Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide

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Edited by: James Ainsworth

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      About the Editor

      James Ainsworth, Ph.D., received his bachelor's degree from the University of Southern California in 1989, a master's in sociology in 1993 from San Diego State University, and he joined the sociology faculty at Georgia State University in the fall of 1999, after receiving his Ph.D. in sociology from The Ohio State University.

      His research addresses issues related to sociology of education, social stratification, race and ethnic relations, and the family. He has published his research in some of the leading sociology journals including multiple manuscripts in the American Sociological Review, Social Forces, Sociology of Education, and The Journal of Marriage and the Family. His work addresses issues such as (1) the oppositional culture explanation for racial disparities in educational performance; (2) the mediation of neighborhood effects on educational outcomes; (3) the differential returns to cultural capital across racial groups; (4) the effectiveness of bilingual education; (5) child well-being in single-parent households; (6) the relationship between labor market structure, participation in vocational education, and occupational trajectories; and (7) racial, class, and gender disparities in study abroad participation.

      At Georgia State he teaches various undergraduate classes including Educational Sociology; Wealth, Power, and Inequality; Race and Ethnic Relations; and Social Research Methods. At the graduate level he teaches Social Inequality; Race and Ethnic Relations; Sociology of Education; and Ph.D.-level Statistics. The work he is most proud of is that which takes place at home, as he is the father of three: Maggie, Sienna, and Vince.

      List of Contributors

      Razak Abedalla

      University of Pittsburgh

      Susan Adams

      Indiana University and Butler University

      Charlotte Alice Agger

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Matiul Alam

      University of British Columbia

      Ursula S. Aldana

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Nathan N. Alexander

      Columbia University

      Patrick Alexander

      University of Oxford

      Steven Alvarado

      University of Notre Dame

      Leanna Ampola

      Loyola University Maryland

      Karen E. Andreasen

      Aalborg University

      Lesley Andres

      University of British Columbia

      Gina M. Arnone

      University of Pennsylvania

      Shannon R. Audley-Piotrowski

      University of Memphis

      Janice Aurini

      University of Waterloo

      Efrat Avramovich

      University of Pittsburgh

      Marta Cristina Azaola

      University of Southampton

      David Baker

      Pennsylvania State University

      Christine Baker Mitton

      Cleveland State University

      Bianca J. Baldridge

      Columbia University

      Kara Balemian

      College Board

      Pamela R. Bennett

      Johns Hopkins University

      Nadia Benyamin

      University of Northern Colorado

      Nalini Asha Biggs

      University of Oxford

      David Bills

      University of Iowa

      William A. Bird

      University of Nebraska, Lincoln

      Katerina Bodovski

      Pennsylvania State University

      Helen Bond

      Howard University

      Kristen Brodie

      Walden University

      Derrick R. Brooms

      University of Louisville

      Rachelle J. Brunn

      Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      Sarah Bryant

      University of British Columbia, Okanagan

      Edelina Burciaga

      University of California, Irvine

      Kri Burkander

      Michigan State University

      Jamie N. Burke

      University of New Hampshire

      W. Carson Byrd

      Virginia Tech

      Jessie Montana Cain

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Rebecca M Callahan

      University of Texas at Austin

      Belinda M. Cambre

      University of New Orleans

      Carleen S. Carey

      Michigan State University

      Prudence L. Carter

      Stanford University

      Kay Castaneda

      Ivy Tech Community College

      Mark Causapin

      Columbia University

      Sarbani Chakraborty

      University of Wisconsin, Madison

      Aurora Chang

      University of Wyoming

      Jennifer Chen

      Kean University

      Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng

      University of Pennsylvania

      Carolyn Chernoff

      University of Pennsylvania

      Laura Chinchilla

      Rutgers University

      Ming Ming Chiu

      State University of New York, University at Buffalo

      Evelyn Christian Ronning

      Temple University

      Kristin N. Cipollone

      State University of New York, University at Buffalo

      Jesus Cisneros

      Arizona State University

      Jamie Clearfield

      University of Pittsburgh

      Jessica S. Cobb

      University of California, Berkeley

      Nicole D. Collier

      University of South Florida, St. Petersburg

      Steven M. Collins

      Indiana University

      Jason C. Colombino

      Boston College Edward Comstock

      American University

      Dennis J. Condron

      Oakland University

      Thomas R. Conway

      Saint Joseph's University

      Dawan Coombs

      University of Georgia

      Siobhan M. Cooney

      College Board

      Kathleen Corley

      Arizona State University

      Rena Cornell Zito

      Westminster College

      Serafin M. Coronel-Molina

      Indiana University Bloomington

      Elizabeth Covay

      Michigan State University

      Mengtian Dang

      University of Pittsburgh

      Scott Davies

      McMaster University

      Bradley W. Davis

      University of Texas at Austin

      Aaron Davis

      Independent Scholar

      Laila De Klaver

      University of Pittsburgh

      Lori Delale-O'Connor

      Child Trends

      Omobolade (Bola) O. Delano-Oriaran

      St. Norbert College

      Karen DeMoss

      The New School

      Christina DeRoche

      McMaster University

      Kristi Lynn Donaldson

      University of Notre Dame

      Erica K. Dotson

      Clayton State University

      Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas

      University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Douglas Downey

      Ohio State University

      Susan A. Dumais

      Louisiana State University

      Joel Dumba

      University of Pittsburgh

      Alyssa H. (Hadley) Dunn

      Georgia State University

      Catherine Dunn Shiffman

      Shenandoah University

      Ritam Dutta

      Pennsylvania State University

      Donna Eder

      Indiana University

      Aisha El-Amin

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Manuel Espinoza

      University of Colorado, Denver

      Judson Everitt

      Loyola University Chicago

      Ryan Flessner

      Butler University

      Jillian C. Ford

      Kennesaw State University

      Sandra L. Foster

      Regis University

      John Mark Froiland

      University of Northern Colorado

      Landis Fryer

      Loyola University Chicago

      Brett Fugate

      University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

      Rachael Gabriel

      University of Connecticut

      Susan Galford

      Indiana University

      Melanie Jones Gast

      DePaul University

      Uttam Gaulee

      University of Florida

      Peter Ghazarian

      Keimyung University

      Yaron Girsh

      Hebrew University of Jerusalem

      Veysel Gokbel

      University of Pittsburgh

      Keith Goldstein

      Hebrew University, Jerusalem

      Laura M. Gomez

      Arizona State University

      Richard M. Gonzales

      University of Texas at Austin

      Gregory Gross

      College of St. Rose

      Alem Hailu

      Howard University

      Maureen T. Hallinan

      University of Notre Dame

      Christopher Hamilton

      Washington University in St. Louis

      Jason R. Harshman

      Ohio State University

      Nicholas D. (Daniel) Hartlep

      Illinois State University

      Judy Hartley

      Early Care & Learning Council

      Anna Henry

      University of Missouri

      Everett Herman

      University of Pittsburgh

      Dorothy Elizabeth Hines

      Michigan State University

      Jennifer Lee Hoffman

      University of Washington

      Patricia Hoffman-Miller

      Prairie-View A&M University

      Megan Holland

      Harvard University

      Jessica Holloway-Libell

      Arizona State University

      Rosalind Horowitz

      University of Texas, San Antonio

      Stephanie Howells

      McMaster University

      Jo-Anne Hurlston

      Howard University

      Nashaat Hussein

      Misr International University, Cairo

      Tozun Issa

      London Metropolitan University

      Marian Nell Jackson

      University of New Orleans

      W. James Jacob

      University of Pittsburgh

      D'Andrea L. Jacobs

      Michigan State University

      Lakshmi Jayaram

      Virginia Tech

      Chanel H. Jefferson

      Independent Scholar

      Jamie Patrice Joanou

      Arizona State University

      Willa Jones

      Elsie Whitlow Stokes PCS

      Justina Judy

      Michigan State University

      Tavis D. Jules

      Loyola University Chicago, CEPS

      Saltanat Kaliyeva

      University of Pittsburgh

      Somkiat Kamolpun

      University of Pittsburgh

      Grace Kao

      University of Pennsylvania

      Brian Kapitulik

      Greenfield Community College

      Emi Kataoka

      Komazawa University

      Alem Kebede

      California State University, Bakersfield

      Sean P. Kelly

      Michigan State University

      Jessica Kenty-Drane

      Southern Connecticut State University

      Caitlin Killian

      Drew University Soojin Kim

      Rutgers University

      Aaron Korora

      Kent State University

      Wendy L. Kraglund-Gauthier

      Saint Francis Xavier University

      Jonathan M. Kremser

      Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

      Kristiina Kruuse

      University of Tartu

      Amy G. Langenkamp

      University of Notre Dame

      Rachael Leavitt

      University of Northern Colorado

      Che-Wei Lee

      University of Pittsburgh

      Yin Lam Lee

      St John's University, New York

      Mare Leino

      Tallinn University

      Jessica Nina Lester

      Washington State University

      Rachel Leventhal-Weiner

      University of Connecticut Ashlee Lewis

      University of South Carolina

      Beth Lewis Samuelson

      Indiana University Bloomington

      Constance A. Lindsay

      CNA Education Jing Liu

      Nagoya University

      Christy Lleras

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Tim London

      Queen's University, Belfast

      Xiaolin Lu

      University of Pittsburgh

      Marguerite Lukes

      City University of New York

      Junhan Ma

      University of Pittsburgh

      Yingyi Ma

      Syracuse University

      Patricia Maloney

      Yale University

      Vida Maralani

      Yale University

      Michael J. Martin

      University of Missouri

      Sylvia L. M. Martinez

      University of Colorado Colorado Springs

      Ervin Matthew

      Ohio State University

      Janice McCabe

      Florida State University

      Jessica McCrory Calarco

      University of Pennsylvania

      Lila McDowell

      University of Oxford

      Heather Killelea McEntarfer

      State University of New York, University at Buffalo

      Mary E. M. McKillip

      College Board

      Patrick J. McQuillan

      Boston College

      Jal Mehta

      Harvard University

      David Mellor

      University of Bristol

      Analía Inés Meo

      National Council of Scientific and

      Technological Research, Argentina Donna Micheaux

      University of Texas at Austin Roslyn Mickelson

      University of North Carolina,

      Charlotte

      Marci Middleton

      Shorter University

      Piotr Mikiewicz

      University of Lower Silesia

      Lawrence J. Miller

      Rutgers University

      Caitlin Montague-Winebarger

      University of Alaska, Fairbanks

      Amy L. Moore

      Capella University

      Christopher B. Mugimu

      Makerere University

      Chandra Muller

      University of Texas at Austin

      Simon Pierre Munyaneza

      Lycee de Ruhengeri Apicur

      Yoruba T. Mutakabbir

      Clemson University

      Steve Myran

      Old Dominion University

      Molly Nackley Schott

      Cleveland State University

      Whitney Naman

      Independent Scholar

      Daniel C. Narey

      University of Pittsburgh

      Jennifer Ng

      University of Kansas

      Bethsaida Nieves

      University of Wisconsin, Madison

      Kiluba L. Nkulu

      University of Kentucky

      Keiichi Ogawa

      Kobe University

      Brandie M. Oliver

      Butler University

      Mariam Orkodashvili

      Vanderbilt University

      Emily Oros

      University of Northern Colorado

      Sarah M. Ovink

      Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      Asil Ali Özdogru

      Early Care & Learning Council

      Mich Page

      Independent Scholar

      Maria T. Paino

      University of Georgia

      Maura Rosa Parazzoli

      National University of Ireland, Maynooth

      Toby L. Parcel

      North Carolina State University

      Lyn Parker

      University of Western Australia

      Noelle Paufler

      Arizona State University

      Hans Pechar

      University of Klagenfurt

      Lara C. Perez-Felkner

      University of Chicago

      Naomi Jeffrey Petersen

      Central Washington University

      Rachel Sutz Pienta

      Valdosta State University

      Eric John Plum

      Shenandoah University

      Brian Powell

      Indiana University

      Jeanne M. Powers

      Arizona State University

      Heather Price

      University of Notre Dame

      Jamilah Prince-Stewart

      Connecticut Coaliation for Achievement Now (ConnCAN)

      Cassidy Puckett

      Northwestern University

      Elizabeth Rholetter Purdy

      Independent Scholar

      Lynn Purvis-Yund

      University of Pittsburgh

      Linda Quirke

      Wilfrid Laurier University

      Matthew H. Rafalow

      University of California, Irvine

      Karen Ragoonaden

      University of British Columbia, Okanagan

      Louai Rahal

      University of British Columbia

      Fatema Rahman

      Indiana University

      Diana Carolina Ramos

      University of Texas, San Antonio

      Annette Rasmussen

      Aalborg University

      Robert K. Ream

      University of California, Riverside

      Linda Renzulli

      University of Georgia

      William Joshua Rew

      Florida State University

      Meredith Paige Richards

      University of Texas at Austin

      Isaias R. Rivera

      Tecnologico de Monterrey (ITESM)

      Sarah A. Robert

      State University of New York, University at Buffalo

      Mari Ann Roberts

      Clayton State University

      Sophia Rodriguez

      Loyola University Chicago

      M. Felicity Rogers-Chapman

      Claremont Graduate University

      Sharlonne Rollin

      University of Georgia

      Carrie Roseamelia

      State University of New York,

      Upstate Medical University

      Susan Rakosi Rosenbloom

      Drew University

      Clara Ruebner Joergensen

      University of Warwick

      Dana Ruggiero

      Purdue University

      John Rury

      University of Kansas

      Cambria Dodd Russell

      Columbia University

      Sarah M. Ryan

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Dena Samuels

      University of Colorado

      Colorado Springs

      Andrew Saultz

      Michigan State University

      Gokhan Savas

      Syracuse University

      Maryellen Schaub

      Pennsylvania State University

      Kate Makely Schechter

      University of Pittsburgh

      Cornelia Schneider

      Mount Saint-Vincent University

      Jonathan Schwarz

      University of Notre Dame

      Selim Selvi

      University of Pittsburgh

      Victor J. Sensenig

      Pennsylvania State University

      Ena Shelley

      Butler University

      Dara Shifrer

      University of Texas at Austin

      M Mahruf C Shohel

      The Open University

      Megan Shoji

      University of Wisconsin, Madison

      Alexia Shonteff

      Arizona State University

      Janelle M. Silva

      University of Washington, Bothell

      Jennifer Simon

      Georgia State University

      Elisabeth Julia Simon Thomas

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Jahni M. A. Smith

      Teachers College, Columbia University

      Jill M. Smith

      Brandeis University

      Christi Smith

      Ohio State University

      Massimiliano Spotti

      Tilburg University

      Andresse St. Rose

      American Association of University Women

      Amy M. Stalzer

      Georgia State University

      Christina R. Steidl

      Emory University

      Edward Geoffrey Jedediah Stevenson

      Emory University

      Meghan Stidd

      National University

      Mia J. W. Stokmans

      Tilburg University

      Kori James Stroub

      University of Texas at Austin

      Kathleen Sullivan Brown

      University of Missouri St. Louis

      Katy Swalwell

      George Mason University

      Sylvia Symonds

      Arizona State University

      Antonia Szymanski

      Kirkwood Community College

      Wei Tang

      University of Pittsburgh

      Beth Tarasawa

      Washington State University, Vancouver

      Carol A. Taylor

      Sheffield Hallam University

      Shelley Kathleen Taylor

      University of Western Ontario

      Barbara Thelamour

      Michigan State University

      Mara Casey Tieken

      Bates College

      J. Estrella Torrez

      Michigan State University

      Mitzi P. Trahan

      University of Louisiana at Lafayette

      Nan L. Travers

      State University of New York, Empire State College

      Marcella Bush Trevino

      Barry University

      Jonathan Tummons

      Teesside University

      Evan Underwood

      University of Pittsburgh

      Jennifer A. Vadeboncoeur

      University of British Columbia

      Liza Valle

      University of Pittsburgh

      Renira E. Vellos

      University of British Columbia

      Kristi Vinter

      Tallinn University

      Linda R. Vogel

      University of Northern Colorado

      Anne J Waliaula

      University of Wisconsin, Madison

      Haiyan Wang

      Cornell University

      Xiao Wang

      University of Pittsburgh

      Larisa Warhol

      Arizona State University

      Amber Warren

      Indiana University

      Nancy Wehrheim

      University of Pittsburgh

      John Weidman

      University of Pittsburgh

      Lois Weis

      State University of New York, University at Buffalo

      Eugenia L. Weiss

      University of Southern California

      Felix Weiss

      University of Cologne

      Greg Wetterstrand

      University of British Columbia

      Casey Megan White

      University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

      Robert Whiteley

      University of British Columbia, Okanagan

      Clemens Wieser

      University of Vienna

      Sarah Winkler Reid

      Brunel Univeristy

      Helena Worthen

      University of Illinois, Champaign

      Beth Wright

      Loyola University Chicago

      Christian Ydesen

      Aalborg University

      Huiyuan Ye

      University of Pittsburgh

      Vivian Yenika-Agbaw

      Pennsylvania State University

      Melda N. Yildiz

      Kean University

      Shengjun Yin

      University of Pittsburgh

      David Young

      St. Francis Xavier University

      Alma Zaragoza-Petty

      University of California, Irvine

      David Zarifa

      Nipissing University

      Xin Zhang

      University of Pittsburgh

      Yi Zhou

      University of Pittsburgh

      Lynn W. Zimmerman

      Purdue University Calumet

      Introduction

      Sociology of education is one of the oldest, most vibrant, and increasingly popular subdisciplines in sociology. Dating back to 1925, the “Section on Educational Sociology” (now the Sociology of Education section) was one of only seven sections in the American Sociological Association (ASA). It has endured and is currently among the 10 largest sections in the ASA (out of 51 sections), with over 850 members; a nearly 300 member increase from 2001 to 2011. It is also one of the few subdisciplines with its own journal, Sociology of Education, sponsored by the ASA.

      This work takes on the daunting challenge of reflecting the broad range of issues covered within this sub-discipline, and the results are impressive. With a total of 454 entries on the widest variety of topics, this work represents an unprecedented overview of the sociology of education. This is a worthy effort because the sociological study of education speaks to the core of sociology in general. It is through education that youth are socialized, norms are reinforced, and inequalities are perpetuated.

      Formal education starts at the youngest of ages, and course education is a part of the entirety of Americans' lives. Education is a process of interaction and the staging ground of conflict and competition. Schools are complex organizations and are embedded in broad institutions. The topics covered in this work range from discussions of critical race theory to available quantitative longitudinal data sets, from policy oriented research to postmodernism, from preschoolers to graduate students, and from teachers to educational policymakers. In short, this work attempts to address the broadest range of educational topics.

      What makes sociology of education such an exciting subdiscipline is that it so often acts as an intellectual bridge to other disciplines and sub-disciplines. I think of the intellectual discourse in academic literatures as conversations, and sociologists of education tend to talk with wide audiences. For example, within sociology, these researchers and theorists often engage criminologists on topics of school delinquency or violence in schools, or sociologists on work when examining the school-to-work transition or vocational education.

      Sociologists of education also dialogue with nonsociologists through interdisciplinary work. For example, psychological studies of students' self-esteem or locus of control have a longstanding influence on this field, as do the study of political influence on educational policy and the role economics plays in shaping the value of educational investments. In this introduction, I review some of the conversations that are represented in the entries of this work. These conversations have taken place over decades and reflect the evolution of thinking on major topics in sociology. They have shaped the most general of sociological theory, and influenced cutting-edge methodological developments in the field. While this brief introduction cannot do justice to the sheer breadth of these entries, perhaps reviewing a few of these conversations can provide a glimpse into what this work has to offer.

      At the turn of the 20th century, W. E. B. Du Bois referred to the problem of race as “the problem of the century,” and sociologists of education spent almost the entire last century trying to explain racial disparities in educational performance. Early on, such disparities were explained as a result of innate biological differences (later to be thought of as genetic differences.) This now debunked eugenics perspective fell out of favor after World War II when Hitler used the work of American researchers to justify his Aryan supremacy ideology. In the 1950s, the culture of poverty theory came into vogue as immutable biological causes of racial disparities were replaced with cultural causes that were assumed to be nearly immutable. It was not until the 1970s that broad structural inequities entered this conversation.

      Oppositional culture theory was one of the first to highlight widespread discrimination against racial minorities and the relative lack of returns from educational investments for particular racial minorities. While this theory made the valuable contribution of pushing sociologists of education to think structurally about the educational race gap, unfortunately its policy implications were quite similar to the previous culture of poverty theory. That is, minority students, the theory argued, ought to reject pressure to resist school-related values and simply conform to the dominant norms of schools. Minority students continued to be blamed for their relative poor performance, as the theory targeted the assumed negative cultural response to schooling instead of what I believe is the true cause of racial inequality: structural inequities.

      Responses to oppositional culture theory proved to be quite polarizing, and critics charged that broad monolithic theories could not reasonably be applied to whole racial groups such as African Americans. They pointed out that there were many high-achieving blacks who did not adopt an “oppositional culture,” and a central question of the 1980s was how to explain their strong academic performance. Supporters of oppositional culture theory responded to these critics in the late 1980s by introducing the “burden of ‘acting white’ hypothesis.” Essentially, this hypothesis suggests that when minority students do perform well in school, they run the risk of being negatively sanctioned by their same-race peers as “acting white.” This negative peer pressure results, the theory suggests, in a pre-emptive low-effort syndrome in which some racial minority students reduce their school efforts in order to shield themselves from the taunts of their classmates. This point of view remains widely held in the public discourse as evidenced by Barack Obama's famous quote in his 2004 keynote address to the Democratic National Convention: “children can't achieve unless we … eradicate the slander that says a black youth with a book is acting white.” However, over the past 15 years, both quantitative and qualitative research challenged this theory, and this recent research is well represented in this work.

      Both quantitative and qualitative research has questioned the underlying assumptions of this theory. This recent research has found that minority children do not perceive more limited returns to their educational investments, that they are more likely to have positive school-related attitudes, and that they are rewarded by their peers for educational success rather than being subject to accusations of “acting white.” Research is also coming around to taking seriously the pro-school attitudes of black students (i.e., the positive educational expectations that researchers have known about since The Coleman Report of the 1960s), rather than dismissing them as “wishful thinking” or “abstract attitudes” that do not predict school performance. In sum, the explanations for racial disparities in educational performance have changed significantly and this work reflects that evolution well.

      This is far from the only theoretically driven intellectual dialogue represented in this work. The theories covered within these pages range from Jean Jacques Rousseau's classic masterpiece Emile, or on Education to modern feminist critiques of educational practices. Another example of a thread that links several entries flows from Karl Marx's influence in sociology of education. In the 1970s, two highly influential books with Marxist foundations came into prominence: Paulo Freire's The Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Samual Bowles and Herbert Gintis's Schooling in Capitalist America. Freire's work sparked the development of a major branch of sociology of education: critical theory of education. Since the early 1970s, theorists and researchers in this field have questioned the utility of the “banking concept of education” that treats students as empty receptacles that are to be filled with knowledge, and have challenged the duality of the student-teacher relationship. Instead of the culture of silence, so prevalent in contemporary education, Freire insisted that students ought to enter into a dialogue in which both become a learner and a teacher. Bowles and Gintis, also heavily influenced by Marx, take a more macro approach to critiquing the educational system. They claim that the social organization of schooling reflects the capitalist structure found in exploitive and alienating workplace environments.

      As a result, the type of education a student receives reflects the class position of their parents, and thus unmeritocratically reproduces inequality in education and beyond. Others have also been influenced by Marx and have refined resulting concepts such as cultural capital, the hidden curriculum, and the digital divide. These concepts are all examined within these pages.

      Another source of inequality that is examined in this work is the process through which socioeconomic status and wealth influence the educational success. Socioeconomic advantage in general, and wealth in particular, increase the opportunity for parents and grandparents to provide alternative forms of education to their children or grandchildren. The forms these advantages may take are many and varied. Within this work, you will find detailed treatments of privileged educational opportunities such as boarding schools, elite private schools (that may adopt educational philosophies such as Montessori, Reggio Emilia, or Waldorf), or homeschooling. Alternatively, parents may work within the public school system to gain advantage for their children by pushing for inclusion of advanced tracks (such as honors classes or international baccalaureate) or by forming charter schools. From the ability to send their children on study abroad or exposing them to engaging in extracurricular activities, to using their political influence to draw catchment zone boundaries, families with higher socioeconomic means provide advantages to their children in a process that has driven sociology of education research for decades.

      On the other end of the socioeconomic spectrum is the plight of children in poverty. This work points out the research findings that show that much of the existing class disparities emerge in the summer months when students are not in school; the so-called summer setback. It is in the nonschool environment that advantaged children are exposed to “concerted cultivation,” a strategy of exposing them to a wide range of age-specific, adult-supervised activities. These activities foster critically important noncognitive skills such as self-confidence, persistence, teamwork, and creative problem solving that further advantage high socioeconomic children. Poor children, on the other hand, are socialized through a process of “natural growth” in which they are permitted to determine their own activities. This natural growth approach, while it has its advantages, is yet another way poor children are disadvantaged overall. Some sociologists of education have argued for greater funding of preschool, after-school and summer school programs targeted to lower socioeconomic status students, and these policy recommendations could go a long way toward ameliorating educational disparities.

      Another academic conversation reflected in this work is related to family influences on education. Profound demographic changes have taken place in the United States when it comes to family structure, and sociologists of education have studied these trends in detail. The consistent increase in nonmother/father household family structures has had profound effects on educational processes. As a result, sociologists have examined the impact of children living in single-parent households, stepparent households, grandparents' involvement in education, and the effect of sibship size on educational outcomes. The role of the parent has also garnered more attention. Parental involvement in schools has increasingly been sited as an important contributor to student success, and therefore parents are encouraged to read to their children, hold high educational expectations for them, and get involved in parent/teacher associations. These processes reflect a clear overlap between sociology of education and family sociology.

      Teachers and the process of teaching is also prominently represented in this work, and rightfully so. Historically, there has been a deskilling of the teaching profession, and many are now highly critical of teacher-training programs, suggesting that they create too many underqualified teachers. That coupled with the problems of teacher attrition, burnout, and the retention of teachers needs to be increasingly focused upon. Beyond the state of the teaching profession, the process of teaching is also an important topic of study. This work takes on related issues by examining classroom interactions between teachers and students, student/teacher mismatch (in terms of race, gender, and class), the impact of student/teacher ratios, and teachers' educational expectations for their students. These topics, while not an exhaustive list, go a long way in describing the state of teachers and teaching in contemporary America.

      Finally, while many of the entries focus on sociology of education within the United States (and there are even essays covering every state and many U.S. territories), a concerted effort was made to include contributions that focus on our evermore global world. This took the form of entries on topics such as children of immigrants and their linguistic assimilation in the United States. But there are dozens of entries that examine the sociology of education-related topics that are unique from various countries around the world. This represents a unique overview of the world from a sociology of education perspective, and I am pleased with the collective results.

      In closing, I would like to state that I am proud and humbled to be a part of such an exhaustive effort to represent the field of sociology of education. I am struck by the scope of this work, and even more impressed by the leaders of the sub-discipline that are included among its authors. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the hard work of Geoff Golson, Sue Moskowitz, and everyone else at Golson Media and SAGE Reference for their dedication that has made this project a reality.

      JamesAinsworth
      Editor

      Chronology

      1st and 2nd millennia b.c.e.: Early alphabets are difficult to master, and literacy, rather than being a universal aspiration, is a specialist skill primarily limited to scribes. The literacy rate in ancient Egypt, for instance, is believed to be less than 1 percent. It is somewhat higher in Mesopotamian kingdoms and Greece, where alphabets are simpler and writing itself is a less laborious process.

      1st and 2nd millennia b.c.e.: In Vedic India (1500–600 b.c.e.), education is public at first and based around the Veda scriptures. As the caste system develops, access to education is restricted.

      1st and 2nd millennia b.c.e.: In China under the Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 b.c.e.), the five national schools and four schools for the nobility teach the Six Arts: rites, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, and mathematics. Girls are taught rites, deportment, weaving, and silk production.

      64 c.e.: The Jewish high priest Joshua ben Gamla institutes formal compulsory education for Jewish children. Although tradition has it that parents were required to teach their children in the household 1,000 years earlier, it is unclear how extensive or formal that instruction was. Textbooks in these early Jewish schools are all handwritten.

      6th century: A Chinese poem called “The Thousand Character Classic” is devised as a primer for teaching Chinese characters to children; it remains in use for over a millennium.

      605: Because the Chinese state is so heavily bureaucratic, it requires educated officials, leading to an imperial examination system, similar to a modern-day civil service exam. The exam system in turn leads to a system of schools to prepare young men to take the exam, in a curriculum based on Chinese classical texts; remarkably it remains in use until 1911 (though new texts are added to the curriculum).

      8th century: In the early Muslim states, boys are taught reading, writing, and the basics of their religion.

      8th century: In western Europe, Catholic monasteries are the centers of education and literacy, copying and maintaining Latin texts. Charlemagne, king of the Franks and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 768–814, promotes the liberal arts among the royalty, nobility, and courtiers. The expansion of his empire brings the monastic schools into contact with a greater number of texts and cultures.

      12th century: Medieval universities in England, France, and Italy develop out of the monastic schools, offering courses of serious study in law, medicine, the arts, and science, in addition to theology.

      12th century: The Catholic Church's Third Lateran Council in 1179 requires priests to provide access to free education to their parishioners, boosting literacy and education for the next two centuries—though most Europeans remain illiterate for generations to come.

      14th century: In the Aztec culture, boys under 16 are required to attend school.

      16th century: The Protestant Reformation emphasizes the importance of the individual reading and interpreting the Bible, leading to an increase in literacy rates and schooling. The subsequent Catholic counter-reformation, while rejecting the Protestant notion of literacy as a way of transferring power from priestly authorities to the individual, nevertheless further encourages individual reading and literacy.

      16th century: In the Muslim world, elementary schools called maktabs are included in mosques, with a curriculum centered around literacy and grammar and the Koran used as a teaching tool.

      1603–1867: The Edo period of Japan, during most of which the government imposed an isolation policy that prohibited Japanese from traveling abroad and foreigners from entering the country (except in specific trade zones). Japanese culture thrived. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai class flourished, and schools called hanko were opened for the children of samurai families. Numerous private elementary schools opened throughout the country to meet the demand to educate the children of lower classes, leading to an unusual circumstance in which literacy was widespread in Japan long before modernization, rather than as a result thereof as in much of the world.

      1635: The Boston Latin School opens as the first public school in the United States (and remains the oldest in operation), with a mandatory curriculum in Latin and the classics.

      1636: Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by the Massachusetts legislature (though it is today a private university). Though it lacks formal church affiliation, it is principally a seminary for Unitarian and Congregationalist clergy until the following century, and its modern reputation as a center of academic culture does not develop until its third century of operation.

      1647: In Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Old Deluder Satan Act requires every town to maintain a grammar school. Early New England schools, which many early American schools in the next two to three centuries will closely resemble, are one-room schools governed by a locally elected board and serving a local school district. In contrast, European schools are directly controlled by the government. Subjects typically include reading, writing, spelling, grammar, arithmetic, history, and health.

      1701: Yale University is founded in New Haven, Connecticut, as a seminary.

      1740: Schools in Philadelphia are among the only American schools to provide girls with a substantive education, with a focus on reasoning skills. While it is typical in most of the country for girls, if they are educated at all, to be taught only reading and not writing, the education of girls in Philadelphia is motivated by class, rather than gender, concerns. Only the daughters of the elite attend school, and becoming more educated and worldly enhances that elite status.

      1750–1820: In the years leading up to and following the American Revolution, the expansion of education is motivated in part by the desire to move away from European influences and toward a distinctly American culture and identity. The Constitution, however, does not address education directly, and under the Tenth Amendment's reserved powers clause, responsibility and control of school systems falls to the state governments. (Congressional involvement is justified under the commerce and general welfare clauses of Article 1.) Private schools are a popular recipient for charitable donations by the wealthy.

      1750–1820: In the same period, the American attitude toward women and motherhood shifts to an idea historians now call “republican motherhood.” While not concerned with women's rights as such—not a precursor to feminism nor even suffragism—republican motherhood elevates the role and treatment of women to closer to that of men. Just as daughters of the Philadelphia elite were educated in order to underscore their elitism, the idea now caught on that daughters of all Americans should be educated in order to instill the values of the republic in them.

      1763: Prussia introduces the modern compulsory education system of public schools, which was soon adopted by other countries to produce more disciplined and obedient soldiers. Under most such systems, education is compulsory only for boys and may or may not be available to girls.

      1764: Brown University is founded in Providence, Rhode Island, and is the first American college to accept students regardless of religious affiliation.

      1777–1937: One metric of the federal government's limited role in education until the 20th century: in this 160-year period, Congress passes only 23 laws pertaining to education in contrast to the 33 laws it will pass in the next 24 years.

      1784: The Institute of the Young Blind, one of the first schools for blind children, is founded in Paris.

      1790s: Noah Webster's Speller becomes the most common textbook in the United States. It breaks down problems into smaller components and arranges them according to the age of the student, so that it can be easily taught and used in one-room schoolhouses where multiple ages are taught (the idea of grouping students in grades has not yet caught on). Unlike many of the textbooks that came before it, it is secular, with no mention of God or religious history.

      1794: The first “normal school” opens in Paris, France, to train professors for postsecondary institutions.

      19th century: Throughout the 19th century, education steadily expands in the United States, interrupted only by the Civil War. Expansion is earliest and most rapid in the northern industrial cities, and despite the widespread use of child labor, many historians credit the Industrial Revolution with boosting American interest in education. High schools in particular tend to be introduced in areas where there is a demand for skilled workers; schooling is slower to catch on in parts of the rural south and frontier, where children are most likely to be engaged in agricultural work. After the Civil War, “native schools” are opened by ex-slaves to promote literacy among African Americans.

      Early 1800s: Professionalization of school administration in the United States begins as local school systems begin to hire principals and superintendants, transferring authority from civic authorities and elected officials to increasingly specialized professional educators.

      1810: A normal school opens in France for the training of elementary school teachers.

      1813: Yale introduces the four-point scale for grading, though it does not become standard at other institutions until the 20th century.

      1817: The Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons is the first American school for the deaf.

      1819: The Troy Female Seminary opens in Troy, New York, to train elementary school teachers.

      1821: Boston opens the country's first public secondary school. By the end of the century, public secondary schools outnumber private ones.

      1821: The Braille system is introduced to assist with the education and enrichment of the blind.

      1837: Oberlin College, founded four years earlier, becomes the first coeducational college.

      1837: The new Massachusetts secretary of education, Horace Mann, works to professionalize the state's teachers and increase the number of public schools.

      1840: According to the census, about 55 percent of children between the ages of 5 and 15 attend school. Private secondary schools for girls of means have become common in the north.

      1848: The constitution of the Netherlands is one of the first to regard education as a fundamental right.

      1848: Horace Mann introduces Prussian “age grading” to Massachusetts schools: for the first time, students are grouped together in grades according to age, with a curriculum of progressive subjects arranged by grade. Multi-age classrooms become increasingly uncommon.

      1850: Brown University president Francis Wayland writes, “The various courses should be so arranged that, insofar as is practicable, every student might study what he chose, all that he chose, and nothing but what he chose,” an idea that will not be implemented by Brown for over a century and will continue to seem radical even then.

      1855: Margarethe Meyer-Schurz opens the first German-language kindergarten in Wisconsin.

      1857: The National Education Association, a nationwide teacher's union, is formed.

      1861: Yale's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences is the first American school to award a Ph.D.; it is awarded to Clarence Winthrop Bowen.

      1861: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in response to the Industrial Revolution.

      1862: The first Morrill Land Grant Act grants federal land to the states to create colleges; states without sufficient federal land in their borders were issued land elsewhere that they could sell to fund the colleges. One of the act's aims was to punish the Confederate states by exclusion; they were granted land after the end of the war.

      1865: Cornell University is founded by Western Union founder Ezra Cornell and New York state senator Andrew Dickson White. The school's intellectual inclusiveness, unusual for the time, is summed up by its motto, a slogan of Ezra's: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.” It is a coeducational school from its founding.

      1865: When the Civil War ends, southern states under Reconstruction governments establish public primary school systems for both whites and blacks; nearly all schools are segregated by race, and black schools are consistently underfunded, sometimes ridiculously so.

      1867: The U.S. Department of Education is established.

      1867: New Jersey is the first state to ban corporal punishment in schools.

      1868–1912: The Meiji period in Japan is a time of rapid modernization, in which the traditional class system is abandoned and an integrated public education system based directly on Prussia's replaces the older overlapping systems of private and public class-based schools. In 1907 the duration of compulsory education is increased to six years.

      1880: England becomes one of the last European countries to introduce compulsory education.

      1881: The Phoenix Indian School opens in Arizona, one of the boarding schools opened to fulfill the federal government's requirement to assimilate American Indian children by teaching them English, religion, and vocational training. It soon becomes the largest such school and remains open until 1990.

      1885: California schools begin segregating Asian and American Indians from whites, and many districts open “Mexican schools” to assimilate Mexican American students.

      1890: The second Morrill Land Grant Act required that if any land-grant college used race as an admissions criterion, that state must form a separate land-grant institution for nonwhites, leading to the creation of many of the historically black colleges. Most of the black land-grant colleges are devoted to training teachers, which helps increase the quality of education at predominantly black schools throughout the country.

      1890–1920: Over the course of the Progressive Era, school attendance in the United States increases over 700 percent (compared to the population increase of 70 percent). Over the same period, universities offer the first courses and degree programs in educational administration. As the government takes on more and more responsibilities, the role of the state in education increases. This period of educational expansion encompasses a political dimension, as public schooling is the easiest way to disseminate American identity and English proficiency to the children of recent waves of immigrants.

      1890–1920: Colleges in this era help young men make the transition from rural farm life to the complex urban occupations their fathers could not train them for, while the development of elite academic centers in the northeast consolidates intellectual culture in that region.

      1890–1920: Even before compulsory education has been adopted nationwide, pedagogues begin to advocate changes to the approach to education, promoting the intertwined relationship between education and democracy, and the idea of primary and secondary school not as a place to acquire skills but to realize the student's potential and impart social consciousness. Chief among these theorists is John Dewey, professor at the University of Chicago (1894—1904) and Columbia University (1904—30).

      1900: The Association of American Universities is founded to standardize doctoral programs; today it's a forum for developing academic policies and research programs.

      1900: White high schools, and a small number of black high schools, become common in southern cities. High schools in general are transitioning from schools that prepare students for college—and considered of little use to students with no such intentions—to a core element of the nationwide school system.

      1900: Only four southern states have compulsory education, in comparison to 30 in the rest of the country.

      1904: Stuyvesant High School in New York City pilots the first honors curriculum, originally for exceptional mathematics and science students.

      1904: The Binet-Simon scale, an IQ test to help identify special-needs children, is developed in France.

      1904: The National Child Labor Committee is formed with the goal of abolishing child labor, and supports compulsory education as one solution.

      1907: Maria Montessori, the first Italian woman to practice medicine, opens a school in an impoverished neighborhood in Rome for children ages 2 to 9. In the process of running the school, she develops an approach to education informed by the study of human development and a focus on movement and independence.

      1910: The first nursery school opens in the United States. As the American family shrinks and living arrangements change—with fewer multigenerational households—nursery schools become an important source of both childcare and socialization, guided by the growing interest in childhood development.

      1916: The Stanford revision of the Binet-Simon scale, sometimes called the Stanford-Binet test, is developed, with broader goals than the original French test. Despite a scale derived from the scores of middle-class white children, it becomes the most frequently reliedupon IQ test in the United States.

      1916: Abraham Flexner's A Modern School calls for the de-emphasizing of the classics in school curricula.

      1916: French becomes the foreign language of choice for most students, World War I decimating the popularity of German, which had previously been the most-studied language.

      1917: Mississippi is the final U.S. state to pass a compulsory education law.

      1920: 32 percent of high-school-age teenagers are enrolled in high school, compared to 7 percent in 1890. Even though the growth of high schools is unevenly distributed, favoring wealthy states and urban centers, it is far faster and further reaching in the United States than anywhere else in the world. Even the ambition of universal high school for all income classes is uniquely American.

      1920s: The terms gifted and giftedness in their modern educational context are first introduced, originally in reference to students who performed exceptionally on IQ tests.

      1920s: Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget develops his first theories of child development, which later inform the design of elementary and pre-kindergarten schools.

      1925: In Pierce v. Society of Sisters, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that a 1922 Oregon law requiring public school attendance is a violation of personal liberty, and that state-accredited private schools or home-schooling must be viable options.

      1929: Maria Montessori founds the Association Montessori Internationale, which becomes one of the organizations that certifies Montessori schools established according to her principles.

      1929: The Great Depression does more to end child labor nationwide than legislative attempts did, as the number of adults seeking work is so much greater than the demand for labor. Adults are now willing to work cheaply enough that there is no longer any demand for child workers except on family farms.

      1944: The Servicemen's Readjustment Act, better known as the G.I. Bill, funds college or vocational training for servicemen returning from World War II, and continues to make educational funding available to soldiers to the present day. The G.I. Bill is actually passed as a compromise; Republicans rejected Democrats' call for broad-based education spending, but aid to G.I.s had bipartisan support. Colleges quickly become overwhelmingly male, and remain so for the rest of the century.

      1944: The General Educational Development (GED) credential, a high school diploma equivalence, is introduced to make it easier for returning veterans who did not complete high school to take advantage of the G.I. Bill; before long, civilians are made eligible for the GED, as well.

      1944: During and after World War II, high school attendance becomes common in the rural south for the first time.

      1947: After India gains independence, much of the country adopts Mahatma Gandhi's system of Nai Talim (“basic education”), in which children produce traditional handicrafts as part of the learning experience. By the 1960s this model is largely abandoned in favor of the curriculum advocated by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Indian prime minister, which combines a technical education with a liberal arts curriculum as part of the country's drive for industrialization.

      1948: San Diego city officials institute a district-wide screening process for honors students, the oldest honors program still in place today, with 16 schools devoted to gifted education and a class size limit of 15 students.

      1954:Brown v. Board of Education ends de jure racial segregation in the United States when the Supreme Court rules that separate educational facilities for different races are inherently unequal. The decision helps boost the civil rights movement and also inspires bitter opposition on the part of stalwart segregationists. In 1957, President Dwight Eisenhower deploys part of the 101st Airborne Division to ensure black students' entry into integrating Little Rock Central High School. Even 10 years after Brown, Alabama governor George Wallace's political currency consists principally of segregationist coin.

      1958: The National Defense Education Act, precipitated by the Soviet launch of Sputnik the previous year and a recent increase in college attendance, provides funding to all levels of American education. The goal is to avoid falling behind the Soviets in scientific achievement; beneficiaries of the funding are required to sign an affidavit forswearing overthrow of the American government, a requirement removed in 1962 when McCarthyism fell out of favor.

      1960s: The flurry of social changes and activist movements in this decade sometimes camouflage how significant it is for American public education, which becomes better funded and more professionalized while tailoring programs to the needs of a diverse student population. States begin to pass laws requiring state testing and licensing for teachers.

      1960s: The experimental college movement advocates new approaches to education, including cost-free courses, community- and service-focused education, courses taught by nonprofessor specialists in a given field, discussion groups without professors, and other ideas. Most of these approaches are pursued in schools-within-schools based in traditional colleges like Tufts University and the University of Washington.

      1960: New College of Florida is founded in Sarasota as one of the first private experimental colleges. Though not as radical in its experiment as schools like Hampshire or Evergreen that succeed it, its strong focus on academic inquiry leads to similar features, including narrative evaluations instead of grades and a strong commitment to writing and personalized education. Famed historian Arnold J. Toynbee interrupts his retirement to join the faculty.

      1962: In Ypsilanti, Michigan, the HighScope Perry Preschool opens to serve impoverished African American children ages 3 and 4. Rather than a simple daycare program, the preschool is designed to bridge the achievement gap between low-income children and the rest of the population.

      1963: IBM partners with Stanford's Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences to develop educational software for elementary schools.

      1965: The Higher Education Act funds low-interest loans and federal grant money for college students, as well as subsidizing a number of college libraries, community colleges, vocational schools, and other academic entities. Combined with the long-term effects of the G.I. Bill (for one thing, many more of 1965s' teenagers are the children of college graduates than would be the case without that bill), the growth of white-collar industries and the middle class, and the escalation of the Vietnam War (and the ability to avoid the draft by enrolling in college), the bill contributes to the gradual trend of college education's perception as an expectation rather than a luxury. College begins to become the rule rather than the exception; attitudes towards college change as a result, fueling student protest movements, demands for student rights (especially over self-determination and freedom from behavioral rules, such as the rule against opposite-sex guests in dormitories), and the growing experimental college movement.

      1965: The then-controversial Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) involves the federal government in public school to the greatest extent yet seen, providing funds for school libraries, supplemental education centers, and education agencies providing for the educational needs of low-income children. The Republican Party opposes the bill en masse, on the grounds that it constitutes federal tampering with local matters.

      1965: The Johnson administration also initiates Head Start, a preschool initiative designed to provide high-quality early childhood education to children of poverty, in the form of an eight-week summer program. Too many of the teachers hired are unqualified—adequate daycare providers but not educational professionals. The summer program is immediately followed by a year-round program that is somewhat more successful and that has continued to be funded with revised program standards and additional provisions for disabled, bilingual, and bicultural students.

      1965: In Amherst, Massachusetts, Hampshire College is founded by other local schools in what will become the Five College Consortium: Amherst College, Smith College, Mount Holyoke College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Rather than radically altering their own curriculums, the colleges, which share some resources and open their classes to one another's students, choose to found a new institution as an experiment in alternative education. The school combines many of the more radical possibilities for education, rather than compromising by introducing small changes to an existing program. Opening in 1970, Hampshire eschews grades and general education requirements and requires intensive writing work from its students, culminating in a thesis. Students are involved in policymaking decisions, and community service in the Third World is a graduation requirement.

      1967: The computer programming language LOGO is created expressly for the purpose of being a simple language to teach to elementary school children.

      1969: In Tinker v. Des Moines, the Supreme Court upholds students' right to free speech in a case dealing with a peaceful Vietnam War protest.

      1969: Brown University adopts its New Curriculum, introducing new interdisciplinary courses, dropping general education requirements, and simplifying grades.

      1969: College of the Atlantic, a private experimental college, opens in Bar Harbor, Maine, in order to stabilize the economy in the months of the year when tourism wanes. The curriculum is based on human ecology, the only bachelor's degree offered by the school, which has perhaps the strongest interdisciplinary focus of any bachelor's degree granting institution in the world. There are no separate departments; every faculty member is both a human ecologist and a specialist in another field, ranging from political science and peace studies to art and film.

      1970: Oberlin College becomes one of the first colleges to convert some of its dormitories to mixed-sex dorms, and is the focus of several magazine and television “exposes” alleging sexual activity and immorality.

      1971: In the Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education case, busing, magnet schools, and compensatory education are approved as means of overcoming the perpetuation of racially segregated schools by residential segregation.

      1971: Massachusetts is only the second state to ban corporal punishment in schools.

      1972: The Education Amendments Act includes a Title IX amendment forbidding gender bias in federally funded education programs, leading to an increase in funding for women's athletics.

      1972: Giftedness is formally defined in a federal government report as “evidence of or potential for advanced academic achievement.”

      1973: In San Antonio v. Rodriguez, the Supreme Court rules that education is not a fundamentally protected constitutional right.

      1974: The Oregon Trail computer game is introduced as an educational game about pioneer life.

      1978: The ESEA is reauthorized and federal funds continued to be made available to local school programs. Eligibility for funding is broadened; funds may be used school-wide if 75 percent of the student body is low-income.

      1979: The Department of Education Organization Act elevates the Secretary of Education to a cabinet-level position subject to appointment confirmation in congressional proceedings.

      1983: Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIe. In contrast to the expensive Macintosh introduces the following year, the IIe has lower production costs than its predecessors while retaining backwards compatibility; it becomes a popular model for schools adding computers to their curriculum.

      1986: China passes the Compulsory Education Law, raising teachers' salaries and making teachers' colleges tuition-free while instituting national standards for teacher qualifications, exams, textbooks, and curricula. Control of schools is decentralized, at the long-term expense of rural schools. For the first time since the advent of China's communist government, the pursuit of social equality is de-emphasized in educational policy, in favor of greater academic achievement.

      1988: ESEA is reauthorized with the further caveat that standardized test schools will be used to assess school performance, reflecting the decade's concern with standards-based performance and the exaggerated threat of a prosperous, well-educated Japan.

      1991: Minnesota enacts the first law permitting charter schools in the United States.

      1996: The Oakland School district declares that the primary language of many of its African American students is Ebonics—a term coined in 1973 but unfamiliar to most of the American populace until this proclamation. The district sets aside funds to help African American students to become proficient in standard English in order to aid in their development and performance.

      2001: The ESEA is reauthorized under the name No

      Child Left Behind.

      2003: No Child Left Behind is amended to require that students be given the option of transferring out of schools that fail to perform to a certain level, to require certification qualifications for teachers, and to offer supplemental services to underperforming schools and school districts.

      2004: A French law outlaws the ostentatious wearing of religious symbols in public schools, leading to a controversy over the wearing of the hijab by female Muslim students (who, many argue, were the intended target of the law).

      2005: Immediately following Hurricane Katrina, the Orleans Parish School Board declared the New Orleans Public Schools (NOPS) school system indefinitely closed. The state legislature of Louisiana responded by transferring control of the schools to the Recovery School District, which is operated by the state's Department of Education and consists of the state's failing and jeopardized schools. Most of the schools of the NOPS were converted to charter schools, making New Orleans the only city in the country where the majority of public school students attend charter schools.

      2009: As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the Obama administration develops Race to the Top, a federally funded grant program. RTT grants are awarded to states that propose school reforms targeting the retention of effective teachers, improvements to low-achieving schools, the creation of student data systems, and the raising of standards and accountability systems.

      2012: Since 2010, the total amount of student loan debt held by Americans has exceeded the total amount of credit card debt. In late 2011, it passed the $1 trillion mark, having grown by $200 billion in a single year. A combination of factors drives the student loan debt crisis, the criticality of which is overshadowed by the prevailing worldwide financial crisis: increases in college enrollment, rising tuition costs, a declining correlation between a college degree and increased lifetime earnings, and serious levels of unemployment among recent college graduates. Even that unemployment problem is only partly the result of the financial crisis; a separate component is that the supply of young college-educated workers drastically exceeds the demand for inexperienced workers.

      2012: Enrollment in law school increases as college graduates seek to delay their entrance into the job market while attaining a degree perceived as prestigious; in actuality there are far more lawyers than jobs, and the refusal of law schools to curtail enrollment leads to some limited congressional and media discussions about their role in the growth of student loan debt.

      BillKte'piIndependent Scholar
    • Glossary

      • ability grouping: The practice of grouping students together according to their academic achievements, actual or potential, usually for a specific subject. Unlike tracking, ability grouping is short-term, lasting no more than a school year. Ability grouping is especially fluid in elementary schools, where variations in students' mastery of subjects may be impacted more by students learning at different rates than by the innate potential that would drive long-term differences.
      • academic freedom: The freedom of students to inquire about or discuss, and faculty members to teach about or communicate, any ideas or facts without the risk of recriminations from their school, government, or society. Though a particularly prominent issue in nations beset by political unrest, it frequently comes up in the United States in discussions of evolution and creationism, sex education, and banned books. To date, the Supreme Court has not ruled that individual professors have academic freedom and have only upheld the academic freedom and self-determination of the university.
      • access: The means to make use of educational resources. Access to education, without proper institutional support and pedagogical frameworks, may be limited by wealth, ethnicity, gender, social class or background, language, physical disabilities, or learning disabilities. Varying solutions to the problem of providing universal access have been proposed and adopted, and implementation may be at the institutional level (ranging from affirmative action admissions practices to providing special classes or assistive technology for some students) or the classroom level.
      • adult education: The education of adults, especially post-adolescents who are significantly older than the average college student. Adult education includes continuing education programs, degree programs (especially those geared toward older students and offering night, morning, and weekend classes), and on the job training and professional development.
      • adult high school: High school facilities specifically for adults who did not complete high school at the usual age.
      • after-school program: Organized activity for children outside of school hours, especially in the gap between the end of the school day and the end of the traditional work day. After-school programs serve multiple purposes: providing supervision for children whose parents are not home, enhancing their educational experience (academic clubs such as math club, French club, or Odyssey of the Mind), or giving them outlets for pursuits such as sports or the arts. After-school programs may be offered by schools, organizations like the YMCA or scouting groups, or local libraries and community centers.
      • alternative education: Nontraditional forms of education, including home schooling, charter schools, magnet schools, and alternative schools. Alternative schools, many of which opened in the 1970s, may serve students with special needs, special interests (such as the performing arts), who are at-risk, or may simply offer a more challenging or diverse curriculum.
      • blab school: A type of primary school extant in the 19th century, in which in order to save on materials costs, teachers simply dictated lessons that students repeated back in unison in order to memorize them. Abraham Lincoln, one of the great orators of his day, attended a blab school as a boy.
      • boarding school: A school where students, and possibly employees, live on-campus. The term is used only for primary and secondary school; residential campuses are not considered “boarding schools.” Boarding schools may also have day students who live with their parents locally, though some may require all students to live on-campus regardless of their parents' proximity. Today, American boarding schools are nearly all private; public boarding schools were once common in rural counties where it was impractical for the children of remote ranches to commute to school daily. Of those schools, only the Crane Union High School in Oregon continues to operate as a public boarding school.
      • business school: A university offering degrees in business topics. In North America, a business school may be one of two rather different kinds of institutions: a two-year institution offering associates' degrees in business-related topics like accounting, which originated as secretarial schools; or a professional school offering master's degrees, usually in business administration (MBA).
      • busing: A method of countering de facto segregation by transporting students to schools in order to achieve racial balance at those schools. Busing began after the 1971 Supreme Court decision that empowered federal courts to require it; while de jure segregation had ended with Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, de facto segregation still existed because of patterns of residential segregation. A 1974 decision limited busing across school district lines to areas where de jure segregation had existed.
      • charter school: A public school that is free of some of the restrictions of other public schools in return for meeting specific goals set out in its charter. Admission is typically by lottery, and the curriculum may focus on a specific field or may simply offer a superior education to other public schools. Many see charter schools as a “laboratory” in which new models are tested that may be adapted to the noncharter public school system.
      • childhood studies: The interdisciplinary study of childhood and the experience of children, informed by biology (and increasingly neuroscience) but drawing heavily on psychology, sociology, history, economics, literature, philosophy, and the arts. Sometimes called the sociology of children, especially in older texts, its concerns and methodologies are much broader than those of sociology.
      • Chronicle of Higher Education: A newspaper (and now Web site) founded in 1966 to provide news, information, and job listings for workers in the higher education industry.
      • code-switching: The concurrent use of more than one language in conversation. For instance, bilingual speakers may mix elements of their two native languages in speech and bilingual children may do so in school and in school assignments. This was historically treated as evidence of poor fluency but recent generations have recognized code switching as a natural process and have adjusted teaching methods accordingly.
      • coeducational: Gender-integrated education. Single-sex education was once the norm in higher education; while it existed in some primary and secondary schools, it was always uncommon. Single-sex men's colleges are nearly nonexistent today outside of religious institutions; single-sex women's colleges are narrowly more common.
      • cognitive skill: The capacity to derive meaningful knowledge from experience and information and to apply new information to existing knowledge and assumptions.
      • community college: A publicly funded college, nearly always a two-year institution granting diplomas, certificates, and associates' degrees, though some community colleges may offer a limited number of bachelor's degrees. Once called “junior colleges,” this term is now almost exclusively used for private two-year institutions.
      • compensatory education: Supplemental educational programs designed to assist children at risk of low educational achievement, especially programs that seek to help children of low-income families close the achievement gap with wealthier children. The most prominent American example is Head Start.
      • comprehensive school: In parts of Europe—England and Wales, Ireland, Gibraltar, and Finland—a comprehensive school is a public secondary school, one that accepts students regardless of aptitude or achievement.
      • compulsory education: Education that is mandatory, such as primary and secondary school in the United States (with the option to drop out at age 18, or from ages 14 to 17 with parental permission in some states). Compulsory education begins at age 5, 6, or 7, depending on the state. In the United States and most of the world, compulsory education is also free education—that is, whatever education the government requires of the nation's children, it will also pay for. Historically, this was not always the case, and parents in some jurisdictions in the early Modern era were compelled to send their children to school and to pay a special school tax to fund it.
      • core curriculum: The course of study that is required of all students of a school. This may consist of specific courses (such as computer literacy, composition, or physical education) or of a minimum number of credit hours in each of several subjects (such as mathematics or physical sciences). Usually the core curriculum is only one part of a student's total credit load, with the remaining credits accumulated from elective classes. Standards-based education reform depends on a well-defined core curriculum because if students are required to demonstrate specific knowledge in order to prove their achievements, it follows that most students must take most of the same subjects.
      • corporal punishment: Physical discipline, most often associated with a spanking administered with a wooden paddle. Other forms include spanking with an open hand, striking with a leather strap, and a ruler rapped across the knuckles. Uncommon in public schools, in the late 20th century, more than half of U.S. states banned it in public schools (only New Jersey and Iowa have banned it from private schools). It is somewhat more common in private schools and in rural southern public schools.
      • cultural capital: Nonmonetary assets such as skills, education, and knowledge, which may promote social mobility.
      • curriculum: The set of courses and course content offered at a school. Curriculum is impacted by multiple forces, including the requirements of external authorities such as the federal government, state legislature, or district school board, the requirements of the school administration, the desires of the teacher or professor, the availability of material, and the prior knowledge and competencies of the students.
      • day care: In contrast with preschool or pre-kindergarten (or the older term nursery school), “day care” usually connotes third-party child care with limited to no educational component. Professional day-care centers are sometimes administered by credentialed professionals with training in child development; thus, activity may be more structured than play at home. Even simply socializing with other young children is educational in the sense that it is key to children's development.
      • day school: The opposite of a boarding school, a school children attend during the day before returning home.
      • digital divide: Groups having inequal access to and fluency with information and communication technologies. Such inequalities exist between nations and cultures, such as the global north and south, as well as between socioeconomic classes, geographic regions, and other groups. Digital access is connected to social and cultural capital and to educational opportunities.
      • diversity: The existence, understanding, and acknowledgement of, and respect for, the multiple cultures and ethnicities that make up the world's population.
      • elementary school: School serving the earliest grades, typically from either kindergarten or first grade through sixth grade. Some jurisdictions assign sixth grade instead to a middle school; even fewer divide elementary school into lower elementary (through third or fourth grade) and upper elementary (fourth or fifth through sixth) schools. Elementary school is synonymous with grade school and grammar school.
      • exit exam: A test that must be taken in order to graduate from a school, especially a high school. Though first used in the United States in the 19th century, it was especially popularized by the standards-based education reforms of the 1990s, which emphasized empirical data like standardized tests in evaluating students and schools.
      • finishing school: A private school for girls that emphasizes etiquette and culture over academic inquiry— the destination of the daughters of the wealthy, whose brothers attended prep schools. A finishing school may also be a women's college that emphasizes such areas of instruction over academic studies.
      • giftedness: Greater than average intellectual ability, either broad-based or focused on a specific affinity, but either way treated as an innate talent that can be developed through education but not imparted by teaching. The handling and definition of gifted students has varied by era and pedagogical inclination but it has long been understood that giftedness is often coupled with problems that can arise if the student is not sufficiently challenged.
      • graduate school: A nonprofessional school that offers advanced degrees such as master's and doctoral degrees. Professional schools—law school, medical school, business school, and seminaries—are considered separate, as they are specifically focused on job training. That said, graduate schools—especially doctoral programs in the humanities, arts, and social sciences—frequently assume that students will go on to work as college professors in their field of study and incorporate job training in the form of pedagogical, methodological, and theoretical instruction. The key component separating graduate and undergraduate study is that graduate study requires the production of original research, including the production of a thesis or dissertation. Most graduate schools exist within a university that also offers undergraduate study, with overlapping faculty. Graduate students may take a certain number of undergraduate courses, and indeed in some programs the majority of their coursework may consist of graduate sections of undergraduate courses. Typically graduate students work as instructors for the lowest-level classes in their department—survey and introductory courses—or as assistants to full professors. In return, some or all of their tuition may be paid and they may receive a small stipend.
      • guidance counselor: Also known as a school counselor or educational counselor, guidance counselors provide individual and group counseling in areas that can include personal, social, and developmental issues, college access, and career and academic development. Originally intended to provide career development guidance, their role has varied widely as educational goals and dominant educational ideologies have shifted.
      • gymnasium: A secondary school in parts of Europe, mostly central and north Europe. The name is derived from the Greek gymnasium, a place of physical and academic education for young men; in English the word retained its physical education dimension, while in German, Italian, and other languages it retained its academic dimension. Gymnasiums are generally focused on college preparation, and as such may specialize in a particular broad area of study—usually modern languages, mathematics and science, humanities and classical studies, or economics and business.
      • hermeneutics: The analysis of the importance of social events to their participants and the culture in which they transpire.
      • home schooling: The education of children at home, especially by parents, as an alternative to attending traditional public or private school. Homeschooling requirements vary widely by state, but the general trend has been to ease requirements.
      • honors classes: Classes distinguished from standard course offerings by typically being more challenging and offering more in-depth material.
      • honors student: A student who has been recognized for academic achievement by being listed on an honor roll (usually for maintaining a certain grade point average); who is a member of the National Honors Society or a similar program; or, least commonly, who is enrolled in an honors class, which need not require the student to be an honor student in either of the first two regards.
      • institute of technology: A college or secondary school focused on science, engineering, and technology. It is usually a university with an extensive graduate program in those areas, and which serves as a research institute, in contrast to technical institutes or technical colleges that focus on vocational skills in mechanical fields. In the United States, the term polytechnic is synonymous with institute of technology.
      • interdisciplinary: Combining multiple academic disciplines. Interdisciplinarity is specifically the combination of multiple disciplines in one program of study: majoring in history and minoring in physics is not an interdisciplinary endeavor, but enrolling in Indiana University's History and Philosophy of Science program to study the history of physics would be. The late 20th century saw a flourishing of interdisciplinary programs, including pop culture studies, women's studies, cognitive studies, ethnic studies, peace studies, evolutionary psychology, and bioinformatics, some of which have become standard offerings at many universities. Other disciplines, like anthropology, could be considered inherently interdisciplinary even though they were not originally treated as such.
      • Ivy: The term Ivy is sometimes borrowed from Ivy League to denote other groups of colleges known for academic excellence. The “black Ivy league,” for instance, is composed of the most selective historically black colleges: Howard, Hampton, Spelman, Fisk, Morehouse, Tuskegee, and Dillard. The “southern Ivies” are the southern schools with the most prestigious academic reputations: Duke, Tulane, Vanderbilt, Wake Forest, Emory, Rice, and Southern Methodist University. The “public Ivies,” similarly, are the most prestigious public colleges: William & Mary, Miami University (Oxford, Ohio), University of California, University of Michigan (Ann Arbor), University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill), University of Texas (Austin), University of Vermont (Burlington), and University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Of course, in all of these usages there are shades of meaning that fail to carry over, particularly the Ivy League's long history and relationship with prep schools.
      • Ivy League: A group of eight private colleges in the northeast: Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, the University of Pennsylvania, and Yale. The term is derived from the athletic conference the eight schools belong to, but they had long been associated together, not only because of geography but because of a shared culture of privilege, social elitism, wealth, highly selective admissions, and longevity. Seven of the eight schools—all but Cornell—were founded in the colonial period, and the only surviving colonial schools not included in the Ivies are the College of William and Mary (in Virginia) and Rutgers (in New Jersey). There is a long history of connectivity between the Ivy League and the northeastern prep schools, as well as the Seven Sisters.
      • junior high school: A principally North American institution established as a transition between primary (elementary) school and secondary (high) school, and including grades seven and eight. Junior highs have fallen out of favor, and in many districts have been replaced by middle schools, which begin with grade five or six and end with grade eight or nine.
      • kindergarten: An educational institution for young children, in the United States typically meaning those who are 5 years old at the start of the school year. Originally treated as a separate program from elementary schools, often without a public kindergarten available in most districts, public kindergarten is now available in all districts in 43 states, and several districts in the rest. However, it is not compulsory in every state; in some states compulsory education begins as late as age 7.
      • land-grant colleges and universities: Higher education institutions created by the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 that granted federal land to each state for the purpose of establishing and endowing colleges to teach agriculture, science, engineering, and classical studies in order to meet the needs of the country following the Industrial Revolution. Most land-grant colleges are public universities; Cornell University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are notable exceptions.
      • liberal arts: In the classical era, the liberal arts were those which were considered essential to a citizen's study: grammar, rhetoric, and logic, the trivium. The quadrivium of mathematics, geometry, music, and astronomy was added in the Middle Ages. Today, the liberal arts encompass literature, science, language, philosophy, history, the social sciences, and mathematics. A liberal arts college (including most four-year degree-granting institutions) is one that grants degrees meant to represent a breadth of knowledge in these areas, regardless of the student's major. In its broadest sense, “the liberal arts” and “a liberal arts education” could be considered an approach to learning that values breadth of knowledge and learning for the sake of learning, over professional or vocational training.
      • literacy: The ability to read with understanding, write coherently, and think critically about the written word. Literacy is also used, with modifiers, to refer figuratively to fluency and mastery of some other body of knowledge, as in “cultural literacy” or “computer literacy.” It is only in the last few centuries that the ability to read and the ability to write have been grouped together; historically, before compulsory education, reading ability was much more common than writing ability.
      • madrasah: An Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether religious or secular. In the West, the term is especially associated with Islamic institutions that offer scholarly study in Arabic, Islamic law, Qur'anic interpretation, logic, Muslim history, and the hadith (the sayings and deeds of Muhammad).
      • magnet school: A public school with a specialized curriculum. Most focus on a particular area of study, which may be academic or vocational.
      • major/minor: A major is the area of concentration of an undergraduate's degree, while a minor is a secondary concentration. Typically the major correlates to a specific academic department, which will require specific base courses (such as an introduction class) and a minimum number of credit hours from a list of approved coursework, in addition to the college or university's general education requirements. Some majors are interdisciplinary or narrowly focused enough that they lack a dedicated department. A minor is usually fulfilled by completing four or five classes from an approved list. While there is no practical benefit to a minor—in most cases it confers no specific certification—it could be argued that this is increasingly becoming true of the major itself, as a growing number of jobs expect applicants to hold a bachelor's degree but have little preference as to what discipline that degree is in.
      • narrative evaluation: A multiparagraph analysis of a student's overall performance in a course, especially as an alternative to other performance metrics. At mainstream colleges like Bard and Brown, narrative evaluations supplement the traditional letter grade; experimental colleges like Hampshire, Evergreen, and New College of Florida rely exclusively on narrative.
      • numeracy: Numeracy is to numbers and mathematical concepts as literacy is to the written word: the ability to understand and reason with them. While literacy is a well-tracked statistic both in the United States and internationally, numeracy is much less studied.
      • parochial school: A private school that combines religious instruction with traditional topics of education. The term is especially associated with Catholic schools, which are the most common in the United States, because it is derived from the Catholic parish. There are also many religious schools operated by Lutherans, Calvinists, Orthodox Jews, and Protestant fundamentalists.
      • pedagogy: The study of teaching; also a style, strategy, theory, or philosophy of teaching.
      • pre-kindergarten (pre-K): The formal learning environment that precedes kindergarten. Pre-kindergarten, which has replaced nursery school as the preferred term, differs from day care by its focus on skill building with an end goal of preparing children ages 3 to 5 for kindergarten. As families grew smaller over the 20th century, the social aspect of pre-kindergarten programs became an important way to socialize children and help them become accustomed to group settings in preparation for schooling. Most programs are private; Project Head Start funds a number of pre-K programs.
      • prep school: Formally known by a rarely used term— college-preparatory school. Prep school is a private secondary school, typically a day school and coeducational, though single-sex schools were once the norm and many of the most prestigious prep schools are or were boarding schools. Prep schools tend to emphasize campus culture and school tradition to a greater degree than public high schools, greatly resembling the Ivy League colleges for which they are feeders. Few American students attend prep schools and many of those come from families who have attended for generations. Prep schools are still a distinctly American phenomenon.
      • primary school: Generally encompasses elementary school and middle school or junior high, and is followed by secondary school.
      • private school: Schools not administered or funded by the local, state, or federal government. The majority of American private schools are parochial schools but many secular private schools exist, from schools for students with special needs to schools for students with an interest in the arts or music to highly competitive schools that may offer a college-like experience to high school students.
      • professionalization: The process of turning a trade into a profession by establishing reasonable qualifications and requirements, standards of behavior or practice, and some regulatory or certifying body to oversee members of the profession. The end result of professionalization is to make a clear delineation between amateurs and professionals, who have been extensively trained for their job and are overseen by an authority requiring a certain level of performance from them.
      • public school: A school receiving funding from the local, state, and federal government and administered by state and local education agencies and the U.S. Department of Education. Public schools are open to all students within their district, with special exceptions.
      • pull out: A pull out program is one in which certain students are “pulled out” of their normal classroom in order to spend part of their school day in a separate program. Gifted student programs have traditionally been pull out programs, but some programs for children with learning disabilities are also conducted on a pull out basis.
      • recess: A midday break, typically following lunch and usually only in primary schools, during which students are allowed unstructured play in designated areas such as a playground or indoor area. Recess typically allows children from several classes and multiple grades to mingle and is considered an important element of child development.
      • ROTC: Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) programs are located at civilian colleges for training commissioned officers for the United States armed forces (except the Coast Guard). ROTC enrollment may confer a competitive merit-based scholarship, in return for active military service after graduation. ROTC began at land-grant colleges, as military tactics were originally considered part of the core college curriculum thereof. Public universities receiving federal funding are required to permit the presence of a ROTC program if one is initiated.
      • secondary school: Usually synonymous with high school, or grades nine through 12. Some high schools only offer grades 10 to 12; further, some schools are designated “secondary schools” and offer grades seven to 12. The terms freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior refer to ninth through 12th graders even if the school begins with an earlier grade; freshman is rarely used for the ninth grade in middle schools.
      • segregation: The separation of facilities, including educational institutions, according to race. Segregation became common in the south after Reconstruction as a way to limit the rights of, and interaction with white society of, recently enfranchised African Americans. De facto segregation (segregation that occurs not as a matter of policy but because local demographics are racially imbalanced, leading to a student population that is or is almost racially homogeneous) remains common throughout the country.
      • service learning: A teaching method that integrates formal instruction with experiential education in the form of community service. Traditionally associated with secondary school, service learning is sometimes found at the college level, as with the Leadership, Ethics, and Social Action minor at Indiana University, the community service graduation requirement at Hampshire College and the programs supported by the Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Partnership Foundation.
      • Seven Sisters: Northeastern liberal arts colleges founded in the 19th century as women's colleges: Mount Holyoke, Vassar (now coed), Wellesley, Smith, Radcliffe (now merged with Harvard), Bryn Mawr, and Barnard. The schools were known for their stringent academic standards, a rarity in women's education at the time of their founding.
      • social skills: Skills that pertain to and facilitate interaction with others, whether one-on-one or in a group, the process of learning these skills is called socialization. Socialization is a key component of education at every level, with activities ranging from pre-kindergarten guided play activities to junior high group presentations to high school student council assisting in the process.
      • standardized test: A test administered in a consistent manner to a large body of students in multiple districts, whether as an admissions requirement for college (e.g., the SAT, ACT, and GRE), as a diagnostic to assess performance of the student body (e.g., the Stanford Achievement or California Achievement Tests), or other purposes (e.g., IQ tests, professional certification exams, or driver's license exams).
      • standards-based education reform: Education reform predicated on the desire for empirical data on the performance of students, teachers, and schools, measuring the performance of each against a standard. Standards-based reform has been the most prominent and successful (in terms of legislative and policy support) form of education reform since the 1980s. Much of it is predicated on the belief that a given level of achievement, such as a high school diploma, should be preceded by the acquisition of a specific set of knowledge or skills.
      • superintendent: An executive administrator and overseer of an educational jurisdiction, such as a school district or an entire state; sometimes called a chief school administrator.
      • vocational school: A school where job skills can be learned. While many vocational schools are post-secondary, there are a number of public vocational secondary schools, usually for grades 11 and 12, which combine the state-mandated curricula for those grades with classes like automotive repair, drafting, and construction. A small number of vocational schools offer more specialized and rigorous programs in fields like aircraft repair and engineering.
      • voucher: School or education vouchers are issued by the government and may be applied toward tuition expenses at a private school as an alternative to a student attending public school. School voucher programs in the United States originated in towns in Maine and Vermont that were too small to operate their own schools; the vouchers represented a payment by the residential town to the school system of the town in which the student attended school. A modern movement has advocated voucher systems as a way to use free-market competition as a redress to perceived problems with the public school system.

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      Journals
      American Anthropologist
      American Educational Research Journal
      American Journal of Education
      American Journal of Sociology
      American Psychologist
      American Sociological Review
      Annual Review of Psychology
      Art Education
      British Journal of Sociology of Education
      Contemporary Education Psychology
      Curriculum Inquiry
      Discourse Processes
      Economics of Education Review
      Education Finance and Policy
      Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis
      Educational Forum
      Educational Policy
      Educational Researcher
      Educational Studies
      Educational Theory
      Equity and Excellence in Education
      Ethnic and Racial Studies
      Gifted Child Quarterly
      Girlhood Studies
      International Journal of Leadership in Education
      International Journal of the Sociology of Language
      International Studies in Sociology of Education
      Journal of Contemporary Asia
      Journal of Educational Administration and Policy
      Journal of Interactive Learning Research
      Journal of Research in Childhood Education
      Journal of Research in Education
      Journal of Research in International Education
      Journal of School Leadership
      Journal of School Psychology
      Journal of Science Education and Technology
      Journal of the Learning Sciences
      Journal of Vocational Education Research
      Learning and Individual Differences
      Multicultural Education
      New Directions for Community Colleges
      Public Administration Review
      Public Interest
      Research Papers in Education
      Review of Educational Research
      Review of Research in Education
      School Psychology Quarterly
      Science Education
      Social Forces
      Social Problems
      Social Science Research
      Sociological Inquiry
      Sociology
      Sociology and Social Research
      Sociology of Education
      Teachers College Record
      Theory Into Practice
      Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education
      Internet
      Alaska Native Knowledge Networkhttp://www.ankn.uaf.edu
      American Association of School Administratorshttp://www.aasa.org
      American Educational Research Associationhttp://www.aera.net
      American Educational Studies Associationhttp://www.educationalstudies.org
      American Indian Higher Education Consortiumhttp://www.aihec.org
      American Montessori Societyhttp://www.amshq.org
      American Sociological Associationhttp://www.asanet.org
      Association Montessori Internationalehttp://www.montessori-ami.org
      Council of the Great City Schoolshttp://www.cgcs.org
      Eastern Sociological Societyhttp://www.essnet.org
      Encyclopedia of Informal Educationhttp://www.infed.org/index.htm
      Institute of Education Sciences' Methodological Resourceshttp://ies.ed.gov/funding/resources.asp
      International Sociological Associationhttp://www.isa-sociology.org
      Nation's Report Cardhttp://nationsreportcard.gov
      National Assessment of Educational Progresshttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard
      National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistancehttp://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs
      National Center for Education Statisticshttp://nces.ed.gov
      National Center for Special Education Researchhttp://ies.ed.gov/ncser/pubs
      No Child Left Behindhttp://www.ed.gov/esea
      Sociological Research Onlinehttp://www.socresonline.org.uk/home.html
      Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Educationhttp://www.tribalcollegejournal.org
      U.S. Department of Educationhttp://www.ed.gov
      Appendix A: World Education Statistics
      Table 1 Education expenditures (percentage of gross domestic product [GDP]
      Country(% of GDP)Date of information
      World4.4(2007)
      AfghanistanNA
      AlbaniaNA
      Algeria4.3(2008)
      Angola2.6(2006)
      Argentina4.9(2007)
      Armenia3(2007)
      Australia4.5(2007)
      Austria5.4(2007)
      Azerbaijan2.8(2009)
      Bahrain2.9(2008)
      Bangladesh2.4(2008)
      Barbados6.7(2008)
      Belarus4.5(2009)
      Belgium6.01(2007)
      Belize5.7(2008)
      Benin3.5(2007)
      Bermuda2.6(2009)
      Bhutan4.8(2008)
      Bolivia6.3(2006)
      Bosnia and HerzegovinaNA
      Botswana8.9(2009)
      Brazil5.08(2007)
      BruneiNA
      Bulgaria4.1(2007)
      BurmaNA
      Burundi8.3(2009)
      Cambodia2.1(2009)
      Cameroon3.7(2009)
      Canada4.9(2007)
      Cape Verde5.9(2009)
      Central African Republic1.3(2009)
      Chad3.2(2009)
      Chile4(2008)
      ChinaNA
      Colombia4.8(2009)
      Congo, Democratic RepublicNA
      Congo, Republic1.9(2005)
      Costa Rica6.3(2009)
      Cote d'lvoire4.6(2009)
      Croatia4.6(2009)
      Cuba13.6(2008)
      Cyprus4.1(2007)
      Czech Republic4.2(2007)
      Denmark7.8(2007)
      Djibouti8.4(2007)
      Dominica4.7(2008)
      Dominican Republic2.3(2009)
      EcuadorNA
      Egypt3.8(2008)
      El Salvador3.6(2008)
      Equitorial Guinea0.6(2003)
      Eritrea2(2006)
      Estonia4.9(2007)
      Ethiopia5.5(2007)
      Fiji6.2(2004)
      Finland5.9(2007)
      France5.6(2007)
      Gambia2(2004)
      Georgia3.2(2009)
      Germany4.5(2007)
      Ghana5.4(2005)
      Greece4(2005)
      Grenada4.9(2003)
      Guatemala3.2(2008)
      Guinea2.4(2008)
      Guyana6.1(2007)
      HaitiNA
      HondurasNA
      Hong Kong4.5(2009)
      Hungary5.2(2007)
      Lceland7.4(2007)
      India3.1(2006)
      Indonesia2.8(2008)
      Lran4.7(2009)
      IraqNA
      Ireland4.9(2007)
      Israel5.9(2007)
      Italy4.3(2007)
      Jamaica5.8(2009)
      Japan3.5(2007)
      JordanNA
      Kazakhstan2.8(2007)
      Kenya7(2006)
      Korea, NorthNA
      Korea, South4.2(2007)
      Kosovo4.2(2008)
      Kuwait3.8(2006)
      Kyrgyzstan5.9(2008)
      Laos2.3(2008)
      Latvia5(2007)
      Lebanon1.8(2009)
      Lesotho12.4(2008)
      Liberia2.7(2008)
      LibyaNA
      Liechtenstein2(2007)
      Lithuania4.7(2007)
      LuxembourgNA
      Macau2.2(2008)
      MacedoniaNA
      Madagascar3(2009)
      Malawi4.2(2009)
      Malaysia4.1(2008)
      Maldives11.2(2009)
      Mali4.4(2009)
      Malta6.4(2007)
      Marshall Islands12(2004)
      Mauritania4.4(2008)
      Mauritius3.2(2009)
      Mexico4.8(2007)
      MicronesiaNA
      Moldova9.6(2009)
      Monaco1.2(2004)
      Mongolia5.6(2009)
      MontenegroNA
      Montserrat3.3(2004)
      Morocco5.6(2008)
      Mozambique5(2006)
      Namibia6.4(2008)
      NauruNA
      Nepal4.6(2009)
      Netherlands5.3(2007)
      New CaledoniaNA
      New Zealand6.1(2007)
      Nicaragua3.1(2003)
      Niger4.5(2009)
      NigeriaNA
      Norway6.8(2007)
      Oman3.9(2006)
      Pakistan2.7(2009)
      Panama3.8(2008)
      Paraguay4(2008)
      Peru2.7(2008)
      Philippines2.8(2008)
      Poland4.9(2007)
      Portugal4.4(2008)
      Qatar3.3(2005)
      Romania4.3(2007)
      Russia3.9(2006)
      Rwanda4.1(2008)
      Saint Kitts and Nevis9.6(2005)
      Saint Lucia4.5(2009)
      Saint Vincent and the Grenadines6.6(2009)
      Samoa5.7(2008)
      Saudi Arabia5.6(2008)
      Senegal5.8(2009)
      Serbia4.7(2008)
      Seychelles5(2006)
      Sierra Leone4.3(2009)
      Singapore3(2009)
      Slovakia3.6(2007)
      Slovenia5.2(2007)
      SomaliaNA
      South Africa5.4(2009)
      Spain4.3(2007)
      Sri LankaNA
      SudanNA
      SurinameNA
      Swaziland7.8(2008)
      Sweden6.6(2007)
      Switzerland5.2(2007)
      Syria4.9(2007)
      TaiwanNA
      Tajikistan3.5(2008)
      Tanzania6.8(2008)
      Thailand4.1(2009)
      Timor-Leste16.8(2009)
      Togo4.6(2009)
      Tonga3.9(2004)
      Tunisia7.1(2007)
      Turkey2.9(2006)
      TurkmenistanNA
      Uganda3.2(2009)
      Ukraine5.3(2007)
      United Arab Emirates1.2(2009)
      United Kingdom5.5(2007)
      United States5.5(2007)
      Uruguay2.9(2006)
      UzbekistanNA
      Venezuela3.7(2007)
      Vietnam5.3(2008)
      Yemen5.2(2008)
      Zambia1.3(2008)
      ZimbabweNA
      Table 2 Literacy rates worldwide (age 15 and over)
      793 million adults are illiterate worldwide. Over two-thirds of them are concentrated in Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Lowest literacy rates are found in the Arab world, south and west Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa, where regional literacy rates are about 67 percent for men and 33 percent for women.
      Country(% of literacy)Date of information
      Total world population83.7
      Male88.3
      Female79.2
      Afghanistan28.1(2000)
      Male43.1
      Female12.6
      Albania98.7(2001)
      Male99.2
      Female98.3
      Algeria69.9(2002)
      Male79.6
      Female60.1
      Angola67.4(2001)
      Male82.9
      Female54.2
      Argentina97.2(2001)
      Male97.2
      Female97.2
      Armenia99.4(2001)
      Male99.7
      Female99.2
      Australia99.0(2003)
      Male99.0
      Female99.0
      Austria98.0(2008)
      Azerbaijan98.8(1999)
      Male99.5
      Female98.2
      Bahamas95.6(2003)
      Male94.7
      Female96.5
      Bahrain86.5(2001)
      Male88.6
      Female83.6
      Bangladesh47.9(2001)
      Male54.0
      Female41.4
      Belarus99.6(1999)
      Male99.8
      Female99.4
      Belgium99.0(2003)
      Belize76.9(2000)
      Male76.7
      Female77.1
      Benin34.7(2002)
      Male47.9
      Female23.3
      Bermuda98.0(2005)
      Male98.0
      Female99.0
      Bhutan47.0(2003)
      Male60.0
      Female34.0
      Bolivia86.7(2001)
      Male93.1
      Female80.7
      Bosnia and Herzegovina96.7(2000)
      Male99.0
      Female94.4
      Botswana81.2(2003)
      Male80.4
      Female81.8
      Brazil88.6(2004)
      Male88.4
      Female88.8
      Brunei92.7(2001)
      Male95.2
      Female90.2
      Bulgaria98.2(2001)
      Male98.7
      Female97.7
      Burkina Faso21.8(2003)
      Male29.4
      Female15.2
      Burma89.9(2006)
      Male93.9
      Female86.4
      Burundi59.3(2000)
      Male67.3
      Female52.2
      Cambodia73.6(2004)
      Male84.7
      Female64.1
      Cameroon67.9(2001)
      Male77.0
      Female59.8
      Canada99.0(2003)
      Cape Verde76.6(2003)
      Male85.8
      Female69.2
      Central African Republic48.6(2000)
      Male64.8
      Female33.5
      Chad25.7(2000)
      Male40.8
      Female12.8
      Chile95.7(2002)
      Male95.8
      Female95.6
      Colombia90.4(2005)
      Male90.1
      Female90.7
      Congo, Democratic Republic67.2(2001)
      Male80.9
      Female54.1
      Congo, Republic83.8(2003)
      Male89.6
      Female78.4
      Costa Rica94.9(2000)
      Male94.7
      Female95.1
      Cöte d'lvoire48.7(2000)
      Male60.8
      Female38.6
      Croatia98.1(2001)
      Male99.3
      Female97.1
      Cuba99.8(2002)
      Cyprus97.6(2001)
      Male98.9
      Female96.3
      Czech Republic99.0(2003)
      Denmark99.0(2003)
      Djibouti67.9(2003)
      Male78.0
      Female58.4
      Dominica94.0(2003)
      Dominican Republic87.0(2002)
      Male86.8
      Female87.2
      Ecuador91.0(2001)
      Male92.3
      Female89.7
      Egypt71.4(2005)
      Male83.0
      Female59.4
      El Salvador81.1(2007)
      Male82.8
      Female79.6
      Equatorial Guinea87.0(2000)
      Male93.4
      Female80.5
      Eritrea58.6(2003)
      Male69.9
      Female47.6
      Estonia99.8(2000)
      Ethiopia42.7(2003)
      Male50.3
      Female35.1
      Fiji93.7(2003)
      Male95.5
      Female91.9
      Finland100(2000)
      France99.0(2003)
      Gabon63.2(1995)
      Male73.7
      Female53.3
      Gambia40.1(2003)
      Male47.8
      Female32.8
      Georgia100(2004)
      Germany99.0(2003)
      Ghana57.9(2000)
      Male66.4
      Female49.8
      Greece96.0(2001)
      Male97.8
      Female94.2
      Greenland100(2001)
      Grenada96.0(2003)
      Guatemala69.1(2002)
      Male75.4
      Female63.3
      Guinea29.5(2003)
      Male42.6
      Female18.1
      Haiti52.9(2003)
      Male54.8
      Female51.2
      Honduras80.0(2001)
      Male79.8
      Female80.2
      Hong Kong93.5(2002)
      Male96.9
      Female89.6
      Hungary99.4(2003)
      Male99.5
      Female99.3
      Iceland99.0(2003)
      India61.0(2001)
      Male73.4
      Female47.8
      Indonesia90.4(2004)
      Male94.0
      Female86.8
      Iran77.0(2002)
      Male83.5
      Female70.4
      Iraq74.1(2000)
      Male84.1
      Female64.2
      Ireland99.0(2003)
      Israel97.1(2004)
      Male98.5
      Female95.9
      Italy98.4(2001)
      Male98.8
      Female98.0
      Jamaica87.92003)
      Male84.1
      Female91.6
      Japan99.0(2002)
      Jordan89.9(2003)
      Male95.1
      Female84.7
      Kazakhstan99.5(1999)
      Male99.8
      Female99.3
      Korea, North99.0(1991)
      Korea, South97.9(2002)
      Male99.2
      Female96.6
      Kosovo91.9(2007)
      Male96.6
      Female87.5
      Kuwait93.3(2005)
      Male94.4
      Female91.0
      Kyrgyzstan98.1(1999)
      Male99.3
      Female98.1
      Laos73.0(2005)
      Male83.0
      Female63.0
      Latvia99.7(2000)
      Male99.8
      Female99.7
      Lebanon87.4(2003)
      Male93.1
      Female82.2
      Lesotho84.8(2003)
      Male74.5
      Female94.5
      Liberia57.5(2003)
      Male73.3
      Female41.6
      Libya82.6(2003)
      Male92.4
      Female72.0
      Liechtenstein100(2009)
      Lithuania99.6(2001)
      Luxembourg100(2000)
      Macau91.3(2001)
      Male95.3
      Female87.8
      Macedonia96.1(2002)
      Male98.2
      Female94.1
      Madagascar68.9(2003)
      Male75.5
      Female62.5
      Malawi62.7(2003)
      Male76.1
      Female49.8
      Malaysia88.7(2000)
      Male92.0
      Female85.4
      Maldives93.8(2006)
      Male93.0
      Female94.7
      Mali46.4(2003)
      Male53.5
      Female39.6
      Malta92.8(2005)
      Male91.7
      Female93.9
      Mauritania51.2(2000)
      Male59.5
      Female43.4
      Mauritius84.4(2000)
      Male88.4
      Female80.5
      Mexico86.1(2005)
      Male86.9
      Female85.3
      Micronesia89.0(1980)
      Male91.0
      Female88.0
      Moldova99.1(2005)
      Male99.7
      Female98.6
      Monaco99.0(2003)
      Mongolia97.8(2000)
      Male98.0
      Female97.5
      Morocco52.3(2004)
      Male65.7
      Female39.6
      Mozambique47.8(2003)
      Male63.5
      Female32.7
      Namibia85.0(2001)
      Male86.8
      Female83.5
      Nepal48.6(2001)
      Male62.7
      Female34.9
      Netherlands99.0(2003)
      New Caledonia96.2(1996)
      Male96.8
      Female95.5
      New Zealand99.0(2003)
      Nicaragua67.5(2003)
      Male67.2
      Female67.8
      Niger28.7(2005)
      Male42.9
      Female15.1
      Nigeria68.0(2003)
      Male75.7
      Female60.6
      Norway100(2009)
      Oman81.4(2003)
      Male86.8
      Female73.5
      Pakistan49.9(2005)
      Male63.0
      Female36.0
      Panama91.9
      Male93.0
      Female90.0
      Papua New Guinea57.3(2000)
      Male63.4
      Female50.9
      Paraguay94.0(2003)
      Male94.9
      Female93.0
      Peru92.9(2007)
      Male96.4
      Female89.4
      Philippines92.6(2000)
      Male92.5
      Female92.7
      Poland99.8(2003)
      Portugal93.3(2003)
      Male95.5
      Female91.3
      Qatar89.0(2004)
      Male89.1
      Female88.6
      Romania97.3(2002)
      Male98.4
      Female96.3
      Russia99.4(2002)
      Male99.7
      Female99.2
      Rwanda70.4(2003)
      Male76.3
      Female64.7
      * Saint Kitts and Nevis97.8(2003)
      * Saint Lucia90.1(2001)
      Male89.5
      Female90.6
      * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines96.0(1970)
      Samoa99.7(2003)
      Male99.6
      Female99.7
      Saudi Arabia78.8(2003)
      Male84.7
      Female70.8
      Senegal39.3(2002)
      Male51.1
      Female29.2
      Serbia96.4(2003)
      Male98.9
      Female94.1
      Seychelles91.8(2002)
      Male91.4
      Female92.3
      Sierra Leone35.1(2004)
      Male46.9
      Female24.4
      Singapore92.5(2000)
      Male96.6
      Female88.6
      Slovakia99.6(2004)
      Male99.7
      Female99.6
      Slovenia99.7(2000)
      Male99.7
      Female99.6
      Somalia37.8(2001)
      Male49.7
      Female25.8
      South Africa86.4(2003)
      Male87.0
      Female85.7
      South Sudan27.0(2011 est.)
      Male40
      Female16
      Spain97.9(2003)
      Male98.7
      Female97.2
      Sri Lanka90.7(2001)
      Male92.3
      Female89.1
      Sudan61.1(2003)
      Male71.8
      Female50.5
      Suriname89.6(2004)
      Male92.0
      Female87.2
      Swaziland81.6(2003)
      Male82.6
      Female80.8
      Sweden99.0(2003)
      Switzerland99.0(2003)
      Syria79.6(2004)
      Male86.0
      Female73.6
      Taiwan96.1(2003)
      Tajikistan99.5(2000)
      Male99.7
      Female99.2
      Tanzania69.4(2002)
      Male77.5
      Female62.2
      Thailand92.6(2000)
      Male94.9
      Female90.5
      Timor-Leste58.6(2002)
      Togo60.9(2003)
      Male75.4
      Female46.9
      Tonga98.9(1999)
      Male98.8
      Female99.0
      Tunisia74.3(2004)
      Male83.4
      Female65.3
      Turkey87.4(2004)
      Male95.3
      Female79.6
      Turkmenistan98.8(1999)
      Male99.3
      Female98.3
      Uganda66.8(2002)
      Male76.8
      Female57.7
      Ukraine99.4(2001)
      Male99.7
      Female99.2
      United Arab Emirates77.9(2003)
      Male76.1
      Female81.7
      * United Kingdom99.0(2003)
      United States99.0(2003)
      Uruguay98.0(2003)
      Male97.6
      Female98.4
      Uzbekistan99.3(2003)
      Male99.6
      Female99.0
      Vanuatu74.0(1999)
      Venezuela93.0(2001)
      Male93.3
      Female92.7
      Vietnam94.0(2009)
      Male96.1
      Female92.0
      Yemen50.2(2003)
      Male70.5
      Female30.0
      Zambia80.6(2003)
      Male86.8
      Female74.8
      Zimbabwe90.7(2003)
      Male94.2
      Female87.2

      * These countries calculate their literacy rate according to a definition of literacy as “having ever attended school,” except the United Kingdom, which calculates the percentage of the population age 15 or over which has completed at least five years of school.

      Table 3 School attendance expectancy
      CountryNumber of years attendedDate of information
      World11(2008)
      Male11
      Female11
      Afghanistan9(2009)
      Male11
      Female7
      Albania11(2004)
      Male11
      Female11
      Algeria13(2005)
      Male13
      Female13
      Angola9(2006)
      Argentina16(2007)
      Male15
      Female17
      Armenia12(2009)
      Male12
      Female12
      Australia21(2008)
      Male20
      Female21
      Austria15(2008)
      Azerbaijan12(2009)
      Bahamas12(2006)
      Bahrain14(2006)
      Male13
      Female14
      Bangladesh8(2007)
      Male8
      Female8
      Barbados13(2001)
      Male13
      Female14
      Belarus15(2007)
      Male14
      Female15
      Belgium16(2008)
      Male16
      Female16
      Belize12(2009)
      Male12
      Female12
      Benin9(2005)
      Male11
      Female8
      Bermuda12(2006)
      Male12
      Female12
      Bhutan11(2008)
      Male11
      Female11
      Bolivia14(2007)
      Male14
      Female14
      Bosnia and Herzegovina14(2009)
      Male13
      Female14
      Botswana12(2007)
      Male12
      Female12
      Brazil14(2008)
      Male14
      Female14
      Brunei14(2009)
      Male14
      Female14
      Bulgaria14(2008)
      Male13
      Female14
      Burkina Faso6(2009)
      Male7
      Female6
      Burma9(2007)
      Male8
      Female8
      Burundi10(2009)
      Cambodia10(2007)
      Male10
      Female9
      Cameroon10(2009)
      Male11
      Female9
      Canada17(2004)
      Male17
      Female17
      Cape Verde12(2009)
      Male11
      Female12
      Central African Republic7(2009)
      Male8
      Female5
      Chad7(2009)
      Male9
      Female5
      Chile15(2008)
      Male15
      Female15
      China12(2009)
      Male11
      Female12
      Colombia14(2009)
      Male13
      Female14
      Congo, Democratic Republic 8(2009)
      Male9
      Female7
      Congo, Republic10(2005)
      Male11
      Female10
      Costa Rica12(2005)
      Male12
      Female12
      Cöte d'lvoire6(2000)
      Male8
      Female5
      Croatia14(2008)
      Male13
      Female14
      Cuba18(2009)
      Male16
      Female19
      Cyprus14(2008)
      Male14
      Female14
      Denmark17(2008)
      Male16
      Female18
      Djibouti5(2009)
      Male6
      Female5
      Dominica13(2008)
      Male13
      Female13
      Dominican Republic12(2004)
      Male11
      Female13
      Ecuador14(2008)
      Male13
      Female14
      Egypt11(2004)
      Male11
      Female11
      El Salvador12(2008)
      Male12
      Female12
      Equatorial Guinea8(2002)
      Male9
      Female7
      Eritrea5(2009)
      Male6
      Female4
      Estonia16(2008)
      Male15
      Female17
      Ethiopia8(2008)
      Male9
      Female8
      Fiji13(2005)
      Male13
      Female13
      Finland17(2008)
      Male16
      Female18
      France16(2008)
      Male16
      Female16
      Gabon13(2002)
      Male12
      Female12
      Gambia9(2008)
      Male9
      Female9
      Georgia13(2009)
      Male13
      Female13
      Germany16(2006)
      Male16
      Female16
      Ghana10(2009)
      Male11
      Female10
      Greece17(2007)
      Male16
      Female17
      Grenada16(2009)
      Male15
      Female16
      Guatemala11(2007)
      Male11
      Female10
      Guinea9(2009)
      Male10
      Female7
      Guyana12(2009)
      Male12
      Female12
      HaitiNA
      Honduras11(2008)
      Male11
      Female12
      Hong Kong16(2009)
      Male15
      Female16
      Hungary15(2008)
      Male15
      Female16
      Iceland18(2008)
      Male17
      Female20
      India10(2007)
      Male11
      Female10
      Indonesia13(2009)
      Male13
      Female13
      Iran13(2009)
      Male13
      Female12
      Iraq10(2005)
      Male11
      Female8
      Ireland18(2008)
      Male18
      Female18
      Israel15(2008)
      Male15
      Female16
      Italy16(2008)
      Male16
      Female17
      Jamaica14(2008)
      Male13
      Female15
      Japan15(2008)
      Male15
      Female15
      Jordan13(2008)
      Male13
      Female13
      Kazakhstan15(2010)
      Male15
      Female16
      Kenya11(2009)
      Male11
      Female11
      Kiribati12(2008)
      Male12
      Female13
      Korea, NorthNA
      Korea, South17(2008)
      Male18
      Female16
      KosovoNA
      Kuwait12(2006)
      Male12
      Female13
      Kyrgyzstan12(2009)
      Male12
      Female13
      Laos9(2008)
      Male10
      Female9
      Latvia15(2008)
      Male14
      Female17
      Lebanon14(2009)
      Male13
      Female14
      Lesotho10(2008)
      Male10
      Female10
      Liberia11(2000)
      Male13
      Female9
      Libya17(2003)
      Male16
      Female17
      Liechtenstein12(2008)
      Male13
      Female12
      Lithuania16(2008)
      Male15
      Female17
      Luxembourg13(2006)
      Male13
      Female13
      Macau14(2009)
      Male15
      Female14
      Macedonia13(2008)
      Male13
      Female13
      Madagascar11(2009)
      Male11
      Female11
      Malawi9(2007)
      Male9
      Female9
      Malaysia13(2008)
      Male12
      Female13
      Maldives12(2006)
      Male13
      Female12
      Mali8(2009)
      Male9
      Female7
      Malta14(2008)
      Male14
      Female15
      Mauritania8(2007)
      Male8
      Female8
      Mauritius14(2008)
      Male13
      Female14
      Mexico14(2008)
      Male14
      Female14
      MicronesiaNA
      Moldova12(2009)
      Male12
      Female12
      Monaco18(2009)
      Male18
      Female17
      Mongolia14(2009)
      Male13
      Female15
      MontenegroNA
      Morocco10(2007)
      Male11
      Female10
      Mozambique9(2007)
      Male10
      Female8
      Namibia12(2008)
      Male12
      Female12
      Nepal9(2003)
      Male10
      Female8
      Netherlands17(2008)
      Male17
      Female17
      New CaledoniaNA
      New Zealand19(2008)
      Male19
      Female20
      Nicaragua11(2003)
      Male11
      Female11
      Niger5(2010)
      Male6
      Female5
      Nigeria9(2005)
      Male10
      Female8
      Norway17(2008)
      Male17
      Female18
      Oman12(2009)
      Male12
      Female11
      Pakistan7(2009)
      Male8
      Female6
      Panama13(2008)
      Male13
      Female14
      Papua New GuineaNA
      Paraguay12(2007)
      Male12
      Female12
      Peru14(2006)
      Philippines12(2008)
      Male12
      Female12
      Poland15(2008)
      Male15
      Female16
      Portugal16(2008)
      Male16
      Female16
      Qatar12(2009)
      Male11
      Female14
      Romania15(2008)
      Male14
      Female15
      Russia14(2008)
      Male14
      Female15
      Rwanda11(2009)
      Male11
      Female11
      Saint Kitts and Nevis13(2008)
      Male12
      Female13
      Saint Lucia13(2009)
      Male13
      Female14
      Saint Vincent and
      the Grenadines14(2005)
      Male13
      Female13
      Samoa12(2005)
      Male12
      Female13
      Saudi Arabia14(2009)
      Male14
      Female13
      Senegal8(2008)
      Male8
      Female7
      Serbia14(2009)
      Male13
      Female14
      Seychelles15(2008)
      Male13
      Female14
      Sierra Leone12(2007)
      Male13
      Female11
      SingaporeNA
      Slovakia17(2008)
      Male16
      Female18
      Somalia3(2007)
      Male3
      Female2
      South Africa13(2004)
      Male13
      Female13
      Spain16(2008)
      Male16
      Female17
      Sri Lanka13(2004)
      Male12
      Female13
      Sudan4(2000)
      Suriname13(2006)
      Swaziland11(2007)
      Male11
      Female10
      Sweden16(2008)
      Male15
      Female16
      Switzerland16(2008)
      Male16
      Female15
      Syria11(2007)
      Male12
      Female11
      TaiwanNA
      Tajikistan11(2008)
      Male12
      Female10
      Tanzania9(2007)
      Male9
      Female9
      Thailand12(2010)
      Male12
      Female13
      Timor-Leste11(2004)
      Togo10(2007)
      Male11
      Female8
      Tonga14(2007)
      Male14
      Female14
      Tunisia15(2008)
      Male14
      Female15
      Turkey12(2008)
      Male12
      Female11
      TurkmenistanNA
      Tuvalu11(2001)
      Male10
      Female11
      Uganda11(2009)
      Male11
      Female11
      Ukraine15(2008)
      Male14
      Female15
      United Arab Emirates13(2009)
      Male13
      Female14
      United Kingdom16(2008)
      Male16
      Female17
      United States16(2008)
      Male15
      Female17
      Uruguay16(2008)
      Male14
      Female17
      Uzbekistan11(2009)
      Male12
      Female11
      Venezuela14(2008)
      Male13
      Female15
      Vietnam10(2001)
      Male11
      Female10
      Yemen9(2005)
      Male11
      Female7
      Zambia7(2000)
      Male8
      Female7
      Zimbabwe9(2003)
      Male10
      Female9
      Source: Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook

      Figure 1 Percentage change in enrollment, by major areas of the world and level of education: 2000–09
      Figure 2 Public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP): 2008

      Appendix B: U.S. Education Statistics

      Figure 1 The structure of education in the United States
      Figure 2 Enrollment, total expenditures in constant dollars, and expenditures as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), by level of education: selected years, 1965–66 through 2010–11
      Figure 3 Percentage of persons 25 years old and over, by highest level of educational attainment: selected years, 1940 through 2011
      Figure 4 Percentage of persons 25 through 29 years old, by highest level of educational attainment: selected years, 1940 through 2011
      Figure 5 Highest level of education attained by persons 25 through 29 years old: March 2011
      Figure 6 Percentage of persons 25 through 29 years old who had completed high school and who held a bachelor's or higher degree, by race/ethnicity: 2001 and 2011
      Figure 7 Enrollment, number of teachers, pupil/teacher ratio, and expenditures in public schools: 1960–61 through 2009–10
      Figure 8 Percentage change in public elementary and secondary enrollment, by state: fall 2004 through fall 2009
      Figure 9 Total and full-day preprimary enrollment of 3- to 5-year-olds: October 1970 through October 2010
      Figure 10 Enrollment, degrees conferred, and expenditures in degree-granting institutions: fall 1960 through fall 2010 and 19U0-61 through 2010–11
      Figure 11 Percentage change in total enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by state: fall 2005 through fall 2010
      Figure 12 Enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by age: fall 1970 through fall 2020
      Figure 13 Labor force participation rate of persons 20 to 64 years old, by age group and highest level of educational attainment: 2010
      Figure 14 Unemployment rates of persons 25 to 64 years old, by highest level of educational attainment: 2010
      Figure 15 Percentage distribution of 2009–10 high school dropouts and high school completers not enrolled in college, by labor force status: October 2010
      Figure 16 Median annual earnings of full-time year- round workers 25 years old and over, by highest level of educational attainment and sex: 2010
      Table 1 Number of teachers in elementary and secondary schools, and instructional staff in postsecondary degree-granting institutions, by control of institution: selected years, fall 1970 through fall 2020
      Table 2 Percentage of persons age 25 and over and of persons 25 to 29 years old with high school completion or higher and a bachelor's or higher degree, by race/ethnicity and sex: selected years, 1910 through 2011
      Table 3 Percentage of persons age 25 and over with high schol completion or higher and a bachelor's or higher degree, by sex and state: 2007–09
      Table 4 Public high school graduates and dropouts, by race/ethnicity and state or jurisdiction: 2008–09
      Table 5 Children 3 to 21 years old served under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part B, by type of disability: selected years, 1976–77 through 2009–10
      Table 6 Number and percentage of children served under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part B, by age group and state or jurisdiction: selected years, 1990–91 through 2009–10
      Table 7 Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: selected years, 1959–60 through 2010–11
      Table 8 Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: selected years, 1969–70 through 2010–11
      Table 9 Public high school graduates, by state or jurisdiction: selected years, 1980–81 through 2009–10
      Table 10 Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: selected years, 1947 through 2010
      Table 11 Total fall enrollment in degree- granting institutions, by control and level of institution: 1963 through 2010
      Table 12 Estimated rate of 2007–08 high school graduates attending degree-granting institutions, by state: 2008
      Table 13 Number of teachers in elementary and secondary schools, and instructional staff in postsecondary degree-granting institutions, by control of institution: selected years, fall 1970 through fall 2020
      Table 14 Percentage of the population 3 to 34 years old enrolled in school, by age group: selected years, 1940 through 2010
      Table 15 Percentage of persons age 25 and over with high school completion or higher and a bachelor's or higher degree, by race/ethnicity and state: 2007–09
      Table 16 Percentage of teachers indicating that certain issues are serious problems in their schools and that certain problems occur daily, by level and control of school: selected years, 1987–88 through 2007–08
      Table 17 Number of students suspended and expelled from public elementary and secondary schools, by sex, race/ethnicity, and state: 2006
      Table 18 Number and percentage of student home computer users, by type of application and selected characteristics: 2003

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