiona A. E. McQuarrie

      University of the Fraser Valley

      Ashley Mears

      Boston University

      Lars Meier

      Technische Universität Berlin

      Cecilia Menjivar

      Arizona State University

      Joan S. M. Meyers

      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

      Matthew K. Minton

      Fairleigh Dickinson University

      Phyllis Moen

      University of Minnesota

      Christine Monnier

      College of DuPage

      Kathleen Montgomery

      University of California, Riverside

      Jeylan T. Mortimer

      University of Minnesota

      Ted Mouw

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Manjusha Nair

      National University of Singapore

      Bradley Nash, Jr.

      Appalachian State University

      Ruth Needleman

      Indiana University

      Cynthia Negrey

      University of Louisville

      Katherine S. Newman

      Johns Hopkins University

      John Nirenberg

      Walden University

      Elizabeth Nisbet

      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

      Brigid O'Farrell

      Mills College

      Amalya Oliver-Lumerman

      Hebrew University of Jerusalem

      Siobhan O'Mahony

      Boston University School of Management

      Hiroshi Ono

      Texas A & M University

      David Orzechowicz

      University of California, Davis

      Debra Osnowitz

      Clark University

      Eileen M. Otis

      University of Oregon

      Brian Ott

      University of Oregon

      Toby L. Parcel

      North Carolina State University

      Anju Mary Paul

      University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

      Julianne Payne

      North Carolina State University

      Roberto Pedersini

      Università degli Studi di Milano

      Alycia Usher Perez

      University of Akron

      Ross Perlin

      Independent Scholar

      Carolyn C. Perrucci

      Purdue University

      Robert Perrucci

      Purdue University

      Jennifer L. Pierce

      University of Minnesota

      Doria Pilling

      City University London

      Matthew Piszczek

      Michigan State University

      Nancy Plankey-Videla

      Texas A & M University

      Robin L. Pleau

      University of California, Davis

      Winifred R. Poster

      Washington University, St. Louis

      Harland Prechel

      Texas A & M University

      Christopher Prener

      Northeastern University

      Harriet B. Presser

      University of Maryland

      Bob Price

      Texas State University, San Marcos

      Allison Pugh

      University of Virginia

      Christina Purcell

      Manchester Metropolitan University

      Gretchen Purser

      Syracuse University

      Beth Red Bird

      Stanford University

      Ellen Reese

      University of California, Riverside

      Erin M. Reid

      Harvard University

      Jeremy Reynolds

      University of Georgia

      Kevin Riley

      University of California, Los Angeles

      George Ritzer

      University of Maryland

      Lauren A. Rivera

      Northwestern University

      Sylvia Rohlfer

      Colegio Universitario de Estudios Financieros

      David Rolland

      Université du Québec

      Ellen Israel Rosen

      Brandeis University

      Preston Rudy

      San Jose State University

      Sonja Anita Sackmann

      University Bw Munich

      Michael Alan Sacks

      Emory University, Goizueta Business School

      Jeffrey J. Sallaz

      University of Arizona

      Natalie Sappleton

      Manchester Metropolitan University

      Katja Sarmiento-Mirwaldt

      London School of Economics

      Kristen Schilt

      University of Chicago

      Jennifer Marie Schopp

      University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

      Marc-David L. Seidel

      University of British Columbia

      Gay Seidman

      University of Wisconsin

      Ofer Sharone

      MIT Sloan School of Management

      Kimberlee Shauman

      University of California, Davis

      David Shulman

      Lafayette College

      Bryan Simon

      Temple University

      Robert T. Sitko

      University of Texas at Austin

      Melissa M. Sloan

      University of South Florida, Sarasota-Manatee

      Vicki Smith

      University of California, Davis

      Laurel Smith-Doerr

      Boston University

      Chester S. Spell

      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

      Florian Spickenreither

      University Bw Munich

      Clare L. Stacey

      Kent State University

      Jason Stanley

      New York University

      Robert Alan Stebbins

      University of Calgary

      Ilean Stigliani

      Imperial College London

      Joyce Tang

      City University of New York

      Hovig Tchalian

      Claremont Graduate University

      Sarah Thébaud

      Princeton University

      Paul Thompson

      University of Strathclyde

      Donald Tomaskovic-Devey

      University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Julia Tomassetti

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Kjell Yngve Törnblom

      University of Skövde

      Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

      Télé-université, UQAM

      Lindsey B. Trimble

      Stanford University

      Zoe Trodd

      Columbia University

      Eddy U

      University of California, Davis

      Katrina M. Uhly

      Northeastern University

      Todd Vachon

      University of Connecticut

      Charles S. Varano

      California State University, Sacramento

      James Vardaman

      Mississippi State University

      Matt Vidal

      King's College London

      Sabrina D. Volpone

      Temple University

      Bradley Peter Walchuk

      York University

      Jennifer Walinga

      Royal Roads University

      Lisa L. Walker

      Middle Tennessee State University

      Michael Wallace

      University of Connecticut

      Chris Warhurst

      University of Sydney

      Zachary P. Watne

      University of Georgia

      Bart L. Weathington

      The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

      Gretchen R. Webber

      Middle Tennessee State University

      John Weeks

      IMD, Switzerland

      Johanna Weststar

      Western University

      Amy Wharton

      Washington State University

      Karen White

      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

      Vanessa R. Wight

      Columbia University

      Stacy J. Williams

      University of California, San Diego

      Beth Williford

      Manhattanville College

      Jane Wills

      Queen Mary University of London

      George Wilson

      University of Miami

      John Wilson

      Duke University

      Carol Wolkowitz

      University of Warwick

      Shinjae Won

      University of Pennsylvania

      Jody A. Worley

      University of Oklahoma

      Satomi Yamamoto

      National Fisheries University

      Janice D. Yoder

      University of Akron

      Kyoung-Hee Yu

      University of New South Wales

      Anthony R. Yue

      Mount Saint Vincent University

      Yasmin Zaidi

      Brandeis University

      James Zetka

      State University of New York, Albany

      Dan Zuberi

      Harvard University

      Shoshana Zuboff

      Harvard Business School

      Lorna Lueker Zukas

      National University

      Introduction

      Virtually everyone around the globe is affected by the contemporary social and material organization of work. For most people today, holding down a job is not optional, and many adults spend the majority of their waking hours clocked in at their jobs. We depend on our employment systems for wages, security, and opportunities in the form of training and skill acquisition. In the United States, we depend on employment for health benefits as well, setting us apart from countries that provide universal health care to their citizens.

      Work, jobs, and careers have considerable power to shape the quality of everyday life. For some people, jobs and careers are sources of meaning, reward, dignity, identity, and community. For others, they are merely a means to an end, sites of alienation and discouragement that must be endured in order to earn a paycheck. Sociologists are unanimous in their view that work organizations—their practices, missions, policies, cultures, and control strategies—contribute to inequitably distributed social and economic outcomes for diverse populations of labor force participants. Thus, the degree to which people experience their work as gratifying and rewarding varies by factors such as social status, race, ethnicity, gender, class, immigration status, and education, to name a few.

      In the United States and most advanced industrial societies—the focus of this volume—work and work organizations are remarkably heterogenous. They vary cross-nationally yet similar patterns characterize work institutions in market economies. Work organizations range from being small and informal to having hundreds of thousands of employees and a high level of bureaucratization and formalization. People traverse career ladders inside formal organizations but they also construct careers and jobs external to them. They labor both inside and outside the formal economy. They produce things and knowledge, and they affect customers’ emotions and embodied experiences. Some are positioned in the upper reaches of corporate hierarchies, overseeing huge budgets, complex projects, and large workforces, while many labor in the middle or at the bottom of such hierarchies, following the commands issued by those at the top.

      Work environments vary enormously, from manufacturing (auto) to service (hospitality) sectors, from traditional (General Motors, IBM, McDonald's) to new (Google, Facebook) industries, from public establishments to the privacy of one's home. Sociologists have coined numerous metaphors to capture the variability (both inertia and dynamism) of occupational processes, including “glass ceilings,” “sticky floors,” “glass escalators,” “revolving doors,” “bubbles,” and “glass cages.” Temporal rhythms of work vary, with many working full-time, standard schedules, or increasingly, working part-time, contingent, or other nonstandard jobs. With the proliferation of temporary workers who are hired by third-party agencies to toil on the premises of a firm, workers are not always certain of the identity of their official employer. Work organizations are ubiquitous; even organizations not typically associated with the topic of work (for example, a zoo or a fashion runway) are workplaces for someone. We find work organizations in the for-profit business sector, the nonprofit world, education, the military, health care, media, sports, and other disparate fields of activity.

      Social Theorists and Work

      Early pioneers in the discipline of sociology, including Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Émile Durkheim, all recognized the centrality of work in modern society. As the first social theorists to write critically about the emergence of capitalism and the transition from a preindustrial to an industrial society, they argued that industrial organizations were instrumental in driving these waves of social change. Thus, the study of work and economy has been interwoven with the origins of the discipline in a way that few topics are. All three social theorists were concerned about the ways in which industrialization reconfigured economic institutions and relationships. All three also believed that the troubling dynamics of markets and industrial organizations spread far beyond the confines of the factory walls or of bureaucracies.

      For Marx, capitalism, as a distinct mode of production, was built on the exploitation and alienation of the vast majority of workers who labored for the few who owned the means of production, and who, in so doing, were alienated from their products, from their fellow humans, and from their very human essence. For Marx, this alienation was pervasive throughout capitalist society, extending into state, polity, and culture, to be remedied only with a revolutionary overthrow of this distinct economic system. For Weber, the rationalization processes characteristic of bureaucratization could enable industry leaders to create greater efficiencies, yet at the same time, he feared that these processes would increasingly restrict the degree to which people could work autonomously and democratically. Weber traced the dynamics of bureaucratic organizations from factories to the offices of trade unionists and politicians, predicting that all spheres of modern society would be reshaped and ultimately trapped by rationalization processes. The shape of industrial organizations would leave its imprint on all other social institutions. Durkheim posited that the division of labor in an increasingly complex and specialized society would provide no less than the foundation of moral order. Durkheim was optimistic that capitalism and industrial organization had the capacity to create new efficiencies, interdependencies, and solidarity between people, but worried that, if improperly regulated, it also had the capacity to heighten anomie, a form of alienation and breakdown of societal norms.

      Scope of Sociology of Work

      As we have moved into the 21st century, Marx, Weber, and Durkheim's belief that work is core to the human experience continues to be relevant.Sociology of Work: An Encyclopedia takes up this and many other issues. The goal of the volumes is to comprehensively identify the numerous factors, at both the macro- and microlevels, that create, sustain, and characterize work organizations and social relations. It uses a wide-angle lens to examine how state and federal institutions regulate treatment of workers while zooming in on topics like viewing gossip as an interactional force that binds workers together every day in their jobs. Its scope is as broad as occupational segregation (the systematic and widespread division of distinct groups of workers into different jobs) and as finegrained as the social significance of office cubicles. It broadly theorizes about workplace culture and explores distinct empirical strands of culture, such as the design of fun workplaces, the premium on face time, and the expression of identity through displaying family photos in one's workspace.

      By presenting causal explanations for and identifying effects of structural arrangements and practices, readers can better understand important policy issues including, “How has immigration changed employment practices?”; “With discrimination having been outlawed by federal legislation, why do we continue to see evidence of workplace-generated race, ethnic, and gender inequality?”; “What would have to change to encourage more workers to take advantage of family supportive policies?”; and “How has industrial and economic restructuring affected family life in the United States and other advanced industrial economies?”

      It is both descriptive (providing data on important outcomes such as job segregation, the wage gaps between women and men and between whites and people of color, unemployment, changing household demographics, and wage inequality more generally) and analytical (presenting theories and explanations for the processes that create those outcomes, such as the job queueing theory; feminization of work; homosocial reproduction; statistical, institutional, and direct discrimination; and organizational mechanisms of inequality). In other words, these volumes cover the gamut of institutions, practices, processes, cultures, and policies that explain trends in work, labor force participation, and employment relationships.

      Thematic contributions: Aside from this agenda, this encyclopedia also makes six thematic contributions to the sociology of work. First, many of these entries incorporate critical gender and race analyses. Understanding race, ethnic, and gender stratification (and stratification based on sexual orientation) is one of the most pressing agendas we face in a diverse, multicultural society. Work plays a singular role in creating social inequality in contemporary society—our access to certain types of jobs, benefits, and protections. Many of the entries in this volume explain how this has happened over time and shed light on structural arrangements, cognitive biases, organizational mechanisms, and organizational cultures that systematically serve to include some subpopulations in “better” jobs and keep other subpopulations out of them.

      Historical perspective: A great many of these entries take a comparative historical perspective. Comparing the historical origins and cross-national manifestations of work—its institutions, culture, practices, social relations—is critical. It is a common misconception that the arrangements of contemporary capitalist, industrial societies represent the way things have always been done and always will be done; that there is something natural and inherently desirable to these institutional forms. To the contrary: Institutions and practices have shifted and have been contested over time. Understanding the past enables us to see how political struggles and employers’ and political leaders’ strategies have given rise to current arrangements, and thus to imagine and theorize about what can be constructed differently in the future. Understanding cross-national variation similarly enables us to see what is exceptional about our own practices and why, and whether we can improve those practices and institutions.

      Households and families: This encyclopedia is also predicated on the understanding that the world of paid work in labor markets is crucially intertwined with the world of unpaid (and sometimes paid) work in households. A sociological understanding of labor market activities is impossible without examining how it is sustained by activities in households and how activities in households are engendered by adults’ paid labor market activities. Families make it possible for adults and youth to participate in the labor force through the provision of food, shelter, and emotional sustenance. Family members perform unpaid labor (health care of family members, volunteer work in children's schools) in order to compensate for diminishing household incomes and community revenue. Parents often decide that both adults will work for pay in the labor market to compensate for the declining wages of the main wage earner. Family members engage in various economic activities in their homes to supplement wages earned in the workplace. At the same time, labor force participants increasingly bring their work home with them (work spillover), made possible in particular by new technologies that connect workers to their workplaces. Today, we see a great deal of “boundary blurring” between the two realms and creative strategizing to enable families to weave together their paid work/home work activities. Many of these arrangements and processes are highly gendered: patterns of labor force participation (rates of participation, the type of schedules worked) and the division of labor in the home (housework, child care, emotion work) differ for men and women.

      New developments: A number of entries address cutting-edge developments in the world of work. They include changes in the way people are hired (e.g., a result of the growth of third-party labor market intermediaries, such as temporary help agencies and headhunters) and how they are dismissed (restructured, downsized, disposed of); new types of careers (external, boundaryless), and occupations (cool jobs, lifestyle work, Wall Street jobs); changes in the normative life course (retirement, heightened job insecurity and labor market preparation), labor market practices (the rise of contingent, nonstandard workforces), and organizational templates (“McDonaldization,” networked organizations, the open source movement); transformations in the way goods and services are distributed around the world (the logistics revolution, supply chains); new technologies (such as the Internet and various social media) that change our work and where and how we carry it out; and how the widespread use of nonstandard scheduling (night shifts, weekends, flexible scheduling) is transforming gender relations within the home. Some entries highlight new demands placed on workers and citizens and new ways of possibly exploiting them, as corporations unceasingly search for new sources of revenue (the pressure to remain employable, the way Facebook profits from our labor, the rise of the prosumer, internships, consumption, volunteer work).

      Social movements: Another contribution explores people striving to survive, to make do, to fight against, and to exploit structural changes in the economy that systematically disadvantages them. Entries on the moral underground, consumer boycotts, human rights campaigns, corporate social responsibility, social movement unionism, community-based worker centers, resistance, and new union organizing strategies all suggest that individuals and groups are cognizant of the power of collective responses to corporate power. These entries bring actors and their agency to the center of the sociological understanding of work.

      Micro- and macrolevel structures: Finally, work institutions and the economy comprise macro-level structural arrangements and microlevel behaviors, interactions, and values. No sociological perspective on any topic is complete without a broad and deep appreciation for both, mutually constitutive levels. This reference provides considerable insight to each. Readers will learn about the origins of the large multidivisional firm and of labor markets, the emergence of new production systems, and the growth of the global economy. At the same time, readers will learn how job holders act and interact on the ground, how they construct and manage their identities (based on gender, class, and race; “corporate closet” “doing gender”; and “impression management”), their willingness or resistance in following the orders of bosses and employers, all of which sustain these institutions and reshape them.

      Conclusion The sociology of work is a vibrant field of scholarship. The implications of work and its social and material organization reach far beyond the walls of the factory floor, the office, the fast food restaurant, or corporate headquarters. As a field of inquiry, it encompasses a wide and deep range of phenomena: from unrelenting globalization processes that change industries and people's lives with breathtaking speed to direct sales organizations in which economic profit is built on one small interaction at a time; from the contours of the 24/7 economy to human trafficking and slavery; from the emergence of post-Fordism to distinct consumption practices; and from resisting degradation to having fun on the job. I hope this volume will be helpful to everyone striving to understand these vastly diverse and complex dimensions of the contemporary world of work.

      I would like to thank Sue Moskowitz and Geoff Golson for their support, and Sue, especially, for her expert and patient guidance through the extremely detailed and demanding process of assembling volumes like these. I now understand the occupation of “author manager”—how fortunate that my introduction to it was through Sue. Finally, I am very indebted to everyone who agreed to contribute to this volume. This is an exciting lineup of topics and contributors, many of whom are leading experts in the sociology of work. Readers will enjoy the unique impression these scholars have stamped on their areas of expertise. Observing the quiet and somewhat invisible labor of these 250-plus encyclopedia contributors, I've gained a new respect for colleagues’ generosity and for their willingness to share their knowledge and time for the benefit of producing a high-quality resource for readers trying to learn about our field.

      Vicki Smith Editor

      Chronology

      Early prehistory: The earliest humans are scavengers rather than hunters. Pre-sapiens ancestors and Homo sapiens alike collect fruit, nuts, eggs, and shellfish, and scavenge meat from the carcasses killed by predators or by natural causes. Fishing likely develops before the hunting of large animals, which requires planning, cooperation, and the manufacture of weapons.

      Early prehistory: At some point, true hunter-gatherers, who kill their own meat, replace scavengers. Around 70,000 B.C.E., hunter-gatherers become more specialized, focusing on specific types of game and developing specialized tools and weapons. Paleo-Indians of the Americas follow herds of megafauna, while many African groups follow herds of kudu or antelope. In some cases, seasonal rain patterns and water availability influence the nomadic hunter-gatherers’ travels more than the activities of animal herds.

      8000–5000 B.C.E.: The Neolithic Revolution transforms human culture. In various places throughout the world—most likely beginning in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East and developing independently in other parts of the world—nomadic groups of hunter-gatherers begin raising food crops and domesticating animals. In doing so, they give up their nomadic lifestyle in favor of sedentary communities of villages and towns. The ability to produce surpluses of food allows these communities to remain in one place year-round (or in some cases to migrate between two seasonal homes) rather than needing to follow a herd of prey. Food surpluses also lead to specialization of labor and division of labor on a scale never before seen, leading to the hallmarks of early human civilization: the first sophisticated trading economies; the development of art, architecture, and arithmetic; and early technologies like irrigation.

      9th–10th centuries B.C.E.: In the late Bronze Age, the cornerstone institution of Greece is the oikos, an aristocratic household consisting of an extended family living on a landed estate along with slaves, hired laborers and craftsmen, retainers, visiting foreigners, and guests. Every oikos is engaged in agricultural production and at least some basic refining of agricultural goods—such as grapes into wine or hides into leather—but the greatest noble households engage so many workers and skilled artisans that they are nearly self-sufficient.

      9th–10th centuries B.C.E.: Throughout the ancient world, slaves are an important part of the labor force; some are born or sold into slavery, some serve as slaves temporarily, and some become slaves to pay off a debt or after being captured in war or raids. In many cases, bodies of law define who can and cannot be made a slave and how a master must treat his slaves. Further, there are types of work that masters are forbidden to require a slave to perform. Slave labor is critical to the building of many of the ancient world's greatest feats of engineering, including the pyramids of Egypt.

      5th–8th centuries B.C.E.: Self-sufficiency of noble houses declines during the Archaic period in Greece, as increases in trade and colonization make currency more important. The polis (Greek city-state) emerges, and with it a greater division and specialization of labor. Manual labor is seen as the fate of those who cannot afford a life of leisure; the greatest aspiration is to be a philosopher.

      4th century B.C.E.: In Republic, Plato describes the origin of the state as resulting from a necessary division of labor; because different men pursue different vocations, each of which meets different needs, they must be bound together in a common state where each supplies the needs of the other.

      1st–6th centuries B.C.E.: In the Roman republic, society is heavily hierarchical, with class and occupation inextricably intertwined. Numerous trades are considered inappropriate for the nobility (or those who aspire to it): lenders and tax collectors, because their work makes them unpopular with the public; any job that depends on manual labor more than a learned skill; and, least respectable of all, what Cicero called the trades that cater to sensual pleasures: fishermen and fishmongers, butchers, cooks, perfumers, dancers, and variety show performers. Merchants are considered vulgar unless they are wholesalers; teaching, medicine, and architecture are respected because they both require intelligence and involve work that benefits society. Although many of these attitudes might persist in the modern day, the key difference was the attitude toward farming, seen as a noble pursuit that throughout the ancient world, often was one to be aspired to later in life, when one could retire from life in the city.

      1st–6th centuries B.C.E.: Fraternities of craftsmen, each based around a specific trade, develop in ancient Greece (koinon), Rome (collegia), and China (hanghui).

      4th century C.E.: In ancient India, shreni are associations of people sharing a vocation; there are shreni for specific types of merchants, traders, and artisans, some of which guard trade secrets that are passed from father to son. There are some indications that even by this time, shreni had existed for several centuries.

      6th century: Benedict of Nursia composes hisRegula(rules), a set of regulations and guiding principles for monasteries. Among Benedict's chief concerns, in sharp contrast to the ancient Greeks, are the spiritual and intellectually unhealthy effects of idleness. Because the day cannot be spent solely on prayer and rest, monasteries become centers of agricultural activity, craftsmanship, and early European academia. Acting as western Europe's think tanks, monasteries disseminate through the Christian world the notion of work as a good in and of itself. That conception of work has theological repercussions for centuries, in the presentation of God as a master builder, which develops into the Enlightenment idea of God as an engineer, the Deist conception of God as the Supreme Architect of a clockwork universe, and the 20th-century idea of intelligent design.

      8th–13th centuries: As early Islamic caliphates spread, numerous crop species are diffused through and adapted to local conditions in the growing Arab world, including Indian mangos and cotton, Chinese citrus, and African sorghum. The Arab agricultural revolution improves food quality and the diversity of the Arab world as a result, and spreads engineering innovations like waterwheels and advanced water pumps, impacting the distribution and specialization of the Arab labor force.

      9th century: Attempts are made in England to Christianize the Anglo-Saxon guilds, egalitarian communities in which members deposit money into a common fund that is then used to pay for the burials of members who die or the fines of members arrested for certain crimes. In the 11th century, these guilds become less religious in activity as a result of the Norman Conquest and the introduction to England of many aspects of French culture.

      12th–15th centuries: The colonization movement of Europeans begins in Europe itself, as the Church encourages people to move into unused forest, waste, and marshlands. Members of monasteries assist by draining soil and clearing forests. Extractive industries become more skilled and specialized: Deep-sea fisheries are established throughout the Baltic and northern seas, timber industries provide fuel and shipbuilding materials, chickens and pigs are raised in great numbers, beekeeping produces honey and wax, and the breeding of animals becomes a matter of serious study. Crop rotation and iron plows improve agricultural yields, and industrial crops like cotton, sugarcane, hemp, flax, madder, and silkworms are developed.

      13th-16th centuries: Trade and artisan guilds become extremely powerful in medieval Europe. The number of guilds operating in Paris rises from 100 in 1250 to 350 a few decades later. The growing number is a result in part of the specificity of the guild membership: metal workers do not share a guild, but rather may be found in groups like the locksmiths’ guild, the chain-forgers’ guild, the harness-polishers’ guild, and the knife-maker's guild. Guilds are instrumental in the creation of skilled labor. They serve numerous functions, sharing traits in common with modern labor unions, vocational schools, and industry regulatory bodies. Their funds are used to support elderly or infirm members, as well as deceased members’ surviving dependents; in some cases, members may be given funds in order to travel to another city to find work. They also impose a standardized period of apprenticeship, which—like early labor unions—benefits those members of the guild already practicing a trade but makes it increasingly difficult to enter that trade.

      13th–16th centuries: Although the apprenticeship system provides valuable training for novices, its ultimate purpose is to guard existing practitioners from younger competition. Further, the expense and time commitment of joining a trade makes the modern world's career flexibility unthinkable: once trained as a knife-maker, it is impractical at best or more likely impossible to consider a change of careers without pursuing one outside the guild system, which usually means unskilled labor at a much lower wage. This, in turn, makes the workforce resistant to the changes introduced or made possible by technological innovation—workers worry about having their jobs replaced by automation or outsourcing.

      15th century: In Europe, use of the domestic system begins, in which work is subcontracted out to workers who produce goods in their own private facilities, typically their homes. The domestic system becomes more popular in the 17th century and is especially relied on by the textiles industry and the wrought iron industry. Merchants in other industries also contract workers to assemble various goods at home. The domestic system eventually dies out as the rise of factories centralizes such work and removes it from the home, but it is the main cause of the modern nuclear family household, as cottage industry income makes adults less dependent on their extended families for financial support, housing, and child care.

      15th century: The domestic system is able to coexist with guilds in large part because guilds operate almost exclusively in cities.

      16th–18th centuries: During the Age of Discovery, the doctrine of mercantilism dominates western European politics, driving many of the wars and motivating early colonialism. Under mercantilism, the prosperity and security of the nation is derived from government-controlled foreign trade, specifically a positive balance of trade and ideally economic dominance of one's trading partners. The continent-wide emphasis on manufacture and export has a deep impact on the markets and employment.

      16th–18th centuries: Although many of the criticisms of mercantilism are clear today, the doctrine results in the accumulation of vast amounts of capital and investments in manufacturing that are prerequisite to the Industrial Revolution.

      16th–18th centuries: During the Protestant Reformation, according to the later arguments of economist Max Weber, the “Protestant work ethic” is developed: the idea, associated particularly with Lutherans, Calvinists, and the Thirteen Colonies of British North America, that hard work is a necessary part of a moral life and that worldly success (success in one's work life) is an outward sign of inner salvation. It is on the basis of the Protestant work ethic that some churches will initially resist or condemn the efforts of labor unions, on the argument that asking to work less or to be given more for one's labors is unchristian.

      16th–18th centuries: In colonial North America, many adults arrive as indentured servants: workers whose passage to the New World has been paid for by an employer in return for several years of labor. During the indentured period, workers are not paid wages but are trained at their vocation and provided with food, clothes, and a place to live. In the 17th century, nearly two-thirds of new adult settlers were indentured servants.

      16th–18th centuries: A similar institution is that of the bound apprentice, an American-born child under the control of the courts because of being orphaned or given away by his or her impoverished family; the child is made to serve as an apprentice to pay its way, until a certain age.

      16th–18th centuries: The trans-Atlantic slave trade of African slaves sent to the New World as laborers involves extraordinary numbers of slaves bought or seized to work on plantations (principally cotton, sugar, coffee, cacao, and tobacco), in mines, in rice fields, and in the construction, timber, and service industries. The economies of the Americas and Europe are deeply dependent on the institution and abuses of slavery for hundreds of years.

      1786: A wage reduction in Philadelphia's printing industry leads to the country's first successful strike.

      1793: Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, a machine that separates cotton fiber from its seeds, revolutionizing the textile industry by expanding the supply and reducing the price of cotton and creating a demand for improved textile machinery. It also enhances the American south's economic dependence on the plantation system and slavery, as cotton becomes too profitable to abandon and the demand for manual labor to pick it skyrockets. In 60 years, the number of slaves increases from 700,000 to 3.2 million.

      1793: The cotton gin, along with the 1778 development of James Watt's improved steam engine (on which the patent expires in the early 19th century), helps bring about the Industrial Revolution, as Britain and the United States transition from an economy based on manual labor and draft animals to one based on machine work. The textile and iron-making industries are the first to mechanize, disrupting old jobs and creating new ones. All-metal machine tools are soon developed, leading to new production techniques.

      1793: The Industrial Revolution results in the decline and near disappearance of the domestic system and the guilds (labor unions eventually take on some of the guilds’ functions) as well as the abandonment of mercantilism.

      Late 18th century: Guilds are increasingly condemned as hindrances to technological innovation, business interests, and free trade. In particular, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith, who will later be considered the two great economic thinkers of the age, write extensively of the ills of the guilds.

      Late 18th century: The first men's labor unions form in the United States; women's unions, principally representing women working days of 16 hours or more in sweatshops, follow in the early 19th century. It is still some decades before labor unions become widespread.

      1828–33: Workingmen's political parties, calling for free public education, the reduction or elimination of child labor, and a 10-hour workday, are formed in a dozen states. Local elections are won in notable eastern cities like Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.

      1844: The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) is founded in London to provide for the spiritual and social needs of the many young men who have migrated into the city to work, a phenomenon that is novel at the time and driven by the changes of the Industrial Revolution.

      1845: Representatives of the Lowell mill workers’ trade union address the Massachusetts legislature on working conditions in the mills, leading to the first government investigation of working conditions and, by implication, affirming the notion that it is sometimes the duty of democratic government to protect employees from employers.

      1846: The sewing machine is invented, allowing the domestic system to continue in the area of men's clothing, having been phased out in most other industries.

      1846: Early American labor unions come under attack by church groups, business associations, newspapers, and some state governments, and suffer from internal tensions over ethnic inclusivity.

      1848: German political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto, an analytical approach to class struggle and the relationship between workers and employers.

      1860s: Labor unions and the American economy both resurge after the Civil War, though the south is much slower to recover because of Reconstruction. The Second Industrial Revolution, the later phase of the Industrial Revolution, begins with the development of Bessemer steel, made using the first inexpensive process for mass-producing steel.

      1860s: The availability of cheaper steel fueled the “American system of manufacturing,” in which interchangeable parts were used to create manufactured goods like sewing machines and bicycles. Other major Second Industrial Revolution developments include electrification, the assembly line, and the automobile, all of which change not only the job market but also population distributions and the relationship between people and their jobs. The automobile and public transportation make commuting to work possible, along with working outside the community in which one lives.

      1866–73: The National Labor Union, though brief-lived, is the United States’ first federation of unions.

      1867: The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, typically called the Grange, is founded as a fraternal organization and advocacy group for American farmers. Although the Grange's political power wanes after World War I, in the intervening decades, its lobbying is extremely influential and is instrumental in establishing rural free delivery of the U.S. mail, regulating railroads, passing temperance legislation, supporting women's suffrage, and the direct election of senators.

      1869: The Knights of Labor is founded, the first labor union to succeed at long-lived efficacy and broad geographic scope. Key to the Knights’ philosophy is the idea that all producers share a common lot and common interests, regardless of which goods they produce. More radical than many other unions, its radical attitude is exaggerated by the press and by the union's opposition. The Knights are instrumental in developing working-class culture and promoting the idea, central to labor unions since, of each man looking after the interests of all and of democracy and labor unions serving the same goal.

      1870: The rapid growth of the railroads after the Civil War leads to railway brotherhoods (including unions for locomotive engineers, conductors, and locomotive firemen) throughout the country; the rail industry in general is more hospitable to labor unions than many others. Perhaps in part because of that healthy relationship, railway unions are considerably more moderate than many of the famous unions of the era, such as the Knights of Labor.

      1870–1924: Increased Chinese immigration to the United States leads to numerous forms of xenophobic anti-Chinese sentiment and actions, especially targeting Chinese migrant workers, miners, and railroad workers, who are typically hired for lower wages than American men. In many cases, employers argue against wage increases (or in favor of wage decreases) for American workers by using Chinese workers as scapegoats, pointing out that Americans unwilling to work cheaply can simply be replaced by immigrants. Violent actions include an 1871 massacre of Chinese immigrants in Los Angeles and multiple attacks on Chinese workers in the northwest in the 1880s. Anti-Chinese legislation includes the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act (expanded by the Geary Act in 1892), which forbids Chinese laborers from entering the country, in the most severely limiting piece of immigration legislation in American history. Immigration acts passed in 1921 and 1924 restrict immigration according to national origin in order to preserve the country's racial makeup.

      1881: The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions forms. Like the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, it promotes a sort of labor ecumenism, emphasizing the common needs of labor unions regardless of their industry. It is originally formed to further specific legislative goals (e.g., an eight-hour workday, the elimination of child labor) and to assist with the formation of new unions.

      1882: Peter McGuire of the Carpenters Union first proposes a Labor Day holiday.

      1883: By now, the average workday is 10 hours and for most, the workweek lasts from Monday through Saturday.

      1886: A May 4 labor demonstration at Chicago's Haymarket Square in support of workers striking for an eight-hour workday is disrupted by a dynamite bomb thrown at police dispatched to disperse the protest. The bomb and resulting gun-fight results in the deaths of seven policemen and four civilians. Eight anarchists are later convicted of conspiracy (seven of them sentenced to death for the crime), though the prosecution admits none of them is thought to be the bomber, who remains unknown.

      1886: Peter McGuire and others call for a convention of labor union representatives in the wake of the Haymarket Riot. The result is the merging of several unions and federations, including the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

      1887: Oregon is the first state to adopt a Labor Day holiday. Twenty-nine other states follow in the next seven years.

      1890s: Disputes between miners and mine owners in the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, area involve Pinkerton detectives hired to go undercover and gather information on the miners, wage reductions, strikes, injuries, and deaths following acts by miners that include explosions and seizures of trains. Military rule is imposed on the area for months after martial law is declared.

      1893: French sociologist Émile Durkheim publishes The Division of Labor in Society, describing the division of labor as key to advanced industrialist societies because people are put to use and rewarded according to their merit. In Durkheim's view, social inequality reflects the real inequality that exists between different people's abilities and merits.

      1894: When the Pullman Palace Car Company cuts wages in response to the latest of several 19th-century depressions, railway workers led by Eugene Debs (a later socialist candidate for president) boycott Pullman cars in a show of solidarity with the striking Pullman factory workers. Across the country, switchmen refuse to connect Pullman cars onto trains, denying them their business. In a matter of days, 125,000 workers quit when ordered to end the boycott. A federal court issues an injunction against the unions on antitrust grounds, and President Grover Cleveland sends in marshals and army troops to break the strike. It is widely considered an overly aggressive show of force.

      1894: Labor Day becomes a federal holiday as a concession to workers following the government's poor handling of the strike.

      1899: American economist Thorstein Veblen publishes The Theory of the Leisure Class, a study of consumerism arguing that status, not utility, is what drives much of economic activity. In the century leading up to his work, and especially in the century to follow, a great deal of profit is made from leisure or status-indicating products ranging from entertainment to designer jeans to sports cars.

      Late 19th century: Day nurseries emerge to provide childcare services to mothers in the workforce. Most of the nurseries are babysitting services, unlike today's educational pre-K programs; some work to help assimilate the children of immigrant families.

      Late 19th century: During the Gilded Age, after the country recovers from Reconstruction, American manufacturing production surpasses Britain's, and the United States becomes the dominant manufacturing nation in the world. The prosperity fuels the building of railroads to better connect the country's vast lands, as well as an increasingly sophisticated finance industry and the rise of early major corporations like U.S. Steel and Standard Oil.

      1901: The AFL reaches 1 million members.

      1904: Thorstein Veblen publishes The Theory of Business Enterprise, an analysis of the relationships between industry (making goods) and business (making profits) and the ways in which business interests do not always coincide with public interests.

      1905: Thirty laborers form the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in Chicago. The IWW, or “Wobblies,” becomes a powerful union representing workers from numerous industries, though it eventually dwindles in influence after the 1930s.

      1907: The Canadian government passes the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, establishing the procedure a labor union must go through in order to call a strike. The constitutionality of the law is challenged, and the Canadian Supreme Court rules that it exceeds the federal government's authority; as a result, separate labor relations statutes are passed in each of Canada's 10 provinces, with an additional federal statute applying to those workers employed by federally regulated industries. Canadian labor unions, unlike American unions, are decentralized as a result, organizing and operating at the provincial rather than national level.

      1910: The Great Migration of African Americans out of southern U.S. states and into the industrial cities of the northeast, west, and midwest begins. Migration of African Americans began shortly after Reconstruction, in response to their poor treatment in the south; as race relations reach their nadir, the migration becomes much more rapid, and it is spurred again when the second Ku Klux Klan is founded in 1915. From 1910 to 1930, the African American population of northern states increases by 40 percent, especially concentrated in New York City, Chicago, Detroit, and Cleveland. The influx of working-class populations to the cities aids in the growth of their industries.

      1911: Mechanical engineer Frederick Taylor publishes Principles of Scientific Management, the first systematic study of factory work and efficiency. Scientific management, or “Taylorism,” seeks to streamline the tasks involved in manufacturing processes in order to standardize them and maximize their efficiency.

      1914: Henry Ford reduces the workday at his factory to eight hours to prevent a strike by the Industrial Workers of the World. Missed days of work are reduced in the following year.

      1919: When telephone workers strike in response to a refused wage increase, Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology assist the New England Telephone Company in filling the vacant positions with college student strikebreakers. These workers are attacked on arrival and refused service in the local hotels and restaurants by the Cooks and Waiters Union as a sign of solidarity.

      1919: Throughout the year, there are a total of about 3,600 strikes, almost 10 a day—21 percent of the American labor force strikes at least once.

      1922: Having adopted the eight-hour workday, Ford introduces the five-day workweek for some of his jobs. By 1926, most Ford workers are on a five-day week.

      1922: The Great Railroad Strike begins in response to the announcement of a wage cut; the operators’ union does not join the strike, but some 400,000 positions are vacated by members of other unions. The strike begins July 1, and on September 1, a federal court issues an injunction against striking, assembling, and picketing. The strike is long lasting, with periods of violence, and sours relations between labor and the railways for many years.

      1929: In a sharp contrast to the peak of 10 years earlier, the year sees only 900 strikes, involving less than 2 percent of the labor force.

      1929: The stock market crashes in October, the first phase of the Great Depression that lasts until the end of the 1930s. The economic collapse, which impacts Europe as well as North America, not only drives up unemployment to record levels but also leads to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal legislation and increases in the size and scope of the federal government; furthers the trend, begun with the antitrust legislation of the Progressive era, of government involvement in free markets in order to protect the economy; changes the financial system until the end of the century limiting the securities involvement of commercial banks and requiring federal insurance for bank deposits; and inspires the birth of modern economics.

      1930–36: The Dust Bowl: Against the backdrop of the Great Depression, a series of severe droughts following decades of extensive agricultural production on the prairie lands of the United States and Canada without sufficient measures to prevent erosion leads to nearly a decade of severe dust storms. Farm work in affected regions becomes impossible, and a lack of sufficient jobs available in other local industries leads to hundreds of thousands of people migrating to other states, many of them working as migrant workers.

      1933: Unemployment reaches its highest level, at 25 percent. Many of those who are employed are underpaid or unable to find work sufficient to adequately support their families. Roosevelt's First New Deal legislation sets up minimum wages and labor standards, as well as encouraging unions to work to raise wages beyond those minimums—not only to help the working class but also to increase their purchasing power in order to improve the health of the economy.

      1933: The Agricultural Adjustment Act restricts agricultural production in order to keep crop values high; to accomplish this, farmers are paid subsidies to leave portions of their fields fallow in order to maintain specific crop yields.

      1935: Roosevelt's Second New Deal establishes Social Security to defray the living expenses of retirees (in part in order to make room in the labor force for younger people) and the Works Progress Administration, a massive jobs creation program that addresses the nation's infrastructure needs by funding the construction of roads, bridges, and public buildings, as well as funding arts, media, and literacy projects.

      1936: English economist John Maynard Keynes publishes The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, his magnum opus study of market economies in light of the events of the Great Depression and the role of government in maintaining employment levels. It remains the dominant text of macroeconomics to the present day.

      1936: The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), a federation of labor unions, is formed by union organizers dissatisfied with the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

      1936: Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects employ 3.3 million American workers, a peak for the program.

      1938: The Fair Labor Standards Act establishes 44 hours as the maximum workweek in some industries, with overtime pay of time and a half mandated for additional hours. Two years later, the maximum is reduced to 40 hours. However, so many industries, companies, and positions are exempted that only about 20 percent of the labor force is covered by the law. Labor unions criticize the bill for the exemptions and for failing to establish a limit on daily hours; big business challenges the law on constitutional grounds, but it is upheld.

      1939: About 8.5 million Americans, more than 25 percent of the labor force, belong to a union.

      1942: The Lanham Act subsidizes daycare services that provide services to women employed by war industries, briefly revitalizing American day care.

      1943: With unemployment low as a result of World War II, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) is dissolved.

      1945: The California Vitamin Company introduces the first multilevel marketing plan; distributors with at least 25 regular customers are allowed to recruit new distributors and draw a 3 percent commission from those distributors’ sales.

      1947: The Taft-Hartley Act, co-sponsored by Senator Robert Taft, the leader of the congressional conservative coalition, limits the power of unions and authorizes states to pass euphemistically named “right to work” laws that prohibit union membership as a condition of employment. Such laws are subsequently passed in 23 states, mainly in the south and non-coastal west.

      1950s: The average age of retirement is 67.

      1950–70: Public-sector unions grow in many states, as the state and local government workforces increase while manufacturing and agriculture decline.

      1955: The American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) merge.

      1959: American sociologist Erving Goffman publishes The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, a cornerstone sociology text that depicts social interactions, including those in the workplace, as dramatic performances.

      1963: The Equal Pay Act amends the Fair Labor Standards Act to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex in the payment of wages.

      1964: The Civil Rights Act outlaws discrimination on the basis of sex or race, ending segregation of schools and facilities.

      1970: The Occupational Safety and Health Act requires that employers provide employees with a safe working environment.

      1973: The combination of skyrocketing gas prices during the first of the decade's two energy crises and competition from cheaply priced Volkswagens (from Germany) and Hondas (from Japan)—former enemy nations now robustly industrialized and economically recovered—results in a serious hit to the American auto industry, the first major American industry in the century to contend with serious foreign competition for the domestic market. Layoffs and plant closings become perennial cost-saving measures for the rest of the century, and by 1979 government intervention is necessary to save automaker Chrysler from bankruptcy. The consumer electronics and apparel industries soon face the same problems.

      1973: Despite years of lobbying by the National Organization for Women (NOW), not until the Supreme Court's ruling in Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations do newspapers stop listing jobs in separate categories for men and women.

      1978: The Federal Labor Relations Act establishes collective bargaining rights for most U.S. federal government employees.

      1979: Historian David Brody publishes “The Old Labor History and the New,” an article expounding on the field of “new labor history” that he cofounded, which goes beyond the old labor historians’ focus on unions and other organizations to delve into the whole of working-class culture.

      1979–80: With the election of Margaret Thatcher as prime minister of the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan as president of the United States, proponents of supply-side economics finally have heads of government who support their ideas: namely, to create economic growth by deregulating industries and lowering taxes, reducing government's power over business, in a reversal of the Keynesian policies that have largely been followed since the 1930s. In one form or another, this thinking dominates economic policy for the next three decades and arguably to the present; its efficacy is widely challenged in light of several economic disasters and jobs crises.

      1980: President Jimmy Carter begins deregulation of the trucking industry. In the next 20 years, truckers’ wages fall 30 percent and the number of owner-operators with health insurance plummets.

      1980s: Direct selling organizations like Amway begin to expand in Latin America and Asia, and they will expand into formerly communist eastern Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

      1981: President Ronald Reagan, the most strongly anti-union candidate to win an election, fires nearly 13,000 striking air traffic controllers; most of the jobs are filled by permanent replacement workers, the largest hiring of replacement workers since the passage of pro-labor laws in the 1930s. More than dealing with the strike, Reagan is sending a signal about the power of organized labor and his administration's attitude toward it.

      1987: The Canadian-American Free Trade Agreement eliminates most tariffs on goods exchanged between the two countries.

      1989: Documentarian Michael Moore releases his first feature, Roger & Me, an examination of the effect on Moore's hometown of Flint, Michigan, of General Motors’ CEO Roger Smith's decision to close several auto plants in the city.

      1994: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a trilateral trade bloc including Canada, the United States, and Mexico. One of the long-term effects is to contribute to the decline of American manufacturing jobs.

      2000: France adopts a 35-hour workweek in an attempt to reduce unemployment by distributing work across more jobs. Conservative politicians blame the reduction of work hours for the nation's 21st-century economic troubles.

      2000: In the United States, the average age of retirement has dropped below 62, though it is projected to rise in coming years.

      2001: By this point, 70 percent of state-owned enterprises in China have been privatized.

      2002: California becomes the first state to adopt a paid family leave program.

      2005: Seven unions break away from the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO).

      2006: San Francisco becomes the first municipality to establish a paid sick day standard for all workers, including part-time and temporary employees.

      2008: China's Standing Committee of the National People's Congress adopts the Labor Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Law, simplifying the settlement process for labor disputes.

      2008: New Jersey becomes the third state to adopt a paid family leave program.

      2009: According to a study by The Economist, half of the world's population is now part of the middle class, thanks to explosive growth of the middle class in many emerging countries. Effects of the growth of the middle class include an increased demand for oil (as more people use automobiles and otherwise use energy derived from fossil fuels) and a reduction of the working class. Some speculate that there may be a shortage of workers willing to work for wages low enough to keep prices of certain commodities and food staples low.

      2011: China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011–15) raises the minimum wage and expands government-sponsored social welfare and health care programs.

      2011: In June, Connecticut becomes the first state to enact paid sick day legislation.

      2011: Private sector union membership declines to 7 percent. Public sector unions face their most concerted attacks in decades, after significant Republican gains in the 2010 elections.

      2011: Global income inequality reaches its greatest levels in 50 years according to an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) study released in December, and its greatest levels in modern history according to some historians: the richest 1 percent of adults in the world own about 40 percent of the world's assets, and the three richest people in the world own more than the poorest 48 countries combined. Further, economic growth in the two decades prior to the financial crisis of 2008 was accompanied by a widening, rather than narrowing, gap between rich and poor in many countries. According to the OECD, the most important driver of this inequality is the inequality in wages and salaries. Rising unemployment worsens this, as the unemployed and underemployed compete for low-paying jobs, further driving down wages in response to the laws of supply and demand, while executives accrue bonuses and raises.

      2012: American unemployment continues its slow decline, with the long-term unemployed (jobless for 27 weeks or longer) making up 42.6 percent of the unemployed as of a March Bureau of Labor Statistics report. Most recent job gains are in the fields of temporary help services, food service (recovering from a 2010 employment low), computer systems design, and ambulatory care services and hospital work. The largest area of job loss is in retail.

      2012: A March Bureau of Labor Statistics report released after more than a year of research finds that growth in green jobs (jobs in businesses that benefit the environment or in which workers’ duties involve making business production more environmentally friendly) have been instrumental in softening the blow of the recession on the construction and manufacturing sectors.

      2012: Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker survives a recall election after his approval rating plummets following his handling of the 2011 protests and legislative walkout over his plan to eliminate most collective bargaining rights for government employees. About half of the money Walker raised for his recall battle came from out of state.

      2012: Adbusters, the magazine that launched the 2011 Occupy Wall Street movement that, in turn, spawned numerous similar “Occupy” movements, calls for a massive Occupy protest of the 2012 G8 summit, indicating a possible alliance between Occupy and the elder antiglobalization movement.

      Bill Kt'epi Independent Scholar
    • Index

      Index note: Volume numbers are in boldface. Article titles and their page numbers are in boldface.

      A
      • A. Philip Randolph Institute (APRI), 2:937
      • AAUP (American Association of University Professors), 2:926
      • Abbot, Andrew, 2:774
      • Abercrombie & Fitch, 1:495
      • abortion, 1:167, 2:648
      • Abraham, Katharine, 2:758
      • absenteeism, 1:94, 1:150, 1:226, 1:414, 2:1015
      • abstraction, in computer-mediated work, 1:113–115
      • abuse. See also
        • substance abuse
        • alcohol, 2:843
        • dignity and, 1:163
        • importing labor, 1:425
      • ACA (Affordable Care Act), 1:509
      • accumulation, 1:291–292
      • ACD (automatic call distribution), 1:61
      • ACFTU (All-China Federation of Workers Union), 1:87–88
      • Acker, Joan, 1:279, 1:315, 1:320
      • Acker, S., 1:30
      • ACORN (Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now), 2:828
      • action plan
      • active labor market policies (ALMP)
        • categories, 1:462
        • effectiveness, 1:464
        • job creation and, 1:462
      • activism, 1:5. See also
        • boycotts, consumer
        • organized labor
        • strikes and protests
        • students against sweatshops
        • unions
        • United Students for Fair Trade
      • Ad Hoc Committee on the Triple Revolution, 1:11
      • ADA. See
        • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
      • Adbusters, 1:xliii
      • ADC (Aid to Dependent Children), 2:810
      • address discrimination, 2:725
      • ADEA (Age Discrimination in Employment Act), 1:350, 1:510, 2:743
      • Adler, Glenn, 2:922
      • Adler, Mortimer, 1:240
      • administration. See also
        • Works Progress Administration (WPA)
      • Administration on Aging (AoA), 1:224–225
      • Adorno, Theodor, 2:578
      • ADR. See
        • alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
      • aesthetic labor, 1:279, 2:760
      • AFDC (Aid for Families with Dependent Children), 1:348, 1:510, 2:700, 2:810
      • affirmative action, 1:23, 2:682
      • Affordable Care Act (ACA), 1:509
      • AFL. See
        • American Federation of Labor (AFL)
      • AFL-CIO. See
        • American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
      • African Americans
        • authority gap, 1:10
        • Black Economic Empowerment, 2:813
        • Black Wages for Housework Campaign, 1:386
        • CBTU, 2:937
        • clerical work, 1:93
        • craft work and, 1:138
        • feeling rules and, 1:277
        • “good” jobs and “bad” jobs, 1:343
        • Great Migration, 1:xxxix
        • labor force participation, 1:501
        • National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, 1:249
        • National Colored Labor Union, 1:3
        • nonstandard work and, 2:634
        • primary labor markets and, 1:520
        • professionals and managers, 1:23–25
        • social identity, 1:24
      • African National Congress (ANC), 2:922
      • AFSCME (American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees), 2:918, 2:932
      • AFT (American Federation of Teachers), 2:918
      • age
      • Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 1:350, 1:510, 2:743
      • Age of Discovery, 1:xxxv
      • agency doctrine, 1:507
      • Aglietta, Michel, 1:291
      • agriculture, 1:xxxiii
        • Agricultural Adjustment Act, 1:xl
        • child labor, 1:81
        • India, 1:432–433
        • subsistence, 2:1023
      • Agriprocessors v. National Labor Relations Board, 2:903
      • Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 1:348, 1:510, 2:700, 2:810
      • Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), 2:810
      • AIFLD (American Institute for Free Labor Development), 2:930
      • Ailon, Galit, 1:409
      • air-traffic controllers strike, 1:xlii, 1:350, 2:663, 2:827, 2:834
      • Albelda, Randy, 1:69
      • Aldrich, Howard, 1:251
      • alienation, 1:1–2, 1:7, 1:161, 2:862, 2:1015
        • continuum, 1:1–2
        • lack of fulfillment, 1:2
        • Marx and, 1:54, 1:497, 2:572
        • pervasiveness, 1:2
        • “prosumer” and, 2:719
        • research, 1:2
        • types, 1:1
        • voicing, 1:2
        • worker, 1:479
      • Alienation and Freedom (Blauner), 1:161, 2:862
      • All-China Federation of Workers Union (ACFTU), 1:87–88
      • allied health professions, 1:364
      • Almedia, David, 2:895
      • ALMP. See
        • active labor market policies (ALMP)
      • alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
      • alternative organizations and cooperatives, 1:2–6, 1:111. See also
        • bureaucracy
        • organizational structure, new forms of
        • capitalism and, 1:4
        • Civil War, 1:3
        • contemporary, 1:5–6
        • counterculture period, 1:3
        • goals and outcomes, 1:5
        • Great Depression, 1:3
        • labor period, 1:3
        • self-help period, 1:3
        • U.S. history, 1:3–4
        • worker self-management, 1:2
        • worldwide, 1:4–5
      • Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers, 1:497
      • amateurs, 1:529
      • Amenia, Amy, 1:441
      • American Association of University Professors (AAUP), 2:926
      • American Board of Medical Specialties, 1:362
      • American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1:363
      • American College of Nurse Midwives, 1:363
      • American Dilemma, An (Myrdal), 1:180
      • American Dream, 1:6, 1:251
        • career mystique and, 1:72
        • child labor and, 1:82
      • American Federation of Labor (AFL), 2:835
        • affiliations, 2:919
        • chartering, 2:659
        • CIO merger, 1: xli
        • core of, 2:935
        • craft unionism, 2:661
        • creation, 1:xxxviii
        • dissatisfaction with, 1:xl
        • eruption, 2:660
        • membership, 1:138, 2:660
        • reaches one million members, 1:xxxix
        • unskilled workers and, 2:564
      • American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), 2:664
        • breakaway unions, 1:xlii
        • campaigns, 2:838
        • immigration reform, 2:905
        • National Employment Law Project, 1:397
        • split in, 2:932
      • American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 2:918, 2:932
      • American Federation of Teachers (AFT), 2:918
      • American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD), 2:930
      • American Journal of Sociology, 2:883
      • American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1:531
      • American Railway Union, 2:836
      • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 1:463, 2:1003–1004
      • American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA), 2:683–684
      • American system of manufacturing
      • American Time use Survey, 2:896
      • “Americanism and Fordism,” 1:6
      • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 1:168, 1:200
        • banning discrimination, 1:350
        • limitations, 1:509
        • shop stewards and, 2:928
      • America's Working Man (Halle), 2:862
      • America's Working Women, 1:384
      • Amway, 1:xli, 1:165
      • anarchists, 1:xxxviii
      • ANC (African National Congress), 2:922
      • angentic traits, 1:330
      • anger
      • Anheir, Helmut, 2:629
      • animal breeding, 1:xxxv
      • Annual Review of Sociology, 2:774
      • anomie, 1:162
      • antagonism, 2:572
      • Anteby, Michel, 1:150
      • anti-Chinese legislation, 1:xxxvii–xxxviii
      • antiglobalization movement, 1:xliii
      • AoA (Administration on Aging), 1:224–225
      • APA (American Psychiatric Association), 1:531
      • Apache, 2:646
      • Apple, 1:359
      • appraisal theory, 2:830–831
      • apprenticeships, 1:xxxv. See also
        • internships
        • mentoring
        • bound, 1:xxxvi
        • training and skill acquisition, 2:888
        • white-collar, 1:452
      • APRI (A. Philip Randolph Institute), 2:937
      • Arab agricultural revolution, 1:xxxiv
      • Arab societies, 1:9
      • Arab Spring, 1:261, 1:336, 1:397
      • arbitration, 1:510
      • Archaeology of Knowledge, The (Foucault), 1:294
      • Archambault, Anne, 2:801
      • architecture, 1:xxxiii
      • Aristotle, 1:257
      • arithmetic, 1:xxxiii
      • Armstrong, Barbara, 2:806
      • Arrow, Kenneth, 1:179
      • art, 1:xxxiii, 2:578
      • Art Worlds, 2:578
      • artisans, 1:xxxiv
      • ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), 1:435
      • Ashforth, Blake, 1:168
      • Asian Americans, 1:501, 2:697
      • as-needed work, 1:120–122
      • ASPA (American Society for Personnel Administration), 2:683–684
      • assembly, 1:6–7
        • batch production, 1:6
        • China, 1:86–87
        • lean production, 1:7
        • pull system, 1:7
        • push system, 1:6
        • repetitive work, 1:7
        • scientific management, 1:6
        • simple task, 1:6
      • assembly line
      • Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), 2:828
      • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 1:435
      • asynchronous communication, 1:229
      • athletic look, 1:495
      • atomistic actors, 2:570
      • AT'T, 1:107
      • at-will employment, 1:7–9, 2:1015. See also
        • benefits
        • boundaryless careers
        • casual labor and informal economy
        • contingent work
        • disposable workers
        • job security
        • risk shift
        • unskilled work
        • adoption, 1:8
        • criticism, 1:8
        • good-faith exception, 1:8
        • just cause, 1:8
        • in U.S., 1:8
        • voluntary employment, 1:7
      • auditability, 2:691
      • Authentic Labor Front (FAT), 2:588
      • authority, 1:13–14, 2:560
        • EEOC, 1:181
        • power and, 2:701
        • strict authority hierarchy, 1:291
      • authority gap, 1:9–10
        • African Americans, 1:10
        • Dalits, 1:10
        • demographic and cultural limitations, 1:10
        • Hispanics, 1:10
        • implications of, 1:9–10
        • workplace distinctions, 1:9
      • automatic call distribution (ACD), 1:61
      • automobiles, 1:xxxvii, 1:xli. See also
        • Chrysler
        • General Motors (GM)
        • Honda
        • Toyota Production System (TPS)
      • autonomy
        • autonomous organizational forms, 2:709
        • dignity and, 1:163
        • franchises, 1:303
        • free agents, 1:304
        • game playing and, 1:311
        • health care professions, 1:361–362
      • Avery, Dianne, 1:199
      B
      • bachelor's degree in nursing (BSN), 1:362
      • bad faith, 1:8
      • Badgett, M. V. Lee, 1:533, 2:775
      • Bahnisch, M., 1:29
      • Bain, George Sayers, 2:915
      • Bain, Peter, 1:62
      • Baker, Sarah, 2:579–580
      • Balanced Scorecard, 2:855
      • Bales, Kevin, 2:767
      • Baltimoreans United in Leadership Development (BUILD), 1:542
      • Bank Muñoz, Carolina, 2:587
      • Barker, James, 1:228
      • Barley, Stephen, 1:34, 1:364, 2:682, 2:839, 2:853
      • Baron, James, 1:179, 2:682
      • Barraket, J., 2:631
      • barriers to entry, 2:1015
      • Bartels, Larry, 1:28
      • batch production, 1:6
      • Batt, Rosemary, 2:869
      • Baum, Tom, 2:740
      • Bauman, Ziggy, 2:741, 2:750
      • Baumeister, R., 2:946
      • Bayh-Dole Act, 1:22
      • Beaveridge, Albert, 1:83
      • Bechky, Beth, 1:150
      • Becker, Gary, 1:180
      • Becker, Howard, 1:480, 2:578
      • Becky, Beth, 1:34
      • beekeeping, 1:xxxv
      • Belkin, Lisa, 2:648
      • Bell, Daniel, 1:11–13, 1:28, 2:782, 2:941
      • Bellah, R., 2:946
      • belongingness, 2:947
      • Ben & Jerry's, 1:309
      • Bendelow, G, 1:29
      • Bendix, Reinhard, 1:13–14, 2:880
        • education and background, 1:13
        • Western ethic and, 1:14
        • works, 1:13–14
      • Benedict of Nursia, 1:xxxiv
      • benefits, 1:15–20. See also
        • bonuses
        • insurance
        • Medicare
        • parental leave
        • pensions
        • protections
        • right-to-work
        • rights
        • salaries
        • severance package
        • Social Security
        • social support programs
        • Starbucks employment model
        • unemployment
        • union membership, benefits of
        • wages
        • administration and cost, 1:15–16
        • bereavement days, 1:18
        • Canada, 1:66
        • child rearing leave, 1:18
        • defined, 1:15
        • differences in perception and preference, 1:16–17
        • discounts on goods and services, 1:18
        • educational reimbursement, 1:18
        • expense reimbursement, 1:19
        • family leave, 1:18
        • flexible spending accounts, 1:18
        • fringe, 1:15, 1:18
        • during great Recession, 1:270
        • holiday pay, 1:18
        • income protection, 1:18
        • liability insurance coverage, 1:18
        • life insurance, 1:18
        • medical insurance, 1:18
        • mileage reimbursement, 1:19
        • nonwage monetary payments, 1:15
        • packages, 1:15–16
        • paid vacation, 1:19
        • part-time work, 2:678–679
        • pay systems, 1:17
        • profit sharing, 1:19
        • relocation assistance, 1:19
        • research, 1:16
        • retirement plan, 1:19
        • sabbatical leave, 1:19
        • satisfaction, 1:17
        • severance pay, 1:19
        • sick days, 1:19
        • Social Security, 1:19
        • strategic considerations, 1:19
        • tax shelter plan, 1:19
        • unemployment insurance, 1:19
        • value, 1:17
        • workers compensation insurance, 1:19
      • Bentham, Jeremy, 1:132, 1:296
      • Benton, L., 1:75
      • Ben-Yehuda, Nachman, 2:843
      • bereavement days, 1:18
      • Berendsen, Lynne, 2:884
      • Berheide, Catherine White, 1:313, 2:826
      • Berkowitz, Edward, 2:805
      • Bernhardt, Annette, 1:153
      • Bernstein, Elizabeth, 2:768–769
      • Bernstein, Paul, 2:946
      • beruf, 2:721
      • Bessemer steel, 1:xxxvii
      • Besser, T., 1:462
      • Best Buy, 1:309
      • Bezrukova, Katerina, 2:794
      • Bianchi, Suzanne, 2:895
      • bias. See also
        • cognitive biases
      • Bielby, William T., 1:179, 2:637
      • big government, 2:690
      • Big Labor, 2:662
      • big squeeze,” 1:20–21
        • corporate downsizing and, 1:20
        • deregulation and, 1:21
        • globalization and, 1:20
        • labor union decline and, 1:20–21
        • wage deterioration, 1:20
      • bill collectors, 1:369–370
      • binding arbitration, 1:510
      • biotechnology, 1:21–23
      • BIP (Border Industrialization Program), 2:587
      • Birkeland, Peter M., 1:302–303
      • Biscotti, Dina, 1:23
      • Black, W. K., 2:974
      • Black Economic Empowerment, 2:813
      • Black Wages for Housework Campaign, 1:386
      • Blackberrys, 2:997
      • Blackler, F., 1:491–492
      • blacklists, 2:669
      • Blacks on the Bubble,” 1:23–25
      • Blair-Loy, Mary, 2:550, 2:610
      • Blasi, Joseph, 1:241
      • Blau, Judith, 1:396
      • Blau, Peter, 1:56, 1:59
      • Blauner, Robert, 1:161, 2:862, 2:941
      • Block, Fred, 2:707–708
      • blogs, 2:719
      • BLS. See
        • Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
      • blue-collar blues, 2:994
      • blue-collar jobs, 1:25–29, 2:1015. See also
        • brown-collar jobs
        • organized labor
        • pink collar
        • tacit skills
        • unions
        • white collar
        • changes in, 1:26–28
        • characteristics, 1:25
        • deskilling, 1:27–28
        • Durkheim and, 1:26
        • economic decline, 1:28
        • internal labor markets, 1:449
        • managerialism and, 1:526
        • Marx and, 1:25–26
        • organized labor and, 2:663
        • research, 1:26–27
        • reskilling, 1:27–28
        • shift from, 1:281
        • social standing, 1:28
        • sociological theory and, 1:25–26
        • Weber and, 1:26
      • Bluestone, Barry, 2:735
      • Blum, Terry, 2:841, 2:842
      • board of directors, 2:652
      • bodies, 1:29–31
        • differences, 1:30
        • employment and processes, 1:30
        • intimate labor, 1:30
        • methodologies, 1:29–30
        • work and, 1:29
      • Body and Society, 1:29
      • body labor, 1:370, 1:408
      • Boeing, 1:288
      • Bolton, Sharon, 1:163, 1:495, 2:756
      • Bonacich, Edna, 1:543
      • Bond, F. W., 1:174
      • Bond, James, 1:269
      • bonuses, 1:xliii, 1:15, 1:62, 1:126, 2:1005.
      • See also
        • benefits
        • wages
        • productivity, 2:995
        • reward, 1:414
        • stock, 1:241
        • structure, 2:957
      • Border Industrialization Program (BIP), 2:587
      • Borse, Mary Heaton, 2:937
      • Borsook, Paulina, 2:693
      • Boston Beer Co., 1:309
      • Bostrom, Ann, 2:982
      • bound apprenticeships, 1:xxxvi
      • boundaries between home and market, blurred, 1:31–33. See also
        • entrepreneurship
        • home production
        • self-employment
        • small business
        • work spillover
        • clear demarcation, 1:31–32
        • computer widows and orphans, 1:111–112
        • developments, 1:32
        • domestic care workers, 1:32–33
        • in networked organizations, 2:622
        • permeability, 1:31
        • separate spheres, 1:32
        • technology, 1:33
      • boundary work, 1:33–35. See also
        • work spillover
        • coining, 1:34
        • individuals and workplace, 1:34–35
        • occupations and organizations, 1:34
        • us and them, 1:34
      • boundaryless careers, 1:35–38. See also
        • at-will employment
        • casual labor and informal economy
        • contingent work
        • free agents
        • freelancing
        • risk shift
        • telework
        • contemporary work feature, 1:35
        • defined, 1:36
        • empirical support and, 1:37
        • inaccuracy, 1:37
        • job performance, 1:36
        • over-privileging, 1:37
        • proponents and critics, 1:37–38
        • timelines and, 1:36
        • weaknesses, 1:37
        • workers, 1:36–37
      • bounded authenticity, 2:769
      • Bourdieu, Pierre, 1:30, 1:38–40
      • bourgeoisie, 1:54
      • Boushey, Heather, 1:153
      • Bowen, Howard, 2:803
      • Box, S., 2:973
      • boycotts, consumer, 1:40–44, 2:669. See also
        • consumption
        • strikes and protests
        • activist strategy, 1:40
        • brand image, 1:42
        • Gap, 1:42
        • Gifford clothing, 1:42
        • global turn, 1:42
        • monitoring, 1:42–43
        • Montgomery bus, 1:41
        • Nestle products, 1:42
        • Nike, 1:42
        • Pullman Palace Car Company, 1:xxxviii
        • social labeling, 1:42
        • UFW, 1:41–42
      • Boyer, Herbert, 1:22
      • Bozkurt, ödül, 2:740
      • Bracero program, 1:351, 1:421
      • Brady, David, 1:27, 2:1009
      • brain drain, 1:391, 2:922, 2:1015–1016
      • brainwashing, 1:165
      • brand image, 1:42
      • Brandenburg, Stefanie, 2:812
      • branding, 1:407
      • Brandl, Bern, 1:100–102
      • Brass, D. J., 2:623
      • Braverman, Harry, 1:12, 1:27, 1:44–46, 2:857. See also
        • deskilling and upgrading
        • coercion and, 1:51
        • deskilling, 2:782, 2:941
        • hand and brain distinction, 1:44
        • legacy, 1:44–45
        • management versus labor, 1:44–45
        • productivity and, 2:708
        • questionnaire sociology, 1:525
        • skilling and, 1:160
        • Taylorism and, 1:287, 1:291, 1:497
      • Brazil, 1:46–49
        • communism, 1:47
        • continuity and change, 1:47–49
        • historical overview, 1:46–47
        • military dictatorship and worker resistance, 1:47
        • MST, 1:48
        • new model, 1:49
        • Workers Party, 2:667
      • Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC), 2:813
      • Bread and Roses strike, 2:836
      • breadwinners, 1:536, 2:550, 2:650
      • break, 2:1016
      • Brennan, Denise, 2:767
      • Brewster, Chris, 2:684
      • bribery, 1:258
      • BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), 2:813
      • Bridges, William, 2:656
      • British colonies, 1:xxxv
      • Brody, David, 1:xli
      • Bronze Age, 1:xxxiii
      • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1:138, 2:931
      • Brown, Douglas, 2:806
      • Brown, John, 1:151
      • Brown, Kay E., 2:966
      • Brown, Mitchell, 1:430
      • Brown, William, 1:100
      • Brown University, 2:838
      • brown-collar jobs, 1:49–51. See also
        • blue-collar jobs
        • pink collar
        • white collar
        • worker centers
      • Bruns, Alex, 2:718–721
      • Bryman, Alan, 1:309, 2:739
      • BSD Unix operating system, 2:646
      • BSN (bachelor's degree in nursing), 1:362
      • Buchanan, John, 2:740
      • Budig, Michelle, 1:253, 2:551, 2:606
      • BUILD (Baltimoreans United in Leadership Development), 1:542
      • Built to Last (Collins, Porras), 1:150
      • Bunce, D., 1:174
      • Burawoy, Michael, 1:27, 1:45, 1:51–53, 1:311, 2:730
        • coercion and, 1:52
        • control and consent in capitalism, 1:51–52
        • factory regimes, 1:52–53
        • making out, 1:407, 2:731
      • Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 1:xliii
        • on industrial deaths, 1:357
        • on information technology workers, 1:443
        • on labor force participation, 1:499
        • on labor force participation rates, 1:503
        • on moonlighting, 2:602
        • on nonstandard hours, 2:893
        • on occupation distribution, 2:640
        • on part-time work, 2:677
        • on productivity, 2:708
        • on strikes and protests, 2:834
        • on teen employment, 2:865
        • on workforce development, 2:1004
        • on workplace violence, 2:948
      • bureaucracy, 1:53–59, 2:1016. See also
        • alternative organizations and cooperatives
        • networked organizations
        • organizational structure, new forms of
        • postbureaucratic organizations
        • Weber, Max
        • alternative organizations and cooperatives and, 1:4
        • birth in Industrial Revolution, 1:54
        • control, 1:221
        • jobs and careers and, 1:481–482
        • kantor, 1:53–54
        • organization and legitimacy, 1:58–59
        • paradox and conflicts, 1:55–57
        • power and ideology, 1:57–58
        • rational-technical, 1:319
        • self-perpetuating, 1:57
        • values and, 2:945
        • Weber defining, 1:53–55, 1:162–163, 1:481, 2:690, 2:693
        • workplace control, 1:130
      • Burger King, 1:302
      • Burning Man, 1:34
      • burnout, 1:150, 1:412
      • Burt, Ronald, 1:252, 2:624–625
      • Bush, George H. W., 1:441
      • business collectively, 1:14
      • business unionism, 2:665
      • business-format systems franchises, 1:301
      • Businessweek, 1:185
      • Butler, Judith, 1:296
      • Buy American Campaigns, 2:932
      • buyouts, 1:479
      • Byrne, Delma, 2:889
      C
      • cacao, 1:xxxvi
      • Cadbury, 1:129
      • California
        • Agricultural Labor Relations Act, 1:42
        • California Vitamin Company, 1:xl1:xli
        • paid family leave program, 1:xlii
      • Call, Kathleen, 1:500
      • call centers, 1:61–64, 1:491, 2:1016. See also
        • contract workers
        • contracts
        • day labor
        • free agents
        • freelancing
        • outsourcing and subcontracting
        • agent pseudonyms, 1:63
        • clerical work, 1:96
        • managers and teams, 1:62
        • nature of, 1:62
        • offshoring, 1:62–63
        • working of, 1:61–62
      • Callister, Ronda, 2:797
      • Callon, Michel, 2:863
      • Calvin, John, 2:721
      • Calvinists, 1:xxxv, 2:721. See also
        • Protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism
      • CAM (complementary and alternative medicine), 1:364
      • campaigns. See also
        • activism
        • human rights campaigns
        • living wage campaign
        • strikes and protests
        • United Students for Fair Trade
        • AFL-CIO, 2:838
        • Black Wages for Housework Campaign, 1:386
        • Buy American Campaigns, 2:932
        • corporate, 2:828–829
        • against NAFTA, 2:932
        • union and community partnerships, 2:914
        • worker centers, 2:1001
      • Campbell, Colin, 2:718
      • Canada, 1:64–67
        • benefits, 1:66
        • Canadian-American Free Trade Agreement, 1:xlii
        • causal labor, 1:66
        • CLC, 2:926
        • employment, 1:65
        • federalism and labor, 1:64
        • IDIA, 1:xxxix, 1:64
        • industrial composition, 1:64–65
        • Industrial Revolution, 1:64
        • minimum wage, 1:65
        • unions, 1:65–66
        • wages, 1:65
      • Canadian Labour Congress (CLC), 2:926
      • Cannon, Walter B., 2:830
      • capital, 1:xxxv. See also
        • human capital
        • social capital
        • capital-intensive firms, 1:341
        • Cold War limitations, 2:690
        • footloose, 1:62
        • labor process and, 1:527
        • for small business, 2:787
        • transfer tax, 1:288
      • capitalism, 1:1, 1:240, 1:326
        • alternative organizations and cooperatives and, 1:4
        • collapse, 1:56, 1:162
        • control and consent in, 1:51–52
        • corporate, 1:114
        • labor process and, 1:524–525
        • varieties of capitalism, 2:569
        • Weber defining, 1:55
        • welfare, 1:326, 1:340
        • work ethic and, 2:989–990
      • Capitalist Manifesto, The (Kelso, Adler), 1:240
      • Carbado, D., 1:409
      • Cárdena, Lázaro, 2:586
      • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 1:47–48
      • care work, 1:67–69, 1:390. See also
        • domestic work, paid
        • housework
        • nonmarket work
        • reproductive labor
        • service work
        • volunteer work
        • work transfer
      • career ladders, 1:70–72
        • career/job split, 1:71
        • flexibility and, 1:71
        • historical, 1:70–71
        • inequality and, 1:70
        • minorities and, 1:71
      • career mystique, 1:72–74, 2:551
        • American Dream and, 1:72
        • defined, 1:72
        • false myth, 1:73–74
        • future of, 1:74
        • gender divide and, 1:74
        • inequality and, 1:73
        • institutionalized, 1:73
        • objective and subjective views, 1:72–73
      • http://CareerBuilder.com, 1:516
      • Carli, Linda, 1:330–331
      • Carnegie, Andrew, 1:286, 1:497, 2:550, 2:721, 2:836
      • carpal tunnel syndrome, 1:7, 1:412
      • Carpenters Union, 1:xxxviii
      • Carré, Françoise, 2:739
      • Carroll, Archie, 2:803
      • Carter, Jimmy, 1:xli
      • Cast, A., 1:321
      • Castells, M., 1:75, 1:489
      • casual labor and informal economy, 1:74–78.
      • See also
        • at-will employment
        • boundaryless careers
        • contingent work
        • disposable workers
        • free agents
        • freelancing
        • risk shift
        • worker centers
        • Canada, 1:66
        • debates, 1:78
        • history, 1:74–75
        • new standard, 1:76
        • permanent casuals, 1:76
        • sociological perspective, 1:75–76
        • workers' agency and strategies, 1:76–78
      • casual leisure, 1:528
      • Catanzarite, Lisa, 1:49
      • Caves, Richard, 2:580
      • CBTU (Coalition of Black Trade Unionists), 2:937
      • CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), 1:463
      • Center for Worklife Law, 2:551
      • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 1:412
      • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 2:930
      • centralization, 2:560
      • CEO (chief executive officer), 1:244, 1:321, 2:560–561
      • certified nurse-midwife (CNW), 1:363
      • certified nursing assistants (CNAs), 1:68–69
      • certified public accountant (CPA), 2:561
      • CES (Current Employment Statistics), 1:499
      • ceteris paribus, 1:189
      • CFA (Committee on Freedom of Association), 1:397
      • C-Form (Community Form), 2:646–647
      • CGENS (Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools), 1:424
      • Chabbort, C., 1:219
      • chaebol, 2:566
      • Chafetz, Janet, 2:729
      • chain-forgers guild, 1:xxxv
      • Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 1:432
      • Challenger explosion, 1:149
      • Chan, Jenny, 1:87
      • Chancer, Lynn, 2:767, 2:768
      • Chandler, Alfred, 2:549, 2:970
      • Change to Win Coalition (CTW), 2:932
      • Chari, Sharad, 1:432
      • charismatic organization in direct sales work, 1:165
      • Charles, Maria, 2:636–637
      • chattel slavery, 2:783
      • Chauncey, George, 1:530
      • Chavez, Cesar, 1:421–422
      • Checkland, Peter, 2:855
      • Chen, Katherine, 1:34
      • Chesbrough, H. W., 1:446
      • Chesley, Noelle, 1:112
      • Chicago School, 1:477, 2:941
      • chief executive officer (CEO), 1:244, 1:321, 2:560–561
      • chief operating officer (COO), 1:244
      • child care, 1:xxxv, 1:xxxviii, 1:4, 1:78–81, 1:498.
      • See also
        • parental leave
        • effects of, 1:80
        • historical overview, 1:79
        • model programs, 1:80
        • research, 1:78–80
        • types, affordability, quality, 1:79–80
        • as work, 1:80–81
      • child labor, 1:xxxvi, 1:81–84, 2:1016.
      • See also
        • teen employment
        • agriculture, 1:81
        • American Dream and, 1:82
        • early conceptions of children as workers, 1:82–83
        • eliminating, 1:xxxviii
        • FLSA and, 1:83
        • ideology, 1:83
        • ILO and, 1:84
        • legislation against, 1:83–84
        • street trades, 1:83
        • during World War II, 1:82
        • Child Labor Deterrence Act, 1:83
        • children
          • ADC, 2:810
          • AFDC, 1:348, 1:510, 2:700, 2:810
          • child rearing leave, 1:18
          • CRC, 1:84
          • domestic work, 1:193
          • slavery, 2:783–784
          • of stay-at-home mothers, 2:825
          • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, 1:399
        • China, 1:85–90
        • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 1:xxxvii
        • Chinoy, Ely, 1:6, 2:941
        • Christensen, K., 1:290
        • Christopherson, Susan, 2:579
        • Chrysler, 1:xli, 1:340, 2:931
        • Chun Tae-il, 2:818
        • Chutes and Ladders (Newman), 1:156
        • CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), 2:930
        • Cicero, 1:xxxiv
        • Cieryn, Thomas, 1:34
        • Cigar Makers’ International Union, 2:934
        • CIO. See
          • Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
        • circuits of profit, 1:228
        • Cisco, 1:109
        • Ciulla, J., 2:946
        • civil rights, 1:24
          • unions and, 2:931
          • women's movements, 2:938
        • Civil Rights Act of 1964, 1:xli, 1:180, 1:329, 2:770
        • Civil War, U.S.
          • alternative organizations and cooperatives, 1:3
          • labor unions resurging, 1:xxxvii
        • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 1:463
        • Civilization at the Crossroads (Richta), 1:11
        • claims-making power, 2:655–657
        • Claringbould, Inge, 2:885
        • Clark, Dick, 1:150
        • Class Acts (Sherman), 1:311
        • Class and Conformity (Kohn, Schooler), 2:680–681
        • class and families, 1:90–92. See also
          • social class
          • process of mobility, 1:91
          • rags to riches, 1:91
          • reproduction and inheritance, 1:91
          • social class and life course, 1:90–91
        • class consciousness, 2:572
        • class effect, 2:725
        • class struggle, 2:572
        • classless society, 1:139
        • CLC (Canadian Labour Congress), 2:926
        • clerical work, 1:92–96
          • African Americans, 1:93
          • call centers, 1:96
          • contemporary, 1:95–96
          • older women and racial minorities, 1:93–95
          • World War II, 1:93
          • young women and, 1:92–93
        • Cleveland, Grover, 1:xxxviii
        • Clinton, Bill, 1:267, 1:454, 2:565, 2:854
          • FMLA signed by, 1:441
          • trade representatives, 2:669
        • clockwork of male career, 2:551
        • closed shop, 1:507, 2:927
        • CLUW (Coalition of Labor Union Women), 1:108, 2:937–938
        • CNAs (certified nursing assistants), 1:68–69
        • CNW (certified nurse-midwife), 1:363–364
        • Coalition of Black Trade Unionists (CBTU), 2:937
        • Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), 1:108, 2:937–938
        • COASATU (Congress of South African Trade Unions), 2:922
        • Coase, Ronald, 1:448, 2:670–671
        • Cobble, Dorothy Sue, 2:936
        • COBRA (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act), 1:509
        • Coca-Cola, 2:838
        • Cochran, P., 2:946
        • Cockburn, Cynthia, 1:322, 1:324
        • coercion
          • Braverman and, 1:51
          • Burawoy and, 1:52
          • Michels and, 1:57
        • Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, mine strike, 1:xxxviii
        • coffee, 1:xxxvi
        • cognitive biases, 1:96–98, 2:1016
          • action plan, 1:98
          • information framing, 1:97
          • information processing, 1:97
          • mechanisms, 1:96–97
          • quality of outcomes, 1:97
          • risky shift, 1:97
          • sunk cost, 1:98
        • Cohen, Stanley, 1:22
        • Cold War, 1:14
          • ideology, 2:665, 2:667
          • industrial military complex, 1:109
          • limitations on capital flow, 2:690
          • unions and, 2:930–931
        • Coleman, James, 1:391
        • collective bargaining, 1:xli, 1:xliii, 1:98–103
          • defined, 1:98
          • encouraging, 1:347
          • in factory work, 1:264
          • during Great Depression, 1:99
          • historical overview, 1:99–100
          • ILO and, 1:99
          • impact and consequences, 1:102–103
          • labor law, 1:507–508
          • NLRA and, 1:348
          • relevance and international organization, 1:100–102
          • research, 1:99
        • collectivist democratic decision making, 1:4
        • college tuition, 2:711
        • collegia, 1:xxxiv
        • Collins, Harry, 2:858
        • Collins, Jim, 1:150
        • Collins, Patricia Hill, 1:278
        • Collins, Sharon M., 1:23–24
        • Collinson, D., 1:323
        • colonial North America, 1:xxxvi
        • color-blind racism, 2:724
        • Colt, Samuel, 1:6
        • Comer, Edward, 2:719
        • Coming of Post-Industrial Society, The (Bell), 1:11–12, 1:28
        • command economies, 1:103–106, 2:1016
        • Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools (CGENS), 1:424
        • Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), 2:660–661
        • Committee on Freedom of Association (CFA), 1:397
        • commodity fetishism, 1:118
        • commodity production, 1:450
        • common law, 1:507. See also
          • contract, employment (common law)
        • Commons, John, 2:916, 2:930
        • communications. See also
          • e-mail
          • information and communication technologies (ICT)
          • telecommunications workers
          • asynchronous, 1:229
          • pushed, 1:229
          • virtual, 1:229
        • communism, 1:xxxvii, 1:428
          • Brazil, 1:47
          • France, 1:299
        • Communist Manifesto (Marx, Engels), 1:xxxvii, 1:428
        • communitarianism, 1:535
        • communities. See also
          • union and community partnerships
        • Community Form (C-form), 2:646–647
        • Compa, Lance, 1:397
        • comparable worth, 1:106–109
          • amount of change in, 1:107
          • correcting policies, 1:442
          • in female labor force, 1:107–108
          • privatization and, 1:108
        • compensation
          • compensating differentials, 1:315
          • insurance benefits, 1:19
          • lockstep, 2:1019
        • competition, 1:xxxv
          • automobile, 1:xli
          • professionalization and, 2:715
          • retirement and, 2:743
          • seniority and, 2:758
          • social interactions at work, 2:793–794
          • upward mobility, 1:157
        • complaints
          • human rights campaigns and, 1:397–398
          • research, 2:798
          • social interactions at work, 2:798
        • complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), 1:364
        • composite labor market intermediaries, 1:516
        • Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act (Hughes Act), 2:843
        • Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, 1:463
        • computer programmers, 1:109–110. See also
          • information technology workers
          • Internet
          • social media
          • deskilling, 1:110
          • employment and challenges, 1:110
          • job requirements and qualifications, 1:109–110
          • outsourcing and offshoring, 1:110
          • soft skills, 1:109
          • Taylorism, 1:110
        • computer system design, 1:xliii
        • computer widows and orphans, 1:110–113
          • alternative workplaces, 1:111
          • boundary blurring, 1:111–112
          • gendered experience, 1:112
        • computer-based production, 2:737
        • computerization, 1:161
        • computer-mediated work, 1:113–117
          • abstraction and division of learning, 1:113–115
          • competent performance, 1:116
          • functionaries, 1:114
          • networking and distribution, 1:115–116
          • thinking at the interface, 1:114
        • conceptual clarity, 1:258
        • confidentiality, 1:203–204
        • conflict
        • Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
          • AFL merger, 1:xli
          • formation, 1:xl
          • unions and, 2:930
        • Congress of Mexican Workers (CTM), 2:586
        • Congress of South African Trade Unions (COASATU), 2:922
        • Congressional conservative coalition, 1:xli
        • conjoint organizational forms, 2:709–710
        • Connell, Catherine, 1:199
        • Connell, Raewyn, 2:550
        • Connolly, Helen, 1:156
        • Conrad, Charles, 1:185
        • Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA), 1:509
        • conspiracy, 1:xxxviii
        • Constitution, U.S., 2:658
        • constructive dismissal, 2:1016–1017
        • consultants, 2:652
        • consumers, 2:1017. See also
          • boycotts, consumer
          • Internet, 2:718
          • National Consumers League, 1:41
        • consumption, 1:2, 1:117–120. See also
          • boycotts, consumer
          • customers
        • Contested Terrain (Edwards), 1:45, 1:219, 1:221
        • contingent work, 1:120–122, 2:634. See also
          • at-will employment
          • benefits
          • boundaryless careers
          • disposable workers
          • free agents
          • freelancing
          • risk shift
          • self-employment
          • underemployed workers
        • contract, employment (common law), 1:122–124
        • contract slavery, 2:783
        • contract workers, 1:124–125. See also
          • call centers
          • day labor
          • free agents
          • freelancing
          • rights and protections, 1:125
          • third parties, 1:124–125
          • women's and men's employment, temporal dimensions of, 2:983
        • contracts, 1:126–127. See also
          • call centers
          • contract workers
          • free agents
          • freelancing
          • outsourcing and subcontracting
          • self-employment
        • control
        • control, workplace, 1:2, 1:127–134.
        • See also
          • deskilling and upgrading
          • productivity
          • skilled work
          • teamwork
          • work redesign
        • Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 1:84
        • convergence
          • market fundamentalism, 2:565–566
          • markets and economies, 2:569
        • COO (chief operating officer), 1:244
        • Cooks and Waiters Union, 1:xxxix
        • cool industries, 1:134–135
        • Cooney, Theresa, 1:500
        • Cooper, Catherine, 1:146
        • Cooperative Home Care Associates, 1:4
        • cooperatives, 2:653. See also
          • alternative organizations and cooperatives
        • co-opt, 2:719
        • coordinated market economies, 2:569
        • coping strategies, 1:174
        • Cornell Couples and Career Study, 1:112
        • corporate capitalism, 1:114
        • corporate citizenship, 2:804
        • corporate closet, 1:136–137
        • Corporate Closet, The (Woods, Lucas), 1:136
        • corporate conscience, 2:804
        • corporate ideology, 2:732
        • corporate loyalty, 2:650
        • corporate social responsibility. See
          • social responsibility, corporate
        • Corporate Voices for Working Families, 2:679
        • corporate welfare, 1:490
        • corporate wives, 1:266
        • Correll, Shelley, 1:182, 2:606
        • corrosion of character, 2:705
        • Corus Entertainment, 1:309
        • cosmopolitanism, 1:144–145
        • costs. See also
          • profits
        • cottage industry, 1:xxxv, 2:1007
        • cotton, 1:xxxiv, 1:xxxv, 1:xxxvi
        • cotton gin, 1:xxxvi
        • Coupland, Douglas, 2:1020
        • covenants, 1:513
        • Cowgirls, 2:874
        • Cox, John W., 2:780
        • CPA (certified public accountant), 2:561
        • CPS. See
          • Current Population Survey (CPS)
        • craft consumption, 2:718
        • craft work, 1:26, 1:137–139. See also
          • tacit skills
          • African Americans and, 1:138
          • formation of markets, 1:137–138
          • gender and racial barriers, 1:138
          • Industrial Revolution, 1:137
        • craftsmen, 1:xxxiv
        • Crain, Marion, 1:199, 1:408
        • CRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child), 1:84
        • creative class, 1:139–140. See also
          • social class
        • credential inflation, 1:217
        • crime as work, 1:140–141. See also
          • deception
          • white-collar crime
          • research, 1:140
          • UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime, 1:400
        • CRM (customer relationship management), 2:557
        • crop rotation, 1:xxxv
        • Cross, M., 2:1009
        • Cross, R., 2:624
        • cross-cutting subcultures, 2:840
        • cross-dressing, 1:531
        • cross-functional work models, 1:328
        • Crouch, Colin, 1:99–100, 2:917
        • crowdsourcing, 2:653
        • Crozier, Michel, 1:58
        • CTM (Congress of Mexican Workers), 2:586
        • CTW (Change to Win Coalition), 2:932
        • cubicles, 1:141–143. See also
          • workplace
          • enthusiasts and critics, 1:142
          • Herman Mill Company and, 1:142
          • Taylorism and, 1:142
          • types and numbers, 1:141
        • cult of domesticity, 2:649–650
        • cultural capital, 1:143–145, 2:1017
        • Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism, The (Bell), 1:11
        • cultural intermediaries, 1:539
        • culture, employment, 1:145–148
          • cultural capital and social closure, 1:146–147
          • culture production, 1:147
          • global change, 1:147–148
          • research, 1:146
          • shared values and norms, 1:145–146
          • social identity theory, 1:146
          • during World War II, 1:147
        • culture, workplace, 1:148–152. See also
          • emotional labor
          • “McDonaldization”
          • Starbucks employment model
          • subcultures
          • tokenism
        • culture of financial dominance, 2:956–958
        • culture production, 1:147
        • Cultures of Solidarity (Fantasia), 1:53
        • Cummings, J. N., 2:624
        • Current Employment Statistics (CES), 1:499
        • Current Population Survey (CPS), 1:289, 1:379
          • on labor force participation, 1:499, 1:501
          • on self-employment, 2:754
        • customer relationship management (CRM), 2:557
        • customers, 1:130–131. See also
          • consumption
        • custress, 1:174
        • cybernetic controls, 2:691
      D
      • da Silva, Luiz Ignacio (“Lula”), 1:47–49, 2:667
      • DADT (Don't Ask, Don't Tell), 2:590–591
      • Dalits, 1:10
      • Dalton, D., 1:289
      • Dalton, Melville, 1:149, 1:157
      • Damaske, Sarah, 2:752
      • Daniels, Arlene, 1:454, 1:455
      • Daniels, Mitch, 2:931
      • dark side of flexibility, 2:691
      • Dartmouth College, 2:682
      • Davis, G., 1:287, 2:955
      • Davis, Kelly, 2:895
      • Davis, Kingsley, 1:428, 2:941
      • Davis-Bacon Act, 1:348
      • Davis-Moore theory, 1:428
      • day labor, 1:153–155, 1:419, 2:1017. See also
        • call centers
        • free agents
        • freelancing
        • outsourcing and subcontracting
        • worker centers
        • formal agencies, 1:154
        • gloves-off economy, 1:153
        • informal markets, 1:153–154
        • just-in-time labor, 1:154
        • organizing, 1:154
        • work today, pay today, 1:154
      • day nurseries, 1:xxxviii, 1:xl
      • DDS (doctor of dental surgery), 1:362
      • de Dreu, Carsten, 2:795
      • dead-end jobs, 1:155–157, 2:854
        • fast-food restaurants, 1:156
        • low wages, 1:155
      • Deal, Terrence, 1:150
      • debates
        • on employee participation, 1:239–240
        • over casual labor and informal economy, 1:78
      • Debian, 2:647
      • Debs, Eugene, 1:xxxviii, 2:836, 2:928
      • debt-bondage slavery, 2:783
      • decennial employer-employee data (DEED), 2:641
      • decent work
      • deception, 1:157–159
        • impression management, 1:158
        • performance and presentation, 1:158–159
        • reasons for, 1:157–158
        • research, 1:159
        • team players, 1:158
        • workplace, 1:157
      • Deciding What's News (Gans), 2:578
      • decision making, 1:258
        • collectivist democratic, 1:4
        • on fathers at home, 1:275
        • top-down, 2:552
      • decision support systems (DSS), 2:556
      • decriminalization, 2:767
      • DEED (decennial employer-employee data), 2:641
      • deep acting, 1:369, 1:407
      • Deepwater Horizon explosion, 1:151
      • defined-contribution plans, 2:749
      • definitional labor, 1:338
      • dehumanization, 2:554
      • deindustrialization, 2:735, 2:1017
        • disappearing work and, 1:172
        • ESOPs and, 1:241
        • process of, 1:246
      • Deindustrialization of America, The (Bluestone, Harrison), 2:735
      • Delgado, Hector, 1:397
      • Dell Corporation, 2:736
      • Dellinger, Kirstin, 1:136, 1:322, 2:770
      • Delta Airlines, 1:369
      • democracy, 1:xxxvii, 2:947
      • demographics. See also
        • households, changing demographic composition of
        • authority gap, 1:10
        • displaced workers, 1:183
        • labor force, 1:536
        • labor force participation, 1:499
        • nonstandard hours, 2:894
        • relational, 1:253
        • relational demography, 1:253
        • tipping, 2:882
        • underemployed workers, 2:900–901
      • Denegri-Knott, Janice, 2:718
      • Deng Ziaoping, 2:619
      • Denison, E., 1:218–219
      • Denner, Jill, 1:146
      • dental profession, 1:362
      • deontological ethics theory, 1:257
      • Department of Energy (DOE), 1:200
      • Department of Labor, U.S., 1:107, 1:502
        • Bracero program, 1:351
        • on displaced workers, 1:183
        • on drug-testing, 2:843
        • on employed person, 2:865
        • immigrant workers and, 1:418
        • on moonlighting, 2:602
        • on part-time work, 2:678
        • standards enforcement, 2:903
        • on workforce development, 2:1002
      • deprofessionalized, 1:361
      • deregulation
        • “big squeeze” and, 1:21
        • market fundamentalism, 2:565–566
        • trucking, 1:xli
      • deserving poor, 1:278
      • deskilling and upgrading, 1:159–162, 1:450, 2:572, 2:1017. See also
        • Braverman, Harry
        • skilling
        • tacit skills
        • training and skill acquisition
        • blue-collar jobs, 1:27–28
        • computer programmers, 1:110
        • computerization and, 1:161
        • definitions and examples, 1:160–161
        • mixed effects model, 1:161
        • technology and implications for skilling, 1:161–162
      • Despres, Charles, 2:684
      • Detroit Revolutionary Union Movement (DRUM), 2:939
      • Deutsch, Francine, 1:192
      • devaluation. See
        • labor, devaluation of
      • DeVault, Marjorie, 1:118
      • Devey, R., 1:76
      • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), 1:531
      • Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 1:22
      • Dicke, Thomas, 1:301
      • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), 1:107, 1:161, 1:498, 2:642, 2:682
      • digital intermediaries, in job searching and preparation, 1:472
      • dignity, 1:162–165. See also
        • meaning
        • neoliberalism
        • Protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism
        • values
        • abuse and, 1:163
        • autonomy and, 1:163
        • decent work and, 1:163–164
        • dimensions, divisions, denials, development, 1:164
        • employee involvement and, 1:163
        • mismanagement and, 1:163
        • status and, 1:162
      • Dill, Bonnie Thorton, 1:385
      • DiMaggio, Paul, 1:58, 1:252
      • direct sales work, 1:xli, 1:165–167.
      • See also
        • emotional labor
        • retail employment
        • brainwashing, 1:165
        • charismatic organization, 1:165
        • gender, family, and emotional labor, 1:166
        • globalization of, 1:166
        • normative control, 1:165
        • salaries, 1:165
        • sensebreaking, 1:165
      • direct selling organizations (DSOs), 1:165–166
      • dirty work, 1:167–168, 2:762. See also
        • service work
      • disabled workers, 1:168–171
        • Americans with Disabilities Act, 1:168, 1:200
        • employment situation, 1:169
        • Great Britain, 1:170–171
        • One-Stops, 1:169
        • public policies, 1:171
        • Social Security and, 1:170
        • United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 1:168
        • United States, 1:169–170
      • disappearing work, 1:171–173
        • deindustrialization and, 1:172
        • end of work, 1:172–173
        • globalization and, 1:172
      • discipline, 1:294–296, 1:408, 2:560
      • Discipline and Punish (Foucault), 1:294–296
      • discouraged workers, 1:173–175.
      • See also
        • underemployed workers
        • custress, 1:174
        • disengagement, 1:174–175
        • resiliency and coping strategies, 1:174
      • discredited identities, 1:532
      • discrimination, employment, 1:8, 1:175–177.
      • See also
        • gender gap
        • glass ceiling
        • sexual harassment
      • discrimination: institutional, statistical, and direct, 1:177–182
      • disenchantment, 1:54
      • disengagement, 1:174–175
      • Disney, 1:150
      • Disneyization, 1:309, 2:739
      • displaced workers, 1:182–184.
      • See also
        • underemployed workers
        • demographics, 1:183
        • Department of Labor on, 1:183
        • effects, 1:183–184
        • policy initiatives, 1:184
        • reasons for, 1:183
      • display rules, 1:232
      • disposable workers, 1:184–186. See also
        • at-will employment
        • casual labor and informal economy
        • contingent work
        • free agents
        • freelancing
        • risk shift
      • dispotif, 1:295
      • Distinction (Bourdieu), 1:39
      • distinction work, 1:117
      • distractions, online, 1:186–188. See also
        • high-tech and Internet industry, employment in
        • Internet
      • distribution, 1:388. See also
        • occupations, distribution of
      • diversity programs, 1:188–190
      • division of labor, 1:xxxviii, 1:25–26, 1:211, 2:560.
      • See also
        • Durkheim, Émile
        • international division of labor
        • Smith, Adam
      • Division of Labor in Society (Durkheim), 1:xxxviii, 1:211
      • division of learning, 1:113–115
      • Division Street (Terkel), 2:880
      • DIY, 2:718
      • DMD (doctor of dental medicine), 1:362
      • DNA methods, 1:22
      • Dobbin, Frank, 1:441, 2:682, 2:683
      • doctor of dental medicine (DMD), 1:362
      • doctor of dental surgery (DDS), 1:362
      • Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement (DRUM), 2:931
      • Dodson, Lisa, 2:604
      • DOE (Department of Energy), 1:200
      • Doeringer, Peter, 1:447–448, 1:521, 2:566
      • Doerr, Laurel Smith, 1:328
      • doing gender,” 1:190–192. See also
        • gender gap
        • gendered work identities
        • lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) workers
        • occupational segregation by gender and race
        • sexuality
        • tokenism
        • women in men's jobs
      • Domberger, Simon, 2:670
      • domestic work, paid, 1:192–195. See also
        • care work
        • housework
        • nonmarket work
        • reproductive labor
        • service work
        • work transfer
        • worker centers
      • domestic workers, 1:xxxv
        • blurred boundaries between home and market, 1:32–33
        • decline, 1:xxxvi
        • defined, 2:1017
        • for men's clothing, 1:xxxvii
        • slavery and, 2:762
      • Donato, Katherine, 2:765
      • Donovan, Michael, 2:861
      • Donovan Proposal, 1:83
      • Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT), 2:590–591
      • DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles), 1:107, 1:161, 1:498, 2:642, 2:682
      • dot-com boom, 2:627
      • double sale, 1:356
      • Dow Chemical, 1:412
      • downsizing, 2:1017
        • “big squeeze” and, 1:20
        • restructuring, corporate, 2:735
      • downward mobility, 1:195–198
        • experiences, 1:197
        • falling from grace, 1:197
        • foreclosures, 1:197
        • glass ceiling, 2:726
        • Great Gatsby Curve, 1:196
        • historical period and, 1:196
        • inequality and, 1:196
        • proposed mechanisms, 1:196–197
      • Dreeben, Robert, 1:216
      • dress codes, 1:198–200, 1:309
        • creating and enforcing, 1:199
        • industrial to postindustrial, 1:198–199
        • strategies, 1:199
      • Dresser, Laura, 1:153
      • droughts, 1:xl
      • Drucker, Peter, 1:489–490
      • drug dealing, 1:140–141
      • drug testing, 1:200–205, 2:841, 2:843–844.
      • See also
        • substance abuse
        • Department of Labor on, 2:843
        • physicians role, 1:202–203
        • prevention, treatment, deterrence, 1:204
        • privacy and confidentiality, 1:203–204
        • reasons for, 1:200
        • screen for unimpaired, 1:201–202
      • Drug-Free Workplace Act, 1:200
      • DRUM (Detroit Revolutionary Union Movement), 2:939
      • DRUM (Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement), 2:931
      • DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual), 1:531
      • DSOs (direct selling organizations), 1:165–166
      • DSS (decision support systems), 2:556
      • du Gay, Paul, 2:740
      • dual labor markets, 1:205–208, 1:465, 1:519–520
        • internal labor markets, 1:206
        • origination, 1:205
        • polarization of jobs, 1:207
        • primary labor markets, 1:206
        • segmented labor markets, 1:206–207
      • dual-career couples, 1:208–211, 1:382–3823.
      • See also
        • second shift
      • Duffy, Mignon, 1:69
      • Duke University, 2:838
      • Dukes v. Walmart, 1:317
      • Duncan, Greg, 2:604
      • Dunifon, Rachel, 2:604
      • DuPont, 2:842
      • Durable Inequality (Tilly, Charles), 2:655
      • Durand, Jean-Pierre, 2:859
      • Durkheim, Émile, 1:xxxviii, 1:211–213
        • abnormal division of labor, 1:212–213
        • anomie, 1:162
        • blue-collar jobs and, 1:26
        • community identity, 2:945
        • division of labor, 1:450
        • growth of division of labor, 1:212, 1:406
        • mechanical to organic solidarity, 1:211–212
        • nontractual elements, 1:126
        • worker discontent, 2:576
      • Dust Bowl, 1:xl
      • Dutta, Addie, 2:779
      • Dutton, Eli, 2:740
      • Dworkin, Andrea, 2:767
      E
      • Eagly, Alice, 1:330–331
      • EAI (enterprise application integration), 2:557
      • EAPs (employee assistance programs), 2:841–844
      • early retirement, 1:479
      • earned income tax credits (EITC), 1:511, 2:1009
      • earned value management (EVM), 2:717
      • earnings. See also
        • income
        • pensions
        • salaries
        • Social Security
        • wages
      • Eastman Kodak, 2:842, 2:977
      • e-business, 2:556
      • e-collaboration, 2:556
      • e-commerce, 2:556, 2:557
      • economic development
      • economic efficiency, 2:1017
      • economics, 2:558
        • birth of, 1:xl
        • economic analysis of law, 2:692
        • economic disobedience, 2:604–605
        • economic liberalization, 2:666
        • economic necessity, 1:55
        • economic sphere, 2:568
        • economic supermen, 2:721
        • macroeconomics, 1:xl
        • pathways to security, 2:1004
        • performance, 1:241–242
        • supply-side, 1:xli
        • undocumented workers, 2:905
        • World War II shift, 1:393
      • economies. See
        • markets and economies
      • Economist, 1:xlii
      • Economy and Society (Weber), 1:55
      • ecumenism, 1:xxxviii
      • Eddie Bauer, 2:838
      • Edelman, Lauren, 2:683
      • education and work, 1:215–219. See also
        • home schooling
        • learning
        • overqualified and overeducated
        • schooling
        • training and skill acquisition
        • workforce development
        • college majors and work outcomes, 1:218
        • credential inflation and overeducation, 1:217
        • economic development, 1:218–219
        • educational reimbursement, 1:18
        • employability and, 1:236–237
        • free agents, 1:303
        • freelancing, 1:307
        • human capital, 1:219
        • labor market intermediaries, 1:515–526
        • opting out and, 2:648–649
        • payoffs, 1:219
        • preparation, 1:215–217
        • professionalization and, 2:714
        • vocationalization, 1:217–218
        • worker centers and, 2:1001
      • educational inflation, 2:673
      • Edwards, Richard, 1:27, 1:45, 1:128, 1:219–222
        • defining control, 1:129–130
        • labor markets and divisions, 1:221
        • simple, technical, and bureaucratic control, 1:220–221
      • EEO (equal employment opportunity), 1:23, 1:395, 2:1018
      • EEOC. See
        • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
      • EEOC v. Sears, Roebuck & Company, 1:178
      • efficiency
      • e-finance, 2:557
      • egalitarian communities, 1:xxxiv
      • e-government, 2:557
      • Ehrenreich, Barbara, 1:480, 2:686
      • EI (emotional intelligence), 2:813
      • eight-hour day, 1:xxxviii, 1:222–223.
      • See also
        • Fordism and post-Fordism
        • 24/7 economy
        • weekend
      • Eilbirt, Henry, 2:682
      • Eisenhower, Dwight, 1:440
      • EITC (earned income tax credits), 1:511, 2:1009
      • Elder, Glenn, 2:865
      • elder care, 1:223–227. See also
        • pensions
        • retirement
        • Social Security
        • work transfer
      • elections, 1:xxxvi, 2:660, 2:805
      • Electric Works, 1:309
      • electrification, 1:xxxvii
      • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), 1:109, 1:365–366
      • electronic point of sale (EPOs), 1:129
      • electronic surveillance, 1:227–228
        • employee activities, 1:227
        • function creep, 1:227–228
        • privacy and, 1:228
      • Electronic Supervisor, The, 1:277
      • Elias, Peter, 2:915
      • Elsbach, K. D., 1:259–260
      • Ely, Robin, 1:189–190, 1:192, 1:328
      • e-mail, 1:228–230
        • asynchronous communication, 1:229
        • flaming, 1:229
        • pushed communication, 1:229
        • virtual communication, 1:229
      • embezzlement, 1:140
      • embodied cultural capital, 1:143
      • emergency medical service (EMS), 1:34
      • emotion, 1:230–232
        • complexity in organizations, 1:231–232
        • emotional distancing, 2:732
        • management, 1:276
        • as mode of organizing, 1:231
      • emotional intelligence (EI), 2:813
      • emotional labor, 1:2, 1:130, 1:232–234, 2:1017–1018. See also
        • direct sales work
        • labor, aesthetic
        • retail employment
      • employability, 1:234–238
      • employee assistance programs (EAPs), 2:841–843
      • Employee Free Choice Act of 2009, 2:932
      • Employee Ownership (Blasi), 1:241
      • employee participation, 1:238–240
        • debates, 1:239–240
        • differences in implementation, 1:240
        • growth of, 1:239
      • Employee Retirement and Income Security Act (ERISA), 1:349, 1:507, 1:509, 1:511, 1:513
      • Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), 1:240–242
      • employee voice, 1:242–244. See also
        • dignity
        • loyalty
        • meaning
        • values
      • employees, 2:1018
        • AFSCME, 2:918, 2:932
        • electronic surveillance, 1:227
        • employee-owned organization, 2:652
        • involvement, 1:163
        • NFFE, 2:918
        • SEIU, 1:422, 2:828, 2:837, 2:932
        • union membership, 2:915
        • WCCME, 2:918
      • employers
      • employment, 1:xxxv.See also
        • at-will employment
        • contract, employment (common law)
        • culture, employment
        • discrimination, employment
        • high-tech and Internet industry, employment in
        • part-time work
        • retail employment
        • self-employment
        • Starbucks employment model
        • teen employment
        • underemployed workers
        • unemployment
        • Canada, 1:65
        • computer programmers, 1:110
        • contingent, 2:634
        • disabled workers, 1:169
        • effects of mergers and acquisitions, 2:584
        • flexible, 1:513
        • full, 2:1018
        • government maintaining, 1:xl
        • informal, 2:634
        • Japan security, 1:457
        • laws, 1:346, 1:349–350
        • multinational corporations relations, 2:616–617
        • National Association of Employment Management, 2:682
        • New Deal, 1:347
        • precarious, 2:634
        • sectors, 2:998
        • youth, 1:536–537
      • Employment and Unemployment (Jahoda), 1:471–472
      • Employment Managers Association, 2:682
      • Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), 1:534
      • employment relationship, 1:244–246
        • employment law and, 1:245
        • third party relationships, 1:245
      • EMS (emergency medical service), 1:34
      • Enclosure Acts, 1:525
      • End of Ideology, The (Bell), 1:11
      • end of work, 1:246–247
        • Marx on, 1:246
        • technology and, 1:246
        • during World War II, 1:246
      • End of Work, The (Rifkin), 1:246
      • energy crisis of 1973, 1:xli
      • enforcement
        • EEOC, 1:438
        • institutional, statistical, and direct discrimination law, 1:180–181
        • labor law, 1:511
      • Engels, Friedrich, 1:xxxvii, 1:277–278
        • factory systems, 2:717
        • on housework, 1:383
        • parallel process of production, 2:761
        • on sexuality, 2:774
      • engineers, 1:247–251, 2:558
        • career paths, 1:249–250
        • Engineer's Council for Professional Development, 1:249
        • future of, 1:250
        • National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, 1:249
        • participation and trends, 1:249
        • professionalization of, 1:247–248
      • England, Paula, 2:551, 2:606, 2:761
      • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), 1:109, 1:365–366
      • Enkel, E., 1:446
      • Enlightenment, 1:277
      • enterprise application integration (EAI), 2:557
      • enterprise systems (ES), 2:556–557
      • entrepreneurship, 1:251–254, 2:947, 2:1018.
      • See also
        • free agents
        • freelancing
        • self-employment
        • definitions, 1:251–252
        • franchises, 1:303
        • innovation and, 1:252
        • male model of career and, 2:551
        • small business and, 2:787
        • small-scale, 2:549
        • as social process, 1:252–253
        • social stratification and, 1:253
        • Weber on, 1:251–252
        • women and, 1:253
      • entry-level work, 1:254–256
      • nature of change in required abilities, 1:254–255
      • beyond skills and abilities, 1:255
      • EPA. See
        • Equal Pay Act (EPA)
      • Eparaz, Louis Edgar, 1:398
      • EPOs (electronic point of sale), 1:129
      • equal employment opportunity (EEO), 1:23, 1:395, 2:1018
      • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
        • authority, 1:181
        • creation, 1:350
        • enforcement, 1:438
        • establishment, 1:317
        • funding cuts, 1:351
      • equal pay, 1:108
      • Equal Pay Act (EPA), 1:xli, 1:106
        • amending FLSA, 1:349, 1:438
        • gender equality, 1:437
        • pay gap and, 1:349
        • requirements, 1:510
      • equity, 1:413, 2:560
        • equitable gatekeepers, 1:313
        • gendered organizations, 1:320
        • motivation, 2:614
      • Erez, Miriam, 1:446
      • Erickson, Karla, 2:649
      • ERISA (Employee Retirement and Income Security Act), 1:349, 1:507, 1:509, 1:511, 1:513
      • ES (enterprise systems), 2:556–557
      • ESOPs. See
        • Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
      • Espeland, Wendy, 2:627
      • Esping-Andersen, Gosta, 1:326, 2:804–805
      • esprit de corps, 1:57, 2:560
      • ESS (executive support system), 2:556
      • estrangement, 1:1
      • ethical egoism, 1:256
      • ethics, 1:256–258. See also
        • social responsibility, corporate
      • ethnicity. See also
        • race
        • race and ethnic groups
        • emotional labor, 1:233
        • ethnic enclaves, 1:253
        • ethnic hierarchies, 1:105
        • ethnic inclusivity, 1:xxxvii
        • labor force participation, 1:501
        • polarized workforce, 2:688–689
        • professionalization and, 2:714
      • Etzioni, Amitai, 1:156, 2:756
      • EU. See
        • European Union (EU)
      • European colonization, 1:xxxiv–xxxv
      • European Union (EU), 1:76, 1:336
        • directives, 1:342
        • economic restructuring, 2:666
        • knowledge workers, 1:489
        • Maastricht Treaty and, 2:620
        • New Skills for New Jobs, 2:781
      • European Working Conditions Survey, 2:781
      • Eustace, Elizabeth, 2:732
      • everyday resistance, 2:730
      • EVM (earned value management), 2:717
      • EVP (Exchange Visitor Program), 1:423
      • exceptionalism, 1:8, 2:921
      • Exchange Visitor Program (EVP), 1:423
      • executive support system (ESS), 2:556
      • expense reimbursement, 1:19
      • expert power, 2:702
      • expert service work, 2:757
      • exploitation, 1:119
        • consumption, 1:119
        • overexploitation, 2:719
        • “prosumer” and, 2:719
        • social class, 2:571–572
      • exports, 1:xxxv, 2:737, 2:849
      • extractive industries, 2:1018. See also
        • mining
      • extrinsic motivation, 2:613
      F
      • face time, 1:259–261
        • alternative work arrangements, 1:260–261
        • performance appraisal, 1:259–260
        • upward mobility and, 1:266
      • Facebook, 1:516–517, 2:799
        • active users, 2:800
        • friendships, 2:802
        • women and, 2:801
      • Facebook as labor, 1:118–119, 1:261–263
        • business model, 1:262
        • prosumption and future, 1:263
        • users as prosumers, 1:262
        • voluntarism and friends, 1:262–263
      • factories. See also
        • industry
        • manufacturing
        • productivity
      • Factory Act of 1833, 1:340
      • factory work, globalization of, 1:263–265
        • advanced and emerging economies, 1:265
        • collective bargaining in, 1:264
        • golden age of mass production, 1:264
        • Industrial Revolution and, 1:263
        • Taylorism in, 1:264
        • types of work, 1:264–265
      • Fair Labor Association, 1:42
      • Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 1:xl, 1:xli, 2:846, 2:982
        • child labor and, 1:83
        • coverage, 1:398
        • effectiveness, 1:351
        • eight-hour day and, 1:222–223
        • EPA amending, 1:349, 1:438
        • lawsuits, 1:511
        • minimum wage established, 1:508, 2:593
        • requirements, 1:508, 1:512
        • setting basic standards, 1:348
      • fair trade, 1:43, 2:947, 2:1018. See also
        • United Students for Fair Trade
      • Fairlie, Robert, 2:788
      • fairness
        • Paycheck Fairness Act, 1:317
        • second shift and, 2:752
        • ULPs, 1:348
      • falling from grace, 1:197
      • family. See also
        • class and families
        • fathers at home
        • balancing work and family, 2:751–752
        • direct sales work and, 1:166
        • Family and Medical Leave Act, 1:8
        • family devotion schema, 2:610
        • family-friendly jobs, 1:315
        • ideal worker and, 1:404
        • leave, 1:18
        • NFCDP, 1:225
        • paid family leave program, 1:xlii
        • paid leave program, 1:xlii
        • Work, Family, and Equity Index, 1:413
        • work hard and live poor, 2:603–604
      • Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 1:225, 1:329, 2:928, 2:938
        • Bush and, 1:441
        • Clinton signing, 1:441
        • compliance, 1:267
        • correcting policies, 1:441–442
        • loopholes, 1:349
        • passage, 1:267, 1:272
        • protections, 1:272
        • qualifications, 2:677
        • requirements, 1:413, 1:509
        • shop stewards and, 2:928
      • family-responsive corporations, 1:266–270
      • family-supportive state and federal policies, 1:271–274
      • Fannie Mae, 2:975
      • Fantasia, Rick, 1:53
      • farmers, 1:xxxvii. See also
        • immigrant workers
      • Fast Food, Fast Talk (Leidner), 1:408, 2:761
      • fast-food restaurants, 1:156
      • FAT (Authentic Labor Front), 2:588
      • fathers at home, 1:274–276. See also
        • family
        • culture shift, 1:274
        • decision, 1:275
        • good fathers, 1:315
        • research, 1:275
      • Fayol, Henri, 2:559–560
      • FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), 2:974
      • FDI. See
        • foreign direct investment (FDI)
      • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2:974
      • Federal Labor Relations Act, 1:xli
      • federalism, 1:64
      • Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, 1: xxxviii
      • feeling management, 1:407
      • feeling rules, 1:232, 1:276–277
        • African Americans and, 1:277
        • bottom side of ideology, 1:276
        • complexity, 1:276
        • emotion management, 1:276
        • social contract, 1:276
      • female typing, 1:279
      • female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs), 1:320
      • feminine skills, 1:317
      • feminist theories of work, 1:277–280
        • gender and globalization, 1:280
        • gendered organizations, 1:278–279
        • Marxism, 1:277–278
        • Parsonian functionalism, 1:278
        • sexual harassment and, 1:279
      • feminization of work, 1:280–283.
      • See also
        • occupational segregation by gender and race
        • pink collar
        • analyzing, 1:281–282
        • glass ceilings and escalators, 1:282
        • hazardous jobs and, 1:282
        • history, 1:281
        • marriage bars, 1:281
        • sex segregation, 1:282
        • wage inequality, 1:280
      • fencing stolen goods, 1:140
      • Fennell, Mary, 2:709
      • Fernandez-Kelly, Patricia, 1:451
      • Fertile Crescent, 1:xxxiii
      • fight-or-flight, 2:830
      • Filene's, 2:847
      • film industry workers, 1:283–286
      • financial crisis of 2008, 1:13
      • financial security, 1:237–238
      • financial support, 1:xxxv
      • Fiorito, Jack, 2:915–916
      • Firefox, 2:646
      • firms, 1:286–288. See also
        • markets and economies
        • capital-intensive, 1:341
        • corporate welfare, 1:490
        • from Great Depression to 1970s, 1:287
        • Japan, 1:461
        • job creation within, 1:463–464
        • knowledge workers and, 1:489–490
        • knowledge-intensive, 1:488
        • late 20th and early 21st centuries, 1:287–288
        • modern joint-stock holding company origins, 1:286–287
        • research, 1:288
        • Roosevelt, F. D., and, 1:287
      • fisheries, 1:xxxv, 1:281
      • fishing, 1:xxxiii
      • Five Families (Lewis), 2:698
      • five-day work week, 1:xxxix. See also
        • eight-hour day
      • flaming e-mails, 1:229
      • Flanders, Alan, 1:132
      • flax, 1:xxxv
      • Fleming, Peter, 1:491
      • flexibility
        • career ladders and, 1:71
        • dark side of, 2:691
        • flexible spending accounts, 1:18
        • fractionalized identities and, 1:409
        • freelancing, 1:305–306
        • ideal worker and, 1:405–406
        • information technology workers promoting, 1:445
        • research, 1:71
        • stigma, 2:551
      • flexible scheduling, 1:289–290, 1:513. See also
        • telework
        • work/life balance
        • availability and use, 1:290
        • positive effects, 1:290
        • research, 1:289–290
        • workplace option, 1:289
      • flexible specialization, 2:690
      • flextime, 1:268–269, 2:1018
      • Flickr, 2:719
      • flight attendants, 1:369–370
      • FLSA. See
        • Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
      • FMLA. See
        • Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
      • Fodor, Éva, 1:105
      • Folbre, Nancy, 1:69, 1:390
      • folkhemmet, 2:849
      • Folkman, S., 1:174
      • food production, 1:xxxiii
      • food surplus, 1:xxxiii
      • footloose capital, 1:62
      • forced labor slavery, 2:783
      • Forces of Labor (Silver), 1:452
      • Forces of Production (Noble), 2:862
      • Ford, Henry, 1:131
        • assembly line, 1:340, 2:563
        • eight-hour work day, 1:xxxix
        • five-day work week, 1:xxxix
        • Fordism, 1:6–7
        • mass production solutions, 1:291
        • technology, 1:261
      • Ford Motor Company, 1:301, 2:931
        • part of Big Three, 1:340
        • Whiz Kids, 2:855
        • zero-tolerance, 2:841
      • Fordism and post-Fordism, 1:6–7, 1:129, 1:290–294
      • foreclosures, 1:197
      • foreign direct investment (FDI)
      • forests, 1:xxxv, 1:281
      • formal rationality, 1:54, 1:231
      • for-profit colleges, 2:888
      • Fortes, Alexandre, 1:49
      • Fortune, 1:23
      • Fortune 500 companies, 1:329
      • Foucault, Michel, 1:29, 1:132, 1:165, 1:294–297
      • foundation hypothesis, 1:319
      • fragmentation, in professional work, 2:711
      • France, 1:297–300
        • communism, 1:299
        • eight-hour day, 1:297
        • GATT and, 1:298
        • ILO on, 1:299
        • immigrant workers, 1:299
        • labor protests, 1:299–300
        • part-time employment, 1:342
        • telecommunications workers, 2:870
        • 35-hour work week, 1:xlii
        • unions, 1:299
        • work and gender, 1:298–299
        • work under old regime, 1:298
        • during World War I, 1:298
      • franchises, 1:300–303
      • Franchising Dreams (Birkeland), 1:302–303
      • Frank, Thomas, 1:28
      • Franklin, Benjamin, 2:722
      • fraternities, 1:xxxiv
      • fraud, 1:140
      • Frazier, Mark, 1:85
      • Freddie Mac, 2:975
      • free agents, 1:303–304. See also
        • call centers
        • contract workers
        • contracts
        • day labor
        • freelancing
        • outsourcing and subcontracting
        • autonomy, 1:304
        • defined, 1:303
        • education, 1:303
        • highly skilled, 1:304
        • loyalty, 1:304
        • values, 1:303
      • free enterprise, 2:947
      • FreeBSD, 2:647
      • freelancing, 1:304–308. See also
        • contract workers
        • contracts
        • day labor
        • free agents
        • outsourcing and subcontracting
        • temporary work
      • Freeman, Carla, 2:686
      • Freeman, R. Edward, 2:631, 2:947
      • Freeman, Richard, 1:390
      • Freidson, Eliot, 1:361–362, 2:710
      • French, John, 1:49
      • French Paris Commune, 1:4
      • Friedman, Milton, 1:13, 2:690, 2:803
      • fringe benefits, 1:15, 1:18
      • From Hire to Liar (Shulman), 1:157
      • Frost, Peter, 1:231
      • FTMs (female-to-male transsexuals), 1:320
      • Fuchs, Christian, 2:719
      • fulfillment, 1:2
      • full employment, 2:1018
      • Fuller, Linda, 1:131, 2:739
      • fun” workplaces, 1:308–310
      • function creep, 1:227–228
      • functionaries, 1:114
      • Fundamentals of Skill (Welford), 2:780
      • funding. See also
        • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
      G
      • G8 summit protests, 1:xliii
      • GAC (Global Accreditation Center), 2:716
      • Gaebler, Ted, 2:670
      • gag rule, 2:918
      • Gager, Constance, 1:500
      • Galaskiewicz, J., 2:624–625
      • Galinski, Ellen, 1:269
      • Gallagher, S., 1:446
      • Galtung, John, 2:846
      • game playing, 1:311–312
        • autonomy and, 1:311
        • risk in, 1:311
        • social reproduction, 1:312
      • games on the shopfloor, 2:730
      • Gannt chart, 2:716
      • Gans, Herbert, 2:578
      • Gap, 1:42, 2:838
      • Garey, Anita, 2:609
      • GAS (general adaptation syndrome), 2:830
      • Gassmann, O., 1:446
      • gatekeepers, 1:312–313
        • equitable, 1:313
        • film industry workers as, 1:286
        • presence at all levels, 1:312
        • role of, 1:313
        • upward mobility and, 1:312–313
      • Gates, Bill, 1:12
      • Gates, Gary, 1:533
      • GATT. See
        • General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT)
      • gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ), 2:948–949
      • gay enclaves, 1:530
      • gay friendly occupations, 1:532
      • GDP. See
        • gross domestic product (GDP)
      • Geary Act, 1:xxxvii
      • Gehman, J., 2:946
      • gender. See also
        • doing gender”
        • resistance, gendered and racialized
        • unions, gender and race in
      • Gender Differences at Work (Williams), 2:756
      • gender divide, 1:74
      • gender gap, 1:9, 1:313–318. See also
        • doing gender”
        • gendered work identities
        • lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) workers
        • occupational segregation by gender and race
        • sexuality
      • gendered organizations, 1:318–321. See also
        • labor process
        • occupational segregation by gender and race
        • organizational wage inequality
        • sexuality
        • tokenism
        • approaches, 1:319–320
        • foundation hypothesis, 1:319
        • good workers, 1:320
        • historical overview, 1:318–319
        • litigation in, 1:319
        • reasons for, 1:319
        • research, 1:320
        • seeking equity, 1:320
        • spillover hypothesis, 1:319
      • gendered work identities, 1:321–324. See also
        • men in women's jobs
        • occupational segregation by gender and race
        • revolving door theory
        • women in men's jobs
      • general adaptation syndrome (GAS), 2:830
      • General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT)
        • France and, 1:298
        • Mexico, 2:588
      • General Electric, 1:392
      • General Electric Co. v. Gilbert, 1:440
      • general interests, 2:560
      • General Motors (GM), 1:xlii, 2:652, 2:931
      • General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (Keynes), 1:xl
      • Generation X (Coupland), 2:1020
      • Geneva Collective in Support of the Undocumented in Switzerland, 2:905
      • Geng, Xiao, 1:85
      • Gentry, W. D., 1:174
      • Germany, 1:325–327
        • GDP, 1:325
        • Great Recession in, 1:537
        • growing insecurity and inequality, 1:326–327
        • part-time employment, 1:342
        • post World War II work and economy, 1:325
        • telecommunications workers, 2:869
        • transformations, 1:325–326
      • Gerson, Kathleen, 2:752, 2:911, 2:982
      • Gerstel, Naomi, 1:441
      • Gerstner, Lou, 1:150
      • Getting a Job (Granovetter), 1:352–353, 2:699
      • Getting the Goods (Bonachich, Wilson), 1:543
      • Ghandi, Mahatma, 1:40
      • ghetto-ization, 2:938
      • Gibson, Don, 2:797
      • Gifford clothing, 1:42
      • Gilbreth, Frank Bunker
        • brick laying, 2:553
        • motion study, 1:340
      • Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1:340
      • Gilded Age, 1:xxxviii1:xxxix
      • Gilmore, James, 2:739
      • Gini, Corrado, 1:428
      • Gini coefficient, 1:428–429
      • Giuffre, Patti, 1:136
      • glass cage, 1:327–329. See also
        • Wall Street jobs
        • white collar
        • backlash, 1:328
        • coining, 1:328
        • social isolation and, 1:328
        • sociological image, 1:327
      • glass ceiling, 1:108, 1:329–331.
      • See also
        • discrimination, employment
        • angentic traits and, 1:330
        • discrimination and perceptual biases, 1:329–330
        • downward mobility, 2:726
        • family demands and women's behaviors, 1:330
        • in feminization of work, 1:282
        • glass cliff and, 1:330
        • glass escalator and, 1:330
        • labyrinth, 1:330
      • glass cliff, 1:330
      • glass escalator, 1:331–333
      • glass walls, 1:327
      • Glass-Steagall Act, 2:565
      • Glauber, Michelle, 2:606
      • Glazer, Nona, 2:997–999
      • GLBTQ (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning), 2:948–949
      • Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, 2:686, 2:729, 2:762
      • Global Accreditation Center (GAC), 2:716
      • global assembly line, 1:450
      • global economy
      • Global North, 2:704
      • Global Reporting Index (GRI), 2:803
      • Global South, 2:704
      • global warming, 1:336
      • Global Witness, 1:43
      • globalism, 1:144–145
      • globalization, 1:333–337, 2:1018.
      • See also
        • multinational corporations
        • neoliberalism
        • organized labor, cross-national perspective
        • “big squeeze” and, 1:20
        • of direct sales work, 1:166
        • disappearing work and, 1:172
        • future, 1:336–337
        • gender and, 1:280
        • “good” jobs and “bad” jobs, 1:344
        • human rights campaigns and, 1:397
        • institutionalization and, 1:334
        • looking forward, 1:335–336
        • manufacturing, 2:564–565
        • modernization theory and, 1:334
        • precarious labor and, 2:704
        • reigning paradigm, 1:450
        • restructuring, corporate and, 2:736–737
        • service work and, 2:763–764
        • supranational political institutions, 1:334
        • transnational mothering, 2:611–612
        • transnational relationships, 1:334
        • unionism and, 1:452
        • unskilled work, 2:942–943
        • values and, 2:947
        • work and gender, 1:334–335
        • world systems theory and, 1:334
      • gloves-off economy, 1:153
      • Glyn, Andrew, 1:292
      • GM. See
        • General Motors (GM)
      • Gnome, 2:647
      • GNU, 2:646
      • goals
        • alternative organizations and cooperatives, 1:5
        • displacement, 1:57
        • goal-directed, well-organized behavior, 2:779
        • motivation, 2:614
        • ultimate and instrumental, 1:56
      • God as Supreme Architect, 1:xxxiv
      • God's will, 2:722
      • Goffman, Erving, 1:xli, 1:149, 1:158, 1:337–339
        • audience and, 1:455–456
        • emotion management, 1:276
        • front and back regions, 1:339
        • heroes and villains, 1:338
        • jugglers and synthesizers, 1:338–339
        • minority group status, 1:427
        • observances and insights, 1:338
        • performance teams, 1:426
        • situated activity system, 1:339
        • social stage, 1:338
        • stigma and, 1:167
        • symbolic interactionism, 1:406
        • traffic rules, 1:337–338
        • underlife, 1:339
      • goldbricking, 2:731, 2:998, 2:1018
      • golden age of mass production, 1:264
      • golden parachute, 2:1018
      • Goldin, C., 1:219
      • Goldthorpe, John, 2:577
      • Gompers, Samuel, 2:835, 2:930, 2:934
      • good” employment model, rise and erosion of, 1:339–343
      • good fathers, 1:315
      • Good Jobs, Bad Jobs (Kalleberg), 1:465
      • good” jobs and “bad” jobs, 1:343–344
        • African Americans, 1:343
        • gender and, 1:343
        • globalization, 1:344
        • in good employment model, 1:341–342
        • growth of bad, 1:343
        • job quality and, 1:464–465
        • Latinos, 1:343
        • opportunities, 1:343
      • good providers, 2:610
      • good workers, 1:320
      • Goode, Erich, 2:843
      • good-faith exception, 1:8
      • Goodman, Benjamin, 2:895
      • Google, 1:309, 2:801, 2:996
      • Gordon, David, 1:27, 2:708
      • Gordon, Robert, 1:185
      • Gorz, Andre, 1:11, 1:246
      • gossip, 1:344–345
      • Gottschalk, Peter, 1:156
      • Gouldner, Alvin, 1:56, 1:58, 2:730
      • government
        • big government, 2:690
        • e-government, 2:557
        • employment maintained by, 1:xl
        • Foucault and, 1:295
        • Government Sponsored Enterprises, 2:975
        • governmentality, 1:295, 2:693
        • outsourcing and subcontracting by, 2:670–671
        • Reagan mantra, 1:13
        • response to elder care, 1:224–225
        • unions and, 1:347–349
      • government regulation of employment, U.S., 1:345–352
      • Gracedale Nursing Home, 2:920
      • graduate unemployment, 1:419, 1:453, 2:1018
      • Graham, Laura, 1:462
      • Graham, Lindsey, 1:366
      • Gramsci, Antonio, 1:6, 1:290
      • grandfathering, 1:479
      • Granovetter, Mark, 1:352–354
      • grassroots action, 1:398
      • Great Depression, 1:xl, 1:14
        • alternative organizations and cooperatives, 1:3
        • bleak conditions, 2:805
        • collective bargaining, 1:99
        • firms, 1:287
        • Keynesian policies, 1:463
        • personnel practices, 2:682
        • ravages of, 2:660
        • social insurance programs, 1:18
        • surviving, 1:266
        • unemployment, 1:281
      • Great Gatsby Curve, 1:196
      • Great Migration, 1:xxxix
      • Great Railroad Strike, 1:xxxix
      • Great Recession, 1:185
        • benefits during, 1:270
        • in Germany, 1:537
        • labor force participation rates, 1:505
        • layoffs, 2:551
        • personal wealth eroded, 2:743
        • poverty rate, 2:697
        • state and organization income diminished, 2:744
        • teen employment and, 2:865
        • Wall Street jobs and, 2:956
        • workforce development and, 2:1003–1004
      • Great Society, 1:224
      • Great Wall, 2:558
      • Great Workers’ Struggle, 2:819
      • Greece
      • Green, Adam Isaiah, 1:333
      • Green, Tristin, 1:328
      • green jobs, 1:xliii
      • Greenberger, E., 2:864, 2:866–867
      • greenwashing, 1:43
      • GRI (Global Reporting Index), 2:803
      • Gross, James, 1:397
      • gross domestic product (GDP)
        • China, 2:566
        • franchises and, 1:302
        • Germany, 1:325
        • income inequality and, 1:429–430
        • manufacturing and, 2:562
        • nonprofits and, 2:629
        • productivity and, 2:707
      • Grudin, Jonathan, 2:801
      • Grusky, David B., 2:637
      • Guess, 2:838
      • guilds, 1:xxxiv, 1:xxxv, 1:xxxvi
      • Guinness, 1:308
      • Gulati, M., 1:409
      • Gulick, Luther, 2:560
      • Gurus, Hired Guns, and Warm Bodies (Barley, Kunda), 2:853
      • Guzzo, Richard, 2:860–861
      • Gyùrgy, Konrád, 1:104
      H
      • habitus, 1:39, 1:199, 1:495, 2:857–858, 2:1018
      • hacker ethic, 2:693
      • Hackett, Gail, 1:313
      • Hafferty, F. W., 2:710
      • Haigh, Thomas, 1:365
      • Halle, David, 2:862
      • Halloween Documents, 2:646
      • Hallowell, Edward, 1:260
      • Hammond, Teresa, 2:711
      • Hamper, Ben, 2:731
      • Han, Wen-Jui, 2:895
      • hanghui, 1:xxxiv
      • Hanser, Amy, 1:117
      • Hansmann, H., 2:630
      • happiness, 1:256–257
      • harassment, 1:257, 2:770.
      • See also
        • sexual harassment
      • hard skills, 2:812
      • Hard Times (Terkel), 2:880
      • Harding, David, 2:698
      • harness polishers guild, 1:xxxv
      • Harrison, Bennett, 2:691, 2:735
      • Harrison, David, 1:188
      • Hart, D., 2:947
      • Hart, Keith, 1:75
      • Harvard University, 1:xxxix, 1:392
      • Hassard, J., 1:29
      • Hatton, E., 2:874
      • Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company, 2:845, 2:858
      • Hayek, Friedrich, 1:13
      • Haymarket Riot, 1:xxxviii, 1:421, 2:836–837
      • Hays, Sharon, 1:278, 2:608
      • Hayter, Susan, 1:99
      • Hayward, Tony, 1:151
      • hazardous jobs, 1:282
      • HDI (Human Development Index), 1:391
      • Head Start, 1:79
      • headhunters, 1:355–357, 2:598, 2:1018. See also
        • job searching and preparation
        • labor market intermediaries
        • recruitment
        • double sale and, 1:356
        • emergence from management consulting, 1:355
        • job offers and, 1:356
        • value of to employers, 1:355–356
      • health and safety, 1:357–361. See also
        • illness
      • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 1:509
      • health care professions, 1:4, 1:361–364
        • allied health professions, 1:364
        • autonomy and dominance, 1:361–362
        • CAM, 1:364
        • dental profession, 1:362
        • medical licensing and specialization, 1:362
        • nursing profession, 1:362–364
        • professional dominance, 1:362
        • semi-professions, 1:363
      • Hearn, J., 1:323
      • Hecht's, 2:847
      • Hecker, Daniel, 1:365
      • Heckscher, Charles, 2:693
      • hegemonic masculinity, 2:550
      • hegemony
        • concrete coordination of interests, 1:290
        • in Fordism and post-Fordism, 1:290–291
      • Heidrick & Struggles, 1:355
      • Heilman, Madeline, 1:410
      • Heimer, Carol, 2:998
      • hemp, 1:xxxv
      • Hemp, Paul, 1:412, 1:414
      • Henly, Julie, 2:604
      • Herman Mill Company, 1:141
      • Hershey's, 1:308
      • Herzberg, F., 1:392–393
      • Hesmondhalgh, David, 2:579–580
      • Hewlett-Packard, 1:308
      • hierarchy of needs, 1:392, 2:613–614
      • Higgins, M. C., 2:625
      • High Tech and High Heels (Freeman), 2:686
      • higher and lower pleasures, 1:257
      • high-road jobs, 2:994
      • high-tech and Internet industry, employment in, 1:365–369. See also
        • distractions, online
        • social media
      • Higuchi, Yoshio, 1:477
      • Hill, Roger B., 2:988
      • Hiltrop, Jean-Marie, 2:684
      • HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), 1:509
      • hired-at-will, 1:7. See also
        • at-will employment
      • hiring
        • hired-at-will, 1:7
        • internal labor markets, 1:449
      • Hirsch, Paul, 2:578
      • Hispanics
        • authority gap, 1:10
        • nonstandard work and, 2:634
      • History of Commercial Partnerships in the Middle Ages, The (Weber), 1:252
      • Ho, Karen, 2:650
      • Hoang, Kimberly, 2:769
      • Hobbes, Thomas, 1:256
      • hobbyists, 1:529–530
      • Hochschild, Arlie, 1:2, 1:45–46, 1:117, 1:158, 1:230, 1:369–371
      • Hodges, Melissa, 2:606
      • Hodson, Randy, 1:163, 1:288, 2:730–731
      • Hoffa, Jimmy, 2:930
      • Hoffman Plastics v. National Labor Relations Board, 2:903
      • Hofstede, Geert, 2:849, 2:946
      • holiday pay, 1:18
      • Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 2:919
      • Holmstrom, Mark, 1:431, 1:432
      • Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, 2:975
      • home production, 1:371–373
      • home schooling, 1:373–375. See also
        • education and work
        • learning
        • training and skill acquisition
        • assessing students, 1:374
        • categories, 1:373–374
        • defined, 1:373
        • Home School Legal Defense Association, 1:374
        • mainstream, 1:374
        • National Home Education Research Institute, 1:374
        • research, 1:374
      • home-based small business, 2:787
      • Homestead strike of 1892, 2:836
      • Homo sapiens, 1:xxxiii
      • homophily, 1:375–376
        • effects, 1:376
        • processes, 1:375
        • work relationships, 1:375
      • homosexuals, 1:531. See also
        • gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ)
        • lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) workers
      • homosocial reproduction, 1:313, 1:376–378, 2:1018
      • Honda, 1:xli
      • Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierette, 1:33, 1:278
      • honey, 1:xxxv
      • Hong Kong Women Worker Cooperatives, 1:5
      • Hopkinson, P. G., 1:112
      • horizontal segregation, 2:636
      • Horkheimer, Max, 2:578
      • hospital workers, 1:xliii
      • Hossfeld, Karen, 2:731
      • Hotchkiss, Julie, 1:505
      • households, changing demographic composition of, 1:379–383
      • housework, 1:383–387. See also
        • care work
        • domestic work, paid
        • nonmarket work
        • reproductive labor
        • “unfinished revolution
        • classifying and categorizing, 1:385
        • future of, 1:387
        • Marx and Engels on, 1:383
        • movements, 1:386
        • outsourcing, 1:386–387
        • studies, 1:385
      • housing, 1:xxxv
      • Howe, Louise Kapp, 2:685
      • HR. See
        • human resources
      • HRM. See
        • human resources management (HRM)
      • Hsieh, Tony, 1:150
      • Huff, R., 2:973
      • Hughes, Everett C., 1:167–168, 2:941
      • Hughes Act. See
        • Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act (Hughes Act)
      • hukou, 1:86, 1:89
      • human capital, 1:314, 1:387–391. See also
        • gendered organizations
        • labor process
        • organizational wage inequality
        • social capital
        • applications, 1:387, 1:389
        • characteristics, 1:388
        • components, 1:389
        • critiques of theory, 1:389–390
        • development, 1:390–391
        • economic development and, 1:391
        • as economic theory cornerstone, 1:388–389
        • education and work, 1:219
        • expectations, 1:389
        • interpreting, 2:674
        • motherhood penalty and daddy bonus and, 2:607
      • Human Development Index (HDI), 1:391
      • human infrastructure, 1:69
      • human relations theory, 1:391–393
      • human resources, 1:393–396, 2:1019.
      • See also
        • personnel professionals
      • human resources management (HRM)
        • in Japan, 2:617
        • in multinational corporations, 2:616–617
        • personnel professionals, 2:683
      • Human Rights Act, 2:772
      • human rights campaigns, 1:396–399, 1:534
        • formal complaints and, 1:397–398
        • globalization and, 1:397
        • grassroots action, 1:398
        • Human Rights Watch and, 1:397–398
        • new international conventions, 1:398–399
        • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1:396
      • Human Rights Watch, 1:397–398
      • human trafficking, 1:399–402, 2:767.
      • See also
        • sex work
        • causes, 1:400–401
        • defined, 1:399–400
        • global problem, 1:399
        • as slavery, 1:400
        • UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime, 1:400
        • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, 1:399
        • United States, 1:400–401
      • Humphrey-Hawkins Bill, 1:350
      • hunter-gatherers, 1:xxxiii
      • Hurd, Michael, 1:501
      • Huston, Aletha, 2:604
      • Hymowitz, Carol, 1:327
      • hysteresis, 2:1019
      I
      • IAFF (International Association of Firefighters), 2:918
      • IBEW (International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers), 2:654
      • IBM, 1:150, 1:527, 2:555, 2:736
      • IBT (International Brotherhood of Teamsters), 2:930
      • ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and political Rights), 1:396
      • ICE (Immigration Customs Enforcement), 2:904
      • ICT. See
        • information and communication technologies (ICT)
      • ideal worker, 1:403–406, 2:559
        • changing workplaces for flexibility, 1:405–406
        • gender roles and, 1:404–405
        • paid work and, 1:403
        • shifting families and worker demand, 1:404
        • theoretical and performing ideals, 1:405
      • identity
        • African Americans social, 1:24
        • dual-career couples, 1:208–209
        • management, 1:408
        • office artifacts and, 2:645
      • identity at work, 1:406–411
        • branding, 1:407
        • deep acting, 1:407
        • feeling management, 1:407
        • flexible work and fractionalized identities, 1:409
        • intersecting identities, 1:407–408
        • making out, 1:407
        • national and transnational, 1:409–410
        • normative-style, 1:407
        • organizational, 1:406–407
        • possibilities, 1:410–411
        • research, 1:408
        • self-actualization and, 1:407
        • service identities, 1:407–408
        • sexuality, 2:775
        • understanding shift, 1:411
        • virtual, 1:410
      • ideology. See also
        • mothering, ideologies of
        • bureaucracy, 1:57–58
        • child labor, 1:83
        • Cold War, 2:665, 2:667
        • corporate, 2:732
        • feeling rules, 1:276
        • laissez-faire, 2:565
        • postbureaucratic organizations, 2:691
        • professional work, 2:711–712
      • idiosyncratic risk, 2:749
      • idleness, 1:xxxiv
      • ILGWU (International Ladies Garment Workers Union), 2:847, 2:935
      • illness, 1:411–415. See also
        • health and safety
        • stress
      • ILO. See
        • International Labour Organization
      • IMF. See
        • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
      • immigrant workers, 1:415–420. See also
        • undocumented workers
        • worker centers
        • day laborers, 1:419
        • Department of Labor and, 1:418
        • domestic work, 1:193–194
        • experiences of, 1:417
        • France, 1:299
        • gender and, 1:417
        • global movement, 1: