Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America

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Edited by: John M. Herrick & Paul H. Stuart

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    • Editors

      John M. Herrick and Paul H. Stuart

      Associate Editors

      John Graham

      Enrique C. Ochoa

      Ruth Britton

      Editorial Assistants

      Russell Bennett

      Benson Chisanga

      Dedication

      To Kathleen and Joni

      Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      We provide this list to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries by country and category, although some entries may appear in more than one category.

      List of Contributors

      Abramovitz, Mimi

      Hunter College-City University of New York

      Achenbaum, W. Andrew

      University of Houston

      Agostoni, Claudia

      Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

      Alvarez, Rodney R.

      University of Central Florida

      Anderson, Linnea M.

      University of Minnesota–Twin Cities Campus

      Andrews, Janice

      University of St. Thomas

      Arrom, Silvia Marina

      Brandeis University

      Baines, Donna

      McMaster University

      Beechem, Michael

      University of West Florida

      Beito, David T.

      University of Alabama

      Bella, Leslie

      Memorial University

      Bellamy, Donald F.

      University of Toronto

      Bennett, Russell L.

      University of Alabama

      Bergquist, Kathleen Ja Sook

      University of Nevada–Las Vegas

      Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

      University of Toronto

      Black, Allida

      George Washington University

      Blau, Joel

      Stony Brook University, State University of New York

      Bliss, Katherine

      University of Massachusetts–Amherst

      Blum, Ann

      University of Massachusetts, Boston

      Brachet-Márquez, Viviane

      El Colegio de México, A.C.

      Bradshaw, Cathryn

      University of Calgary

      Brilliant, Eleanor L.

      Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

      Brownlee, Keith

      Lakehead University

      Buck, Sarah A.

      Dona Ana Branch Community College/New Mexico State University

      Burson, Ike

      Mississippi State University

      Burwell, N. Yolanda

      East Carolina University

      Carlton-LaNey, Iris B.

      University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

      Carniol, Ben

      Ryerson Polytechnic University

      Carp, E. Wayne

      Pacific Lutheran University

      Carrillo, Hector

      University of California–San Francisco

      Casas Torres, Graciela

      Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

      Cates, Jerry R.

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Chandler, Susan Kerr

      University of Nevada–Reno

      Chisanga, Benson

      University of Alabama

      Christie, Nancy

      Trent University

      Church, Wesley T., II

      University of Alabama

      Collins, Cyleste Cassandra

      University of Alabama

      Contreras, Carlos Alberto

      Grossmont College

      Csiernik, Rick

      University of Western Ontario

      Cypher, James M.

      California State University–Fresno

      Dawson, Alexander

      Simon Fraser University

      De Vos, Paula

      San Diego State University

      D'Elia, Donald J.

      State University of New York, New Paltz

      Delaney, Roger

      Lakehead University

      DeWitt, Larry W.

      Social Security Administration

      Di Matteo, Livio

      Lakehead University

      DiNitto, Diana M.

      University of Texas-Austin

      Donahue, Peter

      University of Calgary

      Duffy, Ann

      Brock University

      Durst, Douglas

      University of Regina

      Eisinger, Peter

      Wayne State University

      Esser-Stuart, Joan E.

      University of Miami Medical School/Jackson Memorial Hospital

      Este, David

      University of Calgary

      Fixico, Donald

      University of Kansas

      Flores-Briseño, Guillermo A.

      Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

      Fox, Daniel M.

      Milbank Memorial Fund

      Frank, David

      University of New Brunswick

      Gates, Leslie

      Binghamton University-State University of New York

      Gauss, Susan M.

      University of Delaware

      Genco-Morrison, Bianca

      Albuquerque Public Schools

      Ginsburg, Leon

      University of South Carolina

      Gledhill, John

      University of Manchester

      Gomes, Cristina

      Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales-México

      González de la Rocha, Mercedes

      Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia–Occidente

      Goodwin, Joanne L.

      University of Nevada-Las Vegas

      Graham, John R.

      University of Calgary

      Gray, Erin

      University of Calgary

      Gripton, James

      University of Calgary

      Grob, Gerald N.

      Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

      Hagen, Jan L.

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Hall, Peter Dobkin

      Harvard University

      Harvey, Janice

      Dawson College

      Heilman, Elizabeth

      Michigan State University

      Herrick, John M.

      Michigan State University

      Hopkins, June

      George Washington University

      Horstman, Allen

      Albion College

      Jansson, Bruce S.

      University of Southern California

      Jennissen, Therese

      Carleton University

      Jones, Gareth A.

      London School of Economics and Political Science

      Kallen, Evelyn

      Queen's University

      Karabanow, Jeff

      Dalhousie University

      Klaassen, David J.

      University of Minnesota–Twin Cities

      Klein, Jennifer

      Yale University

      Lai, Daniel

      University of Calgary

      Lee, Bill

      McMaster University

      Leighninger, Leslie

      Arizona State University

      Leighninger, Robert

      Arizona State University

      Lewis, Stephen E.

      California State University–Chico

      Lindenmeyer, Kriste

      University of Maryland–Baltimore County

      Lindhorst, Taryn

      University of Washington

      Lundy, Colleen

      Carleton University

      MacDonald, Alison B.

      Alberta College of Social Workers

      Machtinger, Barbara

      Bloomfield College

      MacLaurin, Bruce

      University of Calgary

      Martínez, Elí Evangelista

      Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

      Maurutto, Paula

      University of Toronto at Mississauga

      McCallum, Margaret

      University of New Brumswick

      McGilly, Frank

      McGill University

      McNeece, C. Aaron

      Florida State University

      Medina-Mora, María Elena

      Instituto Nacional de Psiquatría, México

      Mesbur, Ellen Sue

      University of Waterloo

      Midgley, James

      University of California, Berkeley

      Miller, Jim

      University of Saskatchewan

      Montes de Oca Zavala, Verónica

      Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

      Morrissey, Megan

      University of Minnesota–Twin Cities

      Nelson, Kristine

      Portland State University

      Neufeld, Alfred H.

      University of Calgary

      Nystrom, Nancy M.

      Michigan State University

      Ochoa, Enrique C.

      California State University–Los Angeles

      Oliver, Ellen

      Memorial University

      Padilla, Tanalís

      Dartmouth College

      Peebles–Wilkins, Wilma

      Boston University

      Pescador, Octavio Augusto

      University of California–Los Angeles

      Polzin, Michael J.

      Michigan State University

      Popple, Philip R.

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Powell, Milton

      Michigan State University

      Quinn, Peggy

      University of Texas–Arlington

      Ramirez Solórzano, Martha Alida

      Instituto Jalisciense de las Mujeres

      Rayside, David

      University of Toronto

      Reisch, Michael

      University of Michigan

      Rice, James J.

      McMaster University

      Riches, Graham

      University of British Columbia

      Rivera-Garza, Cristina

      Instituto Technológico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey-Toluca

      Samuels, Warren J.

      Michigan State University

      Sanchez, Miguel

      University of Regina

      Sanders, Nichole

      Lynchburg College

      Saunders, Marlene

      Delaware State University

      Schriver, Joe M.

      University of Arkansas

      Selmi, Patrick

      University of South Carolina

      Shaw, Greg M.

      Illinois Wesleyan University

      Shillington, Richard

      Canadian Council on Social Development

      Shragge, Eric

      Concordia University

      Simon, Barbara Levy

      Columbia University

      Splane, Richard B.

      University of British Columbia

      Stamp, Robert M.

      University of Calgary

      Stoner, Madeleine

      University of Southern California

      Stotzer, Rebecca L.

      University of Michigan

      Stuart, Paul H.

      University of Alabama

      Sullivan, Nancy

      Memorial University of Newfoundland

      Sussman, Sam

      University of Western Ontario

      Swift, Karen

      York University

      Taylor, Marcus

      University of Alberta–Edmonton

      Thorpe, Wendy L.

      Nova Scotia Archives & Records Management

      Tropman, John M.

      University of Michigan

      Turner, Francis J.

      Wilfrid Laurier University

      Ursel, E. Jane

      University of Manitoba

      Valentich, Mary

      University of Calgary

      Velcamp, Theresa Alfaro

      Sonoma State University

      Venturini, Vincent J.

      Mississippi Valley State University

      Waugh, Joan

      University of California–Los Angeles

      Welch, David

      University of Ottawa

      Wild, Timothy

      City of Calgary

      Williams, Heather

      Pomona College

      Wilson, Tamar Diana

      University of Missouri, St. Louis

      Winterdyk, John

      Mount Royal College

      Worthington, Catherine A.

      University of Calgary

      Wright, Glenn

      National Archives of Canada, Ottawa

      Yee, June Ying

      Ryerson Polytechnic University

      Zamora Díaz de León, Teresa

      Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

      Ziliak, Stephen T.

      Roosevelt University

      Preface

      Rationale

      In the Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America, we endeavored to bring together basic information on the history of social welfare in the three major countries that constitute North America—Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America. Our intention was to provide readers with information about how these three nations have dealt with social welfare issues, some similar across borders, others unique, as well as to describe important events, developments, and the lives and work of some key contributors to social welfare developments. If we have succeeded, the encyclopedia will be useful to beginning students of social welfare history as well as established scholars who are seeking to extend their investigations into new areas of inquiry.

      This encyclopedia, the first of its kind, takes a continental, tri-national approach to its subject matter. Experts on the history of social welfare in Canada, Mexico, and the United States contributed entries to the volume. We have defined social welfare broadly, to include education, informal mutual assistance, the development of the social work profession, and voluntary charitable activities as well as state-supported public welfare activities. (The encyclopedia does not, however, attempt to cover the history of social work practice or the development of specialized education for social work or the other human services.) The coverage is broad and interdisciplinary; contributors include scholars from the fields of anthropology, economics, education, health sciences, history, labor and industrial relations, political science, social work, and sociology.

      Much published research on social welfare policy and social welfare history takes a national approach, with perhaps a nod to developments in other countries. In choosing a continental focus for this encyclopedia, the editors hoped to encourage, in a small way, crossnational and comparative research. We hope that readers will find the encyclopedia a convenient guide and starting point for investigations of the development of social welfare history in any one of the three countries as well as for comparative studies.

      Note to Readers

      This encyclopedia contains 180 original entries written by experts on social welfare in North America that discuss persons, topics, and organizations that were important in the development of social welfare policies, services, and institutions in the three major nations of North America—Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Topics such as child welfare policy or poverty have essays discussing the topic from each of the three nations included in the book, providing readers with cross-national comparisons. Other essays, such as those on Jane Addams, John Joseph Kelso, and the Mexico City Poor House, describe persons or institutions that were important for the development of social welfare in one of the three nations.

      Editing an encyclopedia with a tri-national focus presented several challenges. Contributors of entries on Mexico and to some extent Canada used words in Spanish and French, respectively, to describe developments in those countries. We have italicized foreign words and provided English translations in parentheses except in cases where the meaning of the words seemed obvious from the context. Another question was the spelling of English words, since Canadian usage differs from United States usage. We have generally used contemporary United States English spellings for uniformity and consistency, except, of course, in the case of the names of organizations and the titles of books, articles, and journals. Canadian usage is unique; in some cases, Canadians spell English words in the same way that British people do, while in other cases, Canadian spelling is similar to spelling in the United States. For example, in Canada the word “labor” is spelled “labour,” while in the United States the word is spelled “labor.” Both countries use the same spelling for “organization,” however.

      One of the purposes of this encyclopedia is to help people launch their own investigations in social welfare history. Thus, we see this encyclopedia as a place to begin investigations, rather than as a place to end them. Each entry ends with suggestions for Further Reading, for the most part recent writings on the topic of the entry that the reader can consult for more depth on the subject. Most of the longer entries include lists of collections of original unpublished documents or Primary Sources that are relevant to the subject of the entry. Many entries also include lists of printed documents produced during the times described in the entry. These are labeled Current Comment and provide the reader access to the thoughts and observations of persons who had a hand in the events described in the entry or who observed the events directly.

      A Reader's Guide provides lists of the entries in this encyclopedia organized under several topical headings. We hope the Reader's Guide will enable users of the encyclopedia to identify entries that are relevant for their particular interests quickly. For the serious student, we have also provided an appendix with Research Guides to resources for historical research in each of the three countries—the archives and other depositories of unpublished primary sources, the major printed primary sources, and other materials needed to do original research on a topic. For the serious student of the history of social welfare in Mexico, a reading knowledge of Spanish is necessary. Similarly, a reading knowledge of French will be needed to seriously investigate many topics in Canadian social welfare history.

      We hope readers will find this reference work to be easy to use and that it will become an important resource for anyone interested in learning about the history of social welfare in North America.

      About the Editors

      John M. Herrick has been a Professor in the School of Social Work and administrator at Michigan State University since 1973. Prior to that, he taught at King's College, the University of Western Ontario (Canada), the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota. His research interests and research publications have been in the areas of social welfare/social work history, social welfare policy and services, and health care policy and services for the elderly. He teaches undergraduate and graduate students. For several years he was President of the Social Welfare History Group, a group of scholars who conduct social welfare historical research and promote interest in social welfare history among historians and social workers.

      Paul H. Stuart is a Professor in the School of Social Work at the University of Alabama, where he has taught since 1987. Prior to that, he taught at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Washington University in St. Louis, and Augustana and Sioux Falls Colleges in South Dakota. He holds a MSW degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and an MA in History and a PhD in History and Social Welfare from the University of Wisconsin. His research interests include the history of Indian relations with the United States and the history of social welfare and social work in the United States. A former President of the Social Welfare History Group, he is the author of several articles, book chapters, and books, including Nations within a Nation: Historical Statistics of American Indians (Greenwood Press, 1987).

    • Appendix A: Research Guides

      Resources for Social Welfare History

      Research on the history of a subject as broad as social welfare in North America is oftentimes much like good detective work. Writing good history most often requires careful examination of primary sources, documents produced by participants—contemporary observers of the events being described—or other sources, such as oral histories, unpublished memoirs, or even photographs. Throughout North America there are archives or libraries where primary source materials are available for use by researchers. Such materials may include manuscript materials, such as correspondence, memoranda, and unpublished reports, as well as printed materials, such as government documents, conference proceedings, and scholarly journals. Information on primary sources and printed materials is included after many of the entries in this volume in a section labeled Primary Sources, where collections are listed, and in the Current Comment section, where a selection of published writings by contemporaries of the events described in the entry are listed. For those readers who want to investigate primary sources more fully, the following Research Guides provide information about archival resources and their locations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States.

      Canada

      This essay will discuss and define archival sources as they pertain to the study of social welfare history in Canada, the structure of the Canadian archival system, and examples of relevant sources to be found therein.

      Social welfare history encompasses many areas. It includes the history of organized activities or interventions, and official policy and programs that have improved the well-being of vulnerable classes of persons, such as the economically disadvantaged, the ill, children, the aged, and the disabled. It involves the work of charitable, religious, and philanthropic organizations; government departments; social reformers; and welfare workers. Beyond these are topics not traditionally included in a narrow definition of social welfare, such as parenting and family planning; community planning; preventive health; the social work profession; and sexuality-related areas such as birth control, the sex trade, and sexually transmitted diseases. Before beginning archival research into one of the above, however, it is advisable that the researcher be familiar with the historical background of the selected subject. A wide variety of published sources are available in libraries to provide excellent starting points for research. Examples are provided in the Further Reading sections that follow each entry in this volume.

      Archives are repositories for recorded memory. Recorded memory includes every medium from textual records to sound and moving images, graphic materials, cartographic material, architectural and technical drawings, documentary art, and electronic data. In most Canadian archives, a set of records originally produced or gathered by a specific individual or organization is called a “fonds,” which is considered to be the whole of the records. Each fonds is unique. It reflects the life and work of the creator, and may hold material unavailable anywhere else. It may consist of only one medium, such as textual records, or it may include several media. Intellectual access to fonds is provided by finding aids, some available on-line, that contain descriptions of the fonds's dates, extent, types of documents, and other valuable data.

      When commencing archival research, it is important that researchers know the creator of the records they are seeking. Is the creator a private individual or organization, or government department or official? Government records are important for studying health and welfare policies in the public sphere. Examples of such records that might be useful include government statutes and legislative acts; operational files of government departments; institutional records of mental hospitals, asylums, poor farms, municipal homes, youth and/or correctional facilities; and educational facilities (e.g., schools of social work). Private-sector sources are important for revealing the impact of independent activities on the formulation and implementation of social welfare policies in the public sphere. Examples of private-sector sources that are helpful are records of nonprofit associations and organizations directly aimed at assisting disadvantaged groups (e.g., Poor Man's Friend Societies, Child Welfare Leagues, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty). Many other organizations that promoted social reform (e.g., Local Councils of Women), religious and temperance organizations (Sisters of Charity, Women's Christian Temperance Union), missionary societies, and Protestant evangelical groups also provided assistance to the disadvantaged, and their records are often available in Canadian archives. Finally, the papers of philanthropists, social workers, national social welfare associations, and specialized service organizations (e.g., Public Welfare Associations) can provide valuable perspectives on service delivery and conditions of client populations.

      Knowledge of the structure of the Canadian archival system and individual archives' mandates and acquisition policies is equally important in undertaking archival research. In the past 20 years, the number of archives in Canada has increased fivefold, with over 800 archival repositories now in existence. They range from the national archives and provincial/ territorial archives to university, religious, municipal, community, medical, business, and many specialized private archives. Because of recent advances in computer technology, access to archival collections has been revolutionized to the point that most Canadian archives now have websites that allow researchers to easily obtain information concerning the repository's acquisition holdings and policies.

      The Library and Archives Canada (formerly the National Archives of Canada), located in Ottawa, Ontario, is the nation's largest archive, with a mandate to “preserve the collective memory of the nation and the government of Canada, and to acquire, conserve and facilitate access to private and public records of national significance” (Library and Archives Canada website: http://www.archives.ca/08/08_e.html). Some relevant examples of its holdings that are described online include: the Company of Young Canadians fonds, the National Council of Women of Canada fonds, and the Canadian Association of Social Workers fonds. There are also 12 provincial and territorial archives, and their common mandate is to acquire records created by the individual province or territory and, in most instances, private-sector records of provincial or territorial significance. For example, Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management (http://www.gov.ns.ca/nsarm) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, has both valuable government records and private-sector sources, such as the Department of Social Services fonds, 1921–1981 (50.2 meters of textual records), and the Canadian Mental Health Association, Nova Scotia Division fonds, 1947–1983 (7.5 meters of textual records). The Department of Social Services fonds document the provision of services relating to social welfare, public charity, old-age pensions, mothers' allowances, juvenile delinquency, reformatories, and other topics. The Canadian Mental Health Association, Nova Scotia Division fonds document the promotion of mental health through education, research, and advocacy.

      There are over 70 university and college archives in Canada. Generally, their mandate is to acquire the official records of the university as well as records related to faculty. Some have other specialties. For example the Centre d'études acadiennes at the Université de Moncton in New Brunswick (http://www.umoncton.ca/etudeacadiennes/centre/cea.html), acquires and preserves records relating to all aspects of the Acadian French experience in the Maritime region. Other university archives focus on societal groups, such as the Canadian Women's Movement Archives located at the University of Ottawa (http://www.biblio.uottawa.ca/archives/collection-e.html). This archive collects the records of the contemporary Canadian women's movement, with the focus on documenting grassroots or community-based organizations as opposed to institutional or government groups.

      Similarly, the archives of religious institutions and agencies have extensive holdings relating to social welfare history. Most Christian denominations have websites that link to their archives. For example, the Anglican and United churches have archive networks, such as the Anglican Church Archives Network in British Columbia (http://aabc.bc.ca/aabc/anglican.html), and the United Church of Canada's United Church Archives Network (http://www.united-church.ca/archives). Also, the Canadian Jewish Congress's National Archives and Reference Centre in Montreal has large holdings of records of institutions, associations, and individuals pertaining to all aspects of Jewish history in Quebec and Canada (see http://www.cjc.ca/template.php?action=archives&Type=0&Language=EN).

      For health- and medical-related archives, researchers should consult the Historical Health Information Locator Service, Canada, a national research service that provides access to historical resources relating to Canadian health care and medicine (see http://www.fis.utoronto.ca/research/ams/hilscan). An example of one of their links is to the Archives of Canadian Psychiatry and Mental Health Services in Toronto, which holds archival material relating to the history of the Canadian Psychiatry and Mental Health Services (see http://www.utoronto.ca/museum/museums/archive/canadianpsychiatryar.html).

      Finally, many specialized private archives have important holdings related to social welfare history. An example is the Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives in Toronto, whose mandate is to acquire, preserve, organize, and give public access to information and materials by and about lesbians and gays (see http://www.clga.ca). One of its key holdings is records of the AIDS Committee of Toronto, which is Canada's largest community-based AIDS organization.

      On-Line Tools and Directories

      The National Database (CAIN). The Canadian Archival Information Network is a searchable network of networks linking Internet users with information about Canadian archives and descriptions of archival documents. Each provincial/territorial network and the national archives make descriptive records accessible through the national database (http://www.cain-rcia.ca).

      Provincial/Territorial Networks

      Archives Network of Alberta (ANA). The Archives Network of Alberta Database consists of fonds-level descriptions of archival records held in Alberta's archival institutions (see http://www.archivesalberta.org/general/database.htm).

      Archway: Nova Scotia's Archival Database. An electronic finding aid for archival descriptions of original archival documents held in archives throughout Nova Scotia (see http://www.councilofnsarchives.ca/archway).

      Canadian North West Archival Network. Descriptions of records held in publicly accessible archives in Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon (http://aabc.bc.ca/aabc/icaul.html).

      British Columbia Archival Union List (BCAUL). A database that consists of descriptions of records held at publicly accessible archival repositories in the province of British Columbia (see http://aabc.bc.ca/aabc/bcaul.html).

      Réseau de diffusion des archives du Québec (RDAQ). The RDAQ is a searchable database of archival descriptions from Quebec repositories (see http://www.rdaq.qc.ca/cgi-bin/home.cfm).

      Saskatchewan Archival Information Network/ Manitoba Archival Information Network (SAIN/MAIN).The Saskatchewan/Manitoba Archival Information Networks consists of descriptions of archival material held at publicly accessible repositories in Saskatchewan and Manitoba (see http://lib74123.usask.ca/scaa/sain-main/).

      Yukon Archival Union List (YAUL). The Yukon Archival Union List consists of descriptions of archival material held at publicly accessible repositories in the Yukon Territory (see http://www.whitehorse.microage.ca/yca/sections/yaul/yaul.html).

      Directories of Canadian Archives

      Directory of Archives. The Canadian Council of Archives website (http://www.cdncouncilarchives.ca/directory.html).

      Canadian Archival Resources on the Internet. University of Saskatchewan Archives website (http://www.usask.ca/archives/menu.html).

      Wendy L.Thorpe
      Mexico

      Researchers interested in the history of public welfare and social reformism in twentieth century Mexico may wish to start their investigation by consulting Moises González Navarro's La Pobreza en México (Colegio de México, 1985) or Miguel E. Bustamante et al.'s La Salud Pública en México, 1959–1982, published by the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia in 1982. González Navarro's work introduces some of the major themes and institutions concerned with relieving poverty in Mexico; La Salud Pública en México offers the reader detailed descriptions regarding specific federal social service campaigns, synopses of major conferences, and summaries of relevant legislation. Those seeking background on the history of welfare initiatives in Mexico will want to consult Sylvia Arrom's Containing the Poor: The Mexico City Poor House, 1774–1871 (Duke University Press, 2000), which analyzes the transformation of one institution from a religious charity to a state-supported assistance program over the period from the late Bourbon era through the Wars of Reform. Ann S. Blum's article on “Conspicuous Benevolence: Liberalism, Public Welfare and Private Charity in Porfirian Mexico City, 1877–1910” (The Americas, vol. 58, no. 1, 2001) offers an analysis of the intellectual and social foundations of late nineteenth and early twentieth century Porfirian-era philanthropy and documents the proliferation of public welfare programs in the capital city by the early decades of the twentieth century.

      Archival material regarding the origins and development of welfare agencies in Mexico can be found in a variety of public collections. For data on twentieth century federal programs, investigators may want to start at the Archivo General de la Nación (Mexico City), where the document collections pertaining to the Secretaría de Gobernación, the Presidencia de la República, and the Consejo Tutelar Para Menores Infractores offer information regarding the themes of concern to Mexican public officials from the revolutionary period onwards. The material contained in the section pertaining to the Secretaría de Gobernación documents the founding and administration of a variety of institutions, including some health and assistance agencies. Files in the Archivo General's Presidencia de la República section offer insight into major executive-branch initiatives and contain correspondence between public officials and citizens relating to specific themes, including social services. These files, which are organized by presidential administration, contain correspondence from all over the country. The files of the Consejo Tutelar Para Menores Infractores contain the case files for juvenile offenders in the capital and offer insight into the lives and social conditions of adolescents in the capital city. Because they are organized according to case, however, they offer less insight into the organization's raison d'être or its directors' relationship with the federal government.

      The collection at the Archivo Histórico de la Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Mexico City) contains material regarding the public health ministry's transformation from the Porfirian-era Consejo Superior de Salubridad Pública into the Departamento de Salubridad Pública and its later integration with the Secretaría de Asistencia Pública, which itself developed out of the older Junta de Beneficencia Pública in the capital. Although many of the documents do relate specifically to the Federal District, the files encompass correspondence and documentation regarding initiatives in the states as well. Of particular interest will be the collections regarding major campaigns against venereal disease, begging, alcoholism, and tuberculosis, as well as files regarding infant feeding, adoption practices, and a visiting nurse program. The Archivo Histórico de la Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia also houses material pertaining to the Federal District's manicomio, or mental asylum, and the public hospital for indigent women, including prostitutes, the Hospital Morelos. Collections pertaining to the Casa de Niños Expósitos and Junta de Beneficencia Pública will also be of interest. Most of the information in this archive centers on the early part of the twentieth century. For the later period, the archives at the Secretaría de Salud (Mexico City) headquarters may be useful, although they are not necessarily designed for historical research. For information about health care and social insurance in the period after 1945, researchers may also wish to consult the nearby Centro de Documentación at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexico City).

      On the campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico City), the Hemeroteca Nacional contains collections of periodicals, including the official publications of the Departamento de Salubridad (Boletín de Salubridad) and the Junta de Beneficencia Pública (Asistencia). The Hemeroteca also houses more popular magazines such as Mujer, Nosotras, or Eugenesia, which offer insight into how feminists, eugenicists, and other groups in the 1920s and 1930s thought about reform and welfare. The Biblioteca Nacional, also located on the campus of the National University, houses theses presented by students in law and social work and sheds light on the themes and issues of concern to researchers involved in social service work throughout the century.

      Researchers may also wish to consult the Biblioteca Miguel Lerdo de Tejada's (Mexico City) collection of historical newspaper clippings. This collection, which is organized by theme, offers investigators a database of journalistic articles regarding major federal welfare campaigns and initiatives from a variety of perspectives.

      In the United States, published laws and treaties are held at Harvard University's library at Langdell Hall (Cambridge, Massachusetts); the International Law Collection offers information regarding the institutional framework in which welfare initiatives developed. At Countway Library of Medicine at Harvard Medical School (Boston, Massachusetts), researchers may locate volumes of early twentieth century health and welfare periodicals as well. In Chicago, Illinois, the Center for Research Libraries, located near the campus of the University of Chicago, houses some mid-twentieth century Mexican welfare publications; the Newberry Library in downtown Chicago contains bulletins and published memoranda from early twentieth century municipal collections. Finally, researchers may want to consult the collection of theses and social work tracts housed at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.

      Katherine ElaineBliss
      United States

      Archives are defined as the records of an organization or institution that are no longer required for current use but have been selected for permanent preservation because of their enduring value. They represent the tangible link between past and present that informs historical research and understanding. Themselves the direct by-product and surviving evidence of human and institutional activity, they provide raw material in the form of firsthand accounts for studying past events, activities, and conditions. At one level, they are a source of information to be reported, analyzed, and interpreted. At another, the surviving physical documents often inspire a more intense appreciation of the past, whether to celebrate the legacy of a person or institution, or to seek a better theoretical understanding of present conditions. Effective use of archival materials requires an understanding of their basic nature, how they are administered and made available, and how to locate them.

      The Nature of Archives

      Individuals, agencies, and organizations create records as a part of the process of planning, delivering, and evaluating social services. Later researchers will find the resulting records to be a unique body of evidence that provides an intimate picture of the records' creators as well as a window on surrounding conditions.

      Several characteristics define the nature of records and distinguish them from published books and articles that are the more familiar starting point for most historical researchers. Unpublished documents are usually created to communicate with a very specific and immediate audience on a need-to-know basis. Having been produced spontaneously and not having undergone the editorial process accorded to published materials, they represent a rougher, less self-conscious account of events.

      Records tend to be part of a process. Individual items must be studied in the context of other materials related to the same activities if all possible information is to be derived from them. Simply, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. That concept underlies all office filing systems, and it is retained when records are transferred to archival custody.

      Records go through a life cycle that includes creation, a period of active use for current activities, retirement to inactive storage, and either destruction or transfer to an archives for long-term preservation. The archival institution represents a distinct second stage of life for selected records, offering specialized management that facilitates use by different users and for different purposes. Three perspectives—those of creators, keepers, and users of archives—will contribute to an understanding of what they offer and how they must be approached.

      Creators of Archives

      The creators of records naturally focus on current programs and operations. For them, conscious attention to record-keeping requires a practical payoff in terms of operating efficiency. A few large institutions that place high value on their historical legacy employ historians or archivists to ensure that a representative and accurate set of records is selected and retained. More often, though, selection for retention is unsystematic, with fate and circumstance playing too large a role. This is particularly true for welfare and service organizations, whose resources are hard-pressed to support basic programs.

      The nature of an organization's programs shapes its records. Direct service providers are likely to assemble detailed information about clients, whereas standard organizations focus more on the nature of practice and the need for improvements. Coordinating bodies' records offer evidence of interaction between various organizations in attempts to address common issues.

      Governmental agencies—federal, state, and local—leave records reflecting their respective societal roles. Since the advent of Social Security and New Deal–based welfare programs, federal records have documented the lives of individual citizens to a much greater degree than have records of national voluntary organizations. Researchers on pre-1930 topics must rely more heavily on state and local relief programs. In general, the bureaucratic, hierarchical nature of governmental programs mandates extensive official reporting of at least overall administrative concerns.

      National voluntary organizations emerged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, dedicated to a rational analysis and planning process that would promote better, more effective services offered by affiliated local agencies. Their records are eminently usable because they are far less voluminous than governmental records, are focused on a particular type of service or issue, and reflect the value these organizations placed on intimate knowledge of social conditions.

      Local agencies devoted to providing direct service to clients are the most likely to provide an intimate picture of the condition of client populations and of social work as actually practiced. This can correct the understanding informed by the prescriptive literature of social work journals and conference proceedings.

      Individual social work leaders and practitioners leave papers that supplement the records of organizations and agencies, often filling gaps where the latter records have not been fully preserved.

      Keepers of Archives

      From a researcher's perspective, archivists add value to records in three ways: selection, preservation of context, and description. Archival resources are seriously limited, making it vital to select the records most worthy of permanent retention so that available resources can be concentrated most effectively.

      Archivists preserve context by keeping together the records received from a particular creator and by maintaining the natural groupings within a body of records. Only in this way can the researcher properly interpret and take full advantage of the interrelatedness of documents.

      Archival description provides an intellectual roadmap to the records. The most important component of the archival system of finding aids is the descriptive inventory prepared for each collection. Of necessity, it provides multiple levels of description, recognizing that a researcher may be interested in the collection as a whole, or in a particular segment (known as a series), a folder, or even an individual document. All of this interpretive activity aims not to list and describe each individual item, which would in itself present an undecipherable mass, but to provide summary descriptions of patterns and groupings that allow the researcher to identify the most likely location of desired information.

      Archival finding aids were once confined to typed sheets of paper and index cards that could be consulted principally in the archives. Now, most archives maintain their own websites with at least general information about their holdings and policies governing use. Many library-based archives have brief records describing their collections in the host library's on-line catalog. Increasingly, the full detail of descriptive inventories is being presented over the Web as well, making it possible for researchers to plan their research trips much more intelligently and arrive prepared to make more efficient use of available time.

      For the most part, archival research requires “going to the source.” Because archival collections are unique and irreplaceable, they do not circulate, except sometimes to a limited degree within a small network of related institutions. Occasionally, a collection of exceptional value is replicated on microfilm, which allows other institutions to purchase a copy or obtain portions temporarily through interlibrary loan. Digital technology allows scanned images to be made available over the Web, but this is unlikely to be implemented on more than a highly selective basis.

      In general, the American archival universe is divided into two spheres: institutional archives where the records remain in the custody of the institution that created them; and collecting repositories that take on responsibility for records created elsewhere.

      The archives of the federal and state governments are the most relevant examples of institutional archives for social welfare history researchers. Records of federal social programs belong in the National Archives in or near the District of Columbia; the main home for federal agency records is in College Park, Maryland. Records from federal field offices are dispersed to a network of federal records centers across the country. Beginning with Herbert Hoover, each U.S. president has had a presidential library devoted to preserving the papers of the president along with cabinet officers, advisers, and other key officials from his administration. Each state operates a state archives, usually in the capital city and sometimes a part of the state historical society, with responsibility for state and, to some degree, local government agency records.

      Very few private social work agencies and organizations operate their own institutional archives. The Salvation Army National Archives and Research Center in Alexandra, Virginia, is the most significant exception to this rule. Religious-affiliated social program records are generally the responsibility of denominational or diocesan archives. Most universities operate institutional archives that could be expected to contain the records of their social work schools or departments. This represents an important resource for the study of social work education.

      The records of most voluntary-sector social work agencies and organizations, along with personal papers of individual leaders, are preserved, if at all, by collecting repositories. This category includes state and local historical societies, college and university libraries, public libraries, and a variety of other specialized libraries, archives, and research centers. Most collecting repositories focus on defined geographic areas. A number of university-affiliated urban-area archives have significant social agency and social reformer holdings. Among the cities that are best documented are Boston (Simmons College, University of Massachusetts–Boston, and Northeastern University), Chicago (Chicago Historical Society, University of Illinois at Chicago, and University of Chicago), Cleveland (Western Reserve Historical Society), Los Angeles (California State University, Northridge, and University of Southern California), Minneapolis-St. Paul (Minnesota Historical Society and University of Minnesota), New York City (Columbia University, New York Public Library, New York University, and LaGuardia Community College), New Orleans (Tulane University), and Philadelphia (Temple University).

      Other collecting repositories define their scope by subject rather than geographic area. The University of Minnesota's Social Welfare History Archives was the first to focus exclusively on social work and social welfare. Several colleges and universities, most notably Columbia University, Smith College, and the University of Chicago have assembled the papers of eminent early social work leaders who were associated with their schools of social work, either as faculty or alumni. Other theme collections whose scope includes significant social welfare history materials include Radcliffe College's Schlesinger Library on the History of Women, Indiana University-Purdue University-Indianapolis's Philanthropy Center, the Rockefeller Archive Center (Rockefeller Foundation and other philanthropies), and Wayne State University's Walter Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs.

      Users of Archives

      In the 1950s, Ralph and Muriel Pumphrey, Verl Lewis, Karl and Elizabeth de Schweinitz, Robert Bremner, Blanche Coll, and Clarke Chambers formed the Social Welfare History Group, in large part as an attempt to correct the then-severely-limited archival collecting in the social welfare field. Today, thanks in part to their pioneering efforts, the problem facing researchers is not a dearth of records so much as sorting through the extensive, diverse holdings found in numerous institutions.

      There is no one-stop resource for identifying available sources. A historical researcher has three basic options. Following the trail of citations and source notes left by previous researchers is a good beginning step, leading at least to what has been interpreted before.

      Second, archival finding aids provide an evergrowing set of access points for identifying relevant materials. The key is to find pointers to all of the unique collections spread across the country, each with its own descriptive inventory. At the time of this writing, two national on-line resources provide an index to tens of thousands of collections in thousands of repositories. ArchivesUSA, produced by Chadwyck-Healey, and RLG Archival Resources, maintained by the Research Library Group, provide parallel, overlapping coverage. Both are available only by subscription, meaning that they must be used in or through major research libraries. Similar on-line interinstitutional resources may be anticipated in the future, particularly at the state and regional levels.

      Many archival materials, likely the majority now and into the foreseeable future, are not included in any integrated index. Adept use of the search engine in one's Web browser is one effective way to locate such collections. In addition, in such cases the researcher must engage in informed speculation about the possible location of a desired source. Such an approach requires familiarity with the full range of possible record creators and the pattern of possible archival repositories. Put simply, the operative questions become “who would have had reason to record the information I need, and where might those records have ended up?”

      In any event, archival research requires as much familiarity with the subject matter as possible. Recognition of basic concepts, events, and names associated with the topic provides access points and a basis for distinguishing between significant and extraneous materials.

      Selected Resources

      Unpublished Primary Sources: Selected Repositories

      Out of the lengthy list of repositories discussed here, several deserve mention for the extent of their social welfare history holdings. Detailed information about these, and many other, repositories is available on-line at their respective websites. Searches on the repository's name in a Web browser will locate the sites easily.

      The U. S. National Archives & Records Administration is responsible for the historical records of the federal government. Its archives at College Park, Maryland, house the records of most civilian agencies, including the Women's Bureau, the Children's Bureau, the Social Security Administration, and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

      The Library of Congress Manuscript Division (Washington, D.C.) is America's preeminent collecting repository, containing the papers of many of the nation's government officials and other public figures. Included are records of organizations like the National Urban League and the National Child Labor Committee and the Roy Wilkins papers.

      The Social Welfare History Archives at the University of Minnesota (Minneapolis) contains the records of many national voluntary social service organizations, personal papers of individual leaders, and records of selected local agencies, particularly settlement houses. It is the only national repository focused exclusively on social welfare history.

      The Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College (Northampton, Massachusetts), one of the nation's preeminent women's history collections, includes extensive materials documenting the social work profession, particularly papers of persons associated with the Smith College School for Social Work.

      The Columbia University Rare Book & Manuscript Library (New York City) contains many social work collections that are particularly rich for the early twentieth century origins of the profession, when much of the national leadership came from persons associated with the New York School of Philanthropy (later the Columbia University School of Social Work).

      The State Historical Society of Wisconsin (Madison) contains many progressive reform and social action collections that transcend the state's borders. Particularly important are the papers of numerous individuals associated with the development of Social Security in the United States.

      Published Primary Sources

      Not all firsthand historical sources are unpublished. The published professional literature provides a useful perspective as evidence of discourse among practitioners in an earlier era. These materials are more widely available in various research libraries and occasionally on the Web.

      The U.S. Congressional Serial Set published by the Government Printing Office is a complex, extensive compilation of hundreds of thousands of reports and documents submitted to Congress by congressional investigative committees, executive departments, and independent organizations. This collection contains much information about federal social programs. Copies are maintained in research libraries across the country that are designated as federal depositories.

      The National Conference on Social Welfare (which underwent several name changes) was the chief meeting place for social welfare leaders from the 1870s through the 1970s. The published proceedings of its annual meetings provide a comprehensive wide-angle snapshot of programs and mindsets at a given time. The University of Michigan Library has made the full set of proceedings, from 1874 to 1982, available on the World Wide Web (http://www.hti.umich.edu/n/ncosw/).

      David J.Klaassen
      Further Reading
      Hill, M. (1993). Archival strategies and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
      Klaassen, D. J. (1995). Archives of social welfare. In R. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed.; pp. 225–231). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
      Stuart, P. H. (1997). Historical research. In R. Grinnell (Ed.), Social work research and evaluation (5th ed.; pp. 442–457). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.

      Appendix B: Chronologies

      Social Welfare History, Canada

      Complied by Joan E. Esser-Stuart

      1639Establishment of the Hotel Dieu, a general hospital, that provided care for “indigents, the crippled, idiots, and lunatics.”
      1763The Royal Proclamation of 1763 created the colony of Quebec, acknowledged First Nations' land rights, partitioned lands for hunting grounds and European settlements.
      Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years' War and ceded New France to Great Britain.
      1774The Quebec Act left untouched much of the social fabric of French Canada; the Canadians were free to use the French language in local (and eventually in provincial) government, in their schools and in business, to retain their system of civil law, and to practice their religion.
      1799The Orphans Act of 1799 provided for orphaned children to be indentured.
      1827Poor Man's Friend Society established in Halifax to assist the poor and disabled.
      1833British Emancipation Act of 1833 ended slavery in Canada.
      1840The 1840 Act of Union unified the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada, which were inhabited primarily by English and French speaking populations, respectively.
      1845Beauport, or the Quebec Lunatic Asylum, established to treat the mentally ill.
      1847The New Brunswick Lunatic Asylum established; the first asylum in English Canada.
      1850The Toronto Lunatic Asylum established.
      1857Gradual Civilization Act Indians were to abandon Indian status and life ways in favor of British Canadian citizenship and political rights.
      1864Delegates to the Charlottetown Conference agreed that education should be a provincial rather than a federal responsibility.
      1866Delegates to the Quebec Conference agreed that education should be a provincial rather than a federal responsibility.
      1867British North American Act (BNA) established the Canadian State as a federation of four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The federal government was accorded powers including the regulation of trade and commerce, postal service, defense, navigation, shipping and taxation. Provincial governments were accorded matters of “local concern” such as the management and sale of provincial public lands, the running of hospitals and asylums, municipal institutions within the province, education, and direct taxation for provincial purposes.
      1869The Department of Indian Affairs attempted to regulate tribal affairs by assuming the power to depose chiefs and councilors and overseeing band council meetings.
      The enfranchisement legislation was broadened so that any woman with Indian status who married a male without it would lose her status, as would their children and descendants.
      1871The Toronto Trades Assembly established, became one of the more successful of the local labour movements.
      The Municipal Code gave the cities and towns of Quebec some responsibility for the relief of the indigent.
      1872The Trade Union Act confirmed the legality of unions in Canada.
      The Toronto Trades Assembly (1871) helped launch the Nine Hours league which campaigned for a reduction in the working day.
      1873The Canadian Labour Union attracted support for a program of labour reform in the industrial towns of southern Ontario.
      1874The Act Respecting Industrial School of 1874 attempted to define a neglected child.
      1879The Provincial Workmen's Association in Nova Scotia was established as a regional labour movement.
      1880Charity organization societies (COS) established in Canadian cities, based on English charity organisation societies formed in 1869.
      1880sThe Knights of Labour entered Canada from the United States, organized workers from many trades into 450 assemblies, mainly in Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia.
      1881The Miner's Mutual Protective Association in British Columbia was established as a regional labour movement.
      1883The Trades and Labour Congress (TLC) of Canada aimed to become an inclusive national organization of labour but did not establish a strong presence across the country until after 1902, when it defined itself primarily as a federation of the Canadian branches of unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in the United States.
      1885The Indian Act, a comprehensive legislative effort to regulate all aspects of First Nations peoples' lives, passed.
      Completion of transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railroad (CPR), not only an impressive engineering achievement but also a significant joint public-private sector economic undertaking.
      The Chinese Immigration Act, passed after the completion of the railroad, introduced the head tax system, making it more difficult for Chinese people to enter Canada. The head tax system continued in force until 1947.
      1888Severalty Policy, a copy of the American Dawes Act (1887), enacted, encouraged the conversion of Indian reserves to freehold properties.
      The Act for the Protection and Reformation of Neglected Children (Children's Protection Act) established the principle that representatives of the State could remove a child from a family if provisions of care were found unsuitable.
      1889The Prison Reform Commission concluded that the care of young children at risk was critical for the prevention of adult crime, and that children at risk were better served in family foster homes than in larger institutions.
      1891The first Children's Aid Society (CAS) in Canada was founded in Toronto with J. J. Kelso in the volunteer position of president.
      Manitoba abolished public funding for Roman Catholic schools.
      1892Toronto CAS opened the first children's shelter to provide temporary room and board for destitute and neglected youth.
      1893The Ontario Act for Prevention of Cruelty to and Better Protection of Children (The Children's Act) outlined a new approach to child welfare and established the position of Superintendent of Neglected and Dependent Children. J. J. Kelso was appointed to this position and held it for the next 41 years.
      Children's Aid Societies were established in Ottawa and Petersborough.
      The National Council of Women (NCWC), formed as an association of associations, sought to bring women together in a united front to provide leadership on social issues affecting women and families.
      1894Children's Aid Society established in Hamilton, Ontario.
      1902Department of Temperance and Moral Reform established by the Methodist Church.
      1905Radicals and revolutionaries joined Canadian branches of the Industrial Workers of the World.
      1906Parliamentary committees began to study the concept of old age pensions, although the effort lacked strong government support.
      1907The Methodist Church's Department of Temperance and Moral Reform renamed the Department of Evangelism and Social Service.
      1908Farmers formed the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Company (SGGC) to ensure justice for farmers, advocated for reforms like a graduated income tax, nationalization of utilities and food processing plants, tariffs favorable to farmers, women's and universal health care.
      Board of Moral and Social Reform established by the Presbyterian Church.
      1910The Immigrant Act emphasized the prospective newcomer's country of origin, favored immigrant workers from Great Britain, the United States, and northwestern Europe; other racial groups were deemed “unsuitable” based upon the belief that they could not adapt to Canada's climate.
      1914The Social Service Congress raised Canadians' awareness of the need for social security programs, including those that protected citizens from the poverty associated with old age. Reformers argued that no child should be removed from his or her home on grounds of poverty alone.
      Workers' Compensation legislation introduced in Ontario.
      Saskatchewan was the first province to experiment with a form of medical care insurance when a rural municipality offered physicians a retainer to practice in the area. The success of this plan allowed municipalities to levy property taxes to retain physicians. Manitoba and Alberta adopted similar plans.
      National Council of Women (NCWC) membership included twenty affiliated associations at the national level and thirty-two local councils. The NCWC was legally incorporated by an Act of Parliament.
      1916Mothers' Pension legislation enacted in Manitoba.
      1917Saskatchewan authorized municipalities to create hospital districts in order to build and maintain hospitals and to collect taxes for financing hospital care.
      1918The Hospital for the Insane in Whitby, Ontario was converted to a military hospital to treat mentally ill military personnel returning to Canada from World War I.
      Department of Social Study and Training founded at McGill University.
      1920sLabour Wars in the coalfields of eastern and western Canada.
      Quebec enacted the Public Charities Act committing the government of the province to a measure of financial support to persons in need.
      1921Conferation des Travailleurs Catholiques du Canada, a conservative and nationalist labor organization, established in Quebec.
      1923Immigration of the Chinese into Canada was completely banned.
      1926The Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW) established.
      1927Parliament passed the Old Age Pension Act, which involved a partnership with provinces, to provide pensions for the elderly.
      An amendment to the Indian Act, which remained in force until 1951, made it illegal to raise or contribute money for pursuit of a claim, effectively barring Indian leaders from using lawyers and making political organization and activity on a large scale extremely difficult.
      1929Child Labour Legislation enacted.
      The British Privy Council, on behalf of five Alberta women who were members of NCWC, decided to interpret the word “person” in the British North America Act (1867) to include women.
      1930The Canadian Royal Commission concluded that Provincial Psychiatric Hospitals, though somewhat better than jails and poor houses in treating the mentally ill, were found wanting from a therapeutic or humane accommodation perspective, recommended twenty million dollars of capital expenditures to upgrade existing facilities, but this was unrealistic due to the worldwide economic Depression.
      1930sThe Progressive Education Movement (strongest in Alberta) included a new social studies curriculum (combining history, geography, and civics), the “enterprise” system of inquiry-based learning, and the junior high school.
      Provincial psychiatric institutions were deteriorating due to overcrowding and a lack of resources.
      1931The federal government enacted legislation that prohibited immigrants from all classes and occupations, with the exception of farmers with capital, British and Americans with sufficient resources to maintain themselves until employment could be found, and persons with financially secure relatives in Canada. This legislation, however, did not apply to individuals of any Asian race.
      Quebec became the last province to legislate a program of Workers' Compensation.
      1932The League for Social Reconstruction was established to advocate for social reforms to alleviate the problems created as a result of the Depression.
      Harry Cassidy's study of relief administration in Ontario, entitled Unemployment and Relief in Ontario 1929-1932: A Survey and Report published.
      1935Employment and Social Insurance Act enacted to collect taxes and to provide social security benefits, including health benefits. The Act failed since it trespassed on provincial jurisdiction.
      Protests against unemployment in the Great Depression culminated in the On to Ottawa Trek.
      Church Conference of Social Work founded to provide a forum for clerical social workers.
      1937The automobile workers strike against General Motors in Oshawa.
      The Needy Mothers Assistance Act of 1937 established in Quebec.
      1939Humanitarian petitions for Canadian acceptance of a fair quota of Jewish refugees fleeing the threat of extermination were ignored.
      1940The Rowell-Sirois Commission (the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations) recommended equalization transfers from the federal government to the provinces and a federal unemployment insurance system.
      1941National Unemployment Insurance program adopted.
      1942Forced evacuation of Japanese-Canadians from west coast areas, confiscation of their property, and confinement of them as “enemy aliens” in heavily guarded internment camps.
      1943The Marsh Report offered a broad overview of existing social security legislation and practice at both the Dominion (federal) and provincial levels of government, made suggestions for improvement and expansion of these programs, and argued for the creation of a planned, integrated, and comprehensive system of social security.
      1944Family Allowance Act (also known as the baby bonus) passed providing monthly checks for each child in each family from 1945 until the program was replaced by the Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB) program 1993.
      1948The National Health Grants Act provided grants-in-aid for hospital construction, laboratory services, and professional training for public health and mental health professionals.
      Industrial Relations Disputes Investigation Act and equivalent provincial laws established the worker's right to representation and recognition in collective bargaining.
      1949Quebec Asbestos Strike.
      1951The Old Age Security Program (OAS) created a universal program that was managed and financed by the federal government.
      The Old Age Assistance Act, cost-shared with the provinces, provided means-tested assistance for persons aged 65 to 69.
      A revision of the federal Indian Act ended many of the colonial strictures on Aboriginal people and allowed them to organize effectively.
      1957Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Service Act (HIDS) provided for 50% federal cost-sharing of hospital services (excluding physician services) for provinces with a universal hospital insurance plan. Five provinces immediately joined and by 1961, HIDS was operating in all provinces and territories.
      The innovative Saskatchewan Plan was a forerunner of the federal government's ambitious mental health policy.
      1961Saskatchewan implemented compulsory, government-sponsored medical insurance. Between 1963 and 1966, several other provinces developed similar medical insurance programs.
      Department of Family and Social Welfare established in Quebec.
      1962Canadian immigration policy underwent major changes in 1962 when criteria based upon skills, education, and training were developed and decreased emphasis was placed on the long-held practice of preferential treatment of individuals from certain parts of the world.
      1963Report of the Study Committee on Public Assistance, the Boucher Report, recommended a liberal public assistance program for the province of Quebec.
      Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism created to study language issues in Canada.
      1965The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) and Quebec Pension Plan (QPP) were designed as contributory pension plans in which workers paid a percentage of their salary and received benefits after retirement. The plans include survivor's pensions for the spouses of the deceased pensioners, disability benefits, children's and death benefits.
      The Company of Young Canadians (CYC) emerged as a federal government initiative aimed at putting the energy of youth to work in communities across Canada. It evolved into a nationwide, grassroots approach to community development with projects centered on civil rights, anti-poverty, food co-ops, youth issues, drop-in centers, and outreach projects addressing drugs, alcohol, and violence.
      The Royal Commission on Health Care (the Hall Commission, under Justice Emmett Hall) undertook a comprehensive review of health services in Canada and recommended strong federal leadership and financial support for medical care to ensure adequate coverage for all Canadians. The Commission also recommended sweeping reforms in mental health treatment and services.
      “More for the Mind” advocated the treatment for mental illness on the same basis as physical illness and demanded that the standards of care and facilities for anyone with any illness should be equal.
      1966The Medical Care Act provided payments to provinces for physicians' services and some dental and chiropractic services.
      Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) was introduced to provide a guaranteed minimum income for retired persons on the basis of an income test.
      The Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) was introduced. Under CAP, federal and provincial governments shared costs on a fifty-fifty basis for health insurance, education, and welfare.
      The Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Education in the Province of Quebec (the Parent Commission) recommended greater local autonomy in decision-making, broadening curriculum through thematic and interdisciplinary approaches, organizing learning through individual timetables, and the abolition of grades.
      The White Paper on Immigration was published by the federal government and reaffirmed that immigrants should be selected based upon an established set of criteria rather than designating certain countries for more favorable treatment.
      1967Quebec established its own family allowance system.
      The Canada/Quebec Pension Plans were introduced in 1967 to provide a public pension based upon contributions related to earnings throughout one's lifetime.
      The federal government replaced several programs that supported provincial categorical programs with the Canada Assistance Plan, which encouraged a shift away from categorical to generalized means and income tested programs.
      A revised immigration policy adopted using a point system to assess individuals applying to immigrate to Canada. Points were awarded for personal suitability, education, specific vocational preparation, occupational demands, arranged employment, language, relatives, and specific destination in Canada.
      1968The Report of the Provincial Committee on Aims and Objectives of Education in the Schools of Ontario (Hall-Dennis Report) recommended greater local autonomy in decision-making, broadening curriculum through thematic and interdisciplinary approaches, organizing learning through individual timetables, and the abolition of grades.
      1969Church-managed residential schools for First Nations children phased out.
      National Farmers Union (NFU) established by merging similar farmer organizations.
      The federal government partially decriminalized male homosexual activity.
      Report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism resulted in the Official Languages Act.
      Quebec Social Aid Act of 1969 integrated the pre-existing categorical welfare programs (aged, long-term unemployed, needy mothers, etc.) into a single needs-based program.
      1971Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau announced Canada's first official policy on multiculturalism.
      1972Alberta's Report of the Commission on Educational Planning (Worth Report) recommended greater local autonomy in decision-making, broadening curriculum through thematic and interdisciplinary approaches, organizing learning through individual timetables and the abolition of grades.
      Multicultural Directorate established to assist ethnic and cultural groups in dealing with issues such as racism, human rights, citizen involvement, and immigrant services.
      Shelters for battered women established in British Columbia and Alberta.
      The Common Front in Quebec helped to develop a modern social democracy in the province.
      1973The Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism was introduced to monitor implementation of the federal government's initiative on multiculturalism.
      1975Human Rights Commissions established in all Canadian provinces to administer anti-discriminatory legislation.
      1976New Dawn Development Corporation incorporated in Sydney, Nova Scotia, to promote local economic development and provide technical and financial assistance, including capital, to projects.
      Immigration Act amended to reaffirm the principle that the selection of immigrants should not be based on race, nationality, or country of origin. Three classes of immigrants would be admitted into Canada —family class, refugees, and independent immigrants who have the financial resources to provide for themselves and create jobs for others.
      Canada ratified the United Nations Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, which guarantees the human right to food.
      1977Quebec was the last province to develop child protection legislation since the child protection function had previously been vested in the Catholic Church.
      The Human Resources Development Association (HRDA) was founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to create small businesses that are labour intensive and do not require high skill levels. The goal of these businesses was to provide an alternative to social assistance.
      Quebec formally prohibited discrimination in both the public and private sectors.
      The Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Established Programs Financing Act (EPF Act) was passed, providing a federal financial contribution for extended health care services (such as nursing homes, adult residential care, and ambulatory health care) but changing the funding formula for federal contributions so that hospital insurance and medical care were no longer directly related to provincial costs. Instead, EPF was a block-funded system tied to economic growth. The Act also affected postsecondary education.
      The Canadian Human Rights Act established a federal Human Rights Commission.
      1980The National Advisory Council on Aging was established to assist and advise the Canadian government on policies related to the aging of the Canadian population.
      The Hall Report called attention to the issue of heatlh care accessibility, suggesting that extra billing by physicians was threatening access to services for some patients.
      1981Food bank established in Edmonton, Alberta.
      1982The Constitution Act repatriated the BNA of 1867, included the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and guaranteed linguistic choice for French-language minorities.
      National Clearinghouse on Family Violence established to provide national information and consultation services for professionals as well as a base for public education.
      1984The Canada Health Care Act (CHA) provided universal health care coverage for all Canadians including the aging population.
      The Badgley Report detailed a high rate of sexual abuse of Canadian children and resulted in new legislative and policy attention to this issue. Sixteen offenses were added to the sexual assault provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada ranging from unwanted touching to assault with a weapon.
      1985An amendment to the Indian Act was passed which ended gender discrimination against Indian women and their descendants.
      1986Bill C-96 reduced the annual per capita escalator under EPF to 2% below GNP growth.
      Many physicians went on a 25 day strike when legislation was introduced in Ontario to ban extra billing by physicians.
      The Ontario French Language Services Act assured French language provincial services in designated areas where the majority of Franco-Ontarians live.
      Employment Equity Act enacted to address the exclusion of particular groups from the Canadian workforce by removing discriminatory barriers and implementation of protective measures to accommodate differences.
      1987The Meech Lake Accord recognized Quebec as a distinct society but failed since Manitoba and Newfoundland did not pass the referendum by the specified date.
      1988The federal government initiated a Child Tax Credit program replacing child income tax deductions.
      The Canadian Association of Food Banks established.
      The Canadian Multiculturalism Act of 1988 established Canada as the first country in the world to enforce multiculturalism as a federal law.
      Public assistance program in Quebec modified to reduce benefits for single persons fit to work and impose financial responsibility on families for young adult family members.
      1989Two years after the failure of Meech, constitutional negotiations resumed.
      1991The federal Goods and Services Tax reformed the consumption tax.
      The Toronto Food Policy Council in the Toronto Board of Health was created along with a network of food policy organizations across the country.
      1992Health Canada, in collaboration with the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council as well as other organizations, established five research centres on family violence and violence against women in Canada.
      The Charlottetown Accord achieved consensus among governments, yet was rejected by Canadians, including the citizens of Quebec, in a national referendum.
      Canada signed the World Declaration on Nutrition.
      The Fraser Institute introduced a “Basic needs” measure, arguing that poverty as understood by the public related solely to basic needs. It included funds for shelter, food, and clothing but excluded books, magazines, toys, or a television.
      1993The Child Tax Benefit and Work Income Supplement replaced family allowances and the Child Tax Credit.
      The election of the liberal government resulted in the reorganization of federal departments; the activities of the multiculturalism department were distributed to the Departments of Canadian Heritage and Citizenship and Immigration.
      1994The National Framework on Aging (NFA) assists governments at all levels to respond to the needs of the aging population and to recognize the valuable contributions of seniors.
      At the Annual Premiers' Conference, concern was expressed over what was perceived as the lack of efficiency and effectiveness of national social programs. Premiers agreed to pursue an agenda of social policy reform.
      1995The federal budget announced major changes to federal fiscal transfer programs to provinces. The federal government merged the Established Programs Financing (EPF) and the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) into the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST). As a part of the reform, federal conditions about how provinces could spend funds were reduced.
      At the Annual Premiers' Conference a Ministerial Council on Social Policy Reform and Renewal was established.
      The Report of the Gove Inquiry into Child Protection (Gove Report) detailed problems and errors leading to the death of Matthew Vaudreuill in British Columbia and recommended changes in the child protection system.
      Quebec voters rejected sovereignty by only a few percentage points.
      British Columbia recognized adoption rights for same-sex couples.
      1996Bill C-69 reduced the escalator and froze transfer payments for two years. As a result of these restrictions and a concomitant cost-cutting effort of provincial governments, there were cutbacks and restructuring of health care services.
      1997The Afghan Women's Catering Group was established in Toronto to alleviate the economic and social hardship experienced by Afghan women and their families, particularly as a result of cutbacks in social assistance and services.
      Canadian Law Reform Commission became the Law Commission of Canada.
      1998National Child Benefit System (NCBS) created by combining the federal Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB) and provincial programs for low-income families with children.
      Canada's Action Plan for Food Security (CAPFS) to reduce food insecurity released
      1999Social Union Framework Agreement (SUFA), increasing federal transfer payments to the provinces, signed by the federal government and all provinces and territories except for Quebec.
      A national Food Security Bureau within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada was created and charged with overseeing the implementation of CAPFS recommendations and coordinating food security activities at the federal, provincial, and civil society levels.
      A Supreme Court Ruling in 1999 (M. v. H.) was a clear victory for equity advocates, essentially treating any differentiation of same-sex couples and heterosexual de facto couples as unconstitutional.
      2000The Seniors Policies and Programs Database (SPPD) was established to assist governments and other organizations review and develop policies and programs related to seniors.
      2001The Commission on the Future of Health Care (The Romanow Commission) formed to examine Canadian health care and to make recommendations to ensure service delivery associated with the growth of the aging population.
      2002The report of the Romanow Commission reaffirmed the commitment to publicly funded health care and the principles of the Canada Health Care Act (CHA) and recommended new funding arrangements which would increase federal funding to provinces and included provisions for rural and remote access, home care services, and catastrophic drug coverage.
      Quebec implemented a comprehensive “civil union” registration, open to same and opposite sex couples
      The Act Respecting Social Security and Exclusion, passed unanimously by the Quebec National Assembly, emphasized social exclusion as well as material insecurity as the business of social welfare.
      2003National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS), intended to support the working poor, established.
      Social Welfare History, Mexico
      1504–1650200,000 to 450,000 Spaniards migrated to the Americas, the majority to New Spain (Mexico)
      1517First New World office of the Protomedicato, a Spanish institution to regulate physicians, established in Santo Domingo.
      1519Spanish conquest of Mexico begins.
      1521–1650Indigenous population declines by up to 95% due largely to diseases that came with conquest.
      1532Father Vasco de Quiroga established two experimental hospital-pueblos to provide medical care and education.
      1553Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico established.
      1555First Mexican Council ordered that hospitals be established in every parish in Mexico.
      1556Bernardino Alvarez, a wealthy Spaniard, founded first of many hospitals in Mexico.
      1572Hospital San Lazarus (for the care of lepers) founded by Dr. Pedro Lopez.
      1582Hospital of the Epiphany (for the care of blacks, mestizos, and mulattoes) founded by Dr. Pedro Lopez and supported by the confraternity of Our Lady of the Forsaken.
      1590sAlhóndiga (public granary) and Pósito (grain reserve) established in Mexico City to insure consistent food supply and avoid price hikes.
      1646Protomedicato established in Mexico City to regulate physicians.
      1760sBourbon reforms, designed to stimulate the economy and boost the export of Mexico's raw materials, begun.
      1767Spain expelled the Jesuits from Mexico.
      1774Hospicio de Pobres (Poor House) founded in Mexico City, begging outlawed.
      1806The Patriotic School, a boarding school established within the Mexico City Poor House to educate children in the institution.
      1810Mexico declared its independence from Spain, initiating Mexico's war for independence.
      1821Independence of Mexico from Spain achieved.
      1824Constitution authorized federal and state educational institutions.
      Spaniards asked to leave Mexico.
      1828Expulsion of Spaniards from Mexico ordered.
      1833Attempts to secularize education, frustrated by inadequate funding.
      1841Superior Sanitation Council created; its jurisdiction was at first limited to the Federal District.
      1842National network of teacher training institutions established.
      1845Society of St. Vincent de Paul, a volunteer charity, established in Mexico.
      1856A liberal reform government took power; legal reforms mandated secular public primary education and transferred charitable institutions to public administration.
      Ley Lerdo, a law for the disentailment of corporate property, including property belonging to the Catholic Church and indigenous communities (ejidos), enacted.
      1857A new constitution emphasized unleashing market forces and the sanctity of private property, provided for academic freedom and state control of licensing requirements for teachers.
      1861Secularization of welfare institutions and centralization of welfare activities in the federal government.
      1863French occupation of Mexico began, continued until 1867. Emperor Maximilian installed as ruler.
      Empress Charlotte created Associations of Ladies of Charities to establish, fund, and administer welfare institutions.
      1867French occupation ended; República Restaurada (restoration of the republic) began.
      1871Begging legalized in Mexico City.
      1876Porfiriato (dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz) began, lasted until 1911.
      475
      First National Congress of Physicians held in Mexico City.
      1877Casa Amiga de la Obrera founded by Carmen Romero Rubio de Diaz, wife of President Profirio Diaz, to provide daycare for the children of working mothers.
      1879Consejo Superior de Salubridad (CSS; Superior Sanitation Council) reorganized and made answerable to the federal Ministry of the Interior; separate commissions made responsible for surveillance of the quality of medicines, food, and beverages, as well as the sanitary conditions of hospitals, jails, and industrial establishments.
      1881A federal law grouped beneficence centers into three categories: hospitals, orphanages, and educational/ correctional facilities.
      1883Colonization and Naturalization Laws enacted to encourage settlement in sparsely populated areas and to promote development.
      1884Mexico City Poorhouse became a boarding school for orphans and was renamed the Hospicio de Niños (House of Children).
      1885Dr. Eduardo Liceaga became director of the Superior Sanitary Council and continued in this office until 1914.
      1886The Immigration and Naturalization Law conferred Mexican citizenship on immigrants who owned property and did not intend to maintain their foreign nationality. Mexican women deprived of Mexican citizenship if they married foreigners. The law remained in force until 1934.
      1888Mexico and Japan signed a Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation; the first “equal” treaty negotiated with a non-Asian country by Japan, it facilitated the immigration of Japanese to Mexico.
      1891Sanitary Code of the United States of Mexico approved; first comprehensive public health legislation. The code was revised in 1894 and 1903, and continued in force until 1926.
      1893Mexico and China signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce.
      1902Mexico hosted the Second International Congress of American States.
      A general convention of the health organizations of the American republics met in Washington, D.C.; established the International Sanitary Bureau.
      1904First state laws for work accidents enacted.
      1905General Hospital of Mexico opened in Mexico City.
      1906Strike at the Cananea Copper Company.
      Hospicio de Niños closed.
      1908Economic difficulties led Porfirian government to reexamine its liberal immigration policy; immigrants likely to require public support prohibited.
      Elementary Education Law for the Federal District and Territories promulgated.
      1909Mexico adhered to the International Treaty of Rome (1907), which established the Office International d'Hygiène Publique.
      1910Mexican Revolution began, continued until 1917.
      La Castañeda, Mexico's first mental hospital, opened in Mexico City.
      Popular Hygiene Exhibition organized in Mexico City.
      National University of Mexico reestablished.
      1911Over 300 Chinese murdered by soldiers and civilians in Torreón, Coahuila.
      1912Textile workers won a 10-hour workday, holidays, and uniform wages across the industry.
      1913Rockefeller Foundation established in the United States.
      1914Mexico City Department of Public Beneficence established Sanitary Brigades to treat those wounded in revolution.
      1915Department of Aid established to build shelters for the homeless and educational centers for children orphaned by revolution.
      1917Mexican Constitution of 1917 adopted, placed all charity and welfare organizations under state control, limited child labor and mandated universal public secular education, limited immigration.
      Department of Anthropology created in the federal government by President Venustiano Carranza, first of a series of agencies that sought to solve the “Indian problem.”
      1921First National Child Congress convened to discuss state's role in training “fit” mothers and educating children.
      Secretaria de Educación Pública (SEP, Ministry of Public Education) established; José Vasconcelos became first Secretary of Public Education.
      Voluntary worker pension funds consolidated by the federal government.
      Rockefeller Foundation's Special Commission for the Eradication of Yellow Fever in Mexico initiated cooperative health programs with the Mexican public health programs, which would continue until 1951. Yellow fever eradicated by 1923.
      1922SEP Secretary José Vasconcelos sent normal school graduates to rural areas to stimulate interest in education, recruit teachers, and establish schools; misiones culturales (cultural missions) established to serve indigenous communities.
      School Hygiene Service established.
      Fee structure imposed on applicants for immigration.
      1923Second National Congress of the Child; two hygiene centers for children established.
      1924Departamento de Salubridad Pública (DSP; Department of Public Health) created.
      1925Limited social insurance for public servants (teachers subsequently added after protests) and veterans of the revolution; retirement age set at 65.
      Dirección de Pensiones Civiles created to provide housing for government employees.
      1926Consejo Tutelar para Menores Infractores, which oversaw the Tribunal para Menores (Juvenile Court), established in Mexico City.
      Medical reasons for excluding immigrants added to existing immigration restrictions.
      Sanitary Code gave DSP authority to implement new programs fusing treatment and prevention programs.
      National Agricultural Credit Bank established.
      1927Shelter for homeless children constructed by Mexico City Department of Public Beneficence.
      Immigration from Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Arabia, and Turkey restricted.
      Rockefeller Foundation inaugurated local health units in Veracruz.
      1929Official Revolutionary Party established, to be re-named the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1946.
      Asociación de Protección de la Infancia (Association for the Protection of Childhood) established, focused on nutrition programs for children and prenatal care for pregnant women.
      Mexico City Child Hygiene Service established.
      All immigration to Mexico temporarily suspended.
      Dr. Miguel Bustamante, a physician and former Rockefeller Foundation fellow, named director of a health unit in Veracruz, pursued an ambitious public health agenda.
      1930sCampaign Against Begging conducted in Mexico City.
      1931Federal Labor Code provided for state regulation of unions and labor conflicts, facilitated the growth of unions allied with the government, and restricted child labor, incorporating educational and medical criteria for improving child development.
      Dr. Miguel Bustamante promoted to head the Rural Hygiene Service of the Departamento de Salubridad Publica.
      Narciso Bassols became Secretary of Secretaria de Educación Pública (SEP, Ministry of Public Education), supported “socialist” education and anti-clericalism.
      1932Labor Code enacted, required employers to give three months' severance pay in addition to one month for each year of service to dismissed workers; women were granted three months' wage for maternity.
      Banco Nacional Hipotecario Urbano y de Obras Públicas (BNHUOP) established.
      1933Escuela de Enseñanza Doméstica y Trabajo Social (School of Domestic Instruction and Social Work), a technical school, established by the Secretaria de Educación Pública (SEP, Ministry of Public Education).
      1934Administration of President Lázaro Cárdenas began, right to public assistance articulated, public child welfare linked to national economic development, 18 million hectares of land distributed to rural Mexicans. Cárdenas administration ended in 1940.
      Workers secured the right to a minimum wage, set by Minimum Wage Commissions that included unions.
      1935Seventh International Pan America Child Congress held in Mexico City, resulting in a proliferation of child and family services.
      1936General Population Law prohibited immigration of alcoholics, drug addicts, prostitutes, anarchists, and salaried foreign workers, banned most commercial activities by foreigners.
      National Bank for Ejidal Credit (BNCE) established to support recipients of redistributed land.
      1937Federal Ministry of Public Assistance (SAP) created.
      1938President Lázaro Cárdenas expropriated Mexico's petroleum reserves.
      President Lázaro Cárdenas made the Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), which represented three quarters of all unions, one of four organizations that officially represented Mexican society within the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).
      Comié Regulador del Mercado de Subsistencias (CRMS) established to purchase grains from small producers, to control prices, and maintain supply.
      1939CRMS opened first stores to provide low-cost food staples to the working poor.
      Refugees from fascist Spain welcomed.
      After 1940Subsequent presidential administrations adopted a conservative program of capitalist modernization and industrializing the nation.
      1942Ley Orgánica de Educación (Organic Education Law).
      1943Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Mexican Institute of Social Security) created, beginning the Mexican Social Security System; Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia (SSA; Ministry of Health and Welfare) created by merging the Secretaria de Asistencia Social (SAS; Ministry of Public Assistance) with the Departamento de Salubridad Pública (SAP; Ministry of Public Health).
      Rockefeller Foundation invested in Mexican Agricultural Program, designed to increase food production through new biotechnologies.
      U.S. State Department's Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs initiated a massive health and sanitation program in Mexico.
      1945Volunteer social service required for college graduation.
      1946An amendment to Article 3 of the Constitution defined national commitment to compulsory, free, and secular education.
      1947A second Population Law enacted; attempted to resolve discrepancies resulting from the 1936 General Population Law.
      Age of retirement for government employees reduced to 55 years of age.
      1948Instituto Nacional Indigenista (INI, National Indigenous Institute) created to stimulate education and integration of indigenous population.
      1949Unión General de Obreros y Campesions de México (UGOCM, General Union of Workers and Peasants of Mexico) formed to mobilize peasants independent of the states and demand the redistribution of land.
      1953Banco Nacional Hipotecario Urbano y de Obras Públicas (BNHUOP) and the Dirección de Pensions completed Unidad Modelo, a public housing complex with 3,639 units.
      United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) began sponsoring public health initiatives directed toward children and pregnant mothers.
      Sugar cane cutters included in social insurance system.
      1954The Instituto Nacional de Vivienda (INV National Housing Institute) established to subsidize public housing.
      1959Social Security Institute for State Workers (ISSSTE) established; centralized pensions and health services for government workers and their families.
      1961State food agency renamed Compañia Nacional deSubsistencias Populars (CONASUPO, National Company of Popular Subsistance), established to control prices and distribute, store, and sell rural products.
      Instituto Nacional de Protección a la Infancia (INPI, National Institute for the Protection of Childhood) established to operate maternal and child health programs.
      1962The Instituto Nacional de Vivienda (INV) completed the Conjunto Habitacional Tlatelolco, a large planned community of 11,016 units.
      1968Institución Mexicana de Asistencia a la Niñez (IMAN, Mexican Child Welfare Institute) established to organize and direct welfare activities for children.
      1970Administration of President Luis Echeverria began, new resources committed to indigenous communities, continued to 1976.
      1972Instituto Nacional de Fondo de Vivienda para losTrabajadores (INFONAVIT; National Institute for the Construction of Worker Housing) created to provide Workers' housing.
      1973Ley Federal de Educación (Federal Education Law) enacted.
      1975At a Congress in Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, indigenous leaders from throughout Mexico demanded cultural autonomy, official status for Indian languages, representation in government for ethnic groups, and an Indian University.
      National Bank for Rural Credit (BANRURAL) created to provide loans to small farmers.
      Instituto National de la Senectud (INSEN) created as part of the Health Ministry to coordinate aging policy in Mexico; became the Instituto Nacional de Personas Adultas Mayores (Older Persons National Institute, INAPAM) in 2000.
      1977Coordinación General del Plan Nacional de ZonasDeprimidas y Grupos Marginales (COPLAMAR, the General Coordination of the National Plan for Depressed Zones and Marginal Groups) established to provide social programs aimed at the marginalized.
      Integrated Family Development ministry, Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia (DIF) established to coordinate programs for families and children.
      1979Rural organizations formed Coordinadora Nacional Plan de Ayala (CNPA, National Coordinator Plan de Ayala) to promote land redistribution.
      1980Sistema Alimentario Mexicano (SAM, Mexican Food System) created to provide credit, fertilizers, seeds, and crop insurance to small farmers.
      1982Mexican state responsible for over half of the Mexican economy; Mexican economy crippled by debt crisis leading to devaluation of the peso, defaulting on foreign debt, and reductions in social spending.
      1983Massive civil strikes called to protest austerity policies.
      1985Mexico City earthquake stimulated voluntary philanthropy.
      1986Mexico signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
      1987CTM union leader Fidel Velásquez signed a “social pact” with government and business that constrained wages.
      Escuela Nacional de Trabajo Social established by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), initiating graduate education for social work.
      1988Centro Mexicano para la Filantropia (CEMEFI; Mexican Center for Philanthropy) established to promote a culture of philanthropy.
      1989International Labour Organisation Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples adopted by Mexico.
      Programa Nacional de Solidaridad (PRONASOL, National Solidarity Program) established by President Carlos Salinas. A new Secretariat for Social Development (SEDESOL) created to manage social development programs.
      1990Constitution amended to recognize Mexico as a multicultural nation and give indigenous peoples the right to protect and preserve their cultures.
      Mexico ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and amended the constitution to include child rights.
      1991International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) met in Acapulco, first ILGA meeting outside of Europe.
      1992Salinas administration ended land redistribution, allowing market mechanisms to determine land ownership.
      1993North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) signed, implemented beginning in 1994; neo-liberal economic policies ascendant in Mexico.
      Ley General de Educación (General Education Law) made secondary education compulsory.
      1994Mexico joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
      Mexican peso crisis.
      The Ejercito Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN, Zapatista Army of National Liberation) rose in rebellion in the state of Chiapas.
      1995IMSS privatized the social security pension system.
      1995National Program for the Well-Being and the Incorporation of Individuals with Disability initiated by the Federal Government.
      1996The pension system switched from intergenerational redistribution to individual capitalization, and the minimum period of active labor force participation jumped from 9.6 to 24 years excluding a large proportion of workers with sporadic formal employment (especially women).
      The health ministry reduced its services to the uninsured (nearly 50% of the population) to 12 key interventions.
      1997Social Security Law created administrators of retirement funds to manage privatized contributions for pensions
      Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación (PRO-GRESA, Program for Education, Health and Food) replaced PRONASOL, decentralized responsibility from the federal to the state level.
      1999Mexican Senate committed itself to adhere to International Labor Organisation Convention 159, Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons.
      Tortilla Subsidy Ended; liquidation of CONASUPO.
      2000Vicente Fox of the National Action Party (PAN) elected president, established La Oficina de Representación para la Promoción e Integración Social para Personas con Discapacided (ORPISPCD, Office for the Representation, Promotion, and Social Inclusion of Persons with Disability); term ends in 2006.
      Instituto National de la Senectud (INSEN), established in 1975, renamed the Instituto Nacional de Personas Adultas Mayores (INAPAM, Older Persons National Institute) and became part of the Secretaria de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL, Ministry of Social Development).
      2001National Program for the Attention to Persons with Disability and National Consultative Council for the Social Inclusion of Persons with Disability established; federal Law for Deaf Culture enacted.
      Oportunidades (Opportunities), a new anti-poverty program supported by the United States and the World Bank, established by President Vicente Fox.
      2002Farmers on horseback occupied Congress protesting NAFTA provisions that would end most agricultural tariffs in 2003.
      2003National Program for Accessibility proposed, Federal Law for the Social Inclusion of Persons with Disability enacted.
      2004Congress Passes Law Reforming the National Social Security System. New employees will contribute 10% (up from 3%), can retire after 35 years of employment (up from 28 years), and will receive 100% of their pay (down from 130%).
      Social Welfare History, United States
      1601Elizabethan Poor Law enacted by Parliament in England.
      1641Massachusetts became the first English colony in North America to recognize slavery as a legal institution.
      1646Elizabethan Poor Law first introduced in the American colonies in Virginia.
      1650Connecticut recognized slavery as a legal institution.
      1661Virginia recognized slavery as a legal institution.
      1733First Masonic Lodge opened in the American colonies in Boston.
      1776New Jersey granted suffrage to single women and widows but this was an isolated event as women made little progress in securing the vote for the next 100 years.
      1778First treaty between the United States and Native Americans (the Delaware Tribe).
      1785The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for surveying the public domain into six-mile square townships, reserved one square mile in each township for the support of the common schools. States admitted to the union after 1800 received grants of land to support state universities and other state services.
      1792First union founded in the United States (the Cordwainers in Philadelphia).
      1818Federal government granted pensions to veterans who had served at least nine months and required assistance.
      1819First Independent Order of Odd Fellows Lodge established in the United States. It was a fraternal trendsetter since it established a clear schedule of guaranteed benefits whenever a member became ill and was unable to work.
      1824New York State appointed a commission to study poor relief and transferred primary responsibility to county governments and required that each county establish a poor house.
      1825First House of Refuge, an institution for juvenile offenders, created in New York.
      1828Andrew Jackson developed a plan for Indian Removal.
      1830Congress passed Indian Removal Act.
      1833Congress appropriated funds for a United States Naval Home.
      1841John Augustus, a Boston boot maker, asked the Police Court to release convicted juveniles and adults into his custody as an alternative to incarceration, a system that is now called probation.
      1846Mexican American War (1846-1848) began.
      1848Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo accomplished the dual purpose of annexing Mexican territory and expanding United States citizenship.
      1851Congress appropriated funds for a Soldier's Home.
      1861United States Civil War began; The United States Sanitary Commission established in New York as the nation's first public health organization. The commission, which provided sanitary services to Union Army soldiers, was a voluntary organization and was staffed primarily by women.
      Members of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) founded the United States Christian Commission to provide chaplains to Union troops.
      1862Congress passed the Morrill or Land Grant College Act, which provided for the founding and maintenance of agricultural and mechanical colleges in the United States; the Homestead Act, which distributed free land to homesteaders, the Pacific Railroad Act, which provided land grants to railroads to develop a transportation infrastructure, and established the Department of Agriculture.
      Congress passed the Pension Act, which provided pensions for disabled Union Army soldiers and the survivors of deceased soldiers. Initially designed to aid Union Army recruitment, Congress repeatedly liberalized the provisions of the pension system.
      1863President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, ending slavery in the rebelling states.
      Massachusetts created a Board of Charities to organize state institutions on a businesslike basis.
      1865Civil War ended when the Confederate Army surrendered.
      The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution abolished slavery. Slavery in the rebelling states.
      Congress established the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands in the War Department (known as the Freedman's Bureau). The Bureau was the first social welfare agency and provided direct relief to the destitute as well as educational, medical, and legal services during its seven year period of operation.
      1867First Black Odd Fellows lodge established in the United States.
      1868The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution extended citizenship rights to freedmen.
      Formation of the Ancient Order of United Workmen signaled the onset of a new phase of American fraternal development, the national life insurance order.
      1869Congress created a Board of Indian Commissioners to oversee federal Indian programs.
      Knights of Labor, an early labor union, founded.
      1870Massachusetts law required that juvenile offenders under the age of 16, would have their cases heard “separate from the general and ordinary criminal business” but they were still handled in adult courts.
      1872Freedman's Bureau was closed.
      Congress terminated the Civil War income tax.
      1873Economic Depression.
      1874The Conference of Boards of Public Charities, later renamed the National Conference of Charities and Correction (1882), the National Conference of Social Work (1917), National Conference on Social Welfare (1956), began as a section of the yearly conference of the American Social Science Association (ASSA).
      1876The Sioux War (Battles of the Rosebud and Little Bighorn).
      Apache War in the Southwest and Navajo War and Nez Perce War.
      1877First Charity Organization Society in the United States founded in Buffalo, New York.
      1881The American Red Cross founded by Clara Barton.
      1882The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited Chinese immigration for a decade.
      Josephine Shaw Lowell founded the Charity Organization Society of the City of New York (COSCNY) which pioneered research on poverty, developed and refined the “casework” approach to social welfare, and promoted the professionalization of social work.
      Lowell founded the Consumer's League of the City of New York.
      1886American Federation of Labor founded.
      1887General Allotment Act divided nearly 200 Indian reservations into individual allotments granted to tribal members.
      1889Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull House, Chicago's first settlement house. Hull House was among hundreds of settlements in the United States that were designed to bridge the distance between social classes through fellowship, recreation, social reform, and political influence.
      1890Wounded Knee Massacre, South Dakota.
      Second Morrill Act of 1890 provided funds to states to support land grant colleges, permitted separate segregated institutions for African Americans.
      New York State Care Act of 1890 gave the state responsibility for providing care to all of the insane poor.
      Congress expanded the Pension Act to include any disabled veteran, whether or not the disability resulted from war-related injuries.
      1891The New York Charity Organization Society started Charities Review to advise and unite charity organization societies.
      1894Congress enacted an income tax, ruled unconstitutional in 1895 by the Supreme Court for technical reasons.
      1896The Supreme Court upheld segregation that was wide-spread in the southern states in Plessey v. Ferguson.
      1898United States government intervened on behalf of the Cuban revolutionists which precipitated the Spanish-American War.
      Puerto Rico transferred to the United states at the end of the Spanish-American War.
      The New York Charity Organization Society established a Summer School in Philanthropy.
      1899The first juvenile court was established in Chicago, Illinois.
      1900National Association of Colored Women founded as an advocacy organization.
      1901New York City enacted a Tenement House Law.
      Russell Sage Foundation, founded by Olivia Slocum Sage, widow of financier Russell Sage, became the first true philanthropic foundation in the United States.
      English reformer Joseph Rowntree developed an absolute deprivation notion of poverty by estimating an income threshold that is required to obtain a minimum standard of living; households with incomes below that threshold were defined as poor.
      1902Henry Street Settlement opened the first children's playground in the nation.
      1906The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 regulated opiates and other dangerous narcotics for the first time.
      Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act.
      An Amendment to the Pension Act included old age as a qualifying disability.
      1907The Alliance Employment Bureau (AEB) was established to investigate the industrial trades for women and women's lodging. By 1910, the AEB and its staff became a formal unit of the expanding Russell Sage Foundation.
      1908President Theodore Roosevelt organized a Country Life Commission which celebrated rural life but criticized farmers' excessive individualism. It called for the development of cooperative enterprises and focused attention on the problems of farm wives and the difficulty of keeping children on the farm.
      The landmark Supreme Court case Muller v. Oregon established the right of state governments to regulate the number of hours in a workday.
      1909Roosevelt called social workers and child welfare workers to Washington for the first White House Conference on Dependent Children. Conference attendees supported family life, rather than institutional care for children; the creation of federal children's bureau (created in 1912); and focused attention on the impact of a father's death or desertion on the entire family.
      The Henry Street Settlement hosted the National Negro Conference, which led to the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
      The Survey began publication.
      1910The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded.
      1911Psychoanalysis introduced in the United States as the result of Sigmund Freud's lectures at Clark University.
      State legislatures in Illinois and Missouri enacted Mothers' Pension laws.
      1912Congress authorized pensions for any Union Army soldier who had served 90 days and was at least 62 years old.
      The federal Children's Bureau was established to conduct research on the welfare of women and children.
      Massachusetts enacted a minimum wage law for women and children in private industry.
      1913The Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution authorized a federal income tax.
      The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce established the first Community Chest, an organization which consolidated the many annual fund drives conducted by the city's charities into a single annual appeal. The process assured that donated dollars were put to the best and most efficient use by vetting recipient charities in advance.
      1914The first community foundation was established in Cleveland to enable large and small donors to create endowment funds and place them under common management.
      1916Margaret Sanger, an advocate for women's health, opened the first birth control clinic in the United States.
      Jeanette Pickering Rankin elected to the House of Representatives from Montana, the first woman to serve in the United States Congress.
      1917The United States entered World War I in April.
      The Army established a Neuropsychiatric Division, staffed by psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers, to treat soldiers suffering from mental disorders, to screen prospective recruits, and to facilitate soldiers' return to civilian life after discharge.
      The Red Cross Home Service established to provide services to soldiers and their families.
      The Women in Industry Service was created to address the needs of women entering the work force during the war.
      The Jones Act of 1917 eliminated legal barriers to migration from Puerto Rico to the United States.
      Forty-one states had laws to protect women workers with shorter working hours and safer working conditions; these laws constricted women's occupational choices since they prohibited women from working in occupations considered unsafe.
      1918Social caseworkers in medical settings established the American Association of Medical Social Workers (AAMSW).
      The United States Children's Bureau spearheaded a “Children's Year” to call attention to the needs of children and their families as a result of the war.
      The National War Labor Board established to reduce labor unrest in industries critical to the war effort. The Board, consisting of representatives of both labor and industry, was the first Federal agency to issue comprehensive policies governing working conditions in the private sector.
      1919The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution ratified; made manufacturing, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors illegal; Congress enacted the Volstead or National Prohibition Act, which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
      The National Association of School Social Workers (NASSW) established.
      1920The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution ratified; gave women the right to vote throughout the United States.
      1921Congress enacted the Emergency Quota Act, limiting the number of allowable immigrants to a percentage of the number of immigrants from that nation living in the United States in 1910. This “quota system” governed immigration policy until 1964.
      The Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infant Act of 1921 provided health education and services through federal grants-in-aid to the states. Congress ended the controversial program in 1929.
      The American Association of Social Work (AASW) founded by social work leaders to establish professional standards in training and practice and to bring a common identity and high standards to a broad group of practitioners.
      1924National Origins Quota Act extended the application of the Emergency Quota Act.
      1926Social workers organized the Association of Federation Social Workers in New York City, a precursor to the Rank and File Movement, a social movement would attract young, radical social workers who fought to improve their own working conditions so they could better serve their clients.
      Psychiatric social workers formed a separate organization, the American Association of Psychiatric Social Workers (AAPSW).
      1929New York Stock Market crashed.
      League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) founded to represent the Hispanic community in the United States.
      1930Congress created the Veterans Administration to coordinate the federal government's expanded veterans' services.
      1931Jane Addams received the Nobel Peace Prize.
      1932The Federal Home Loan Bank was established to create a home loan banking system to support the provision of home mortgages.
      The Emergency Relief and Construction Act in 1932 authorized the Hoover Administration to loan funds to the states for unemployment relief.
      The Norris-LaGuardia Act denied the federal courts the right to forbid strikes, peaceful picketing, and other actions not illegal of themselves that unions employed in their dealings with employers.
      1933Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) distributed grants to states for unemployment relief.
      The Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment and ended Prohibition.
      The Civil Conservation Corps (CCC) stimulated the economy by hiring unemployed young men to work in conservation projects located in national and state parks.
      1934Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) permitted tribal communities to form tribal governments and loans were made available to tribal communities.
      National Housing Act of 1934 stimulated the housing market by making credit available for the repair and construction of housing. It also established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) which issued mortgages to prospective homeowners.
      Social Work Today launched to provide a voice for the Rank and File Movement.
      1935Congress passed the Social Security Act, which provided social insurance, public assistance, and social service programs.
      The Works Progress Administration (WPA) stimulated the economy by hiring unemployed workers to construct public facilities and cultural projects were initiated.
      The Wagner or National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) guaranteed the right of collective bargaining and strengthened organized labor.
      1936The American Association of Group Workers (AAGW) was formed.
      1937The National Housing Act (Wagner-Steagall Act) created the first public housing program and established the United States Public Housing Authority to provide federal funds for public housing projects. Unemployed workers were hired to clear slum areas to build affordable housing for the working class.
      Congress enacted the Mexican Stamp Act to control the sale and use of marijuana.
      1938The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) prohibited child labor, established a forty hour work week, a minimum wage and required payment of time and a half for any hours worked in excess of forty.
      1939Social Security amendments added survivors' benefits to Old Age Insurance Program, which changed from a full reserve model to a modified reserve basis for paying benefits to recipients.
      The American Association of Schools of Social Work (AASSW) made graduate education the criterion for membership.
      1940Congress passed the Lanham Act to provide federal funds for community services; enabled thousands of women to get jobs in the factories and demonstrated the potential of comprehensive day care during World War II.
      1941The United States entered the Second World War in December.
      1943The Office of Community War Services established to assist states and communities provide basic services for families, including health care, recreation, and housing assistance.
      1944Congress enacted the Servicemen's Adjustment Act, also known as the “G.I. Bill,” to support services to veterans such as education and job training, low-interest housing loans, employment services, medical services, and unemployment insurance.
      1946Congress enacted the Full Employment Act.
      Congress enacted the Hill-Burton Act to provide federal funding for hospital construction.
      Congress enacted the National Mental Health Act of 1946.
      Community organization practitioners founded the Association for the Study of Community Organization (ASCO).
      1947The Taft-Hartley Act guaranteed the right of individuals to refuse to join unions and addressed problems with labor practices that employers regarded as unfavorable.
      1948President Truman desegregated the military.
      1949Congress enacted the Housing Reform Act of 1949 to provide for urban renewal and suburban development.
      The Social Work Research Group (SWRG) was formed by persons doing research on social work and social services.
      1950An Amendment to the Social Security Act created Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled (APTD) for individuals younger than age 65 who were disabled due to conditions other than blindness.
      1952The merger of the American Association of Schools of Social Work (AASSW) and the National Association of Schools of Social Administration (NASSA) resulted in the creation of the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE).
      1953The Refugee Act encouraged defection from all communist nations and key personnel from Soviet satellite countries.
      1954The Supreme Court decision in Brown v Board ofEducation outlawed racial segregation in public schools and declared the doctrine of “separate but equal” unconstitutional.
      House Concurrent Resolution 108 called for the termination of federal responsibilities to the Indian tribes.
      1955National Association of Social Workers (NASW) founded when five specialist organizations merged with the American Association of Social Workers.
      The Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness created.
      1956Congress created a disability insurance program through amendments to the Social Security Act.
      Rosa Parks began the campaign to boycott the segregated bus system in Montgomery, Alabama; national attention increased when Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., supported this boycott as the civil rights movement gained momentum.
      1957Congress enacted the first Civil Rights Bill since Reconstruction.
      1959National Security Council memorandum and the 1953 Refugee Act implemented with regard to Cuba when Fidel Castro imposed a communist government there.
      1961The Peace Corps created.
      The Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness published its influential Action for Mental Health.
      The Presidential Commission on the Status of Women energized the women's movement.
      1962The Manpower Development Act initiated the first real job training program since the New Deal.
      The Services Amendments to the Social Security Act reimbursed the states for social services.
      The Keogh Act set guidelines for individual retirement plans.
      1963The March on Washington highlighted civil rights issues.
      The Omnibus Civil Rights Bill enacted.
      The Community Mental Health Centers Act. A victory for the advocates of a community-oriented approach to mental health services, since it strengthened community facilities and diminished the role of mental hospitals.
      1964The Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandated desegregation of public facilities and outlawed discrimination in hiring on the basis of race, color, religion, gender or national origin. The act also established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and outlawed discrimination in private employment. Title VII prohibited racial discrimination in the hiring, firing, compensation, terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.
      The Economic Opportunity Act created the office of Economic Opportunity.
      1965Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was designed to extend to all citizens equal voting rights. The act abolished literacy tests and provided federal examiners to monitor elections.
      Congress established the Medicaid program to provide medical services to lower income citizens and long term care for the disabled and aged poor.
      Congress enacted the Medicare program to provide hospital insurance and physician fee reimbursement to social security beneficiaries.
      War on Poverty Programs launched under the auspices of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
      Mollie Orshansky developed a mathematical formula called the poverty line to define poverty in the United States.
      Congress enacted the Older Americans Act which created the Administration on Aging.
      Congress enacted the Housing Act of 1965 which created the first cabinet-level agency, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), to deal with housing and urban renewal.
      Congress enacted the Hart-Cellar Act, which eliminated the national origins quota system established by the 1921 and 1924 Immigration Acts.
      1966The Supreme Court in Kent v United States granted juveniles some of the due process guarantees afforded to adults.
      The National Organization for Women founded.
      The Veterans' Readjustment Benefits Act (the “Vietnam G.I. Bill”) provided educational assistance to Vietnam War veterans.
      1967The Supreme Court, in In Re Gault, provided additional rights to juveniles such as the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to timely notice of charges.
      The President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice recommended the decriminalization of status offenders, the diversion of juvenile offenders from official court processing, and the deinstitutionalization of juvenile offenders.
      The Veterans Administration established Veterans Assistance Centers in twenty-one cities as a part of its outreach program.
      1968The Fair Housing Act prohibited housing discrimination and legislation established the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae) to expand the availability of mortgage funds for moderate income families.
      The United States Bureau of the Budget used the poverty line developed by Orshansky in 1965 as an official measure of poverty.
      The American Indian Movement (AIM), an activist organization, established.
      The Veterans Administration implemented Operation Outreach to insure that veterans were aware of the benefits available to them.
      1969The Stonewall Riots of 1969 in New York City provided the impetus which led to the emergence of the modern lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) civil rights movement.
      NASW decided to extend membership benefits to individuals with undergraduate degrees in social work.
      Congress enacted the Tax Reform Act of 1969 to ensure that organized philanthropy was more responsive to the public interest.
      1972Congress enacted a Social Security Amendment that added a cost of living index to Old Age Insurance benefits and established the Supplemental Security Income (SSI).
      NASW moved its headquarters to Washington, D.C. to be more effective in advocating for national policy changes.
      Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment but the amendment ultimately fell three states short of the required 35 for ratification when the time limit expired in 1982.
      1973Congress increased social security benefits by twenty percent and indexed them to inflation.
      The American Psychiatric Association deleted homosexuality from its official nomenclature of mental disorders.
      The Comprehensive Employment Training Act (1973) provided the largest job training program since the Great Depression.
      The Comprehensive Services Act gave states more discretionary power in allocating funds through the creation of a network of Area Agencies on Aging.
      1974The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) established fiduciary standards for larger pension systems; Congress allowed citizens to defer taxes on payments to Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs).
      Congress established the National Institute on Aging.
      In the Congressional Budget Act, Congress mandated that a “tax expenditure budget” be produced annually beginning in 1975.
      The Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 created the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program to provide federal funds for housing to be administered by cities and states. The act also created the Section 8 program to provide low-income persons with rental assistance vouchers.
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 was designed to prevent delinquency and remove children from adult jails and lock-ups.
      California and New York moved to decriminalize homo-sexual acts between consenting adults.
      1975Congress passed the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act.
      1976NASW created Political Action and Candidate Election (PACE) to endorse candidates for office and contribute to their campaigns.
      1977The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 was amended to make it more controlling of juvenile behavior.
      1978The term Hispanic as a label was first introduced by the Office of Management and Budget to better administratively operationalize the idea of persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish heritage regardless of race.
      1983Amendments to the Social Security Act raised the retirement age and increased payroll taxes.
      1984The Comprehensive Control Act included “get tough” measures to deal with juvenile delinquency.
      1986The Tax Reform Act of 1986 authorized a Low Income Housing Tax Credit that provided tax incentives to developers to build low-income housing.
      1987The Stewart McKinney Act of 1987 provided community-level funding to address homelessness.
      March on Washington for Gay and Lesbian Civil Rights.
      1988The Family Support Act of 1988 mandated that all mothers with a child less than three years of age find work or register in a job training program in exchange for one year of transitional day care and health coverage.
      1989The Veterans Administration became a cabinet level agency, the Department of Veterans Affairs.
      1990The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 authorized housing for special needs populations including people with AIDS.
      1993Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 provided unpaid family leave for childbirth and medical emergencies.
      President Clinton compromised and enacted the landmark “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy which was designed to stop the discharge from the military of men and women based solely on their sexual orientation.
      March on Washington in response to Clinton's broken promises and lack of effective policies for gay men and lesbians in the military.
      1994Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) increased opportunities for transracial adoption and prohibited any foster care or adoption agency that receives federal funds from denying a placement solely on the basis of race.
      1996Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 eliminated the welfare entitlement program Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and limited its lifetime receipt to five years, required most welfare recipients to get a job within two years. As a part of welfare reform, public welfare benefits including food stamps and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) were curtailed for legal immigrants.
      1998Workforce Investment Act defined clients as “customers” and demanded “work first” before offering services.
      1999The Supreme Court in Hawaii ruled that recognized marriage could not be denied to people based on their sexual orientation which caused the United States Congress to pass legislation prohibiting any state from recognizing any marriage not involving a man and a woman.
      2004President Bush argued undocumented illegal aliens be given opportunities for residency which could culminate in citizenship.

      Appendix C: Master Bibliography

      Master Bibliography
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      Abbott, E. (1940). Public assistance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Abbott, E. (1942). Social welfare and professional education (Rev. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Abbott, E., & Breckinridge, S. (1921). Administration of mothers' aid law in Illinois (U.S. Children's Bureau Publication No. 82). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
      Abbott, G. (1917). The immigrant and the community. New York: Century.
      Abbott, G. (1938). The child and the state: Legal status in the family, apprenticeship, and child labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Abbott, G. [Obituary]. New York Timesp. 21(1939, June 20)
      Abbott, G. (1941). From relief to Social Security: The development of the new public welfare services and their administration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Abel, C., & Lewis, C. M. (Eds.). (2002). Exclusion & engagement: Social policy in Latin America. London: Institute of Latin American Studies.
      Abramovitz, M. (1996). Regulating the lives of women: Social welfare policy from colonial times to the present (2nd ed.). Boston: South End.
      Abu-Laban, Y., & Gabriel, C. (2002). Selling diversity: Immigration, multiculturalism, employment equity and globalization. Peterborough, ON: Broadview.
      Achenbaum, W. A. (1978). Old age in the new land: The American experience since 1790. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
      Acuna, R. (1988). Occupied America: A history of Chicanos (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
      Adams, H. (1977). Harry Hopkins. New York: Putnam.
      Adams, I. (1971). The real poverty report. Edmonton, AB: M. G. Hurtig.
      Adams, T. Philanthropic landmarks: The Toronto Trail from a comparative perspective, 1870s to the 1930s. Urban History Review30(1)3–21(2001)
      Addams, J. (1902). Democracy and social ethics. New York: Macmillan.
      Addams, J. (1909). The spirit of youth and the city streets. New York: Macmillan.
      Addams, J. (1910). Twenty Years at Hull House. New York: Macmillan.
      Addams, J. (1930). The second twenty years at Hull House. New York: Macmillan.
      Addams, J. (1974). My friend, Julia Lathrop. New York: Arno. (Original work published 1935)
      Addams, J. (1990). Twenty years at Hull House [With autobiographical notes]. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. (Original work published 1910)
      Addams, J., Balch, E., & Hamilton, A. (1915). Women at The Hague: The International Congress of Women and its results. New York: Macmillan.
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      Agostoni, C. (2003). Monuments of progress. Modernization and public health in Mexico City, 1876–1910. Calgary, AB: University of Calgary Press; Boulder: University Press of Colorado; Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas.
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      Aguirre Beltrán, G. (1992). Teoría y práctica del la educación indígena. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económico. (Original work published 1973)
      Aikin, W. M. (1942). The story of the eight-year study, with conclusions and recommendations. New York: Harper & Brothers. Available: http://www.8yearstudy.org
      Alchon, G. Mary van Kleeck and social-economic planning. Journal of Policy History31–23(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0898030600004486
      Aldrete Haas, J. A. (1991). La desconstrucción del estado mexicano: Políticas de vivienda, 1917–1988. Mexico City: Alianza Editorial.
      Allen, R. (1973). The social passion: Religion and social reform in Canada, 1914–1928. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
      Allen, R. (1990). The social passion: Religion and social reform in Canada, 1914–1928 (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
      Alsop, J., & Kintner, R. (1971). Men around the president. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. (Original work published 1939)
      Altmeyer, A. J. (1932). The Industrial Commission of Wisconsin. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
      Altmeyer, A. J. (1966). The formative years of Social Security. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
      Álvarez Amézquita, J., Bustamante, M. E., López Picazos, A., & Fernández del Castillo, F. (1960). Historia de la salubridad y de la asistencia en México (Vols. 1–4). Mexico City: Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia.
      Álvarez Amézquita, J., Bustamante, M., Picazos, A. L., & del Castillo, F. F. (1960). Historia de la salubridad y de la asistencia en México. Mexico City: Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia.
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