21st Century Sociology

Handbooks

Edited by: Clifton D. Bryant & Dennis L. Peck

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  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Editorial Board

    • Coeditors in Chief
    • Clifton D. Bryant
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
    • Dennis L. Peck
    • The University of Alabama
    • Managing Editor
    • Patty M. Bryant
    • Associate Editors
    • Harold R. Kerbo
    • California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
    • J. David Knottnerus
    • Oklahoma State University
    • Rosalind A. Sydie
    • University of Alberta, Canada
    • Elaine Wethington
    • Cornell University
    • Assistant Editor
    • Steven J. Seiler
    • University of Tennessee

    Copyright

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    List of Entries

    Reader's Guide

    Preface

    Since its inception through the early decades of the twentieth century, the discipline of sociology was essentially monolithic in perspective, representing a rather narrow range of interests into social problems areas. Early sociologists were essentially generalists, and during the first 100 years of disciplinary activity, the literature of sociology expanded only incrementally. By mid-twentieth century, however, there was a sufficiently large body of sociological literature on which to draw and a much broader and energized sociological curiosity as to foster some degree of specialization.

    With its new focus on theories of the middle range, sociological inquiry developed into a multifaceted perspective, representing a variety of specialty interests and an expanded literature in which a proliferation of knowledge is documented. Sociologists thus developed an expansive array of specialty knowledge that represents the variety of research and theoretical activity within the discipline. Now, in the twenty-first century, the success of the past century requires a comprehensive survey and assessment of the many specialty areas of sociology that is essential for organizing this vast information. The two-volume 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook accomplishes this organization with 106 essays that are authored by leading authorities from the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, Scotland, Sweden, The Netherlands, France, Spain, Finland, and Singapore. Each chapter provides an up-to-date, comprehensive survey of one of these specialty areas. The Handbook also represents a thorough inquiry into the state of knowledge and scholarly thinking in each of these specialty areas by offering authoritative insightful essays of the various subfields in sociology, provide an assessment of contemporary knowledge, and end with brief projections of anticipated future theoretical development and research activity.

    Several years ago, in response to the question “What is sociology?” a colleague responded, “Sociology is what sociologists do.” As unusual a statement as this may appear to be, there is certainly an element of truth in it and perhaps even more than one might initially care to admit. Indeed, for more than 100 years, sociological inquiry has covered a vast terrain of topics, theoretical perspectives, and methodologies that run the range of mainstream areas of interest, emerging new ideas, as well as topics considered to be peripheral to the discipline but nevertheless draw heavily on sociological literature for their framework. The work sociologists engage in is both pure and applied, and depending on time and space and shifts in the dominant orientation of the body politic, the substance of this work is more or less significant. Like all things, the discipline of sociology and its practitioners are subject to the changing needs of the society that we attempt to better understand. Sociologists have been from the beginning social activists and social policy analysts. These interests and foci continue in the present and will undoubtedly continue throughout the twenty-first century.

    Increasingly, sociologists have engaged in exploring a wide range of topics, and this extensive activity is demonstrated through the large number of topical chapters presented in the Handbook. Thus, the model followed for this Handbook is one of inclusiveness in that a large number of topics are covered, but in so doing, the authors address each topic in a thorough, comprehensive manner. Although there is certain to be some modest theoretical and methodological overlap between some of the topics, each chapter is developed to reflect the unique historical development of the topic, offers a general overview of the current state of knowledge, and provides suggestions for how the area of inquiry is destined to develop as we move well into the twenty-first century. These topics are both interesting and informative in that the chapter content offers the reader insight into the rich legacy and development of the discipline of sociology while also providing the requisite reference information for advanced study and research into each substantive area. In this regard, there is a sufficient amount of information to support the rich sociological legacy of enabling public policy-oriented readers ample opportunity to learn while also providing important insights for those who enthusiastically embrace social activism as a part of the sociological enterprise.

    We appreciate the fine professional effort by our colleagues in providing their insights and expertise for each of the areas covered. In this regard, one important feature of this Handbook is the international perspective that is brought to bear on the discipline. The American tradition of sociology is dependent on its rich European heritage, a fact that may, on occasion, be lost to a younger generation so influenced by the American empirical style and the dominant role American sociology has had throughout the twentieth century. Thus, as we presently experience yet another phase in globalization and social change, the international sociological perspective will direct the discipline's attention toward some of the same kinds of issues that begged the attention of sociologists at the turn of the twentieth century. Some of these issues are now so popular within the social sciences and the humanities that these are subject to interdisciplinary inquiry and understanding. We are pleased to offer many of these emerging areas of research in this Handbook.

    The list is obviously not exhaustive, and other specialty areas, it can be argued, could be added to this impressive list of topics presented in this Handbook. Readers with a critical eye may specifically note the absence of entries on Black and Africana Studies, Women's Studies, and Latino Studies. It was our original intention to include entries on these topics. In the process of trying to identify and recruit suitable scholars to develop such entries, however, we were frequently informed by those in these fields that their areas of research and teaching were not specialties of sociology but rather were subdisciplines of their own that have developed a separate and distinctive orientation and literature. All drew on the literature of sociology along with the literature of various other disciplines, but they were autonomous and no longer within the purview of sociology. Indeed, we hold a special appreciation for those sociologists of the past who have been instrumental in contributing to the development of such areas. Thus, the articulation of specialty areas in this Handbook provides a nonexhaustive, albeit generous and appropriate, coverage of the discipline of sociology.

    This Handbook represents a labor of love. But a work of this magnitude cannot be accomplished without the contributions of others; in this instance, many others. The most important individuals are those who contributed their insights and talents in developing the chapters. These are the authors/colleagues who first graciously accepted our invitation to develop a contribution for the Handbook and then reacted with a professional acumen to requests and suggestions that were made during the review process. The effort of so many dedicated individuals to portray their areas of expertise by thoroughly documenting this material for future generations of readers interested in the sociological perspective has been both stimulating and gratifying. The process has been stimulating because of the unique opportunity to learn of the rich heritage of the numerous subareas of study; it has been a gratifying experience to observe the effort of these international scholars to share their expertise and to do so despite the fact that each was busy with various other professional obligations. The opportunity to work with each of these individuals is indeed both a wonderful and humbling experience.

    Our gratitude is expressed to the Associate Editors who served with distinction on the Editorial Board and took on various assignments during the preliminary organization of the project and throughout the development stage. Each contributed a great deal to the creation of the Handbook, beginning with suggestions for identifying authors with the requisite expertise to create the chapters and then in gracefully and diligently working with individual authors to bring each chapter to fruition. Our profound thank-you is extended to Drs. Rosalind A. Sydie of the University of Alberta, Harold R. Kerbo of California Polytechnic State University, J. David Knottnerus of Oklahoma State University, and Elaine Wethington of Cornell University.

    In addition, the logistics for initiating and then managing a large project are made easy when the Managing Editor and the Assistant Editor are as competent as is Mrs. Patty M. Bryant and Mr. Steven J. Seiler. The ability of these two individuals to locate prospective authors and to demonstrate proficiency through their computer skills and in conducting various aspects of a long-term project such as this are acknowledged with our profound appreciation. Ms. Dianne Marshall of the Department of Sociology at Virginia Tech is to be thanked for her many secretarial contributions-typing, handling e-mail correspondence, duplicating manuscripts, and other clerical activities-to this project.

    Finally, the foresight and encouragement of the Vice President and Publisher of Sage Publications, Mr. Rolf Janke, was instrumental in facilitating our efforts to create 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook. He was responsive to the initial overture to embark on this project and offered encouragement throughout the entire process. Sage development editors, Mrs. Sara Tauber and Mrs. Eileen Gallaher, provided the requisite encouragement and assistance at critical points in the process, while Mrs. Melanie Birdsall served well the need to establish a smooth production process involving so many contributors by adding her considerable expertise to this overall effort. We acknowledge the special contributions by each of these individuals with a deep appreciation.

    Of course, there remains yet another element of major import, and that is the loving tolerance and support offered by our wives, Patty Bryant and Peggy Peck. Too often Patty and Peggy were called upon to forgive us for not being a functional part of the family during critical periods in the formulation and the process leading to what we hope will be a fitting tribute to a wonderful area of social inquiry. Know you each are much appreciated and loved.

    Clifton D.Bryant and Dennis L.Peck

    About the Editors

    Coeditors in Chief

    Clifton D. Bryant has been Professor in the Department of Sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) in Blacksburg, Virginia, since 1972. He was Department Head from 1972 to 1982. His specialty areas include the Sociology of Death and Dying, Deviant Behavior, Military Sociology, and the Sociology of Work and Occupations. Prior to coming to Virginia Tech, he enjoyed full-time faculty teaching appointments at Western Kentucky University (Department Head 1967–1972), Millsaps College (Department Head 1963–1967), and the University of Georgia (1960–1963). He was Visiting Professor at Mississippi State University (Summer, 1985) and at Pennsylvania State University (Summer, 1958). His research appointments include Visiting Scientist at the U.S. Army Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (Summer, 1993), Visiting Research Scholar with the Mississippi Alcohol Safety Education Program (Mississippi State University; Summer, 1985), and Visiting Research Scholar with Training Technology Project operated by the Resource Development Office of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (Summer, 1987). His foreign teaching appointments include Visiting Fulbright Professor, Department and Graduate Institute of Sociology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (1987–1988), and Visiting Professor in the Department of Sociology/ Anthropology, Xavier University, The Ateneo, Cagayan de Oro City, Mindanao, Philippines (1984–1985). He was a participant in the U.S. Department of Education's 1998 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in the People's Republic of China (Summer, 1998) and was also a participant in the U.S. Department of Education's 1993 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Hungary (Summer, 1993). He served as President of the Southern Sociological Society (1978–1979) and as President of the Mid-South Sociological Association (1981–1982). He was the recipient of the Mid-South Sociological Association's Distinguished Career Award in 1991 and Distinguished Book Award in 2001 and also in 2004. He is also the recipient of the Southern Sociological Society's 2003 Distinguished Contributions to Teaching Award. Most recently, he was the recipient of the Virginia Tech 2003–2004 College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences Excellence in Research and Creative Scholarship Award. He has been listed in the Who's Who in America since 1984 and in the Who's Who in the World since 1991. He is a member of Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Beta Delta, Alpha Kappa Delta, Pi Kappa Alpha, and Alpha Phi Omega. He was founder and chairman of the Editorial Board of Sociological Symposium (1968–1980). He was also the founder of Deviant Behavior and served as Editor in Chief of that journal from 1978 to 1991. He continues to serve as Chair of Editorial Policy Board for the journal. He was Editor of the Southern Sociologist (1970–1974). He was a member of the Editorial Board of Criminology (1978–1981), Associate Editor of Sociological Forum (1979–1980), Associate Editor of Sociological Spectrum (1981–1985), member of Board of Advisory Editors of Sociological Inquiry (1981–1985), and also Associate Editor of that journal (1997–2000). He was a member of the Board of Editors of Society and Animals (1997–1999) and was Associate Editor for a special issue of Marriage and Family Relations (Fall, 1982). His books include The Handbook of Death and Dying (two volumes), The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior (four volumes), Deviant Behavior: Readings in the Sociology of Norm Violations; The Rural Work Force: Nonagricultural Occupations in America, Sexual Deviancy and Social Proscription; Khaki-Collar Crime: Deviant Behavior in Military Context; Sexual Deviance in Sexual Context; Deviant Behavior: Occupational and Organizational Bases; The Social Dimensions of Work; Deviance and the Family; Social Problems Today; Dilemmas and Dimensions; and Introductory Sociology: Selected Readings for the College Scene. He has published articles in a number of professional journals, including Social Forces, Society, Sociological Inquiry, Sociology and Social Research, Rural Sociology, Sociological Forum, American Journal of Public Health, Journal of Sex Research, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, Journal of Leisure Sciences, Sociological Spectrum, The Rural Sociologist, Psychological Reports, Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, World Leisure and Recreation, Hort Technology, Anthrozoos, Applied Behavioral Science Review, Man and Environmental Systems, Southern Sociologist, and Deviant Behavior. He received his BA and MA degrees from the University of Mississippi, did advanced graduate work at the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill), and received his PhD degree from Louisiana State University.

    Dennis L. Peck is Professor of Sociology (1986) at The University of Alabama where he has been a member of the faculty since 1978. He is the Coeditor in Chief of 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook, served six years as Editor of Sociological Inquiry, he was Coeditor of volume 2 and Associate Editor of the four-volume Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior (2001), and was Associate Editor for the Handbook of Death & Dying (Sage, 2003). He has served and/or currently serves as a member of several editorial boards and in numerous professional association positions, including past president of the Mid-South Sociological Association and past president of the Alabama-Mississippi Sociological Association. His teaching and research interests are in the areas of demography, the sociology of law, and deviant behavior; he has authored and edited five books, edited two thematic journal issues, and published numerous articles and chapters in the areas of suicide, public health, psychiatric law, democracy, toxic waste disposal, life without parole, human sexuality, urban development programming, posttraumatic stress disorder, program evaluation, divorce, social policy, and civility. He served with the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Public Health Service. While a member of the faculty at The University of Alabama, he had assignments with the Washington, D.C., Office of Evaluation Research at the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and he served as a policy analyst at the Department of Education. He was awarded the master's of science degree from the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee and the PhD from Washington State University.

    Managing Editor

    Patty M. Bryant worked as an executive secretary for various corporations and agencies, including the law firm of Stennett and Stennett in Jackson, Mississippi, Orgill Brothers Hardware Corporation, Great Southern Box Corporation, Illinois Central Railroad, and the city of Blacksburg, Virginia. She has been involved in the editorial process of several journals, including Sociological Symposium, Southern Sociologist, and Deviant Behavior, for which she served as Assistant Editor and later Managing Editor. She has traveled extensively in Asia and lived both in the Philippines and Taiwan, where she worked with Clifton D. Bryant on conducting research on Asian culture. She was involved in the editorial process (with Clifton D. Bryant) on several books, including Deviant Behavior: Readings in the Sociology of Norm Violation; Deviant Behavior: Occupational and Organizational Bases; and The Social Dimensions of Work. Most recently, she served as Managing Editor of The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior (four volumes; 2001), as Managing Editor of The Handbook of Death and Dying (two volumes; 2003), and most recently, Managing Editor of 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook. She graduated from Draughon's Business College in Jackson, Mississippi, and did undergraduate work at Western Kentucky University, majoring in sociology.

    Associate Editors

    Harold R. Kerbo has been a Professor at Cal Poly since 1977 and is Chair of the Social Sciences Department. He has been promoting international education in the United States and abroad with study programs to Southeast Asia for Cal Poly students. He has also had extensive teaching and research experience in Asia and Europe since the early 1980s. In addition to other teaching experience in Tokyo, he was a Fulbright Professor during 1988/1989 at Hiroshima University as well as a Visiting Professor in the Law Faculty at Hiroshima Shudo University. During 1991, he was a Visiting Professor at the University of Duisburg, Germany, and returned to the Dusseldorf area during 1992 and 1993 as a Research Professor conducting research on employee relations in Japanese corporations located in Germany. In 1990, he received a Fulbright-Hays grant to study at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand, and for several months during 1994 to 1996 directed a research project on employee relations in American and Japanese corporations with operations in Thailand. During 1996, he was also a Visiting Professor in the MBA Program at the Prince of Songkla University in Thailand. During the winter term of 1999, he was a Visiting Professor at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, and was a Visiting Professor at the University of Wales, Great Britain, during the fall term of 1999. In 2002, he was a Distinguished Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Oklahoma and in 2003, a Distinguished Fulbright Chair in the Political Science Department at the University of Vienna. During 2006 to 2007, he was the recipient of an Abe Research Fellowship based in Japan. He will spend the year doing research on poverty reduction programs in Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia and spend part of the year in residence at the Center for Social Inequality at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. He has published several books and numerous articles on the subjects of social stratification, comparative societies, corporate structure, and modern Japan. He is the author of a basic sociology textbook Sociology: Social Structure and Social Conflict (1989). He is also the author of a textbook on social stratification, Social Stratification and Inequality (now in its 6th ed., translated into Spanish), and coauthor of Who Rules Japan? The Inner-Circles of Economic and Political Power (1995). He is creator and general editor of the Comparative Societies Series, which includes books on 11 countries. The first volume, Modern Japan (by Harold Kerbo and John McKinstry), was published in 1998. He has also coauthored the volumes Modern Germany (with Professor Hermann Strasser at the University of Duisburg, Germany) and Modern Thailand (with Robert Slagter), both of which were published in 2000. He is also a coauthor of the text Social Problems (now in its 9th ed., 2001). His latest book, World Poverty: Global Inequalities and the Modern World System, was published in 2005. His current research involves a comparative analysis of poverty reduction programs and their success in Southeast Asian countries.

    J. David Knottnerus is Professor of Sociology at Oklahoma State University. His research interests are in the areas of social ritual, social theory, social psychology, group processes, social structure and inequality, and collective behavior/social movements. His recent books are Structure, Culture and History: Recent Issues in Social Theory (coedited with Sing C. Chew); Literary Narratives on the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth-Century French Elite Educational System: Rituals and Total Institutions (coauthored with Frederique Van de Poel-Knottnerus); The Social Worlds of Male and Female Children in the Nineteenth-Century French Educational System: Youth, Rituals and Elites (coauthored with Frederique Van de Poel-Knottnerus); and Plantation Society and Race Relations: The Origins of Inequality (coedited with Thomas J. Durant Jr.). Other recent publications (some of which are coauthored) include “The Theory of Structural Ritualization” (Advances in Group Processes, 1997); “Reproducing Social Structure in Task Groups: The Role of Structural Ritualization” (Social Forces, 2000); “Chinatown under Siege: Community Protest and Structural Ritualization Theory” (Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 2006); and “Exposing Enron: Media Representations of Ritualized Deviance in Corporate Culture” (Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal, 2006). He is currently working on projects relating to “structural ritualization theory,” which focuses on the role symbolic rituals play in social life and the processes by which ritualization occurs and leads to the formation, reproduction, and transformation of social structure. At present, this work focuses on several topics, including deritualization, the enactment of ritualized practices in organizations and communities, structural reproduction, strategic ritualization and the role of power, rituals and the development of social inequality, collective ritual events and emotions, and applied research focusing on risky behavior in youth. His goal is to conduct further research in these areas and expand the range of issues addressed by this theoretical/research orientation. He is presently preparing a book dealing with this perspective. He is a past president of the Mid-South Sociological Association and currently serves as a member of the Council for the Theory Section, American Sociological Association, and as a cosponsor and co-organizer of the annual meeting of the Sociological Imagination Group. He earned his PhD in sociology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

    Rosalind A. Sydie is Emeriti Professor of Sociology, and formerly Professor of Sociology (1989–2006), at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, where she served as Chair of the Department of Sociology (2000–2006). Her areas of interest include Social Theory, Gender and Feminist Studies, Art and Culture, and Comparative Historical Sociology. Among her numerous publications are two books, Natural Women (1987) and Cultured Men: A Feminist Perspective on Sociological Theory (1994), and the coauthored Sociological Theory (2001). She has published numerous journal articles and book chapters, including “Sex and the Sociological Fathers” (Engendering the Social, 2004, B. Marshall and A. Witz, eds.); “The Phallocentric Gaze: Leon Battista Alberta and Visual Art” (Journal of Historical Sociology, 1997); “Feminist Sociology” (Advances in Sociological Knowledge, 2004, N. Genov, ed.); and “Gendered Spaces of Domesticity” (Design and the Social Sciences, 2002, J. Frascara, ed.). Throughout her career she has been a frequent contributor of book reviews, conference papers, and creative session organizer for professional meetings; her professional standing is well recognized as witnessed by the many appointments and honors received throughout her career. In addition to her important role as an Associate Editor of 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook (2004–2006), she was Consulting Editor for the Encyclopedia of Social Theory (volumes 2–5; 2003); she served as Editor of the Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology (1994–1997), Associate Editor of Sociological Inquiry (1987–1993), Book Review Editor of the Canadian Journal of Sociology (1979–1980, 1990–1995), and English Language Editor of the Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology (1976–1979). She has been a periodic reviewer of manuscripts for several scholarly journals, book publishers, and funding agencies. In addition to many university-wide administrative positions, she is a past president of Western Association of Sociology and Anthropology. In light of her long career of distinguished service to her university and to the discipline, she is anticipating retirement along with the expanded opportunity to engage in some long-delayed research projects and to spending quality time with her grandchildren.

    Elaine Wethington is Associate Professor of Human Development and of Sociology at Cornell University. She is a medical sociologist. She has an extensive background in survey research methods, epidemiology, and applied gerontology research and has directed numerous primary and secondary analyses projects since 1979. Her first research job was as data-collection manager for the “Social Supports of the Elderly” study. She is the author of papers on social support and adaptation to stressors, coping, life events, and life-turning points and has developed instruments to measure life events and chronic stressors, including the Structured Life Event Interview and the Daily Inventory of Stressful Experiences. Currently, she is the Coprincipal Investigator and Director of the Pilot Study core of the Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging, Co-investigator for a national longitudinal survey of mental disorders in the United States (the National Comorbidity Survey 2), and Coprincipal Investigator for Work-Family Integration and the Diets of Multiethnic Adults (funded by the National Cancer Institute). In the recent past, she directed Pathways to Life Quality, a Cornell University at Ithaca College longitudinal study of 1,000 older people. She was a network associate of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Research Network on Successful Midlife Development. Her most recently published book is Residential Choices and Experiences of Older Adults: Pathways to Life Quality (2003, coedited with John Krout). Her papers have appeared in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Journal of Marriage and Family, Annual Review of Sociology, and Advances in Life Course Research. She received her PhD from the University of Michigan in 1987, specializing in the sociology of mental health and illness.

    Assistant Editor

    Steven J. Seiler is a PhD student in the Department of Sociology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He has taught courses in social justice and social change. His varied research interests include the political economy of social movements in the Global South, the impact of structural adjustment programs on Southeast Asia, and development and social change in Thailand. He is currently researching the socioeconomic and political consequences of structural adjustment programs in Thailand following the 1997 Asian economic crisis. In addition to his research in political economy, he has presented papers at professional conferences on labor relations in Thailand and critiques of social movement literature. Prior to pursuing a college education, he served four years active duty in the U.S. Navy. He earned a master's degree in sociology and a Graduate Certificate in International Research and Development from Virginia Technological and State University. He earned the undergraduate degree in sociology and political science from the University of Georgia.

    About the Contributors

    Barry D. Adam is University Professor of Sociology at the University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. He is the author of The Survival of Domination and The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement, and coauthor of Experiencing HIV and The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics. He has also published articles on new social movement theory, on Nicaragua, on gay and lesbian issues, and on social aspects of AIDS.

    Rebecca G. Adams is Professor of Sociology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her research has focused mainly on the sociology of adult and older adult friendship, including on friendship formation and community development among fans of a rock ‘n’ roll band, the Grateful Dead. Her publications on these topics include numerous articles and chapters in both the scholarly and popular press and several coauthored or coedited books, including Deadhead Social Science (2000, with Rob Sardiello); Placing Friendship in Context (1998, with Graham Allan); Adult Friendship (Sage, 1992, with Rosemary Blieszner); and Older Adult Friendship: Structure and Process (Sage, 1989, with Rosemary Blieszner). Her work has been discussed in most major newspapers in the United States and in many news, women's, teen, and special interest magazines as well as during interviews on more than 50 radio and television shows, including for BBC, NPR, NRS, HBO, MTV, and PBS. A past president of the Southern Sociological Society, a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, and a Charter Fellow of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, she is currently serving as Editor of Personal Relationships (official journal of the International Association for Relationship Research), as an Advisory Editor for George Ritzer's Encyclopedia of Sociology, and as a Member at Large of the Council of the American Sociological Association.

    Benigno E. Aguirre is Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at the University of Delaware, Newark. He is senior faculty member of the Disaster Research Center and a frequent contributor to the specialty areas of collective behavior, disaster studies, and Latin American sociology. He is past president of the Research Committee on Disasters of the International Sociological Association. He earned his PhD from The Ohio State University in 1977.

    Graham Allan is Professor of Sociology at Keele University, United Kingdom, and currently Visiting Professor in Family Studies at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. His research has focused principally on the sociology of informal relationships, including friendships, family ties, and community sociology. He has published widely in these areas. His books include Placing Friendship in Context (1998, with Rebecca Adams); The Sociology of the Family (1999); Families, Households and Society (2001, with Graham Crow); Social Relations and the Life Course (2003, with Gill Jones); Social Networks and Social Exclusion (2004, with Chris Phillipson and David Morgan), and The State of Affairs (2004, with Jean Duncombe, Kaeren Harrison, and Dennis Marsden). His current project is concerned with stepfamily kinship. He is coauthoring a book on this topic with Sheila Hawker and Graham Crow, which is to be published in 2007. Recently, he has acted as an Associate Editor of Personal Relationships and as one of the Advisory Editors for George Ritzer's Encyclopedia of Sociology. He is also coeditor of the Palgrave Studies in Family Sociology book series.

    Stephen J. Appold lectures in the Department of Sociology at the National University of Singapore and is a Visiting Researcher in the Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His recent publications include “The Weakening Position of University Graduates in Singapore's Labor Market: Causes and Consequences” (Population and Development Review); “The Location Patterns of U.S. Industrial Research: Mimetic Isomorphism, and the Emergence of Geographic Charisma” (Regional Studies); and “Research Parks and the Location of Industrial Research Laboratories: An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Policy Intervention” (Research Policy). With Jack Kasarda, he is investigating the interplay of air transport, urban development, and employment trends.

    Ilkka Arminen is Professor in the Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, University of Tampere, Finland. He is one of the coauthors of Alcoholics Anonymous as a Mutual-Help Movement: A Study in Eight Societies (1996) and the author of Therapeutic Interaction: A Study of Mutual Help in the Meetings of Alcoholics Anonymous (1998) and Institutional Interaction: Studies of Talk at Work (2005). He has also published articles in a number of edited collections and journals, including Acta Sociologica, Discourse & Society, Discourse Studies, Journal of Pragmatics, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Research on Language and Social Interaction, Text, and the Sociological Quarterly.

    Christopher R. Badcock, PhD, is Reader in Sociology at the London School of Economics, University of London, where he teaches courses on the social implications of evolution and genetics. He is the author of Evolutionary Psychology: A Critical Introduction (2000).

    Kenneth D. Bailey is professor of sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has served as Associate Editor of the American Sociological Review and was elected Secretary of the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP); Vice President (North America) of Research Committee 33, Logic and Methodology, of the International Sociological Association (ISA); President of RC 51, Sociocybernetics, of the ISA; and also President of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS). He is the author of more than 115 articles, chapters, reviews, and books, primarily in the areas of methods and systems. His books include Methods of Social Research (4th ed., 1994); Social Entropy Theory (1990); Sociology and the New Systems Theory (1994); and Typologies and Taxonomies (Sage, 1994). His work has been translated into Bahasa Malaysian, Chinese, Italian, Korean, Slovak, Slovene, and other languages.

    Carl L. Bankston III is Professor of Sociology and Codirector of the Asian Studies Program at Tulane University. He is author or editor of 14 books and over 85 journal articles and book chapters. His research and teaching interests include Asian and Asian American issues, international migration, race and ethnicity, and sociology of education.

    Lori Baralt is a PhD student in Sociology at Michigan State University. Her current research interests include gender, social movements, and identity. She received her BA in women's studies and political science from the University of Florida.

    Clemens Bartollas is Professor of Sociology at the University of Northern Iowa (UNI). He has taught at UNI for the past 24 years. He recently published the seventh edition of his Juvenile Delinquency text and is coauthor of Juvenile Justice in America, which has gone through four editions. His coauthored monograph, Juvenile Victimization: The Institutional Paradox, examined the degree of victimization that existed in a maximum-security juvenile training school in Ohio. He has published a number of journal articles related to juvenile offenders and the processes of institutionalization. In addition to his work with juveniles, he has written a number of publications on adult corrections, the criminal justice system, policing, and criminology. He received his PhD from The Ohio State University in 1973.

    Loretta E. Bass is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Oklahoma. She focuses her research on children and stratification issues and completes research in West Africa, the United States, and France. She recently served as Guest Editor for an international edition of the Sociological Studies of Children and Youth (volume 10, 2005) and published a book, Child Labor in Sub-Saharan Africa (2004), which offers a window on the lives of Africa's child workers drawing on research and demographic data from 43 countries. Her research has appeared in Population Research and Policy Review, Political Behavior, Anthropology of Work Review, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, and Journal of Reproductive Medicine.

    Amanda K. Baumle is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Houston. She specializes in demography, social inequality, and the sociology of law. Her current research explores issues involving the demography of sexual orientation, labor demography, and gender inequality in the legal practice. Prior to obtaining her PhD in sociology at Texas A&M University, she earned a JD from the University of Texas and practiced labor and employment law.

    Felix M. Berardo is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Sociology at the University of Florida. His long career interests embrace the areas of family sociology, social gerontology, the sociology of death and survivorship, and the sociology of risk. In addition to extensive publications in professional journals, he is the author, coauthor, or editor of more than a dozen major book-length works. He is former Editor of the Journal of Marriage and Family as well as a monograph series on Current Perspectives in Family Research. He is Deputy Editor of the Journal of Family Issues. He served as President of the Florida Council on Family Relations and as Associate Chair and Chair of the Department of Sociology at the University of Florida, Gainesville. He has been elected the President of the university's chapters of the National Honor Societies, Phi Beta Kappa, and Phi Kappa Phi. He was the recipient of the Arthur Peterson Award in Death Education and has been awarded Fellow status by the Gerontological Society of America and the National Council on Family Relations. His book Emerging Conceptual Frameworks in Family Analysis (with F. Ivan Nye) has been included among a select group of works considered “classics” in family sociology and recognized for its long-lasting impact on the field. In 2004, the National Council on Family Relations established the Felix M. Berardo Mentorship Award in honor of his outstanding contributions to student and faculty careers.

    Fabrizio Bernardi is Associate Professor, Department of Sociology II (Social Structure), Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain. From 1998 to 2001, he worked as an Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Bielfeld (Germany). Among his recent publications are “Public Policies and Low Fertility: Rationales for Public Intervention and a Diagnosis for the Spanish Case” (Journal of European Social Policy, 2005) and “Returns to Educational Performance at Entry into the Italian Labor Market” (European Sociological Review, 2003). His research interests focus on social inequality, the relationship between family and labor markets dynamics, as well as on quantitative methods for longitudinal analysis.

    Bo Jason Bernhard is Assistant Professor in the Departments of Sociology and Hotel Management at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, where he also serves as Director of Gambling Research at the university's International Gaming Institute. His work has focused on the impacts of gambling in society in a variety of national and international settings.

    Lakshmi Kant Bharadwaj is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, where he has been teaching sociological theory, environmental sociology, the sociology of religion, and social change. His research interests lie in exploring the role of social integration and personal efficacy in promoting personal well-being in different life domains, and the role of the family in both coping with social change and in mediating its impact upon the quality of life. His work has been published in various journals, including Human Relations and Social Indicators Research. His publications include an entry on human ecology and environmental analysis in the Encyclopedia of Sociology and a lead chapter on theories of demographic change in a collected work on Demographic and Structural Change. He is interested in the issues of peace, justice, and nonviolence and has served as the Director of the Peace Studies Program at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. As a longtime member of the Milwaukee Association for Interfaith Relations, he has been actively involved in promoting interreligious understanding and dialogue among members of various faith communities. He was recently nominated by the governor of Wisconsin to serve a three-year term on the State Council for Affirmative Action. He earned his PhD from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

    Dwight B. Billings is Professor of Sociology at the University of Kentucky. He has written extensively on Appalachia and the American South. He is a past president of the Appalachian Studies Association and current editor of the Journal of Appalachian Studies. His most recent book is The Road to Poverty: The Making ofWealth and Hardship in Appalachia (coauthored with Kathleen Blee).

    Bart Bonikowski is a doctoral student in sociology at Princeton University. He received his BA at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, and his MA in sociology at Duke University. His master's thesis, titled “Dancing to Darwin's Beat: A Dynamic Analysis of Cultural Niches in Blau Space,” applied McPherson's ecological model of affiliation to changes in popular music consumption over two decades. His current research continues to explore the relationship between culture, inequality, and social networks.

    Jac D. Bulk is Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin at La Crosse. He has taught courses in Law and Society, Marriage and Family, Research Methods of the Social Sciences, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Contemporary Issues in Racial and Ethnic Studies, and Hmong Americans. He has published journal articles on topics relating to legal studies and racial and ethnic studies, and he was honored with the first UW-System “Excellence in Ethnic Studies Award.” He is currently engaged in a longitudinal study of the retention of three cohorts of minority students (2000–2003). He is also involved in a research project titled “Australian Aborigines and American Indians: A Comparative Study in Ethnic Preservation and Ties to Homelands.” He has engaged in many university, community, and professional service activities. Most noteworthy has been his membership on the UW-System American Ethnic Studies Advisory Committee (1979–1987); Associate Editor to the Wisconsin Sociologist (1988–1991); member on the Race and Ethnicity Steering Committee (1980–1990); and conference organizer of the 25th Annual National Association for Ethnic Studies in 1997 held at the University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. He earned his undergraduate degree at Cornell University and his MS and PhD degrees at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

    Thomas J. Burns is Professor of Sociology at the University of Oklahoma. He does both quantitative and qualitative research on the interface between human social organization and the natural environment. In an ongoing project with a number of collaborators, he does statistical modeling of how macro-level social, demographic, political, and economic processes affect environmental outcomes including pollution, deforestation, and the ecological footprint. He also analyzes rhetorical practices surrounding environmental issues.

    Tom R. Burns is Professor Emeritus at the Department of Sociology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. He is a Member of the EU Commission's Advisory Group on the Social Sciences and Humanities. Among his engagements, he has been a Jean Monnet Visiting Professor at the European University, Florence, Italy, 2002; Visiting Scholar, Stanford University, Spring, 2002, 2004, 2005; Gulbenkian Visiting Professor at the University Institute for Business and Social Studies (ISCTE), Lisbon, Portugal (2002–2003); Visiting Fellow, Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZIF), Bielefeld, Germany; Visiting Professor at the Wissenschaftszentrum, Berlin (1985); Clarence J. Robinson University Professor at George Mason University (1987–1990); Fellow at Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (Spring, 1992; Autumn, 1998); and Fellow at the European University Institute (Spring, 1998). He has published more than 10 books and numerous articles in the areas of governance and politics, the sociology of technology and environment, the analysis of markets and market regulation, and studies of administration and management. He has also published extensively on social theory and methodology, with an emphasis on the new institutional theory, a social theory of games and human interaction, and dynamic systems theory.

    Brian Castellani is Associate Professor of Sociology at Kent State University and Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at Northeastern Ohio University's College of Medicine. He is the author of Pathological Gambling: The Making of a Medical Problem (2000). His research program sits at the intersection of medical sociology and complexity science. He is currently working on a monograph, The Sociology of Complexity: A Guide to Modeling Complex Social Systems (with Fred Hafferty), which presents readers an overview of the sociology of complexity, develops a theoretical framework for the study of social complexity called social complexity theory, and provides a step-by-step guide for modeling complex social systems called assemblage. He holds a master's degree in clinical psychology and a doctorate in medical sociology.

    James William Coleman is Professor of Sociology at the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. He is the author of numerous books and articles in the sociology of religion, criminology (especially white-collar crime), and social problems. They include The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient Tradition (2001) and the Criminal Elite: Understanding White-Collar Crime (2006). He earned his PhD from the University of California at Santa Barbara.

    Richard A. Colignon is Professor and Chair of Sociology and Criminal Justice at St. Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri. His research centers on the social and political processes surrounding apparently rational procedures. His recent books include Amakudari: The Hidden Fabric of Japan's Economy (2003, with C. Usui) and Power Plays: Critical Events in the Institutionalization of the Tennessee Valley Authority (1997). His current interests include government-business relations around pensions and health care and cross-culture analysis of work design and managerial strategies.

    Gerry R. Cox is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. He is the Director of the Center for Death Education & Bioethics. His teaching focuses on theory/theory construction, deviance, and criminology; death and dying; social psychology; and minority peoples. He has been publishing materials since 1973 in sociology and teaching-oriented professional journals. He is a member of the International Work Group on Dying, Death, and Bereavement; the Midwest Sociological Society; the American Sociological Association; the International Sociological Association; Phi Kappa Phi; Great Plains Sociological Society; and the Association of Death Education and Counseling.

    John DeLamater is Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin. He has been conducting research and writing about sexuality for 25 years. His current research is focused on sexual expression in later life. Working with data from the AARP/Modern Maturity sexuality survey, he and his students have written two papers: (1) “Sexual Desire in Later Life” (Journal of Sex Research, 42, May 2005) and (2) “Sexual Behavior in Later Life” (under review). He is collaborating with Janet Hyde on a project employing data from the 2003–2004 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study on sexual expression. He is the current Editor of the Journal of Sex Research.

    Norman K. Denzin is Distinguished Professor of Communications, College of Communications Scholar, and Research Professor of Communications, Sociology and Humanities, at the University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign. He is the author, editor, or coeditor of numerous books, including Performance Ethnography: Critical Pedagogy and the Politics of Culture; Screening Race: Hollywood and a Cinema of Racial Violence; Performing Ethnography; and 9/11 in American Culture. He is past editor of The Sociological Quarterly, coeditor of The Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd ed.), coeditor of Qualitative Inquiry, editor of Cultural Studies: Critical Methodologies, and series editor of Studies in Symbolic Interaction. He earned his PhD in sociology from the University of Iowa in 1966.

    Philippe R. DeVillé is Professor of Economics at the Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL). Committed to interdisciplinary work, his fields of interest in the past have been macroeconomics and employment issues, equity and education, and a systems approach to growth and development in a historical perspective. He was coauthor with Tom R. Burns and Thomas Baumgartner of Man, Decisions, Society (1985) and the Shaping of Socio-economic Systems (1986). He also coauthored with them a number of articles in the 1970s and 1980s. His recent work has been concerned with critical issues of market economies and the ethics of capitalism. He is currently working with Christian Arnsperger on two essays, “On the Ethics of Competition” and “Is Homooeconomicus Neoclassicus a Social Being?” He has been Visiting Professor at, among other universities, the University of Montréal, University of Québec in Montreal, the University of Sao Paolo (Brazil), and Quisqueya University (Haiti), and Fulbright Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Visiting Scholar at Stanford University and the University of Massachusetts, and Fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study. He received his PhD in economics from Stanford University in 1973.

    Frank Dobbin is Professor of Sociology at Harvard. His Forging Industrial Policy received the 1996 Max Weber Award. His Economics Meets Sociology in Strategic Management (2000, coedited with Joel Baum), investigates intellectual synergies between sociology and economics. His collection of classics The New Economic Sociology: An Anthology (2004) traces the roots of modern economic sociology and his collection of new studies The Sociology of the Economy (2004) showcases the range of the new economic sociology.

    Peter Donnelly is currently Director of the Centre for Sport Policy Studies and a Professor in the Faculty of Physical Education and Health, at the University of Toronto. He taught at the University of Western Ontario from 1976 to 1979 and at McMaster University from 1980 to 1998. His research interests include sport politics and policy issues (including the area of children's rights in sport), sport subcultures, and mountaineering (history). His recent books include Taking Sport Seriously: Social Issues in Canadian Sport (1997; 2nd ed., 2000); Inside Sports (1999, with Jay Coakley); and the first Canadian edition of Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies (2004, with Jay Coakley). He is a former editor of the Sociology of Sport Journal (1990–1994), a past president of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (2001), and currently Editor of the International Review for the Sociology of Sport (2004–2006). He was born in Chester, England, studied physical education as an undergraduate, and taught in school for several years. In 1969 he moved to the United States where he completed undergraduate studies in New York City, and then received mas-ter's and PhD degrees in sport studies from the University of Massachusetts.

    Andrea Doucet is Associate Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at Carleton University. She is the author of Do Men Mother? (2006) and has published book chapters and articles on feminist approaches to methodology and epistemology as well as on gender and domestic labor, mothering and fathering. Her work has appeared in journals such as Signs, Sociology, The Sociological Review, Journal of Family Issues, Community Work & Family, and Women's Studies International.

    Timothy J. Dowd is Associate Professor of Sociology at Emory University. His research deals with the sociology of music, as well as with the sociologies of culture, media, and organizations. His publications include articles in American Sociological Review, Social Forces, Annual Review of Sociology, and Administrative Science Quarterly. He has also edited special issues for journals, including “Explorations in the Sociology of Music” (Poetics, 2002); “Music in Society: The Sociological Agenda” (Poetics, 2004, with Richard A. Peterson); and “The Sociology of Music: Sounds, Songs, and Society” (American Behavioral Scientist, 2005).

    John P. Drysdale is currently Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. He has held teaching appointments in the United States at the University of Southern Mississippi, Louisiana State University, the University of Kentucky, and the University of Iowa, and in Canada at Concordia University, Montréal. His main teaching fields are contemporary and classical sociological theory, the sociology of knowledge, political sociology, and the history of sociology. He has also held research and guest appointments at Harvard University's Center for European Studies, the Institut für Soziologie and the Max-Weber-Institut of the University of Munich, and Balliol College, Oxford University. His research interests include German, British, U.S., and Canadian social theory. He has published several articles and reviews on Max Weber's methodology, including “How Are Social-scientific Concepts Formed? A Reconstruction of Max Weber's Theory of Concept Formation” (Sociological Theory, 1996) and “Max Weber on Objectivity: Advocate or Critic?” (Max Weber's “Objectivity” Revisited, forthcoming, L. McFalls, ed.). He received his BA from Millsaps College and his MA and PhD degrees from Louisiana State University.

    Riley E. Dunlap is Professor of Sociology at Oklahoma State University. He has served as President of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Environment and Society and as Chair of the American Sociological Association's Section on Environment and Technology, the Rural Sociological Society's Natural Resources Research Group, and the Society for the Study of Social Problems’ Environmental Problems Division. Besides contributing to the theoretical development of environmental sociology, he conducts research on the nature and sources of public concern for environmental quality, including cross-national comparisons in such concern; the evolution of American environmentalism; and the efforts of the U.S. conservative movement to mount an antienvironmental “countermovement.” He is senior editor of American Environmentalism (1992), Handbook of Environmental Sociology (2002), and Sociological Theory and the Environment (2002).

    Thomas J. Fararo is Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) where he teaches courses in sociological theory. His books deal with theoretical and mathematical sociology and include Mathematical Sociology (1973); The Meaning of General Theoretical Sociology (1989); Social Action Systems (2001); and Generating Images of Stratification (2003, with K. Kosaka). He is coeditor of Rational Choice Theory: Advocacy and Critique (1992, with J. Coleman); TheProblem of Solidarity: Theories and Models (1998, with P. Doreian); and Purpose, Meaning and Action: Control Systems Theories in Sociology (2006, with K. McClelland).

    David Fasenfest is Associate Professor of Sociology and Urban Affairs and Senior Research Fellow at Wayne State University. His educational background is as an economist and sociologist, and his research focuses on regional and urban economic development, labor market analysis and work force development, and income inequality. His work has appeared in Economic Development Quarterly, Urban Affairs Review, International Journal of Urban and Regional Review, and International Journal of Sociology. In addition, he is the current Editor of Community Economic Development: Policy Formation in the U.S. and U.K. (1993) and Critical Perspectives on Local Development Policy Evaluation (2004). He is Editor of the journal Critical Sociology and is book series Editor of Studies in Critical Social Science.

    Abbott L. Ferriss is Professor Emeritus retired from Emory University in 1982. He is a former president of the Southern Sociological Society, the founder and a past editor of SINET: The Social Indicators Network News, and a past editor of PAA Affairs and The Sociologist. He is the author of three books in the area of social indicators and has published numerous journal articles and reports on social indicators, child poverty, quality-of-life studies, and civility. He also coedited a thematic issue on civility for Sociological Inquiry, the international honor society journal of Alpha Kappa Delta. A member since 1942, in 2006 he was honored with the “Service Award” in honor of his contributions to the Southern Sociological Society.

    Joanne Finkelstein is Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Education at Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. Her sociological publications include Dining Out, Fashion and, most recently, The Sociological Bent: Inside Metro Culture.

    Cornelia Butler Flora is the Charles F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor of Agriculture and Sociology at Iowa State University. She is also Director of the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, covering the 12 Midwestern states. Her international development experience includes research, project evaluation, and project design primarily in Latin America and also in Africa and Asia.

    Jan L. Flora is Professor of Sociology and Extension Community Sociologist at Iowa State University. He is also a Visiting Professor at the National Agrarian University–Molina in Peru. His current research analyzes the relationship of community social capital to economic, community, and sustainable development. His extension work focuses on involving Latino immigrants in the affairs of rural Iowa communities.

    James H. Frey is Professor Emeritus of Sociology and retired Dean of the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He is author of Survey Research by Telephone (Sage, 1989) and Sociology of Sport (1996, with H. Nixon). He has published articles on gambling behavior and policy, survey research, sociology of work and leisure, and deviant behavior. He holds a master's degree in sociology from the University of Iowa (1968) and a PhD from Washington State University (1974).

    R. Scott Frey is currently Professor of Sociology and Head of the Department of Sociology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He has held appointments at Argonne National Laboratory, George Washington University, Kansas State University, the National Science Foundation, and the University of North Florida. He has contributed chapters to recent books on environmental issues and has published in numerous journals, including the American Journal of Sociology and the American Sociological Review. He received his PhD from Colorado State University in 1980.

    Jan Marie Fritz is Professor of Health Policy and Planning in the School of Planning at the University of Cincinnati. She is also affiliated to the Department of Women's Studies and the Department of Sociology. She is the author of more than 80 publications, was a member of the International Sociological Association's (ISA) executive committee, and the ISA's representative to the United Nations. She is a past president of a national organization of clinical sociologists, the sociological practice section of the American Sociological Association, and the ISA's division on clinical sociology. She was a member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Environmental Justice Advisory Council and currently is vice president of two divisions (RC 26 Clinical Sociology and RC 46 Sociotechnics—Sociological Practice) of the International Sociological Association. Over the past 20 years, she has mediated labor, special education, commercial, employment, and public policy disputes and served as a reviewer of programs for the Commission on the Accreditation of Applied and Clinical Sociology Programs and the Departmental Resources Group of the American Sociological Association.

    Gilbert Geis is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine. He is a former president of the American Society of Criminology and recipient of its Edwin Sutherland Award for outstanding research. His recent books are Criminal Justice and Moral Issues (2006, with Robert F. Meier) and White-Collar and Corporate Crime (2006).

    W. Richard Goe is Professor of Sociology at Kansas State University. He is presently completing a book that examines the effects of economic restructuring on the growth of nonmetropolitan cities and communities in the United States at the end of the twentieth century. His research has been published in Social Forces, Urban Affairs Review, and Work & Occupations and Rural Sociology, among other journals.

    Juan J. González is Tenure Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology II (Social Structure), Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain. He is Honorary Fellow at the Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin at Madison (1992–1993) and Visiting Research Scholar at the Social Sciences Department, California Polytechnic University (2000– 2001). His fields of teaching and research include Social Stratification, Political Sociology, and Rural Sociology. His publications include Agricultura y Sociedad en el cam-bio de siglo (Madrid, 2002) and Tres décadas de cambio social en España (Madrid, 2005).

    Erich Goode is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Senior Research Scientist in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland at College Park. He is the author of 10 books, mainly on drug use, deviant behavior, and paranormal beliefs; more than 40 articles that have been published in academic journals; and 20 invited book chapters and encyclopedia entries, as well as editor of five anthologies, the recipient of several teaching awards, and a winner of the Guggenheim fellowship. He has taught at a half dozen universities, which include—in addition to Stony Brook and Maryland—Columbia, New York University, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His textbooks include Drugs in American Society (6th ed., 2005) and Deviant Behavior (7th ed., 2005).

    John Grady is Professor of Sociology at Wheaton College in Massachusetts and Senior Research Scholar at the Salt Institute for Documentary Studies in Portland, Maine. He has produced numerous documentary films, including Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston (1979), Water and the Dream of the Engineers (1983), and Love Stories: Women, Men and Romance (1987). He has written extensively on visual research and communication. He was President of the International Visual Sociology Association (IVSA) from 1996 to 2000. He received his PhD from Brandeis University.

    Frederic W. Hafferty is Professor of Behavioral Sciences at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Duluth. He is the author of Into the Valley: Death and the Socialization of Medical Students (1991) and The Changing Medical Profession: An International Perspective (1993, with John McKinlay). He is currently working on two books, the first (with Brian Castellani) on the sociology of complexity and a second on the hidden curriculum in medical education. He is past chair of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association and is currently an associate editor of the Journal of Health and Social Behavior and a member of the Association of American Medical College's Council of Academic Societies. His current research focuses on the disappearance of altruism as a core medical value and the concurrent rise of “lifestyle medicine,” the role of trust in the ideology of professionalism, social dimensions of medical effectiveness research, disability studies, and rural health issues. He received his undergraduate degree in social relations from Harvard University in 1969 and his PhD in medical sociology from Yale University in 1976.

    Roberta Hamilton is Professor of Sociology at Queen's University, Canada. For the past 35 years, she has been engaged in scholarly work on feminist theories, historical sociology, Canadian political economy, and Québec society. Her most recent publications include Setting the Agenda: Jean Royce and the Shaping of Queen's University (2002), which won the Ontario History Prize (awarded triennially) for the best book in women's history, and Gendering the Vertical Mosaic: Feminist Perspectives on Canadian Society (2005).

    Douglas Harper, Professor of Sociology at Duquesne University, was the last PhD student of Everett Hughes. Harper has completed ethnographies of railroad tramps (Good Company: A Tramp Life), a rural auto mechanic (Working Knowledge: Skill and Community in a Small Shop), and the industrialization of dairy farming (Changing Works: Visions of a Lost Agriculture). He has used photography as a part of his ethnographic studies, and also codirected a film, with Steven Papson, on the culture of a small sawmill in northern New York. He was the founding editor of Visual Sociology and has been active in the International Visual Sociology Association since its inception. His work has been translated into Italian, German, and French, and he has been a guest professor and lecturer at several universities in Europe. His current research, with Patrizia Faccioli, is a study of food and culture in northern Italy.

    Michelle Hasday is now in her first year of a joint MA/PhD program in sociology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, where she is a University Fellow. The main focus of her studies is the sociology of sexuality and gender. Her other current projects include a working paper, “Male Pornography Use and Orientations towards Sexual Relationships with Women,” which will be ready for publication submission by fall of 2006. She is also beginning a new project examining the relationship between female self-objectification and power dynamics in intimate relationships. She received her BA in sociology from Brown University.

    Jeff Hearn is Professor, Swedish School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland, and Linköping University, Sweden, and Professor of Sociology, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom. He was previously Research Professor, University of Manchester, and has also worked at the Universities of Bradford, Oslo, Tampere, and Åbo Akademi. His books include ‘Sex’ at ‘Work’ (1987/1995); The Sexuality of Organization (1989); Men in the Public Eye (1992); Men as Managers, Managers as Men (1996); Hard Work in the Academy (1999); Gender, Sexuality and Violence in Organizations (2001); Information Society and the Workplace (2004); Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities (2005); Men and Masculinities in Europe (2006); and European Perspectives on Men and Masculinities (2006). He is Coeditor of the journal Men and Masculinities. He was Principal Contractor of the EU Research Network “The Social Problem of Men” and is currently researching “Men, Gender Relations and Transnational Organising, Organisations and Management.”

    Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo is currently a doctoral student in sociology at Tulane University, writing a dissertation on women in same-sex relationships in Thailand. She has published several journal articles and book chapters on sexuality and gender issues in Southeast Asia and the United States. She has completed an MSc in sociology at the London School of Economics.

    Susan Hoecker-Drysdale is Professor Emerita of Sociology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec; retired Visiting Professor, Sociology, the University of Iowa. She was a Visiting Fellow, School of Advanced Study, the University of London from 1997 to 1998. Her areas of teaching and research include classical social theory, feminist sociological theory, women in the history of sociology, gender, and Victorian sociology. She is a founding member of the British Martineau Society and the Harriet Martineau Sociological Society. Her publications include Harriet Martineau: Studies of America, 1831–1868 (eight volumes; 2004, edited with introductions by Susan Hoecker-Drysdale); “Harriet Martineau: The Theory and Practice of Early Critical Social Research” (Lost Sociologists Rediscovered: Jane Addams, Walter Benjamin, W. E. B. DuBois, Harriet Martineau, Pitirim A. Sorokin, Flora Tristan, George E. Vincent, and Beatrice Webb, 2002, M. A. Romano, ed.); Harriet Martineau: Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives (2001, M. R. Hill and S. Hoecker-Drysdale, ed.); “Harriet Martineau” (The Blackwell Companion to Major Classical Social Theorists, 2000, Chap. 2, G. Ritzer, ed.); “Sociologists in the Vineyard: The Careers of Everett Cherrington Hughes and Helen MacGill Hughes” (Creative Couples in the Sciences, 1996, H. Pycior et al., ed.); “The Enigma of Harriet Martineau's Letters on Science” (Women's Writings: The Elizabethan to Victorian Period, 1995); Harriet Martineau: First Woman Sociologist (1992); and “Women Sociologists in Canada: The Careers of Helen MacGill Hughes, Aileen Dansken Ross, and Jean Robertson Burnet” (Despite the Odds: Essays on Canadian Women and Science, 1990, M. G. Ainley, ed.). She earned her PhD from Louisiana State University.

    Carla B. Howery is the Deputy Executive Officer of the American Sociological Association (ASA). She serves as the Director of two of the ASA's six core programs: the Academic and Professional Affairs Program and the Sydney S. Spivack Program on Applied Social Research and Social Policy. During her 24 years at the ASA, she has worked on a number of issues, including the status of women in sociology, research on the profession, sociological practice, international sociology, graduate and undergraduate teaching, and membership concerns. Two recent major projects focused on minority opportunities through school transformation and integrating data analysis (in early undergraduate sociology courses). Raised in Wisconsin, she attended St. Olaf College, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Pennsylvania.

    Valerie Jenness is Professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society and the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Irvine. She is the coeditor of one book, Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy (2005, with David Meyer and Helen Ingram), the author of three books—Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement Practice (2001, with Ryken Grattet); Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence (1997, with Kendal Broad); and Making It Work: The Prostitutes’ Rights Movement in Perspective (1993)—and articles published in the American Sociological Review, Law & Society Review, Annual Review of Sociology, Gender & Society, Social Problems, American Behavioral Scientist, Sociological Perspectives, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Law and Critique, Journal of Hate Studies, and Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change. Her research has received awards from the Gustavus Myers Center for the Study of Bigotry and Human Rights in North America, the Society for the Study of Social Problems, the Pacific Sociological Association, and the University of California.

    Gary F. Jensen is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies and Joe B. Wyatt Distinguished University Professor at Vanderbilt University. He taught at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and the University of Arizona before moving to Vanderbilt as Department Chair in 1989. He has authored or coauthored, and edited or coedited 8 books and more than 75 articles or chapters primarily focusing on crime and delinquency. His most recent works include Social Learning and the Explanation of Crime: A Guide for the New Century (with Ronald Akers) and The Path of the Devil: A Study of Early Modern Witch Hunts (2006). He is working on the fourth edition of Delinquency and Youth Crime (with D. G. Rojek). He was initiated as a Fellow of the American Society of Criminology in 2001. He earned his PhD from the University of Washington in 1972.

    Andrew K. Jorgenson is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Washington State University. His current research focuses on the social and environmental impacts of (1) foreign direct investment in different sectors and (2) the structure of international trade. His recent publications appeared in Social Forces, Social Problems, Sociological Perspectives, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Human Ecology Review, Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, Journal of World-Systems Research, Society in Transition, and other scholarly journals and edited collections.

    Linda Kalof is Professor of Sociology at Michigan State University. She has written articles on the cultural construction of femininity, edits the book series A Cultural History of the Human Body, and embraces both cultural studies and visual sociology in her research.

    Michael S. Kimmel is Professor of Sociology at State University of New York at Stony Brook. His books include Changing Men (1987); Men Confront Pornography (1990); Against the Tide: Profeminist Men in the United States, 1776–1990 (1992); The Politics of Manhood (1996); Manhood: A Cultural History (1996); The Gendered Society (2003, 2nd ed.); Men's Lives (2003, 6th ed.); Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities (2005); The Gender of Desire (2005); and The History of Men (2005). He is editor of Men and Masculinities, an interdisciplinary scholarly journal, a book series on Men and Masculinity at the University of California Press, and the Sage Series on Men and Masculinities. He is the spokesperson for the National Organization for Men Against Sexism (NOMAS) and lectures extensively on campuses in the United States and abroad.

    Jerry Krause, Professor Emeritus Humboldt State University, fell in love with sociology in the early 1960s while an undergraduate sociology major at the University of California at Berkeley, where he was influenced by Herbert Blumer. In 1971, he assumed a professorship of sociology at Humboldt State University, where he remained until his retirement in 2005. He cofounded in 1991 and directed until 2005 the Center for Applied Social Analysis and Education (CASAE) at Humboldt State University and was instrumental in developing the Sociological Practice MA program. Working with Sociological Practice graduate students on a variety of CASAE projects, he pioneered the development of participatory research approaches to sociological practice. He earned a master's degree in sociology at San Jose State College in 1966 and a PhD in sociology from Louisiana State University in 1975.

    Kelsy Kretschmer is a graduate student in sociology at the University of California, Irvine. She is interested in social movements and gender. Her current research focuses on dissident identity organizations and leadership in social movement organizations.

    Nancy G. Kutner is Professor of Rehabilitation Medicine and Adjunct Professor of Sociology at Emory University, where she directs a U.S. Renal Data System Special Studies Center on Rehabilitation and Quality of Life funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Her current projects focus on functional outcomes among persons with stroke and osteoarthritis, as well as chronic kidney disease. She has served on advisory committees for the Institute of Medicine, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the Health Care Financing Administration (now the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). In 2003, she was an invited speaker for the NIH Physical Disabilities through the Lifespan Conference held in Bethesda, Maryland.

    Elise S. Lake is Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Mississippi, where she teaches courses on the sociology of food, marriage and family, criminology, and deviance. Her research interests include the sociology of food, the sociology of literature, and teaching ethics.

    Kenneth C. Land is the John Franklin Crowell Professor of Sociology and Demographic Studies at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. His areas of research interest are in mathematical sociology/demography, statistical methods, demography, social indicators/quality-of-life measurement, and criminology. He is the coauthor or coeditor of five books and author or coauthor of more than 150 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. He was the recipient in 1997 of the Paul F. Lazarsfeld Memorial Award of the Methodology Section and served in 2005 as Chair of the Mathematical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. He has been elected a Fellow of five professional societies, including the American Statistical Association.

    Beryl Langer is a senior member of the program in Sociology and Anthropology at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. Her current research on global children's culture is published in the Journal of Consumer Culture, Thesis Eleven, and Childhood. Her research interests include consumer culture, globalization, and Canadian literature.

    Jack Levin, PhD, is the Irving and Betty Brudnick Professor of Sociology and Criminology at Northeastern University, where he directs its Brudnick Center on Conflict and Violence. He has authored or coauthored 28 books, including Mass Murder: America's Growing Menace; Killer on Campus, Overkill: Mass Murder and Serial Killing Exposed; Hate Crimes Revisited; The Will to Kill: Making Sense of Senseless Murder; Why We Hate; and The Violence of Hate. He was honored by the Massachusetts Council for Advancement and Support of Education as its “Professor of the Year.” He has spoken to a wide variety of community, academic, and professional groups, including the White House Conference on Hate Crimes, the Department of Justice, the Department of Education, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

    Zai Liang is Professor of Sociology at State University of New York at Albany. His current research projects include internal migration in China and international migration from China to the United States and Europe. He currently serves as Chair of the Asia and Asian America section of the American Sociological Association and Codirector of Urban China Research Network at the University at Albany. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of Chicago.

    Linda Lobao is Professor of Rural Sociology, Sociology, and Geography at The Ohio State University. Her research focuses on spatial inequality, particularly the role of economic structure and the state in creating inequality across regions. She was President of the Rural Sociological Society from 2002 to 2003. Her publications include a book monograph, Local and Inequality, two coedited volumes, as well as articles in Social Forces, Rural Sociology, Annual Review of Sociology, and other journals.

    David F. Luckenbill is Professor of Sociology at Northern Illinois University. His current research focuses on the violation and protection of intellectual property.

    Brent K. Marshall is Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology, University of Central Florida. He has published articles in numerous sociology and interdisciplinary journals such as Social Forces, Social Science Research, Sociological Spectrum, and Environment and Behavior. His current research focus is on disasters, environmental risk, environmental justice, and ecosystem management. He is a member of the American Sociological Association's Gulf Coast Disaster Research Team.

    Natasha S. Mauthner received her PhD from the University of Cambridge, where she conducted research on motherhood and postnatal depression. She took up a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard University, where she continued with this work and subsequently published it in The Darkest Days of My Life: Stories of Postpartum Depression (Harvard University Press, 2002). She is currently Senior Lecturer in the Business School at the University of Aberdeen, where she writes book chapters and journal articles on gender, work, and family life, as well as on reflexivity, research practice, and the construction of knowledge. These include work on epistemological issues in archiving and reusing qualitative data, the politics of feminist research management, and epistemological and ontological issues in collaborative research.

    Sabrina McCormick is jointly appointed in the Department of Sociology and the Environmental Science and Policy Program at Michigan State University. Her work has been published in a variety of journals and edited volumes, including Sociology of Health and Illness, Sociological Forum, Social Science and Medicine, and Science, Technology, and Human Values, among others. She received her PhD from Brown University in 2005.

    Kathleen McKinney is the K. Patricia Cross Endowed Chair in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning and Professor of Sociology at Illinois State University. She has published extensively in the areas of relationships, sexuality, sexual harassment, and college teaching. She is a past editor of Teaching Sociology and a Carnegie Scholar (2003–2004). She has received several teaching awards, including Illinois State University's Outstanding University Teacher, and the American Sociological Association's Hans O. Mauksch Award and Distinguished Contributions to Teaching Award. She earned her PhD from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

    Neil McLaughlin teaches sociological theory at McMaster University, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is interested in intellectuals, the sociology of knowledge, and creativity, as well as critical theories. He has published in such journals as the Sociological Quarterly, Sociological Theory, Sociological Forum, Journal of the History of the Behaviorial Sciences, and Canadian Journal of Sociology and Dissent. He is presently working on a study of Canadian professors as public intellectuals, the question of the global public intellectual, public sociology from a comparative perspective, and the academic/intellectual reputations of such thinkers as Orwell, Trilling, Chomsky, and Said.

    Miller McPherson is Professor of Sociology at Duke University and Director of the Duke Center for the Study of Social Networks. He has developed an ecological evolutionary model of affiliation. Current projects include a test of that theory with nationally representative data from the Niches and Networks project, funded by the Human and Social Dynamics Initiative at the National Science Foundation. The project will create a representative sample of voluntary groups, and study their coevolution of group memberships and networks over time. He is the lead author of a paper in the June 2006 American Sociological Review, “Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks over Two Decades.”

    David S. Meyer is Professor of Sociology, Political Science, and Planning, Policy, and Design at the University of California, Irvine, and a Faculty Fellow of the Center for the Study of Democracy. He is author, most recently, of The Politics of Protest: Social Movements in America (2007).

    Michael Micklin is Chief of the Risk, Prevention, and Health Behavior (RPHB) IRG at the Center for Scientific Review (CSR), National Institutes of Health. He has authored or edited eight books, including the Handbook of Population (2005) and Continuities in Sociological Human Ecology (1998), both with D. L. Poston Jr. He contributed to this volume in his personal capacity. The views expressed are his own and do not necessarily represent those of the National Institutes of Health or the U.S. government.

    Kirk Miller is on the sociology faculty at Northern Illinois University. He currently researches the behavior of law in a variety of arenas, including police traffic stops and intellectual property. He received his PhD from North Carolina State University.

    Vincent Mosco is Canada Research Chair in Communication and Society, Queen's University, Canada. He is currently working on a project funded by the Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council that addresses labor and trade unions in the communications industries of Canada and the United States. He is the author of five books and editor or coeditor of eight books on the media, telecommunications, computers, and information technology. His most recent books are The Digital Sublime: Myth, Power, and Cyberspace (2004); Continental Order? Integrating North America for Cybercapitalism (2001, edited with D. Schiller); and The Political Economy of Communication: Rethinking and Renewal (Sage, 1996), translated into Chinese (two editions; Beijing and Taiwan), Spanish, and Korean. He is a member of the editorial boards of academic journals in the United States, United Kingdom, Turkey, Portugal, and Slovenia, and he has served as a contributor and a member of the editorial advisory board of the International Encyclopedia of Communication. He has written about electronic commerce for a new edition of the Dictionary of American History. He has held research positions in the U.S. government with the White House Office of Telecommunication Policy, the National Research Council, and the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, and in Canada with the Federal Department of Communication. He graduated from Georgetown University (Summa Cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa) in 1970 and received his PhD in sociology from Harvard University in 1975.

    Joel I. Nelson is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Minnesota. His publications focus on social and economic inequality. Current research interests consider the broad implications of the second industrial divide—particularly the connection between diversification in goods and services and widening disparities in earned income.

    W. Lawrence Neuman is Professor of Sociology at University of Wisconsin at Whitewater. He recently published Power, State and Society, and his Social Research Methods is now in its sixth edition. At the University of Wisconsin at Whitewater, he is Director of the Pacific Asian Educational Resource Center and Coordinator of the Asian Studies Program. He earned his PhD in 1982 from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

    Gerd Nollmann has taught sociology at the Universities of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen where he is currently an Assistant Professor. He has worked as a publisher and marketing director for Bertelsmann and for Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. In his scientific work, he focuses on the application of interpretive sociological theories to social research, as well as the analysis of social inequalities, and is the author/editor of 8 books and 15 articles in sociological journals. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of Muenster, Germany.

    Sean Noonan is Associate Professor of Sociology at Harper College, near Chicago, Illinois.

    Minjoo Oh is Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Mississippi. Her research concerns the intersection of eating practices and identity, in the context of globalization. Her other research interests include contemporary social theory, popular culture, and the sociology of food.

    Erica Owens is Assistant Professor in the Division of Sociology and Anthropology at West Virginia University. Her article “Race, Sexual Attractiveness, and Internet Personals Advertisements” was published in Net.SeXXX (2004). Other empirical and theoretical articles on family processes and identity troubles have appeared or are accepted and pending in the journals Family Relations, Symbolic Interaction, and Journal of Family Issues. She is on the editorial boards of Marriage and Family Review and Journal of Family Issues. She is the current Vice President (2005–2006) of the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction. Her research interests include self-identity, coping, and romantic difficulty.

    Michael Quinn Patton is an independent organizational development and program evaluation consultant, former President of the American Evaluation Association, and author of Utilization-Focused Evaluation (3d ed., Sage, 1997) and Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (3rd ed., Sage, 2002). He is recipient of both the Myrdal Award for Outstanding Contributions to Useful and Practical Evaluation Practice from the Evaluation Research Society and the Lazarsfeld Award for Lifelong Contributions to Evaluation Theory from the American Evaluation Association. The Society for Applied Sociology honored him with the 2001 Lester F. Ward Award for Outstanding Contributions to Applied Sociology. He earned his PhD in sociology from the University of Wisconsin.

    Harry Perlstadt is a professor in the Department of Sociology, director of an interdisciplinary program in Bioethics, Humanities, and Society, and an affiliate faculty in the Institute for Public Policy and Social Research at Michigan State University. He earned his PhD in sociology at the University of Chicago, and Master of Public Health in health planning and administration from the University of Michigan. He specializes in medical sociology, health organizations and delivery systems, and evaluation research. Over the years he has conducted evaluation research for the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), Health Resource Services Administration (HRSA), National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO). He has published on citizen participation in health care planning, attitudes and experiences of women lawyers, and several program evaluations. He has recently begun to focus on the human research protections process, developing a researcher's bill of rights and a framework for assessing risk in social research. He helped found and served as the first chair of the Commission on Applied and Clinical Sociology, which accredits undergraduate and graduate programs. He was chair of the American Sociological Association Section on Sociological Practice, and chaired the Science Board and Joint Policy Committees of the American Public Health Association. He also served on the Scientific Advisory Committee of the American Lung Association. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Sociology, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, and The Nation's Health. In 2000 he received the Alex Boros award for contributions and service from the Society for Applied Sociology.

    Bernice A. Pescosolido is Chancellor's Professor of Sociology at Indiana University and Director of the Indiana Consortium for Mental Health Services Research. Her research agenda addresses how social networks connect individuals to their communities and to institutional structures, providing the “wires” through which society's energies (social interaction) and levels (contexts) influence people's attitudes and actions. In the early 1990s, she developed the network-episode model, which combined a social network, multilevel, and life course approach to understand how individuals come to recognize health problems, respond to their onset, and use health care services. She has also studied the role of social networks in suicide, in media influences, and in the underlying roots of stigma. She has published widely in sociology, social science, public health, and medical journals; served on the editorial board of a dozen national and international journals; and has been elected to a variety of leadership positions in professional associations, including Vice President of the American Sociological Association and Chair of the ASA Sections on Medical Sociology and Sociology of Mental Health.

    Trevor Pinch is Professor of Sociology and Professor and Chair of Science and Technology Studies at Cornell University. He has published 14 books and numerous articles on aspects of the sociology of science and technology. His studies have included quantum physics, solar neutrinos, parapsychology, health economics, the bicycle, the car, and the electronic music synthesizer. His most recent books are How Users Matter (2003, edited with Nelly Oudshoorn) and Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer (2002, with Frank Trocco). Analog Days was the winner of the 2003 silver award for popular culture “Book of the Year” of ForeWord magazine. He has just completed a third volume in his popular series of “Golem” books with Harry Collins, Dr Golem: How to Think about Medicine. He holds degrees in physics and sociology.

    Dudley L. Poston Jr. is Professor of Sociology and the George T. and Gladys H. Abell Endowed Professor of Liberal Arts at Texas A&M University. He previously served on the faculties of Cornell University and the University of Texas. His research focuses on the demography of China and South Korea, the demography of homosexuality, and the social demography of gender. He is currently writing a book with Amanda K. Baumle and D'Lane R. Compton on the Demography of Sexual Orientation.

    Antony J. Puddephatt is a PhD candidate in the Sociology Department at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. His areas of interest include science and technology, sociological theory, and ethnographic research. He has published in journals such as Symbolic Interaction, Sociological Focus, and Social Epistemology. Most recently, he has revisited the theoretical contributions of George Herbert Mead to illustrate their implications for emerging developments in interpretive theory, as well as the sociology of knowledge, science, and technology.

    Gordana Rabrenovic, PhD, is Associate Professor of Sociology and Education and Associate Director of the Brudnick Center on Violence and Conflict at Northeastern University. Her substantive specialties include community studies, urban education, and intergroup conflict and violence. She is author of the book Community Builders: A Tale of Neighborhood Mobilization in Two Cities (1996), coeditor of the book Community Politics and Policy (1999) and the American Behavioral Scientist special issue on Hate Crimes and Ethnic Conflict (2001), and coauthor of the book Why We Hate (2004).

    Miguel Requena is full Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology II (Social Structure), Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain. He is Visiting Professor in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Cultures, Princeton University; and Senior Associate Member in St. Antony College, Oxford University (1994–1995). His fields of teaching and research include social stratification, demography and sociology of family, and sociology of age. His publications include La emancipación de los jóvenes en España (1996) and Tres décadas de cambio social en España (2005).

    Dawn T. Robinson is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Georgia. She is Deputy Editor of Social Psychology Quarterly and Director of the Laboratory for the Study of Social Interaction (LaSSI) at the University of Georgia. She is currently Chair of the Sociology of Emotions section of the American Sociological Association. Her research focuses primarily on identity and emotion processes in face-to-face interaction and the relationship between network structures and social identities. She is currently conducting a series of National Science Foundation funded studies examining the relationship between identity, injustice, and emotion.

    Paul M. Roman is Distinguished Research Professor of Sociology and Director of the Center for Research on Behavioral Health and Human Services Delivery, Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia, Athens. Previously, he served on the faculty of Tulane University from 1969 to 1986. His research is focused on organizational and sociological aspects of drug and alcohol problems, with particular attention to the organization of treatment systems and to the workplace and the design of intervention efforts to deal with employees with substance abuse problems. He served on the Panel on Employer Policies and Working Families, National Academy of Sciences, and has had many years of service as member and chair of review groups and study sections at the National Institutes of Health. His current research is focused on the patterns of organizational structure associated with organizational innovation and change among substance abuse treatment providers, the impact of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network on adoption of innovations in treatment programs, and the organization and management of therapeutic communities. Other recent research has centered on referral patterns associated with different types of employee problems referred to employee assistance programs, national patterns of drinking and drug-related behaviors and attitudes among employed persons, and the structural and process characteristics of EAPs. Among his publications is a monograph, Cost Effectiveness and Preventive Implications of Employee Assistance Programs (1995, coauthored with Terry C. Blum) and Drug Testing in the Workplace (1994, coedited with Scott Macdonald). He received his PhD from Cornell University in 1968.

    Eugene A. Rosa is currently the Edward R. Meyer Distinguished Professor of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy in the Thomas F. Foley Institute of Public Policy and Public Service, Professor of Sociology, Affiliated Professor of Environmental Science, Affiliated Professor of Fine Arts, and Faculty Associate in the Center for Integrated Biotechnology, all at Washington State University. He specializes in research on global environmental change and on risk, is currently a member of the Human Dimensions of Global Change Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, has published widely in both fields, including articles in Science, Ambio, The American Sociological Review, Social Forces, Ecological Economics, Risk Analysis, and others, and has published the award-winning book Risk, Uncertainty, and Rational Action (with Carlo Jaeger, Ortwin Renn, and Thomas Webler).

    John Ryan, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Department of Sociology at Virginia Tech, where he teaches the Sociology of Law and Sociology of Culture. His research interests focus on the study of culture-producing organizations, copyright law, and the uses of symbolic culture. His recent work includes a study of the changing role of music producers in the digital environment and the effects of the Internet on musical taste.

    Clinton R. Sanders is Professor in the Sociology Department at the University of Connecticut. He has served as President (2002–2003) and Vice President (1994–1995) of the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction. His work focuses on cultural production, deviant behavior, ethnographic research, and sociozoology. He is author of Understanding Dogs: Living and Working with Canine Companions (1999) and coauthor of Regarding Animals (1996, with Arnold Arluke), both of which received the Charles Horton Cooley Award given by the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction for the year's Most Outstanding Contribution to the Symbolic Interactionist Literature. He is coeditor of the series on “Animals, Culture, and Society,” an associate editor of Society and Animals, and a member of the governing council of the American Sociological Association's section on “Animals and Society.” In 2004, he was the recipient of the University of Connecticut Provost's Award for Research Excellence, and in 2006, he received the “Distinguished Scholarship Award” from the Animals and Society Section of the American Sociological Association.

    Stephen K. Sanderson has now retired from full-time teaching and resides in Boulder, Colorado. He taught for 30 years at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. A specialist in sociological theory and comparative and historical sociology, he has authored or edited 10 books, as well as several dozen articles in professional journals, edited collections, handbooks, and social science encyclopedias. His most recent works are Evolutionism and Its Critics: Deconstructing and Reconstructing an Evolutionary Interpretation of Human Society (2006) and Studying Societies and Cultures: Marvin Harris's Cultural Materialism and Its Legacy (2006, coedited with Lawrence A. Kuznar). He is currently working on books on the concept of culture in sociology and anthropology and the sociology of Edward Westermarck. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of Nebraska at Lincoln in 1973.

    Saskia Sassen is the Ralph Lewis Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago and Centennial Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics. Her new book is Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages (2006). Just completed for UNESCO is a five-year project on sustainable human settlement involving a network of researchers and activists in over 30 countries; it is published as one of the volumes of the Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Her recent books are the coedited Digital Formations: New Architectures for Global Order (2005); A Sociology of Globalization (2006); and a third, fully updated edition of Cities in aWorld Economy (Sage, 2006). The Global City was released in a new, fully updated edition in 2001. Her books have been translated into 16 languages. She serves on several editorial boards and is an advisor to several international bodies. She is a Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Cities, and Chair of the Information Technology and International Cooperation Committee of the Social Science Research Council (United States). Her comments have appeared in the Guardian, the New York Times, Le Monde Diplomatique, Newsweek International, the International Herald Tribune, and the Financial Times, among others.

    Joseph A. Scimecca is Professor of Sociology at George Mason University, where he was previously Chair of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology and Director of the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution. A former President of the Association of Humanist Sociology, he is the author of Crisis at St. Johns: Strike and Revolution on the Catholic Campus; The Sociological Theory of C. Wright Mills; Society and Freedom: An Introduction to Humanist Sociology; and Education and Society; coauthor of Sociology: Analysis and Application and Classical Sociological Theory: Rediscovering the Promise of Sociology; and coeditor of Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives.

    David R. Segal is Distinguished Scholar-Teacher, Director of the Center for Research on Military Organization, Professor of Sociology, and Affiliate Professor of Government and Politics and of Public Policy at the University of Maryland at College Park. He joined the Sociology Department at the University of Michigan in 1966. During the first years of the all-volunteer force, he directed the U.S. Army's sociological research program. He joined the Maryland faculty in 1976. He has received career achievement awards from the American Sociological Association, the American Psychological Association, and the District of Columbia Sociological Society, and has twice been awarded the U.S. Army Medal for Outstanding Civilian Service. His most recent publications include “Postmodernity and the Modern Military” (Armed Forces & Society, 2001, with Bradford Booth and Meyer Kestnbaum); “America's Military Population” (Population Bulletin, 2004, with Mady W. Segal); and “Bringing the Soldiers Back In: Implications of Inclusion of Military Personnel for Labor Market Research on Race, Class, and Gender” (Race, Gender & Class, 2005, with Bradford Booth). He earned his PhD from the University of Chicago.

    Jane Sell is Professor of Sociology at Texas A&M University. Her research explores a range of issues related to group dynamics, including cooperation, the establishment and dissolution of inequality in groups, and the role of legitimacy in the establishment of group routine.

    Constance L. Shehan is Professor and Chair of the Department of Sociology at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Her areas of expertise are gender, families, work/occupations, and aging. She has published widely in the areas of women's work and family life, work and wellbeing, and parent-child relations in later life. She is currently Editor of the Journal of Family Issues. She is also author of several books, including Marriages and Families; Through the Eyes of the Child: Re-Visioning Children as Agents of Family Life; and Women at the University of Florida, and coauthor of Gendering the Body (forthcoming 2007, with Sara Crawley and Lara Foley). She earned her PhD in sociology from Pennsylvania State University.

    Linda G. Smith has worked for 30 years in the corrections field as a practitioner, researcher, and professor. She has taught at the University of South Florida, Georgia State University, and University of Maryland at College Park. She has conducted research and consulted in several states, including Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Minnesota, California, Indiana, Washington, Georgia, Delaware, Connecticut, and Florida, as well as for the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Correctional Education. She was also a federal court monitor overseeing a correctional institution in Florida and ran a large jail in Atlanta, Georgia. She has published in corrections/ criminal justice journals and books and has written several technical reports for federal, state, and local governments. She is the 2003 recipient of the American Correctional Association Peter Lejins Research award for her contribution to the field. She received her PhD from the University of Florida.

    Lynn Smith-Lovin is Robert L. Wilson Professor of Sociology in the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences at Duke University. She received the 2006 Cooley-Mead Award and the 2005 Lifetime Achievement Award in the Sociology of Emotions. Her research examines the relationships among social association, identity, action, and emotion. Her current projects involve an experimental study of justice, identity, and emotion as well as research with Miller McPherson on an ecological theory of identity (both funded by the National Science Foundation). Her recent publications include “Social Isolation in America” (American Sociological Review, June 2006) and “Gender Identity Recognition and Task Performance” (Advances in Group Processes, 2005). She has served as President of the Southern Sociological Society, Vice President of the American Sociological Association, and Chair of the ASA Sections on the Sociology of Emotion and on Social Psychology.

    Robert A. Stebbins, FRSC, is Faculty Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Calgary. He has written over 150 articles and chapters and written or edited over 30 books, including Between Work and Leisure and Volunteering (2004); Challenging Mountain Nature (on mountain hobbies, 2005); A Dictionary of Nonprofit Terms and Concepts (2006, with D. H. Smith and M. Dover); and Serious Leisure: A Perspective for Our Time (2006). Stebbins was elected Fellow of the Academy of Leisure Sciences in 1996 and, in 1999, elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He received his PhD in 1964 from the University of Minnesota.

    Ronald G. Stover is Professor of Sociology at South Dakota State University, where he has been employed since 1983. He was born and raised in Georgia. He taught at Clemson University before moving to South Dakota State University. He has published numerous chapters in books and articles in professional journals. In 1993, he published Marriage, Family, and Intimate Relations (with Christine A. Hope) and in 1999 published Industrial Societies: An Evolutionary Perspective (with Melodie L. Lichty and Penny W. Stover). He was twice voted Teacher of the Year by students at South Dakota State University. He earned the BA, MA, and PhD in sociology from the University of Georgia. He received his doctorate in 1975.

    Hermann Strasser has taught sociology at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, and the University of Vienna, Austria. After his Assistant Professorship at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna, he took over the Chair in sociology at the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, in 1978, where he is also the Director of the Academic Career Service Center. Moreover, he heads VERBAL, a private firm devoted to writing biographies for corporations and public personalities. In his scientific work, he focuses on the paradigmatic structure of sociological theories, as well as the analysis of social change and social inequality, and is the author/editor of more than 20 books and 100 articles in sociological journals. He received a PhD in economics from the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and a PhD in sociology from Fordham University, New York.

    Robin Stryker is Professor of Sociology, Affiliated Professor of Law, and Scholar of the College (2004–2007) at the University of Minnesota. She is past Chair of the Sociology of Law Section and current Chair of the Theory Section of the American Sociological Association and past President of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics. She has written extensively on the politics of social science in American regulatory law, including labor, employment, and antitrust law; on institutional politics and organizational and institutional change; on legal and political culture; on law and legitimacy; and on the comparative welfare state, politics, and gendered labor markets. Among her recent publications are “The Strength of a Weak Agency: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and the Transformation of State Capacity at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1965–71” (American Journal of Sociology, 110, 2004, with Nicholas Pedriana); “A Sociological Approach to Law and the Economy” (2005, N. Smelser and R. Swedberg, ed., Handbook ofEconomic Sociology, 2nd ed., with Lauren Edelman); “Mind the Gap: Law, Institutional Analysis and Socio-Economics” (Socio-Economic Review, 1, 2003); and “Disparate Impact and the Quota Debates: Law, Labor Market Sociology and Equal Employment Policies” (Sociological Quarterly, 42, 2001).

    Richard Tewksbury is Professor of Justice Administration at the University of Louisville. He has worked for several correctional systems and studied and written extensively on issues of correctional programming, institutional culture and correctional education, and health issues. He is the 2006 recipient of the American Correctional Association Peter Lejins Research award. He holds a PhD in sociology from The Ohio State University.

    Bryan S. Turner is Professor of Sociology in the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. He is the research leader of the cluster on religion and globalization and is currently writing a three-volume study of the sociology of religion. He edited the Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology (2006). A book on human rights and vulnerability is to be published in 2006. He is a Research Associate of GEMAS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris), an honorary Professor of Deakin University, and an Adjunct Professor of Murdoch University, Australia. He recently edited The Sage Handbook of Sociology (2005, with Craig Calhoun and Chris Rojek). He is the founding editor of three journals: Citizenship Studies, Body & Society (with Mike Featherstone), and Journal of Classical Sociology (with John O'Neill). As Dean of the Faculty of Arts at Deakin University (1992–1998), he was the founder of the Deakin center for citizenship and human rights. His recent publications include Classical Sociology (1999) and The New Medical Sociology (2004). He coauthored Society & Culture: Principles of Scarcity and Solidarity (2001, with Chris Rojek) and Generations, Culture and Society (2002, with June Edmunds). He coedited the Handbook of Citizenship Studies (2002, with Engin Isin).

    Jonathan H. Turner is Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Riverside. He is the author of some 30 books as well as numerous journal articles and chapters in books. He is a general theorist who seeks to develop abstract models and propositions on the dynamics operating at all levels of social reality, from the neurology of the human brain as it affects emotions and interpersonal behavior to the dynamics of institutional, societal, and intersocietal phenomena. He has specific substantive interests in evolutionary sociology, the sociology of emotions, interpersonal behavior, stratification, history of social thought, and social institutions.

    Chikako Usui is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Missouri at St. Louis. Her areas of research interests are comparative public policy, political economy of Japan, aging, and gender. Her recent publications include “Japan's Frozen Future: Why Are Women Withholding Their Investment in Work and Family?” (Japanese Women: Lineage and Legacies, Amy McCreedy Thernstrom, ed., 2005); “Continuity and Change in Paths to Political Office: Ex-bureaucrats and Chiiriyo in Japan” (Asian Business & Management, 3, 2004); “Women, Institutions, and Leadership in Japan” (Asian Perspective, 27, 2003); Amakudari: The Hidden Fabric of Japan's Economy (2003, coauthored with Richard A. Colignon); and “Japan's Aging Dilemma?” (Asia Program Special Report, 107, 2003).

    Jean Van Delinder is Associate Professor of Sociology, with affiliated appointments in American studies and women's studies, at Oklahoma State University. Her research interests are culture, theory, and gender. Her recent publications include studies on the relationship between scientific management and dance. She serves on the editorial board of the Society for Dance History Scholars and edits their biannual newsletter. Her funded research includes grants to teach sociology of gender through service learning and collaborative studies with nutrition faculty on the relationship between culture and disease in Oklahoma Native American women. She earned her PhD in sociology from the University of Kansas.

    Ruut Veenhoven studied sociology and teaches at Erasmus University of Rotterdam as a professor of social conditions for human happiness. His research is on subjective quality of life. His major publications are Conditions of Happiness (1984), Happy Life-Expectancy (1997), and The Four Qualities of Life (2000). He is Director of the World Database of Happiness and Editor of the Journal of Happiness Studies. He has also published on love, marriage, and parenthood.

    Emilio C. Viano is Professor in the School of Public Affairs, American University, Washington, D.C. He is a specialist in the fields of victims of crime, terrorism, and human rights. He has published more than 30 books and 120 articles. He is frequently asked to lecture and consult in various countries of the world and also to be interviewed on international media like CNN, the BBC, Voice of America, and various radio and television stations and newspapers in the United States and abroad. He has been visiting professor at many universities worldwide, including the University of Paris. He has received many awards and prizes and was recently elected to the Board of Directors of the International Society of Criminology. He received his PhD from New York University and his LLM from Leicester University, United Kingdom.

    Lee Garth Vigilant is Associate Professor of Sociology at Minnesota State University at Moorhead. He teaches in the areas of social theory, qualitative research methods, and urban social problems, while his research interests are in the sociology of health, healing, and illness. He is past recipient of the Donald J. White Teaching Excellence Award for Sociology at Boston College (2000) and the TCU Senate Professor of the Year Award for Tufts University (2001). His recent publications have appeared in Humanity and Society (2004), Deviant Behavior (2005), and the Handbook of Death and Dying (2003). He is the coeditor of Social Problems: Readings with Four Questions (2006, with Joel Charon). He earned his PhD from Boston College in 2001.

    Theodore C. Wagenaar is Professor of Sociology at Miami University, Ohio. He has served as Editor of Teaching Sociology and is a Carnegie National Scholar. He has served as a Program Analyst and an American Statistical Association Fellow at the National Center for Education Statistics. His publications address childhood socialization, the transition from youth to adulthood, teaching sociology, and other areas in education. Wagenaar also is a certified K–8 teacher.

    Gary R. Webb is Associate Professor of Sociology at Oklahoma State University. He conducts research on the social aspects of disasters, including organizational and community preparedness for and response to large-scale crises. Currently, he is examining the governmental response to Hurricane Katrina. His publications have appeared in a variety of scholarly journals.

    John Williamson is Professor of Sociology at Boston College. He is author or coauthor of 15 books and more than 120 journal articles or book chapters. He has written extensively on the comparative study of social welfare policies, particularly those dealing with the elderly. Some of his recent work has been based on the comparative historical method and some on quantitative cross-national analysis. His current research and writing efforts deal primarily with (1) quantitative studies of social, economic, and political determinants of cross-national differences in social policy and social justice issues such as income inequality, welfare state spending levels, physical quality of life, life expectancy, infant mortality, suicide rates, and homicide rates; (2) the comparative study of social security systems; and (3) the debate over generational equity and justice between generations in connection with Social Security policy in the United States.

    Andrea E. Willson is Assistant Professor at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada, and was previously a postdoctoral fellow in the Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolina. Her research is in the area of social inequality, health, and intergenerational relations over the life course. She is particularly interested in methodological issues related to the use of longitudinal data.

    Frank Harold Wilson is Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Urban Studies Program at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, where he teaches courses on sociological theory, urban sociology, and racial and ethnic relations. He has written widely in the areas of urban inequality, gentrification, poverty, and African American population. He is the author of Race, Class, and the Postindustrial City: William Julius Wilson and the Promise of Sociology (2004). He served as President of the Association of Black Sociologists and the Association of Social and Behavioral Scientists and as Senior Chair of the American Sociological Association, Committee for the Public Understanding of Sociology.

    Allison K. Wisecup is currently a graduate student at Duke University. Her interests include gender, identity, emotion, and meaning. Her current projects include an examination of the effects of multiple-identity enactment for emotion production and research on gender differences in identity meanings. Her dissertation addresses the variation of identity and behavior meanings across sociodemographic space as a function of social distance. Her recent publications include “Gender Identity Recognition and Task Performance” (Advances in Group Processes, 2005, with Lynn Smith-Lovin and Miller McPherson).

    William R. Wood is a PhD student at Boston College. His current interests are in juvenile justice and comparative criminology. He also studied at Union Theological Seminary in New York City where he received his master's degree in religious history. He has published articles in several areas of study, including the history of death and dying, the history of science and technology, and criminology. He expects to finish his degree in the fall of 2006.

    Vera L. Zolberg is Professor in the Sociology Department of the New School for Social Research, New York City, where she has taught for over 20 years. Among her publications are Outsider Art: Contesting Boundaries in Contemporary Culture (1997, with J. M. Cherbo) and Constructing a Sociology of the Arts (1990; translated into Italian, Korean, Spanish, and Portuguese); she is coeditor of After Bourdieu: Influence, Critique, Elaboration (2004, with David Swartz). She was a founding member and then Chair of the Culture Section of the American Sociological Association and President of the Research Committee on the Sociology of the Arts of the International Sociological Association. Her research interests include contemporary and historical cultural policy and politics, art and culture, museums, African art, and collective memory. She has a BA from Hunter College, New York City; an MA in sociology and anthropology from Boston University; and a PhD in sociology from the University of Chicago.


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