Encyclopedia of Social Theory

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Edited by: George Ritzer

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    • Editorial Board

      GENERAL EDITOR

      George Ritzer

      University of Maryland

      MANAGING EDITORS

      Jeffrey Stepnisky

      University of Maryland

      Todd Stillman

      University of Maryland

      EDITORIAL BOARD

      Martin Albrow, UK, University of Surrey, Roehampton

      German Social Theory

      Peter Beilharz, Australia, La Trobe University

      Marxian Social Theory

      Karen S. Cook, US, Stanford University

      Microbehaviorist Theory

      Gary Alan Fine, US, Northwestern University

      Micro-Interactionist Theory

      Douglas Kellner, US, University of California, Los Angeles

      Cultural Theory

      Peter Kivisto, US, Augustana College

      Key Concepts in Social Theory

      Gerd Nollmann, Germany, University of Duisberg-Essen

      German Social Theory

      Mary F. Rogers, US, University of West Florida

      Feminist Social Theory

      Barry Smart, UK, Plymouth University

      British Social Theory

      Hermann Strasser, Germany, University of Duisberg-Essen

      German Social Theory

      Jonathan Turner, US, University of California, Riverside

      American Social Theory

      Andrew Wernick, Canada, Trent University

      French Social Theory

      Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      List of Contributors

      • Abbinnett, Ross, Leeds Metropolitan University, England
      • Adams, Bert N., University of Wisconsin–Madison, United States
      • Alexander, Jeffrey C., Yale University, United States
      • Andrews, David L., University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Armitage, John, Northumbria University, England
      • Bailey, Kenneth D., University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Beck, Ulrich, Ludwig Maximilan Universität München, Germany; London School of Economics & Political Science, England
      • Beilharz, Peter, La Trobe University, Australia
      • Best, Joel, University of Delaware, United States
      • Bienenstock, Elisa J., University of California–Irvine, United States
      • Boggs, Carl, National University, United States
      • Bonacich, Philip, University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Bradley, Owen, University of Tennessee, United States
      • Breiger, Ronald L., University of Arizona, United States
      • Brint, Steven, University of California–Riverside, United States
      • Brown, Richard Harvey, University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Brush, Paula, Western Michigan University, United States
      • Bryman, Alan, Loughborough University, England
      • Buchanan, Ian, Monash University, Australia
      • Cahill, Spencer E., University of South Florida, United States
      • Calhoun, Craig, Social Science Research Council and New York University, United States
      • Cerulo, Karen A., Rutgers University, United States
      • Chambliss, Daniel F., Hamilton College, United States
      • Charmaz, Kathy, Sonoma State University, United States
      • Chase, Susan E., University of Tulsa, United States
      • Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Christopher University of California–Riverside, United States
      • Chesters, Graeme, Edge Hill University College, England
      • Chibber, Vivek, New York University, United States
      • Chriss, James J., Cleveland State University, United States
      • Cohen, Ira J., Rutgers University, United States
      • Colomy, Paul, University of Denver, United States
      • Cook, Karen S., Stanford University, United States
      • Copp, Martha, East Tennessee State University, United States
      • Corrigall-Brown, Catherine, University of California–Irvine, United States
      • Craib, Ian, University of Essex, England
      • Crawford, Cassandra S., University of California–San Francisco, United States
      • Cubitt, Sean, University of Waikato, New Zealand
      • Delaney, Tim, State University of New York–Oswego, United States
      • Delanty, Gerard, University of Liverpool, England
      • Demerath, Loren, Centenary College of Louisiana, United States
      • Denzin, Norman K., University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States
      • Dickens, Peter, University of Cambridge, England
      • DiMaggio, Paul, Princeton University, United States
      • Dines, Gail, Wheelock College, United States
      • Domhoff, G. William, University of California–Santa Cruz, United States
      • Dow, Geoff, University of Queensland, Australia
      • Durham, Meenakshi Gigi, University of Iowa, United States
      • Dürrschmidt, Jörg, Kassel University, Germany
      • Eglitis, Daina Stukuls, George Washington University, United States
      • Emge, Richard Martinus, University of Bonn, Germany
      • Evans, John H., University of California–San Diego, United States
      • Faist, Thomas, University of Applied Sciences Bremen, Germany, and Malmö University, Sweden
      • Fine, Gary Alan, Northwestern University, United States
      • Fontana, Andrea, University of Nevada–Las Vegas, United States
      • Friedkin, Noah E., University of California–Santa Barbara, United States
      • Ganchoff, Chris, University of California–San Francisco, United States
      • Genosko, Gary, Lakehead University, Canada
      • Giesen, Bernhard, University of Konstanz, Germany
      • Goldstone, Jack A., George Mason University, United States
      • Goodman, Douglas J., University of Puget Sound, United States
      • Gotham, Kevin Fox, Tulane University, United States
      • Granovetter, Mark, Stanford University, United States
      • Gross, Neil, Harvard University, United States
      • Grundmann, Reiner, Ashton University, England
      • Guidry, John, Augustana College, United States
      • Hahn, Kornelia, Universität Lüneburg, Germany
      • Haines, Valerie A., University of Calgary, Canada
      • Hałas, Elżbieta, Warsaw University, Poland
      • Halfpenny, Peter, University of Manchester, England
      • Hall, John A., McGill University, Canada
      • Hallett, Tim, Indiana University, United States
      • Halton, Eugene, University of Notre Dame, United States
      • Hamamoto, Darrell Y., University of California–Davis, United States
      • Hammer, Rhonda, University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Heckathorn, Douglas D., Cornell University, United States
      • Hegarty, Paul, University College Cork, Ireland
      • Hegtvedt, Karen A., Emory University, United States
      • Helle, Horst Jürgen, Universität München, Germany
      • Helmes-Hayes, Richard, University of Waterloo, Canada
      • Hilbert, Richard A., Gustavus Adolphus College, United States
      • Hogan, Richard, Purdue University, United States
      • Hooker, Zachary R., John Carroll University, United States
      • Howard, Michael C., University of Waterloo, Canada
      • Jeffries, Vincent, California State University–Northridge, United States
      • Jenkins, Henry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
      • Jenkins, Richard, University of Sheffield–Elmfield, England
      • Johnson, Allan G., University of Hartford, United States
      • Kahn, Richard, University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Karp, David A., Boston College, United States
      • Kellner, Douglas, University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Kernan, Lisa D., University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • King, John E., La Trobe University, Australia
      • Kivisto, Peter, Augustana College, United States
      • Kleiner, Marcus S., Universität Duisburg–Essen, Germany
      • Kleinman, Sherryl, University of North Carolina, United States
      • Knorr Cetina, Karin, University of Konstanz, Germany
      • Kumar, Krishan, University of Virginia, United States
      • Kurasawa, Fuyuki, York University, Canada
      • Lawler, Edward J., Cornell University, Ithaca, United States
      • Lechner, Frank J., Emory University, United States
      • Lechte, John, Macquarie University, Australia
      • Leggewie, Claus, University of Giessen, Germany
      • Leicht, Kevin T., University of Iowa, United States
      • Leledakis, Kanakis, Pamteion University, Greece
      • Lemert, Charles, Wesleyan University, United States
      • Lemich, Jon, University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Levy, Daniel, State University of New York–Stony Brook, United States
      • Lewis, Tyson, University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Li, Rebecca S. K., The College of New Jersey, United States
      • Lindenberg, Siegwart, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
      • Lohr-Valdez, Nina, University of West Florida, United States
      • Lovaglia, Michael J., University of Iowa, United States
      • Luttrell, Wendy, Harvard Graduate School of Education, United States
      • Lynch, Michael, Cornell University, United States
      • Macy, Michael W., Cornell University, United States
      • Mahoney, James, Brown University, United States
      • Maines, David R., Oakland University, United States
      • Mamo, Laura, University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Manning, Philip, Cleveland State University, United States
      • Markoff, John, University of Pittsburgh, United States
      • Markovsky, Barry, University of South Carolina, United States
      • Markus, György, University of Sydney, Australia
      • Martin, Daniel D., Miami University, United States
      • Marx, Gary T., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Maryanski, Alexandra, University of California–Riverside, United States
      • McCarthy, E. Doyle, Fordham University, United States
      • McGuigan, Jim, Loughborough University, England
      • McPherson, Miller, Duke University, United States
      • Meagher, Michelle, George Mason University, United States
      • Mennell, Stephen, University College Dublin, Ireland
      • Miller, Toby, New York University, United States
      • Mizruchi, Mark S., University of Michigan, United States
      • Molm, Linda D., University of Arizona, United States
      • Münch, Richard, Otto–Friedrich–Universität Bamberg, Germany
      • Murphy, James M., University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Murphy, Peter, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
      • Naples, Nancy A., University of Connecticut, United States
      • Nielsen, Donald A., University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire, United States
      • Nollman, Gerd, University of Duisberg–Essen, Germany
      • Orum, Anthony, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States
      • Oselin, Sharon S., University of California–Irvine, United States
      • Pearce, Frank, Queen's University, Canada
      • Pemberton, Jennifer, Florida State University, United States
      • Peterson, Gretchen, California State University–Los Angeles, United States
      • Phillips, John William, National University of Singapore, Singapore
      • Powers, Charles, Santa Clara University, United States
      • Prager, Jeffrey, University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Pratt, Ray, Montana State University–Bozeman, United States
      • Prendergast, Christopher, Illinois Wesleyan University, United States
      • Probyn, Elspeth, University of Sydney, Australia
      • Rawls, Anne W., Wayne State University, United States
      • Resch, Robert, Texas A&M University, United States
      • Rice, Eric, University of California–Los Angeles, United States
      • Ritzer, George, University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Rogers, Mary F., University of West Florida, United States
      • Rojek, Chris, Nottingham Trent University, England
      • Rossi, Ino, St. John's University, United States
      • Rubin, Julius H., Saint Joseph College, United States
      • Rundell, John, University of Melbourne, Australia
      • Ryan, Dan, Mills College, United States
      • Ryan, Michael, University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Ryersbach, Marga, University of West Florida, United States
      • Sandstrom, Kent, University of Northern Iowa, United States
      • Sawyer, R. Keith, Washington University, United States
      • Scaff, Lawrence A., Wayne State University, Detroit, United States
      • Schmidt, Gert, Universität Erlangen–Nürnberg, Germany
      • Schneider, Joseph W., Drake University, United States
      • Schubert, Hans-Joachim, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
      • Schwalbe, Michael, North Carolina State University, United States
      • Scott, W. Richard, Stanford University, United States
      • Shulman, David, Lafayette College, United States
      • Sica, Alan, Pennsylvania State University, United States
      • Simonds, Candice Bryant, Western Michigan University, United States
      • Simpson, Brent, University of South Carolina, United States
      • Singer, Brian C. J., Glendon College, York University, Canada
      • Skvoretz, John, University of South Carolina, United States
      • Slater, Don, London School of Economics and Political Science, England
      • Smith-Lovin, Lynn, Duke University, United States
      • Snow, David A., University of California–Irvine, United States
      • Soeffner, Hans-Georg, Universität Konstanz, Germany
      • Srubar, Ilja, Universität Erlangen–Nürnberg, Germany
      • Staggenborg, Suzanne, McGill University, Canada
      • Stehr, Nico, Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen, Germany
      • Stepnisky, Jeffrey, University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Stevens, Mitchell L., New York University, United States
      • Stillman, Todd, University of Maryland–College Park, United States
      • Stones, Rob, University of Essex, England
      • Strasser, Hermann, University of Duisburg–Essen, Germany
      • Strydom, Piet, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
      • Šuber, Daniel, University of Konstanz, Germany
      • Swatos, William H. Jr., Association for the Sociology of Religion/Religious Research Association Executive Office, United States
      • Széll, György, University of Osnabrück, Germany
      • Sznaider, Natan, Academic College of Tel Aviv–Yaffo, Israel
      • Sztompka, Piotr, Jagiellonian University, Poland
      • Takahashi, Nobuyuki, Hokkaido University, Japan
      • Thibault, Paul J., University of Venice, Italy
      • Thye, Shane, University of South Carolina–Columbia, United States
      • Tong, Rosemarie, University of North Carolina–Charlotte, United States
      • Turner, Bryan S., University of California–Riverside, United States
      • Turner, Jonathan H., University of California–Riverside, United States
      • Tyler, Tom R., New York University, United States
      • Vandenberghe, Frédéric, University for Humanist Studies, The Netherlands
      • Vogt, Ludgera, Universität Regensburg, Germany
      • Warner, R. Stephen, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States
      • Webster, Murray Jr., University of North Carolina, United States
      • Weeks, L. Paul, University of West Florida, United States
      • Weiss, Johannes, University of Kassel, Germany
      • Welsh, Ian, Cardiff University, Wales, U.K.
      • Wernick, Andrew, Trent University, Canada
      • Whimster, Sam, London Metropolitan University, England
      • Whitmeyer, Joseph M., University of North Carolina–Charlotte, United States
      • Wiedenhoft, Wendy A., John Carroll University, United States
      • Willer, David, University of South Carolina, United States
      • Wilson, Janelle L., University of Minnesota–Duluth, United States
      • Winter, Rainer, Universität Klagenfurt, Austria
      • Witkowski, Christine, University of South Carolina, United States
      • Wolf, Harald, Soziologisches Forschungsinstitut, Göttingen, and University of Kassel, Germany
      • Woolfolk, Alan, Oglethorpe University, United States
      • Wright, Eric Olin, University of Wisconsin–Madison, United States
      • Wrong, Dennis H., New York University, United States
      • Yamagishi, Toshio, Hokkaido University, Japan
      • Zhao, Shanyang, Temple University, United States
      • Zijderveld, Anton C., Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, The Netherlands

      Introduction

      GeorgeRitzer, University of Maryland
      Jeffrey N.Stepnisky, University of Maryland

      To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Encyclopedia of Social Theory. There are, of course, encyclopedias of the social sciences (among others) that have addressed some of the topics assembled here. However, because their treatment of social theory has been only part of a much broader set of topics, these other sets of volumes have been unable to provide the focus and depth required to define the field of social theory in a reasonably complete (of course, inevitably there are topics that are not covered) and systematic fashion.

      The purpose of an encyclopedia is to summarize and codify knowledge in a given field. This is in contrast to a handbook, which offers essays on cutting-edge research in a field, or a dictionary, which provides short, to-the-point definitions of key concepts in a field (Sica 2001). Certainly, an encyclopedia also does some of the things that one finds in handbooks and dictionaries. Thus, the Encyclopedia of Social Theory offers handbook-like (albeit briefer) entries on cutting-edge topics, such as globalization, consumption, complexity theory, and actor network theory, and it provides state-of-the-art interpretations of long-established theories. Also, like a dictionary, the entries in this encyclopedia provide basic introductions to key ideas, concepts, schools, and figures in social theory. However, the entries tend to be far longer and offer much more depth than those found in dictionaries.

      However, an encyclopedia is much more than the presentation of a set of ideas. Its publication is an acknowledgement that a field of study has acquired considerable intellectual coherence and that it is regarded as a legitimate source of knowledge. The publication of an encyclopedia of social theory, then, speaks to the importance and relevance of social theory to academia and to the world in which we now live. Social theory is not merely an after-thought of empirical work in the social and human sciences, but rather, it stands at the base of such work and as a body of knowledge that offers a unique form of interpretation and engagement with the world.

      This is not to say that all of the 300-plus entries contained in this encyclopedia cohere around a common set of world-views, philosophical outlooks, or political positions. Social theory encompasses a wide range of academic disciplines. Perspectives from sociology, economics, philosophy, anthropology, political science, women's studies, cultural studies, psychoanalysis, and media theory (among others) are presented in this encyclopedia. Some of these fields, such as economics, philosophy, and sociology, made especially critical contributions to the early development of social theory. While theoretical ideas continue to flow from those disciplines, others, such as media and cultural studies, are now having a particularly important impact on social theory. Despite the diversity of inputs and theories, what is common to the entries in this encyclopedia is a critical engagement with social issues, including the cutting-edge developments in modern, postmodern, and globalizing societies. Such a critical engagement requires, as its starting point, the careful articulation and study of ideas and theories about society and the people who live in them. It seeks understanding and clarification of our common (or perhaps uncommon) situation, and in many cases seeks reform or even social change.

      While a multitude of disciplines are represented in these pages, it should be made clear that the reference point for much of this encyclopedia is the discipline of sociology. This is because of the central role that sociologists (or those, such as Marx and Veblen, who have come to be considered as sociologists, at least to some degree) have played in the development of social theory and also because the editor is both a sociologist and a social theorist. While the touchstone is sociology, most of the ideas and theorists to be discussed here either have their origins in other disciplines and/or are having an impact on them.

      A Brief History of Social Theory

      Most contemporary commentators trace the origins of social theory to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. While humans have described and theorized the nature of social relations and social organization for thousands of years, only in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did social relations and society—seen as an entity in itself—become an object of sustained reflection and study. Social theory emerged alongside of, and often in response to, forces that were radically transforming social life: capitalism, political revolutions in France and America, the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and scientific thought. In response to and in accord with these changes, Enlightenment philosophers (e.g., Montesquieu, Rousseau) and their critics articulated some of the earliest social theories. Many Enlightenment thinkers believed that through the application of reason, it would be possible to design an ideal political community and social order. However, the failure of the French Revolution provoked strong criticism of Enlightenment ideals, which in part had guided its course. Conservatives such as Bonald and Maistre articulated theories of society that asserted the necessity of hierarchy and religious order against the liberal ideals of the revolution. Romantics lamented the rise of abstract reason, urban society, and the loss of humanity's connection to its natural, sympathetic impulses. These streams of thought, and many others, gave rise to what we now think of as social theory, and as evidenced by the entries in this encyclopedia, they remain a rich resource for contemporary theorizing (Rundell 2001; Taylor 1989). While the Encyclopedia of Social Theory contains essays that specifically address these early years of social theory (see the Scottish Enlightenment, the German Idealists, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bonald, and Maistre) as well as essays that discuss topics that relate to the ancient origins of some modern ideas and institutions (see Democracy, Citizenship, and Herrschaft), the majority of the entries address social theory as it has developed from the nineteenth century onward. In designing the Encyclopedia of Social Theory, four national traditions were singled out for detailed treatment because of their extraordinary contributions to social theory: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and Germany.

      In the early part of the nineteenth century, the study of society was institutionalized through the creation of the discipline of sociology. During this period, the French philosopher and socialist Auguste Comte coined the term “sociology.” In the late nineteenth century, Émile Durkheim played a central role in formally establishing sociology as a scientific discipline committed to the systematic and empirical study of “social facts.” Along with his nephew Marcel Mauss and other collaborators, Durkheim created an influential journal, L'Année Sociologique, which was to define the study of sociology in early twentieth-century France.

      At roughly the same time, Max Weber established the basis for a scientific sociology in Germany and along with several colleagues (including Georg Simmel) founded the German Sociological Society. In the United Kingdom, Herbert Spencer's evolutionary theories profoundly affected the development of British social theory, but British thinking and research also emphasized individual, utilitarian action, and this was to have a great impact in the United States. In 1889, the first American sociology department was founded at the University of Kansas; and in later years, the uniquely American schools of pragmatism and structural functionalism became influential. These “classical” years, and by extension, the social theory that emanated from them, are necessarily addressed in this encyclopedia. The work and life of Émile Durkheim, for example, is described in the entry about him, but other entries also reflect his conceptual legacy: Anomie, Sacred and Profane, Social Facts, and many others that involve a more indirect influence. In addition, classical figures who have traditionally been excluded from the sociological canon have been included in this Encyclopedia of Social Theory. Marianne Weber, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and W. E. B. Du Bois are examples of theorists whose work is now being discussed not only for its historical significance but also for its relevance in developing social theories that more adequately account for the experiences of women and minorities today.

      The twentieth century gave rise to a wide range of social theories, and many of these can be thought of in terms of national traditions. From the 1930s through the 1960s, the United States was the center of the rise and fall of structural-functional theory (with roots in the work of Durkheim and that of a number of anthropologists). Premised in liberal political values and confidence in social harmony provided by the welfare state, especially after World War II, structural functionalism offered an all-encompassing, synthetic system of social thought. The weakness of this kind of social theory—most notably its inability to offer convincing explanations of social conflict and the unequal distribution of wealth, as well as social change—led to its collapse beginning in the late 1960s.

      In contrast to the singular control that structural functionalism once exercised over the field, American sociology in the 1970s could be characterized as multiparadigmatic. It included the revival and development at the macrolevel of a number of neo-Marxian theories and also saw the emergence of critical feminist social theories. These latter theories gave women's experiences, and later the experiences of many marginalized groups, a central position in social analysis. Significantly, these theories added the study of race and gender to Marx's primary emphasis on class inequality.

      Beginning in the late 1960s, American sociological theory also pushed further in the direction of microsociology, in large part to counter the macrosociological focus of structural functionalism. Inspired by earlier work in phenomenology, pragmatism, and behaviorist psychology, theories such as symbolic interactionism (with roots going back to the early twentieth century and the Chicago school), ethnomethodology, and exchange theory provided finegrained descriptions of everyday life. The proliferation of macrosociological theories and microsociological theories, and the seeming gap between them, called for a reconciliation or synthesis, and in the 1980s, sociological theory took a decidedly “metatheoretical” turn. Metatheorists organized, characterized, and offered syntheses of the various sociological theories and helped give rise to a concern for “macro-micro” integration.

      Throughout the same period, the most influential developments in European social theory (especially in France, Germany, and Great Britain) came from traditions outside of sociology, including linguistics, anthropology, psychoanalysis, and literary theory. These various traditions profoundly shaped social theory in Europe and since the 1980s have had an increasing impact on American social theory, thereby making it increasingly difficult to make any clear-cut distinctions between American and European social theory.

      In France, the work of Swiss-born linguist Ferdinand de Saussure laid the groundwork for structuralist social theories. These took as their starting point the assumption that the social world and, as argued by anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, symbol systems more generally were organized like and through language. Structuralism combined with currents from other European schools of thought, giving rise to, among others, structuralist Marxism (Louis Althusser), structuralist psychoanalysis (Jacques Lacan), and structuralist sociology (the early work of Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu). The existential work of Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir also had an impact on social theory both in Europe and the United States. Sartre's writings were influential in the development of various microtheories as well as more humanistic branches of neo-Marxian theory. Its focus on human agency also functioned as a negative touchstone for those developing structural theories. Beauvoir's work was especially influential in the formation of feminist social theories.

      Following widespread political uprisings in 1968, especially in France, the humanistic and scientistic ideals of earlier social theories were challenged as never before. This gave rise to a widespread reassessment of the underlying assumptions of social theory. In this context, the literary theorist Jacques Derrida offered deconstruction as a critique of existing theories of knowledge and as a method for the study of society. These critical poststructuralist efforts were also developed through Michel Foucault's “genealogical” method and the later postmodern writings of Jean-François Lyotard, Gilles Deleuze, and Felix Guattari, and Jean Baudrillard.

      By the 1980s, just as a number of American social theorists were working toward greater micro-macro integration, many of their European colleagues were attempting to reconcile the theoretical split between theories that privileged the autonomy of social structures and those that valorized the freedom and agency of individuals (following the work, among others, of Sartre on existentialism). In light of these concerns, Pierre Bourdieu (in France) developed a theory integrating habitus and field; Anthony Giddens (in Great Britain; see also, the work of Margaret Archer) proposed and elaborated a “structuration” theory; and Jürgen Habermas (in Germany) offered a theory of the relationship between system and lifeworld (as well as a concern for the degree to which the system was colonizing the lifeworld).

      German social theory has contributed other concepts and ideas central to the development of twentieth-century social theory. Karl Marx, a lifelong exile from his German home, was deeply sympathetic to the cause of the European working classes. His work offered both a political vision of the modern Europe, most energetically outlined in the Communist Manifesto (written with his colleague and financial backer, Friedrich Engels) and an economic theory of social change, articulated in the three volumes of Capital. Clearly, Marx's work has been influential. It has stood, and continues to stand, as an inspiration for large-scale social change and political organization, and it has given rise to a wide variety of neo-Marxist social theories, academic organizations, and journals. As a counterpoint to Marx, Max Weber, writing a generation later, emerged as a giant in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century German sociology and social theory. Whereas Marx anticipated the inevitability of revolutionary change, Weber offered a more staid and pessimistic vision. His studies in comparative and historical sociology led him to conclude that modern societies (whether capitalist, socialist, or some other) faced increasing rationalization, which he characterized with the metaphor of an “iron cage,” an image that continues to compel contemporary social theorists. Furthermore, since the 1970s, Weber's work on social organization and institutional structures has had a strong impact on historical and comparative sociology.

      Like his French counterpart, Durkheim, Weber was also interested in scholarly disputes about method and theory in sociology. He was influenced by Wilhelm Dilthey, who articulated the influential distinction between the Naturwissenschaften (natural sciences) and the Geistes-wissenschaften (human sciences). Should social science follow the natural sciences and embrace a “positivist” theory of knowledge, or should it recognize itself as a moral and cultural science dedicated to a hermeneutic interpretation of social life? Indeed, at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century, German philosophers and social scientists articulated tensions and developed arguments that continue to occupy social theory. The history of these debates is presented in this encyclopedia with entries on the Positivismusstreit and the Werturteilsstreit (among others), as are contemporary articulations of “positivist” and “interpretive” social theories.

      An argument could be made that contemporary social theory has pushed beyond these disputes and that new fusions of science and art are now being undertaken. Moving beyond old distinctions between art and science, complexity theory, for example, draws on cutting-edge “chaos” theories in physics and mathematics to analyze and describe social systems. Moving beyond modern distinctions between human beings and inanimate objects, actor network theories and “postsocial” theories (both largely based in France and Great Britain) grant objects unprecedented agency, thereby inviting interpretive investigations of objects and relationships that might once have been studied through the lens of natural science.

      Contemporary social theory is also indebted to the writings and research of a variety of neo-Marxian theorists, including those associated with the Frankfurt school in Germany. Beginning in the 1920s, the members of this school provided a synthesis of Marx, Weber, and Freud and offered critiques of modern fascist and democratic/ consumer societies. The Frankfurt school influenced mid-century American social theory after its move, in the midst of the ascendancy of Nazism in Germany, to Columbia University in New York in the 1930s. The work of the Frankfurt school has been central in establishing the basis for critical cultural studies. Equally important to the history of cultural studies and social theory is the work of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS), or the “Birmingham school,” established at the University of Birmingham, England, in the 1960s. In contrast to what many now see as the overly elitist perspective of the Frankfurt school, members of the CCCS offered theories of popular culture and the media that combined elements of Marxism, poststructuralism, feminist analysis, semiology, and a number of other perspectives. The views of both of these schools are addressed in entries on culture, such as Media Critique, Television and Social Theory, Cultural Marxism and British Cultural Studies, and many others. Finally, contemporary German theorists such as the previously mentioned Jürgen Habermas (extending the work of the Frankfurt school), Niklas Luhmann, and Ulrich Beck have offered comprehensive theories of society that exhibit a powerful European style, rich in philosophical reflection and grounded in interdisciplinary knowledge. These authors confirm that social theory, especially in its current incarnations, reaches beyond sociology to include a wide range of disciplines and problems (economic, political, social, and psychological).

      It would be impossible to list all of the national or intellectual traditions that have contributed to the development of social theory, and it is, in any case, an artificial enterprise, for as we have seen, even in its earliest stages, social theory reached beyond nations and disciplines, and in the present, these old boundaries are becoming increasingly less relevant. Critiques of the “grand narratives” of science and social progress have led to a reassessment of social theory and its Western, liberal commitment to progress and reason. Too often, despite the good intentions of their creators, the grand narratives excluded the experiences and voices of social minorities and supported the political, economic, and military oppression of non-Western peoples. This view is reflected in a number of the postmodern essays in this encyclopedia, as well as those coming from feminist traditions. These include widespread critiques of the positivist theories of knowledge that had been especially central to Anglo-American social theories and the formulation of alternative epistemologies: social constructionism, feminist standpoint theory, queer theory, revivals of hermeneutic techniques, and the integrative perspectives mentioned above. Indeed, even as the heyday of postmodern deconstruction has passed, social theory has been deeply influenced by the critique of normal science, stable identities, and settled forms of thought. At the same time, in a globalizing world, social theory has gone global. If there was a time when certain theories could be thought of as emerging from particular national traditions, reflecting their concerns, interests, and style of thought, then a strong argument can now be made that social theory is no longer organized around national problems and orientations. (Instead, as Ulrich Beck and Natan Sznaider argue in their entry on Cosmopolitan Sociology, social theory should organize its thinking around the global.)

      Postmodern critique and globalization present challenges to the Encyclopedia of Social Theory. After all, the concept of the modern encyclopedia developed, at least in part, out of the Enlightenment hope that it is possible to arrange knowledge systematically and that this arrangement could contribute to ideals such as scientific progress, the accumulation of knowledge, and social change. If the postmodernists are correct, then such systematization is deeply problematic, if not impossible. The impulse behind this encyclopedia continues to speak to some of the Enlightenment ideals. It is worthwhile to take stock of existing forms of knowledge, and as a resource for study and critical engagement with the social world, this encyclopedia can contribute to the development of our common understanding. In this regard, the Encyclopedia of Social Theory aims to be comprehensive and to compile most of the theories and ideas that have been central in shaping the way that social theorists now think about their work and the world in which they live. At the same time, we recognize that, especially in the social sciences, knowledge is always in the process of transformation, and social theorists engage in a reflexive activity rediscovering and reinterpreting their history and foundations. In the nineteenth century, Wilhelm Dilthey argued that because social knowledge is historically embedded, it is always open to this kind of interpretation and clarification. He thereby distinguished the social and human sciences from the natural sciences. More recently, Anthony Giddens has described this reflexivity with the term “double hermeneutic.” Social theorists interpret the world in which they live; social theories serve to alter the social world that social theorists study; and therefore, the theorists must constantly revise their theories of that world. With this in mind, we hope that the Encyclopedia of Social Theory will not only serve as a foundation for learning but will also inspire a creative and reflexive engagement with the ideas contained within it.

      Organization and Use of the Encyclopedia of Social Theory

      The Encyclopedia of Social Theory is a two-volume set that includes 336 entries written by authors from 14 countries (United States, Canada, Australia, Britain, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, the Netherlands, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, and Singapore). Entries range in length from 400 to 6,000 words and contain information on specific theories, theorists, schools of thought, key concepts, and topical subjects. Most entries begin with a short definition or description of the concept or idea. Entries on specific theorists are written as reviews of the theorists' intellectual contributions but include biographical information, including connections to other theories and theorists. Furthermore, all entries conclude with a brief section on further readings and a set of cross-references that point readers in the direction of related topics discussed elsewhere in the encyclopedia.

      To ensure adequate coverage, an editorial board consisting of 12 members from five countries (United States, Canada, Germany, Australia, and Britain) was selected. These editors are recognized experts in their fields, and all have contributed significantly to the development of social theory. Many of these editors have also contributed essays to these volumes. Peter Beilharz wrote on a number of topics related to Marxism; Karen Cook contributed essays on Social Exchange Theory and Richard Emerson; Mary Rogers wrote numerous essays on Feminist Theory; Jonathan Turner provided pieces on Conflict Theory, Janet Chafetz, and Rae Blumberg; Andrew Wernick wrote an essay on Auguste Comte and coauthored the piece on Jean-Paul Sartre; Peter Kivisto wrote on Industrial Society and Alain Touraine; Gary Alan Fine dealt with Collective Memory; Gerd Nollmann wrote on Jürgen Habermas and Ferdinand Tönnies and, along with Hermann Strasser, authored an essay on Ralf Dahrendorf; Douglas Kellner contributed essays on Cultural Marxism and British Cultural Studies, Frederic Jameson, and the Frankfurt School.

      In consultation with George Ritzer and Todd Stillman (the first of two managing editors; Jeff Stepnisky succeeded Stillman and helped complete work on the encyclopedia), the deputy editors created lists of entries for the encyclopedia in 10 areas of specialization. American, British, German, and French editorial areas reflect the contributions of these national traditions to the development of social theory. While macrosociological theories are covered under several headings, separate domains were created for microbehaviorist and microinteractionist theories. Feminist, Marxian, and cultural theories were defined as separate editorial areas, and they were intended to cover the work of theorists that have become particularly salient in the twenty-first century. Finally, the “key concepts in social theory” domain was created to allow us to include topics that did not fall into any of the above categories.

      The authors chosen by the editors to write entries are experts in their fields of study and are regular commentators on social theory more generally. Thus, the encyclopedia includes entries by Ulrich Beck (on Risk Society and Cosmopolitan Sociology), Bryan Turner (on Individualism), Charles Lemert (on Foucault, Discourse, Genealogy, Governmentality, and W. E. B Du Bois), Craig Calhoun (on Nationalism), Erik Olin Wright (on Social Class), Jeffrey Alexander and Gary Marx (on Neil Smelser), Karin Knorr Cetina (on the Postsocial), Norman Denzin (on Postmodernism), Paul DiMaggio (on Cultural Capital), and many other notables too numerous to mention.

      It is worth noting that a decision was made to devote considerable space in this encyclopedia to people, to social theorists, including many now living. Both of these decisions are controversial. There is a view among some of those involved with work on encyclopedias that people, especially those still living, should either be excluded or given minimal space. However, social theories are very much the products of individuals and in many cases are hard to distinguish from the people who created them. Furthermore, to this day, social theorists and students of theory read and seek to master the work of individual classic and contemporary theorists. There is, we think, little debate that there should be entries on classic thinkers such as Marx or Du Bois. More controversial is the inclusion of many entries on living theorists. However, just as scholars have read, and continue to read, the work of Marx and Du Bois, they also devote themselves to the body of work created by contemporary theorists such as Giddens and Habermas. Thus, even though they are dwarfed by the number of entries on theories and theoretical ideas, this volume is characterized by a significant number of entries on social theorists, both living and dead.

      The editors have also developed a guide to point readers in the direction of specific entries. This Reader's Guide is organized around 20 headings. In addition to the editorial areas chosen while developing the Encyclopedia, we have added a number of categories: Theorists, Schools and Theoretical Approaches, Macrosociological Theories, Comparative and Historical Sociology, Psychoanalytic Theory, Postmodern Theory, Politics and Government, Method and Metatheory, and Economic Sociology. Furthermore, we have included a category for Other/ Multiple National Traditions. This category includes all those theorists who do not belong to the four national traditions identified in this introduction. No doubt, such distinctions are difficult to make, and particular theorists who have worked in more than one national tradition might identify themselves differently than we have here or may even consider the notion of national traditions unimportant. We find this category useful in distinguishing theorists who do not easily fall within the traditions noted earlier. In all, the headings used in this Reader's Guide were chosen not only because they represent notable areas of study within social theory (both past and present) but also because these themes were well represented in the encyclopedia both within and across seemingly independent editorial areas. These categories are primarily guides for accessing materials within the encyclopedia and should not be taken as definitive of the major areas of study within social theory. Finally, entries have not been assigned to only one category. Most entries appear under two or more headings.

      As with all such efforts, the creation of this encyclopedia had its highs and lows. The editors performed well and did what was expected of them. In fact, in most cases, the editors performed far beyond anything we could have hoped, and deep gratitude is owed to them, indeed to all the editors. In one case, an editor was forced to resign relatively early in the process but was replaced by a team that completed the task with aplomb.

      Of course, much the same story applies to the authors of the entries in this volume. There were a few “no-shows” and “dropouts,” and they were generally replaced with little difficulty. A few people were late with their submissions. However, in the end, virtually everything we wanted to see in the encyclopedia is here, authored by scholars well qualified to write the material. As we have looked over what has been produced here, we find ourselves more than pleased with the results. Most of the authors have outdone themselves and in some cases have produced entries that far exceed what we could have ever hoped for. The merits of this volume are directly traceable to the work of the editorial board and, especially, of the hundreds of authors.

      A word about the managing editors, Todd Stillman and Jeff Stepnisky. It is they who did the truly hard work involved in bringing this mammoth project to a successful completion. They handled all of the day-to-day tasks involved in producing this encyclopedia, including the regular contact and seemingly endless e-mails with editors, authors, and personnel at Sage. Their hard work freed up the editor to concentrate on matters of substance and multiple readings of each entry.

      Finally, a word of thanks to Sage Publications, especially to Rolf Janke, vice president and head of the reference division. Rolf believed in this project from the beginning, provided all of the technical support we needed, and offered a supportive environment in which to work. We thank him as well as other Sage people who were involved along the way, including Sara Tauber, Vince Burns, Yvette Pollastrini, Denise Santoyo, Carla Freeman, Barbara Coster, and Linda Gray. At the University of Maryland, Laura Mamo, Michael Ryan, James Murphy, and Jon Lemich provided crucial aid in bringing the project to completion. We thank all of those who have been involved with the project. Because of their efforts, we are confident that the Encyclopedia of Social Theory will stand as an important resource for social thought well into the twenty-first century.

      References
      Rundell, J.2001. “Modernity, Enlightenment, Revolution and Romanticism: Creating Social Theory.” Pp. 13–29 in Handbook of Social Theory, edited by G.Ritzer and B.Smart. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Sica, A.2001. “Encyclopedias, Handbooks and Dictionaries.” Pp. 4497–504 in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited by NeilSmelser and Paul B.Baltes. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
      Taylor, C.1989. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      About the Editorial Board

      General Editor

      George Ritzer is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland. Among his awards are an Honorary Doctorate from La Trobe University, Australia, and the American Sociological Association's Distinguished Contribution to Teaching Award. He has chaired the American Sociological Association's Section on Theoretical Sociology, as well as the Section on Organizations and Occupations. Among his books in metatheory are Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science and Metatheorzing in Sociology. In the application of social theory to the social world, his books include The McDonaldization of Society, Enchanting a Disenchanted World, and The Globalization of Nothing. Sage has published two volumes of his collected works, one in theory and the other in the application of theory to the social world, especially consumption. In the latter area, he is cofounding editor of the Journal of Consumer Culture. He has edited the Blackwell Companion to Major Social Theorists and coedited the Handbook of Social Theory. His various textbooks have defined the field of social theory for over two decades. His books have been translated into over 20 languages, with over a dozen translations of The McDonaldization of Society alone.

      Managing Editors

      Jeffrey Stepnisky is a doctoral student in Sociology at the University of Maryland, and holds a Masters Degree in theoretical psychology from the University of Alberta, Canada. His area of specialization is social theory with particular interest in theories of the self, biomedicalization, and consumption. His dissertation, The Psychotropic Self, will explore the relationship between self understanding and psychiatric medications. In addition to being the Managing Editor of the Encyclopedia of Social Theory, he occupies a similar position with the Journal of Consumer Culture and the Encyclopedia of Sociology (forthcoming). He is also the coauthor of an essay in Challenges to Theoretical Psychology (1999), several entries on consumption that are to appear in the Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology, and an essay on the “Landscapes of Consumption” that will be published in Inside Consumption, edited by David Mick.

      Todd Stillman is a doctoral student in Sociology at the University of Maryland, College Park. His interests include sociological theory, the sociology of consumption, and theories of culture. He is working on a project about the origins of the consumer society. He has recently written essays on the future of mass consumption and on using metatheory to better understand the sociological classics.

      Editorial Board

      Martin Albrow is an independent scholar and writer in London. His book The Global Age: State and Society Beyond Modernity, won the 1997 Amalfi Prize. Other books are Bureaucracy, Max Weber's Construction of Social Theory, Do Organizations Have Feelings?, and Sociology: The Basics. After editing Sociology he became the founding editor of International Sociology (1985–1990) and President of the British Sociological Association (1985–1987). He has held chairs in the University of Wales, Cardiff, and the University of Surrey, Roehampton, and visiting professorships in Munich, the London School of Economics, Cambridge, and SUNY–Stony Brook.

      Peter Beilharz is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Thesis Eleven Centre for Critical Theory at La Trobe University, Australia. He cofounded the journal Thesis Eleven in 1980. He was Professor of Australian Studies at Harvard 1999–2000, and William Dean Howells Fellow at the Houghton Library, Harvard, 2002. He has written or edited sixteen books, including Labour's Utopias, Postmodern Socialism, Transforming Labor, Imagining the Antipodes, and Zygmunt Bauman—Dialectic of Modernity. He is working on a study of Australian modernity across the twentieth century, and a four-volume edited collection of American Postwar Critical Theory.

      Karen S. Cook is the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology and Cognizant Dean of the Social Sciences at Stanford University. She is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has served as Vice-President of the American Sociological Association and President of the Pacific Sociological Association. She is the coeditor of the Trust Series for the Russell Sage Foundation and the editor of two recent books, Trust in Society (2001) and Trust and Distrust in Organizations (forthcoming), coedited with R. Kramer. Other publications include Social Exchange Theory (Ed.), The Limits to Rationality (Ed.) with M. Levi, and articles in a number of journals on trust, social exchange, physician-patient relations, and power-dependence in social networks.

      Gary Alan Fine is Professor of Sociology at Northwestern University. He received his PhD in Social Psychology from Harvard University in 1976. He has served as Chair of the Theory Section of the American Sociological Association, and has been the recipient of the George Herbert Mead Award for Lifetime Achievement by the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction. He has written extensively on symbolic interaction theory, and on the theoretical contributions of George Herbert Mead, Erving Goffman, and Thorstein Veblen. He edited A Second Chicago School?: The Development of a Postwar American Sociology and authored Difficult Reputations: Collective Memories of the Evil, Inept and Controversial.

      Douglas Kellner is George Kneller Chair in the Philosophy of Education at UCLA and is author of many books on social theory, politics, history, and culture, including Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film, coauthored with Michael Ryan; Critical Theory, Marxism, and Modernity; Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond; Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations (with Steven Best); Television and the Crisis of Democracy; The Persian Gulf TV War; Media Culture; and The Postmodern Turn (with Steven Best). He has recently published a book on the 2000 presidential election, Grand Theft 2000: Media Spectacle and the Theft of an Election, and The Postmodern Adventure: Science, Technology, and Cultural Studies at the Third Millennium (coauthored with Steve Best). He has just published two books on media spectacle and on September 11, Terror War, and the Bush Presidency.

      Peter Kivisto, PhD, New School for Social Research, is the Richard Swanson Professor of Social Thought and Chair of Sociology at Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois. Among his most recent books are Multiculturalism in a Global Society (2002), Social Theory: Roots and Branches, 2nd edition (2002), and Sociology of Religion (2002). His primary scholarly and teaching interests revolve around social theory and ethnic studies. At present, he is serving as Secretary-Treasurer of the American Sociological Association's International Migration Section and is working on a book on the future of citizenship.

      Gerd Nollmann is Assistant Professor at the University of Duisburg-Essen. He received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Muenster, Germany. He has worked as a publisher and marketing director for Bertelsmann and Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. In his scientific work, he focuses on the application of interpretive sociological theories to social research as well as the analysis of social inequalities and is the author/editor of four books and 15 articles in sociological journals.

      Mary F. Rogers, PhD, University of Massachusetts–Amherst, teaches diversity studies and sociology at the University of West Florida, Pensacola. She is the author of several books, including Barbie Culture, as well as several coauthored books.

      Barry Smart is Professor of Sociology at the University of Portsmouth and has worked in universities in Australia, England, Japan, and New Zealand. He is the author of several monographs in the field of social theory, including most recently Facing Modernity (1999), Michel Foucault (revised edition 2002), and Economy, Culture and Society: A Sociological Critique of Neo-Liberalism (2003). He is the editor of Resisting McDonaldization (1999) and coeditor (with George Ritzer) of the Handbook of Social Theory (2001). He is currently completing work on his latest book The Sport Star: A Cultural and Economic Analysis of Sporting Celebrity.

      Hermann Strasser received a doctorate in economics from the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and a PhD in sociology from Fordham University, New York. He has taught sociology at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, and the University of Vienna, Austria. After his Assistant Professorship at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna, he took over the chair in sociology at the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, in 1978, where he is also Director of the Academic Career Service Center. Moreover, he heads VERBAL, a private firm devoted to writing biographies for corporations and public personalities. In his scientific work, he focuses on the paradigmatic structure of sociological theories as well as the analysis of social change and social inequality and is the author/editor of more than 20 books and 100 articles in sociological journals.

      Jonathan Turner is Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of California. Among his 27 books are over a dozen devoted to explicating, synthesizing, and developing abstract theoretical models and principles on the basic properties and forces driving human social organization. His most recent work has been in the areas of emotions, face-to-face interaction, and societal evolution. Turner is currently editor of Sociological Theory, the official theory journal of the American Sociological Association.

      Andrew Wernick is Professor of Cultural Studies and Sociology at Trent University, Canada. An intellectual historian, cultural critic, and social theorist, he has been a frequent contributor to C-Theory and Theory, Culture & Society. He is the author of Promotional Culture (1991), the coedited Shadow of Spirit: Religion and Postmodernism (1993), and Images of Ageing: Cultural Representations of Later Life (1994). His most recent book is Auguste Comte and the Religion of Humanity: The Post-Theistic Project of French Social Theory (2001).

    • Chronology of Social Theory

      Jon A.Lemich
      Early Roots
      1406Abdel Rahman Ibn-Khaldun dies, leaving written works on social topics that closely resemble the sociology of today.
      Early Enlightenment
      1651Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan announces that “Life is nasty, brutish and short.”
      1690John Locke publishes Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Second Treatise on Government.
      18th Century
      1739David Hume's Treatise on Human Nature insists on studying human nature through observation rather than through pure philosophy.
      1748Hume publishes An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
      1748Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu anonymously publishes The Spirit of Laws.
      1751Hume completes his Enquiry Concerning the Principals of Morals.
      1762With Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract, we go from a “stupid and unimaginative animal” to “an intelligent being and a man.”
      1776The Age of Revolution begins, and the flames are fanned by Thomas Paine's Common Sense.
      1776Adam Smith releases An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
      1776A landmark of the American Revolution and statement of political theory, the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America is published.
      1781Immanuel Kant argues against Hume's radical empiricism in Critique of Pure Reason.
      1788Kant publishes Critique of Practical Reason, emphasizing free will.
      1789Jeremy Bentham develops a theory of social morals based on the greatest happiness principle in Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
      1791Olympe de Gouges, a butcher's daughter, writes an alternate version of Declaration of the Rights of Man titled Declaration of the Rights of Woman.
      1792Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, urging women to “acquire strength.”
      1792Parisians storm the Bastille, beginning the French Revolution.
      1798Thomas Malthus theorizes on the social and demographic effects of scarcity with his Essay on the Principle of Population.
      1800–1850
      1807Georg Hegel publishes the Phenomenology of Spirit.
      1817David Ricardo offers a new vision for political economy with The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation.
      1821Claude-Henry de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon publishes The Industrial System.
      1837Hegel publishes the Philosophy of History.
      1838Harriet Martineau's How to Observe Morals and Manners argues that the goal of sociology is to describe the historically situated relationship between manners and morals.
      1840Alexis de Tocqueville, a French intellectual, offered an early insight into Democracy in America.
      1841Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity articulates a materialist influence contrary to Hegelian idealism, inspiring Karl Marx.
      1830–Auguste Comte describes a positivistic, evolutionary
      1842view of the world in his Positive Philosophy.
      1843Feuerbach inspires secular, humanistic, scientific study of human behavior with The Philosophy of the Future.
      1843J. S. Mill publishes System of Logic in which he refines logic in its applications to social as well as purely natural phenomena.
      1844Friedrich Engels publishes Outline of a Critique of Political Economy.
      1844Karl Marx completes what will become known as his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844; however, the manuscript is not published in entirety until 1932. The manuscript highlights Marx's early humanistic thinking.
      1846Marx publishes The German Ideology, proposing a study of historical materialism.
      1848Marx and Engels publish and distribute The Communist Manifesto, which serves as a clarion call for revolution based on Marx's theoretical principles.
      1848Workers revolt across Europe.
      1848Mill debates the ideas of socialism in his Principles of Political Economy.
      1850–1900
      1850Herbert Spencer publishes Social Statics, developing his basic ideas of social structure and change, as well as arguing for rights for women and children.
      1851Feuerbach publishes Lectures on the Essence of Religion.
      1851The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations is held in London, primarily inside the iron-and-glass Crystal Palace. It is the first of a series of extravagant world fairs that proclaim the arrival of the industrial revolution.
      1852Marx offers an analysis of the French Revolution titled The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte.
      1856Tocqueville publishes Ancien Regime in Old Europe.
      1858Marx develops ideas that will later be refined in Capital in Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy.
      1859Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of the Species. With Darwinian evolutionary theory, biology takes its first real steps into philosophy's traditional terrain.
      1859Mill publishes On Liberty, echoing Tocqueville's fears about democracy.
      1863Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation decrees that all slaves in the United States “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”
      1865The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishes slavery.
      1867Marx publishes Volume 1 of Capital: A Critique of Political Economy.
      1871The Paris Commune is formed.
      1872Friedrich Nietzsche publishes The Birth of Tragedy, Out of the Spirit of Music declaring that modern Europe is Apollonian in spirit and needs a recovery of the Dionysian.
      1873Spencer publishes Study of Sociology, the textbook used in the first course in sociology in the United States.
      1882Nietzsche publishes The Gay Science pronouncing that God is dead.
      1877–Spencer publishes the three volumes of The Principles of
      1882Sociology, which later inspire Sumner's concept of social Darwinism.
      1884Marx (posthumously) publishes Volume 2 of Capital: A Critique of Political Economy.
      1884Engels publishes The Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State, declaring that women's subordination is the result of society, not biology.
      1887Ferdinand Tönnies publishes Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, comparing urban and small town society.
      1890William James publishes Principles of Psychology before Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods have become widespread.
      1890Gabriel Tarde discusses the difference between the imitative and the inventive in Laws of Imitation.
      1893Émile Durkheim publishes The Division of Labor in Society explicating the evolution from mechanical to organic solidarity.
      1894Volume 3 of Marx's Capital is published.
      1894Durkheim joins Emile Zola and Jean Jaures in defending Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew unfairly accused of spying. The affair highlighted French anti-Semitism, which Durkheim saw as a deep social pathology.
      1895Durkheim develops the notion of a social fact, the basis for positivism in modern sociology, in Rules of Sociological Method.
      1897Durkheim publishes Suicide an application of the principles of the new method of sociology. He shows that suicide is a social fact, not an individual problem.
      1899Thorstein Veblen coins the now-famous term “conspicuous consumption” in his Theory of the Leisure Class.
      1900–1910
      1900Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams, an early statement of Freud's psychoanalytic principals.
      1900–In Logical Investigations, Edmund Husserl establishes
      1901the basis for the science of phenomenology.
      1900Georg Simmel finishes his Philosophy of Money, a wideranging analysis that points to, among other things, the tragedy of culture.
      1900The most well-known World's Fair in Paris exhibits the latest industrial marvels.
      1902Charles H. Cooley publishes Human Nature and Social Order at the University of Michigan. His work there is closely associated with the Chicago School.
      1903W. E. B. Du Bois writes The Souls of Black Folk, introducing the important concepts of double consciousness and the veil.
      1903Durkheim publishes Moral Education.
      1904Robert Park publishes The Crowd and the Public.
      1905Max Weber relates the idea systems of Calvinism to the emergence of the “iron cage” in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
      1907William James publishes Pragmatism, which later inspires the development of symbolic interactionism.
      1907William G. Sumner first develops the concept of social Darwinism in his book Folkways.
      1908Georg Simmel publishes Soziologie, a wide-ranging set of essays on social phenomena reflecting Simmel's distinctive approach.
      1910–1920
      1911In Political Parties, Roberto Michels devises the Iron Law of Oligarchy to explain how oligarchy develops in bureaucracy.
      1912In Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, Émile Durkheim introduces anthropological evidence to argue that religious experience lies at the foundation of the social order.
      1913The term “behaviorism” is first used by J. B. Watson.
      1914World War I begins.
      1915Vifredo Pareto publishes General Treatise on Sociology a systemic, equilibrium-based theory of society.
      1916Ferdinand de Saussure's Course in General Linguistics forms the basis for structuralism.
      1916Lenin advances Marx's ideas in Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, identifying the inherent global expansionistic tendencies of capitalist societies.
      1917The Russian Revolution, inspired by Marxist ideals, overthrows the Czars.
      1918With Florian Znaniecki, W. I. Thomas publishes The Polish Peasant in Europe and America, a study that draws on multiple investigative methods.
      1919Pitrim Sorokin's System of Sociology lays out his theory of cultural organization and helps develop the ontology of integralism.
      1920–1930
      1920American women win the right to vote.
      1921Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess write the first major textbook in sociology: Introduction to the Science of Sociology.
      1922Weber's Economy and Society, his comparative historical social theory, is published in three volumes.
      1922Bronislaw Malinowski discusses indirect exchange in the Kula rings of the Trobriand Islands in Argonauts of the Western Pacific.
      1922Sir James G. Fraser's controversial The Golden Bough shows that the Christian story of the man-god sacrificed on the tree is borrowed from other ancient myths.
      1922Cooley introduces the concept of the “looking-glass self” in Human Nature and the Social Order.
      1923György Lukács publishes History and Class Consciousness.
      1923The Institute of Social Research, also known as the Frankfurt School, is founded.
      1923Ernst Cassirer publishes the first part of “The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms,” a series that examines various forms of symbolic representation.
      1924John Maynard Keynes offers a brilliant analysis of the effects of inflation and deflation in his most influential work, A Tract on Monetary Reform.
      1925Marcel Mauss develops his theory of gift exchange in The Gift.
      1925Burgess and Park publish The City.
      1925Maurice Halbwachs publishes The Social Frameworks of Memory, a pioneering text in social memory studies.
      1927Martin Heidegger publishes Being and Time.
      1928Margaret Mead drops the proof for her controversial Coming of Age in Samoa off at the publisher before embarking for New Guinea.
      1929Lucien Febvre and Marc Bloch found the Annales School, which is famous for its work on social history.
      1929Karl Mannheim develops his sociology of knowledge in Ideology and Utopia.
      1929The U.S. stock market crashes, leading to a worldwide depression.
      1930–1940
      1930Psychiatrist J. L. Moreno invents sociometry, the keystone concept for network exchange theory.
      1932Alfred Schütz's The Phenomenology of the Social World extends the philosophy of phenomenology into social theory.
      1933Nazis open the first concentration camp at Dachau.
      1934George H. Mead's lectures are compiled and published as Mind, Self and Society, the basic text for symbolic interactionism.
      1935Mannheim proposes a planned society in Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction.
      1936Keynes publishes General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, the text that immortalizes his economic theory.
      1937Talcott Parsons publishes the Structure of Social Action, in which he introduces grand European theory to an American audience.
      1938B. F. Skinner publishes The Behavior of Organisms.
      1939The first shots of World War II are fired as German forces invade Poland.
      1939Norbert Elias publishes The Civilizing Process in which he links changes in everyday life to changes in broader social structure.
      1940–1950
      1940A. R. Radcliffe-Brown writes Structure and Function in Primitive Society, which has a great influence on structural functionalism.
      1927–Walter Benjamin compiles his notes on the Paris
      1940Arcades, which are published as Das Passagen-Werk in 1982.
      1941At Auschwitz, Nazis begin the use of Zyklon-B gas to murder Jews.
      1942Margaret Mead's Growing Up in New Guinea draws a parallel between the primitive Manus and Western civilization.
      1942Joseph Schumpeter revises Marx's predictions on the downfall of capitalism in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy.
      1943Jean-Paul Sartre elaborates contemporary existentialism in Being and Nothingness, partially written in a German war prison from 1940–1941.
      1944Karl Polanyi analyzes the industrial revolution, free trade, and socialism in The Great Transformation.
      1945In the same year, Hitler commits suicide as America unleashes the atom bomb on Japan.
      1947In The Accursed Share, Georges Bataille values the concepts of excess, waste, and sacrifice in his social theory.
      1948Alfred Kinsey publishes The Sexual Behavior of the Human Male along with Wardell Pomeroy and Clyde Martin.
      1949Talcott Parsons publishes Essays in Sociological Theory, Pure and Applied.
      1949Claude Lévi-Strauss publishes Elementary Structures of Kinship.
      1949Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno seek to explain why the Enlightenment failed to deliver on its promises of progress, reason, and order in The Dialectic of Enlightenment.
      1949Robert Merton publishes Social Theory and Social Structure.
      1949Simone de Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex in which she provides an existential analysis of the concept of woman.
      1950–1960
      1950David Reisman's The Lonely Crowd develops the concepts of inner- and other-directedness.
      1951C. Wright Mills publishes White Collar, a critical analysis of the work lives of Americans.
      1951Parsons publishes The Social System and Toward a General Theory of Action, which further refine his structural-functional theory and develop action theory.
      1952The American Psychiatric Association publishes the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I).
      1954Abraham Maslow delineates his famous hierarchy of needs in Motivation and Personality.
      1955L. J. Moreno gives his book, Sociometry, to the American Sociological Association for publication.
      1956Mills publishes The Power Elite, anticipating Dwight Eisenhower's ideas on the military-industrial complex.
      1956Ralf Dahrendorf's Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society becomes the basic text in conflict theory.
      1956Lewis Coser publishes The Functions of Social Conflict in which he integrates Simmel's ideas on conflict with a structural-functional approach.
      1957Roland Barthes examines myths and cultural objects as a language of signs in society in Mythologies.
      1958John K. Galbraith's The Affluent Society challenges the American myth of consumer sovereignty.
      1959Karl R. Popper debates the philosophy and rules of science in The Logic of Scientific Discovery.
      1959Mills articulates his famous view of sociology in The Sociological Imagination, where he also critiques Parsons's structural functionalism.
      1959Erving Goffman develops his dramaturgical theory and famous ideas of front- and backstage in The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.
      1960–1970
      1961George C. Homans publishes Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms, the pioneering text in exchange theory.
      1962Richard Emerson's article, “Power-Dependence Relations” is published in the American Sociological Review.
      1962Thomas Kuhn develops a revolutionary rather than evolutionary theory of the advance of science in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. This book also popularizes the term paradigm.
      1963Goffman publishes Stigma, a critical book for labeling theory.
      1963200,000 people march for civil rights in Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King Jr. gives his famous “I Have a Dream” speech at the Lincoln Memorial.
      1963The second wave of feminism is marked by Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique.
      1964Peter Blau develops a micro-macro theory of exchange in Exchange and Power in Social Life.
      1964Marshall McLuhan declares that the medium is the message in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man.
      1964Herbert Marcuse publishes One Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society describing society's destructive impact on people.
      1965Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization is published.
      1966William Masters and Virginia Johnson publish Human Sexual Response, introducing large numbers of people to the study of sexuality.
      1966Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann's The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge extends phenomenology to macrolevel issues.
      1967Jacques Derrida finishes On Grammatology, which becomes a central text in the emerging field of poststructuralism.
      1967Guy Debord publishes The Society of the Spectacle, a critique of media and consumption in contemporary social life.
      1967Harold Garfinkel's Studies in Ethnomethodology creates a new micro-social theory.
      1968Student revolts form an epicenter in Paris and sweep through Europe.
      1969Herbert Blumer publishes Symbolic Interactionism: Perspectives and Methods, offering an overview of the symbolic interactionist perspective.
      1970–1980
      1970Alvin Gouldner's The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology critiques many trends in Western sociology, especially Parsonsian structural functionalism.
      1970Jean Baudrillard releases Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, a groundbreaking text in the studies of consumption.
      1971Jürgen Habermas relates material interest to idea systems in Knowledge and Human Interests.
      1972The demolition of the modernist Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis marks the end of the reign of modernity for some postmodernist theorists.
      1973Howard Becker publishes Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, a key text in the sociology of deviance.
      1973Baudrillard's The Mirror of Production marks his break from his Marxian roots.
      1973Clifford Geertz publishes The Interpretation of Cultures.
      1974Herbert Marcuse publishes Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud where he translates Freud for critical theory.
      1974The first part of Immanuel Wallerstein's 3-volume The Modern World System shifts the focus of Marxian theory to exploitation between nations on a global scale.
      1974First issue of Theory & Society published.
      1974Luce Irigaray's Speculum of the Other Woman argues that psychoanalysis is phallocentric and thus has no place for the feminine.
      1974Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society predicts the coming of “knowledge society.”
      1974Goffman's Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience creates a new theoretical methodology.
      1974Glen H. Elder Jr. argues for a life course perspective in social psychology in Children of the Great Depression.
      1974Henri LeFebvre publishes The Production of Space provoking social analysis of space.
      1975Randall Collins publishes Conflict Sociology: Toward an Explanatory Science, in which Collins develops a micro orientation to conflict theory.
      1975E. O. Wilson introduces the term sociobiology in Socio-Biology: The New Synthesis.
      1975Foucault publishes Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison in which he depicts the origins of the carceral society.
      1976Baudrillard argues that the modern world has lost the ability to engage in symbolic exchange in Symbolic Exchange and Death.
      1977Pierre Bourdieu publishes Outline of a Theory of Practice formulating his constructivist structuralism and his concepts of habitus and field.
      1978Marcuse publishes The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics.
      1978In The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender, Nancy Chodorow draws on object relations theories to rethink gender and the mother-child relationship.
      1978Edward Said's Orientalism opens cultural studies to postcolonial theory.
      1979Arlie Hochschild's article “Emotion Work, Feeling Rules and Social Structure” is published, introducing social theorists to the effects of emotional labor.
      1979Theda Skocpol's States and Social Revolutions shows that state structures, international forces, and class relations contribute to revolutionary transformations.
      1979Jean-Francois Lyotard publishes The Postmodern Condition.
      1979Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar publish Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts, a key document for the social studies of science; it also inspires actor network theory.
      1979Richard Rorty's Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature rejects foundationalist and essentialist epistemologies and argues for the merits of pragmatic philosophy.
      1980–1990
      1980Foucault publishes the first of his three-volume opus, The History of Sexuality, major works on poststructuralist and queer theory.
      1980In a famous essay of the same name, Stuart Hall introduces the “Encoding/Decoding” model of television viewing, arguing that audiences interpret the meaning of programs in many ways.
      1980Adrienne Rich writes her essay “Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence,” creating the lesbian continuum and coining the term compulsory heterosexuality.
      1982First issue of Theory, Culture and Society is published.
      1982Niklas Luhmann develops his distinctive version of systems theory in The Differentiation of Society.
      1982–Jeffrey Alexander releases Theoretical Logic in Sociology
      1983in four volumes, paralleling Parsons's The Structure of Social Action, synthesizing and updating functionalism.
      1983Cook, Emerson, Gillmore, and Yamagishi publish “The Distribution of Power in Exchange Networks: Theory and Experimental Results.”
      1983Baudrillard's Simulations develops the concepts of simulation and simulacra in society.
      1983Nancy Hartsock publishes “The Feminist Standpoint: Developing the Ground for a Specifically Feminist Historical Materialism,” an article crucial to the definition of standpoint theory.
      1983Hochschild publishes The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling.
      1983The first issue of Sociological Theory is published.
      1983French philosopher Paul Ricoeur publishes volume 1 of Time and Narrative, a series that describes the centrality of narrative to lived experience.
      1984Pierre Bourdieu publishes Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste in which he applies his constructivist structuralism to consumption and culture in France.
      1984Anthony Giddens publishes The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, the most complete statement of his structuration theory.
      1984Habermas publishes The Theory of Communicative Action, vol. 1, Reason and the Rationalization of Society, reinterpreting and extending Weber's social theory and developing his ideas of communicative rationality.
      1985Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari oppose psychoanalysis and offer a political analysis of desire in Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia.
      1985Robert Bellah et al. publish Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life, a micromacro look at democratic community and individualism.
      1985Jonathan Turner's essay, “In Defense of Positivism” is published.
      1986Ulrich Beck completes Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, which begins a widespread interest in the concept of risk in late modern life.
      1986Jacques Lacan publishes Écrits, in which he revises Freud's psychoanalysis in the context of Saussurian linguistics.
      1986Paul Virilio publishes Speed and Politics, introducing the concept of speed to social theory.
      1987Dorothy Smith combines phenomenology and feminism in The Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist Sociology.
      1987Habermas explores the colonization of the lifeworld in The Theory of Communicative Action, vol. 2, Lifeworld and System, a Critique of Functionalist Reason.
      1988Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman declare, in Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, that the mass media is used as a tool of political propaganda.
      1989In The Sublime Object of Ideology, Slavoj Žižek draws on Lacanian psychoanalysis to develop his theory of ideology critique and cultural analysis.
      1989Zygmunt Bauman argues that the Holocaust is a consequence of modernity in Modernity and the Holocaust.
      1989David Harvey introduces the idea of time-space compression and develops social geography in The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change.
      1989In his influential Sources of the Self, Charles Taylor explores the cultural and intellectual origins of modern selfhood.
      1990–2000
      1990James S. Coleman publishes Foundations of Social Theory, laying the foundations for sociologically relevant rational choice theory.
      1990Judith Butler calls for the subversion of the hegemony of gender in Gender Trouble.
      1990Giddens publishes The Consequences of Modernity, introducing the idea of the juggernaut of modernity.
      1990Donna Haraway's essay “A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism” becomes an important postmodern contribution to feminist theory.
      1990Patricia Hill Collins publishes Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and Empowerment, where, among other things, she develops the concept of intersectionality.
      1991Frederic Jameson writes Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism.
      1991Kenneth Gergen publishes The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life, an account of the chaos of postmodern selfhood.
      1992Marc Augé publishes Non-Places: An Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity.
      1992Roland Robertson's Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, building on his work in religion, develops a series of ideas, including the concept of glocalization.
      1992Paul Gilroy revisits the origins of Atlantic African cultural diaspora in The Black Atlantic.
      1993George Ritzer extends Weber's theory of rationalization to the realm of consumption and culture in The McDonaldization of Society.
      1994Cornell West publishes Race Matters.
      1995Luhmann's Social Systems further develops his version of systems theory.
      1996Manuel Castells conceives of a world dominated by the flow of information in The Rise of the Network Society.
      1996Arjun Appadurai develops his concept of global “scapes” in Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization.
      1997Chomsky publishes “Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda.”
      1998Patricia Hill Collins's Fighting Words: Black Women and the Search for Justice further develops her theory of intersectionality.
      1999David Willer publishes Network Exchange Theory.
      2000In Empire, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri propose that the age of imperialism is over, being replaced by an empire without a national base.

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