The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods
Encyclopedias
 Reader's Guide
 Entries AZ
 Subject Index


 A
 B
 C
 D
 E
 F
 G
 H
 I
 J
 K
 L
 M
 N
 O
 P
 Q
 R
 S
 T
 U
 V
 W
 X
 Y
 Z

166997 Loading...

Copyright
Copyright © 2004 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455, Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Email: order@sagepub.com
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6, Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
United Kingdom
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 110 017 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
LewisBeck, Michael S.
The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods/Michael S. LewisBeck, Alan Bryman, Tim Futing Liao.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0–7619–2363–2 (cloth)
1. Social sciences—Research—Encyclopedias. 2. Social sciences—Methodology—Encyclopedias. I. Bryman, Alan. II. Liao, Tim Futing. III. Title.
H62.L456 2004
300.! 72—dc22
2003015882
03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Chris Rojek
Publisher: Rolf A. Janke
Developmental Editor: Eileen Haddox
Editorial Assistant: Sara Tauber
Production Editor: Melanie Birdsall
Copy Editors: Gillian Dickens, Liann Lech, A. J. Sobczak
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Mattson Publishing Services, LLC
Indexer: Sheila Bodell
Cover Designer: Ravi Balasuriya
List of Entries
 See
 See
 See
 See
 See
 See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
 . See
Reader's Guide
 Analysis of Variance
 Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
 Main Effect
 Model I ANOVA
 Model II ANOVA
 Model III ANOVA
 OneWay ANOVA
 TwoWay ANOVA
 Association and Correlation
 Association
 Association Model
 Asymmetric Measures
 Biserial Correlation
 Canonical Correlation Analysis
 Correlation
 Correspondence Analysis
 Intraclass Correlation
 Multiple Correlation
 Part Correlation
 Partial Correlation
 Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
 Semipartial Correlation
 Simple Correlation (Regression)
 Spearman Correlation Coefficient
 Strength of Association
 Symmetric Measures
 Basic Qualitative Research
 Autobiography
 Life History Method
 Life Story Interview
 Qualitative Content Analysis
 Qualitative Data Management
 Qualitative Research
 Quantitative and Qualitative Research, Debate About
 Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data
 Basic Statistics
 Alternative Hypothesis
 Average
 Bar Graph
 BellShaped Curve
 Bimodal
 Case
 Causal Modeling
 Cell
 Covariance
 Cumulative Frequency Polygon
 Data
 Dependent Variable
 Dispersion
 Exploratory Data Analysis
 F Ratio
 Frequency Distribution
 Histogram
 Hypothesis
 Independent Variable
 Median
 Measures of Central Tendency
 N(n)
 Null Hypothesis
 Pie Chart
 Regression
 Standard Deviation
 Statistic
 tTest
 X¯
 Y Variable
 zTest
 Causal Modeling
 Causality
 Dependent Variable
 Effects Coefficient
 Endogenous Variable
 Exogenous Variable
 Independent Variable
 Path Analysis
 Structural Equation Modeling
 Discourse/Conversation Analysis
 Accounts
 Conversation Analysis
 Critical Discourse Analysis
 Deviant Case Analysis
 Discourse Analysis
 Foucauldian Discourse Analysis
 Interpretative Repertoire
 Proof Procedure
 Econometrics
 ARIMA
 Cointegration
 DurbinWatson Statistic
 Econometrics
 Fixed Effects Model
 MixedEffects Model
 Panel
 Panel Data Analysis
 RandomEffects Model
 Selection Bias
 Serial Correlation (Regression)
 TimeSeries CrossSection (TSCS) Models
 TimeSeries Data (Analysis/Design)
 Tobit Analysis
 Epistemology
 Constructionism, Social
 Epistemology
 Idealism
 Interpretivism
 Laws in Social Science
 Logical Positivism
 Methodological Holism
 Naturalism
 Objectivism
 Positivism
 Ethnography
 Autoethnography
 Case Study
 Creative Analytical Practice (CAP) Ethnography
 Critical Ethnography
 Ethnographic Content Analysis
 Ethnographic Realism
 Ethnographic Tales
 Ethnography
 Participant Observation
 Evaluation
 Applied Qualitative Research
 Applied Research
 Evaluation Research
 Experiment
 Heuristic Inquiry
 Impact Assessment
 Qualitative Evaluation
 Randomized Control Trial
 Event History Analysis
 Censoring and Truncation
 Event History Analysis
 Hazard Rate
 Survival Analysis
 Transition Rate
 Experimental Design
 Experiment
 Experimenter Expectancy Effect
 External Validity
 Field Experimentation
 Hawthorne Effect
 Internal Validity
 Laboratory Experiment
 Milgram Experiments
 QuasiExperiment
 Factor Analysis and Related Techniques
 Cluster Analysis
 Commonality Analysis
 Confirmatory Factor Analysis
 Correspondence Analysis
 Eigenvalue
 Exploratory Factor Analysis
 Factor Analysis
 Oblique Rotation
 Principal Components Analysis
 Rotated Factor
 Rotations
 Varimax Rotation
 Feminist Methodology
 Feminist Ethnography
 Feminist Research
 Gender Issues
 Standpoint Epistemology
 Generalized Linear Models
 General Linear Models
 Generalized Linear Models
 Link Function
 Logistic Regression
 Logit
 Logit Model
 Poisson Regression
 Probit Analysis
 Historical/Comparative
 Comparative Method
 Comparative Research
 Documents, Types of
 Emic/Etic Distinction
 Historical Methods
 Oral History
 Interviewing in Qualitative Research
 Biographic Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM)
 Dependent Interviewing
 Informant Interviewing
 Interviewing in Qualitative Research
 Narrative Interviewing
 Semistructured Interview
 Unstructured Interview
 Latent Variable Model
 Confirmatory Factor Analysis
 Item Response Theory
 Factor Analysis
 Latent Budget Analysis
 Latent Class Analysis
 Latent Markov Model
 Latent Profile Model
 Latent Trait Models
 Latent Variable
 Local Independence
 Nonparametric RandomEffects Model
 Structural Equation Modeling
 Life History/Biography
 Autobiography
 Biographic Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM)
 Interpretive Biography
 Life History Method
 Life Story Interview
 Narrative Analysis
 Psychoanalytic Methods
 LogLinear Models (Categorical Dependent Variables)
 Association Model
 Categorical Data Analysis
 Contingency Table
 Expected Frequency
 GoodnessofFit Measures
 LogLinear Model
 Marginal Model
 Marginals
 Mobility Table
 Odds Ratio
 Saturated Model
 Sparse Table
 Longitudinal Analysis
 Cohort Analysis
 Longitudinal Research
 Panel
 Period Effects
 TimeSeries Data (Analysis/Design)
 Mathematics and Formal Models
 Algorithm
 Assumptions
 Basic Research
 Catastrophe Theory
 Chaos Theory
 Distribution
 Fuzzy Set Theory
 Game Theory
 Measurement Level
 Attribute
 Binary
 Categorical
 Continuous Variable
 Dichotomous Variables
 Discrete
 Interval
 Level of Measurement
 Metric Variable
 Nominal Variable
 Ordinal Measure
 Measurement Testing and Classification
 Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement
 Generalizability Theory
 Item Response Theory
 Likert Scale
 MultipleIndicator Measures
 Summated Rating Scale
 Multilevel Analysis
 Contextual Effects
 Dependent Observations
 Fixed Effects Model
 MixedEffects Model
 Multilevel Analysis
 Nonparametric RandomEffects Model
 RandomCoefficient Model
 RandomEffects Model
 Multiple Regression
 Adjusted RSquared
 Best Linear Unbiased Estimator
 Beta
 Generalized Least Squares
 Heteroskedasticity
 Interaction Effect
 Misspecification
 Multicollinearity
 Multiple Regression Analysis
 Nonadditive
 RSquared
 Regression
 Regression Diagnostics
 Specification
 Standard Error of the Estimate
 Qualitative Data Analysis
 Analytic Induction
 CAQDAS
 Constant Comparison
 Grounded Theory
 In Vivo Coding
 Memos, Memoing
 Negative Case
 Qualitative Content Analysis
 Sampling in Qualitative Research
 Purposive Sampling
 Sampling in Qualitative Research
 Snowball Sampling
 Theoretical Sampling
 Sampling in Surveys
 Multistage Sampling
 Quota Sampling
 Random Sampling
 Representative Sample
 Sampling
 Sampling Error
 Stratified Sampling
 Systematic Sampling
 Scaling
 Attitude Measurement
 Bipolar Scale
 Dimension
 Dual Scaling
 Guttman Scaling
 Index
 Likert Scale
 Multidimensional Scaling (MDS)
 Optimal Scaling
 Scale
 Scaling
 Semantic Differential Scale
 Thurstone Scaling
 Significance Testing
 Alpha, Significance Level of a Test
 Confidence Interval
 Level of Significance
 OneTailed Test
 Power of a Test
 Significance Level
 Significance Testing
 Statistical Power
 Statistical Significance
 Substantive Significance
 TwoTailed Test
 Simple Regression
 Coefficient of Determination
 Constant
 Intercept
 Least Squares
 Linear Regression
 Ordinary Least Squares
 Regression on…
 Regression
 Scatterplot
 Slope
 YIntercept
 Survey Design
 ComputerAssisted Personal Interviewing
 Internet Surveys
 Interviewing
 Mail Questionnaire
 Secondary Analysis of Survey Data
 Structured Interview
 Survey
 Telephone Survey
 Time Series
 ARIMA
 BoxJenkins Modeling
 Cointegration
 Detrending
 DurbinWatson Statistic
 Error Correction Models
 Forecasting
 Granger Causality
 Interrupted TimeSeries Design
 Intervention Analysis
 Lag Structure
 Moving Average
 Periodicity
 Serial Correlation
 Spectral Analysis
 TimeSeries CrossSection (TSCS) Models
 TimeSeries Data (Analysis/Design)
 Trend Analysis
Contributors
Abdi, Hervé
University of Texas, Dallas
Adair, John G.
University of Manitoba, Canada
Aditya, Ram N.
Florida International University, Miami
Adler, Peter
University of Denver, Colorado
Adler, Patricia A.
University of Colorado, Boulder
Aiken, Leona S.
Arizona State University, Tempe
Albritton, Robert B.
University of Mississippi
Aldridge, Alan
University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Allison, Paul D.
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Altheide, David L.
Arizona State University, Tempe
Altman, Micah
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Alvesson, Mats
University of Lund, Sweden
Amoureux, Jacque L.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Andersen, Robert
McMaster University, Canada
Anderson, Carolyn J.
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Angle, John
US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC
Angrosino, Michael V.
University of South Florida, Tampa
Anselin, Luc
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Aronow, Edward
Montclair State University, New Jersey
Ashmore, Malcolm
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Atkinson, Robert
University of Southern Maine, Gorham
Atkinson, Rowland
University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Bacher, Johann
Universität ErlangenNürnberg, Germany
Baird, Chardie L.
Florida State University, Tallahassee
Bakeman, Roger
Georgia State University, Atlanta
Bakker, Ryan
University of Florida, Gainesville
Baltagi, Badi H.
Texas A&M University
Barr, Robert
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Bartunek, Jean M.
Boston College, Massachusetts
Batson, C. Daniel
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Beck, Nathaniel
University of California, San Diego; New York University
Becker, Saul
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Becker, Mark P.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Benton, Ted
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Berk, Richard A.
University of California, Los Angeles
Billig, Michael
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Bishop, George F.
University of Cincinnati, Ohio
Black, Thomas R.
University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Blaikie, Norman
Formerly at the University of Science, Malaysia and the RMIT University, Australia
Blascovich, Jim
University of California, Santa Barbara
Boehmke, Frederick J.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
BoklundLagopoulos, Karin
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Bollen, Kenneth A.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Bornat, Joanna
The Open University, United Kingdom
Bornstein, Robert F.
Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania
Bottorff, Joan L.
University of British Columbia, Canada
Bourque, Linda B.
University of California, Los Angeles
BoxSteffensmeier, Janet M.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Brady, Ivan
State University of New York, Oswego
Brennan, Robert L.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Brewer, Marilynn B.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Brick, J. Michael
Westat, Rockville, Maryland
Brookfield, Stephen D.
University of St. Thomas, MinneapolisSt. Paul
Brown, Courtney
Emory University, Atlanta
Brown, Steven R.
Kent State University
Bryman, Alan
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Buck, Nicholas H.
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Burkhart, Ross E.
Boise State University, Idaho
Burr, Vivien
University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Byrne, David
University of Durham, United Kingdom
Cameron, Amna
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Carless, Sally A.
Monash University, Australia
Carmines, Edward G.
Indiana University, Bloomington
Chapin, Tim
Florida State University, Tallahassee
Charlton, Tony
University of Gloucestershire, United Kingdom
Charlton, John R. H.
Office for National Statistics, United Kingdom
Charmaz, Kathy
Sonoma State University, California
Chartrand, Tanya L.
Duke University, North Carolina
Chell, Elizabeth
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Chen, Peter Y.
Colorado State University, Fort Collins
Christ, Sharon L.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Ciambrone, Desirée
Rhode Island College, Providence
Civettini, Andrew J.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Clark, M. H.
The University of Memphis, Tennessee
Clarke, Harold D.
University of Texas, Dallas
Clegg, Chris
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Clinton, Joshua D.
Princeton University, New Jersey
Coffey, Amanda
Cardiff University, United Kingdom
Cole, Michael
University of California, San Diego
Cooper, Harris M.
Duke University, North Carolina
Copp, Martha A.
East Tennessee State University, Johnson City
Corbin, Juliet M.
The University of Alberta, Canada
Corter, James E.
Columbia University, New York
Corti, Louise
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Cortina, Jose M.
George Mason University, Virginia
Couper, Mick P.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Coxon, Anthony P. M.
University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Craib, Ian
Late of University of Essex, United Kingdom
Cramer, Duncan
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Crano, William D.
Claremont Graduate University, California
Croll, Paul
The University of Reading, United Kingdom
Croon, Marcel A.
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Currivan, Douglas B.
University of Massachusetts, Boston
Dale, Angela
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
De Boef, Suzanna
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
de Vaus, David A.
La Trobe University, Australia
Denzin, Norman K.
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
DixonWoods, Mary
University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Doreian, Patrick
London School of Economics, United Kingdom
Dovidio, John F.
Colgate University, New York
Dressler, William W.
The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Drew, Paul
University of York, United Kingdom
EasterbySmith, Mark
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Edwards, Derek
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Edwards, W. Sherman
Westat, Rockville, Maryland
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.
Stanford University, California
Eliason, Scott R.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Ellis, Charles H.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Essed, Philomena
University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Fairclough, Norman
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Fetterman, David M.
Stanford University, California
Filmer, Paul
Goldsmiths' College, United Kingdom
Finkel, Steven E.
University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Flint, John
University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Foley, Hugh J.
Skidmore College, New York
Fontana, Andrea
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Fowler, Jr., Floyd J.
University of Massachusetts, Boston
Fox, James Alan
Northeastern University, Massachusetts
Fox, John
McMaster University, Canada
Franzosi, Roberto
University of Reading, United Kingdom
Frederick, Richard I.
US Medical Center for Federal Prisoners, Missouri
Freedman, David A.
University of California, Berkeley
Frey, James H.
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Friendly, Michael
York University, Canada
Fuller, Duncan
University of Northumbria at Newcastle, United Kingdom
Furbee, N. Louanna
University of Missouri, Columbia
Gallagher, Patricia M.
University of Massachusetts, Boston
Gallmeier, Charles P.
Indiana University Northwest, Gary
Garson, G. David
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Gephart, Jr., Robert P.
University of Alberta, Canada
Gergen, Kenneth J.
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania
Gerhardt, Uta
Universität Heidelberg, Germany
Gershuny, Jonathan
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Gibbons, Jean D.
University of Alabama
Gibbs, Graham R.
University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Gibson, Nancy
University of Alberta, Canada
Gilbert, Nigel
University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Gill, Jeff
University of Florida, Gainesville
Glasgow, Garrett
University of California, Santa Barbara
Glenn, Norval D.
University of Texas, Austin
Goldstone, Jack
University of California, Davis
Green, Donald P.
Yale University, Connecticut
Greenacre, Michael
Universitat Pomepu Fabra, Spain
Greenland, Sander
University of California, Los Angeles
Greenwood, Davydd J.
Cornell University, New York
Griffith, James W.
Northwestern University, Illinois
Gross, Alan L.
City University of New York
Gschwend, Thomas
University of Mannheim, Germany
Guba, Egon G.
Indiana University
Gubrium, Jaber F.
University of Missouri, Columbia
Gujarati, Damodar N.
United States Military Academy, West Point
Guo, Guang
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Guy, Will
University of Bristol, United Kingdom
Hagenaars, Jacques A.
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Hagle, Timothy M.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Hammersley, Martyn
The Open University, United Kingdom
Han, ShinKap
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Hancock, Gregory R.
University of Maryland, College Park
Handcock, Mark S.
University of Washington, Seattle
Hansen, Peter Reinhard
Brown University, Rhode Island
Hardy, Melissa A.
Pennsylvania State University, State College
Hargens, Lowell L.
University of Washington, Seattle
Harper, Douglas
Duquesne University, Pennsylvania
Harré, Rom
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Headland, Thomas N.
SIL International, Dallas, Texas
Henry, Gary T.
Georgia State University, Atlanta
Herron, Michael C.
Dartmouth College, New Hampshire
Hessling, Robert M.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Hine, Christine M.
University of Surrey United Kingdom
Hipp, John R.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Hocutt, Max
The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Hollway, Wendy
The Open University, United Kingdom
Holman, Darryl J.
University of Washington, Seattle
Holman, David J.
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Holstein, James A.
Marquette University, Wisconsin
Homan, Roger
University of Brighton, United Kingdom
Horrace, William C.
Syracuse University, New York
House, Ernest R.
University of Colorado, Boulder
Hoyle, Rick H.
Duke University, North Carolina
Hughes, Rhidian
King's College London, United Kingdom
Hundley, Vanora
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Iversen, Gudmund R.
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania
Jaccard, James J.
State University of New York, Albany
Jackman, Simon
Stanford University, California
Jacoby, William G.
Michigan State University, East Lansing
Jasso, Guillermina
New York University
Jefferis, Valerie E.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Jefferson, Tony
Keele University, United Kingdom
Jenkins, Richard
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Johnson, Jeffrey C.
East Carolina University, Greenville
Johnson, Paul E.
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Jones, Michael Owen
University of California, Los Angeles
Kanuha, Valli Kalei
University of Hawaii, Honolulu
Kaplan, David W.
University of Delaware, Newark
Karuntzos, Georgia T.
RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
Katz, Jonathan N.
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
Kedar, Orit
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Kennedy, Peter E.
Simon Fraser University, Canada
Kenny, David A.
University of Connecticut, Storrs
Kimball, David C.
University of Missouri, St. Louis
King, Jean A.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Kirk, Roger E.
Baylor University, Texas
Knoke, David H.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Kolen, Michael J.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Korczynski, Marek
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Kovtun, Mikhail
Duke University, North Carolina
Krauss, Autumn D.
Colorado State University, Fort Collins
Kroonenberg, Pieter M.
Leiden University, The Netherlands
Krueger, Richard A.
University of Minnesota, St. Paul
Kuhn, Randall
University of Colorado, Boulder
Kuzel, Anton J.
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond
Lagopoulos, Alexandros
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Langeheine, Rolf
Formerly at the University of Kiel, Germany
Laurie, Heather
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Lauriola, Marco
University of Rome, “La Sapienza” Italy
Lavrakas, Paul J.
Nielsen Media Research, New York
Le Voi, Martin
The Open University, United Kingdom
Leahey, Erin
University of Arizona, Tucson
Ledolter, Johannes
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Lee, Raymond M.
Royal Holloway University of London, United Kingdom
Lee (Zhen Li), Jane
University of Florida, Gainesville
Levin, Irwin P.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
LewisBeck, Michael S.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Liao, Tim Futing
University of Essex, United Kingdom; University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Lincoln, Yvonna S.
Texas A&M University
Little, Daniel
University of Michigan, Dearborn
Little, Jani S.
University of Colorado, Boulder
Liu, Cong
Illinois State University, Normal
Lockyer, Sharon
De Montfort University, United Kingdom
Long, Karen J.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Lowe, Will
University of Bath, United Kingdom
Lykken, David T.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Lynch, Michael
Cornell University, New York
Lynn, Peter
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Madsen, Douglas
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Magidson, Jay
Statistical Innovations, Belmont, Massachusetts
Mahoney, Christine
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Mahoney, James
Brown University, Rhode Island
Maines, David R.
Oakland University, Michigan
Manton, Kenneth G.
Duke University, North Carolina
Marsden, Peter V.
Harvard University, Massachuesetts
Marsh, Lawrence C.
University of Notre Dame, Indiana
Mason, Jennifer
University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Mathiowetz, Nancy
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Maxim, Paul S.
University of Western Ontario, Canada
May, Tim
University of Salford, United Kingdom
Maynard, Mary
University of York, United Kingdom
McDowall, David
State University of New York, Albany
McElhanon, Kenneth A.
Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics, Texas
McGraw, Kenneth O.
University of Mississippi
McGuigan, Jim
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
McIver, John P.
University of Colorado, Boulder
McKelvie, Stuart J.
Bishop's University, Canada
Meadows, Lynn M.
University of Calgary, Canada
Menard, Scott
University of Colorado, Boulder
Merrett, Mike C.
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Mertens, Donna M.
Gallaudet University, Washington, DC
Miller, Arthur G.
Miami University, Ohio
Millward, Lynne
University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Moffett, Kenneth W.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Mooney, Christopher Z.
University of Illinois, Springfield
Moreno, Erika
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Morris, Martina
University of Washington, Seattle
Morse, Janice M.
University of Alberta, Canada
Moyé, Lemuel A.
University of Texas, Houston
Mueller, Charles W.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Mueller, Daniel J.
Indiana University, Bloomington
Mueller, Ralph O.
The George Washington University, Washington, DC
Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki
University of Denver, Colorado
Mulaik, Stanley A.
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
Nagler, Jonathan
New York University
Nash, Chris
University of Technology, Australia
Nathan, Laura
Mills College, California
Nishisato, Shizuhiko
University of Toronto, Canada
Noblit, George W.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Norpoth, Helmut
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Noymer, Andrew
University of California, Berkeley
Oakley, Ann
University of London, United Kingdom
Olsen, Randall J.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Olsen, Wendy K.
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Ondercin, Heather L.
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Outhwaite, R. William
University of Sussex, United Kingdom
Page, Stewart
University of Windsor, Canada
Palmer, Harvey D.
University of Mississippi
Paluck, Elizabeth Levy
Yale University, Connecticut
Pampel, Fred
University of Colorado, Boulder
Parcero, Osiris J.
Bristol University, United Kingdom
Park, Sung Ho
Texas A&M University
Parry, Ken W.
Griffith University, Australia
Pattison, Philippa
University of Melbourne, Australia
Patton, Michael Quinn
The Union Institute & University, UtilizationFocused Evaluation, Minnesota
Paul, Pallab
University of Denver, Colorado
Pavlichev, Alexei
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Paxton, Pamela
Ohio State University, Columbus
Peng, ChaoYing Joanne
Indiana University, Bloomington
Phillips, Nelson
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Phua, VoonChin
City University of New York
Pickering, Michael J.
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Pink, Sarah
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Platt, Lucinda
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Platt, Jennifer
University of Sussex, United Kingdom
Plummer, Ken
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Poland, Blake D.
University of Toronto, Canada
Pollins, Brian M.
The Mershon Center, Columbus, Ohio
Post, Alison E.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Potter, Jonathan A.
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Prosch, Bernhard
Universität ErlangenNürnberg, Germany
Pye, Paul E.
University of Teesside, United Kingdom
Quinn, Kevin M.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Ragin, Charles C.
University of Arizona, Tucson
Rässler, Susanne
Universität ErlangenNürenberg, Germany
Redlawsk, David P.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Reis, Harry T.
University of Rochester, New York
Richardson, Laurel
Ohio State University, Columbus
Riessman, Catherine K.
Boston University, Massachusetts
Ritzer, George
University of Maryland, College Park
Robinson, Dawn T.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
University of Oklahoma, Norman
Rodríguez, Germán
Princeton University, New Jersey
Roncek, Dennis W.
University of Nebraska, Omaha
Rosenthal, Robert
University of California, Riverside
Rosnow, Ralph L.
Temple University, Pennsylvania
Rothstein, Hannah R.
Baruch College, New York
Rubin, Donald B.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Rudas, Tamás
Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary
Sandelowski, Margarete
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Santos, Filipe M.
INSEAD, France
Sapsford, Roger
University of Teesside, United Kingdom
Sasaki, Masamichi
Hyogo Kyoiku University, Japan
Schafer, William D.
University of Maryland, College Park
Schelin, Shannon Howle
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Schenker, Nathaniel
National Center for Health Statistics, Maryland
Schmidt, Tara J.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Schrodt, Philip A.
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Scott, Steven L.
University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Scott, John
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Seale, Clive
Brunel University, United Kingdom
Shadish, William R.
University of California, Merced
Shaffir, William
McMaster University, Canada
Shannon, Megan L.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Shipan, Charles R.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Shu, Xiaoling
University of California, Davis
Sieber, Joan E.
California State University, Hayward
Sijtsma, Klaas
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Silver, N. Clayton
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Slagter, Tracy Hoffmann
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Smith, Peter W. F.
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Smith, John K.
University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls
Smithson, Michael
Australian National University, Australia
Snijders, Tom A. B.
University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Spector, Paul E.
University of South Florida, Tampa
Standing, Lionel G.
Bishop's University, Canada
Stark, Philip B.
University of California, Berkeley
Stevens, Gillian
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Stillman, Todd
University of Maryland, College Park
Stokes, S. Lynne
Southern Methodist University, Texas
Stovel, Katherine
University of Washington, Seattle
Strohmetz, David B.
Monmouth University, New Jersey
Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Sutton, Alex
University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Sweeney, Kevin J.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Swicegood, C. Gray
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Tacq, Jacques
Catholic University of Brussels, Belgium
Tcherni, Maria
Northeastern University, Massachusetts
Thomas, Jim
Northern Illinois University, DeKalb
Thompson, Bruce
Texas A&M University
Thorne, Sally E.
University of British Columbia, Canada
Tien, Charles
City University of New York
Ting, Kwokfai
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Toothaker, Larry E.
University of Oklahoma, Norman
Tracy, Karen
University of Colorado, Boulder
Traugott, Michael W.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Traxel, Nicole M.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Tsuji, Ryuhei
Meiji Gakuin University, Japan
Tuchman, Gaye
University of Connecticut, Storrs
Tuma, Nancy Brandon
Stanford University, California
Vallet, LouisAndré
LASMASInstitut du Longitudinal (CNRS) and Laboratoire de Sociologie Quantitative (CREST), France
van de Pol, Frank J. R.
Statistics Netherlands, The Netherlands
van der Ark, L. Andries
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
van Manen, Max
University of Alberta, Canada
van Teijlingen, Edwin R.
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Vann, Irvin B.
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Vermunt, Jeroen K.
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
von Hippel, Paul T.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Walker, Robert
University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Walsh, Susan
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Wand, Jonathan
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Wang, ChengLung
Florida State University, Tallahassee
Warren, Carol A. B.
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Wasserman, Stanley
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Weisberg, Herbert F.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Weisfeld, Carol C.
University of Detroit Mercy, Michigan
Wengraf, Tom
Middlesex University, United Kingdom
Whitten, Guy
Texas A&M University
Wilcox, Rand R.
University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Williams, Malcolm
University of Plymouth, United Kingdom
Wood, B. Dan
Texas A&M University
Woods, James
West Virginia University, Morgantown
Xie, Yu
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Zimmerman, Marc
University of Houston, Texas
Zorn, Christopher
National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia
About the Editors
Michael S. LewisBeck is F. Wendell Miller Distinguished Professor of Political Science and Chair, at the University of Iowa. He has edited the SAGE green monograph series Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences (QASS) since 1988. Also, he is Data Editor for the journal French Politics. He is past Editor of the American Journal of Political Science. Professor LewisBeck has authored or coauthored more than 110 books, articles, or chapters. His publications in methods include Applied Regression: An Introduction and Data Analysis: An Introduction. His publications in substantive areas of political science include Economics and Elections: The Major Western Democracies, Forecasting Elections, How France Votes, and The French Voter: Before and After the 2002 Elections. Besides the University of Iowa, he has taught quantitative methods courses at the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR, University of Michigan); the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR, University of Essex, England); the TARKI Summer School on Statistical Models (University of Budapest, Hungary); and the Ecole d'Eté de Lille (University of Lille, France). Also, Professor LewisBeck has held visiting appointments at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques (Sciences Po) in Paris; the Harvard University Department of Government; the University of Paris I (Sorbonne); the Catholic University in Lima, Peru; and the National Institute for Development Administration in Guatemala City. He speaks French and Spanish. His current research interests include election forecasting, and the modeling of coup behavior in Latin America.
Alan Bryman is Professor of Social Research in the Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University, England. His main research interests lie in research methodology, leadership studies, organizational analysis, the process of Disneyization, humananimal relations, and theme parks. He is author or coauthor of many books, including Quantity and Quality in Social Research (Routledge, 1988), Charisma and Leadership in Organizations (SAGE, 1992), Disney and His Worlds (Routledge, 1995), Mediating Social Science (SAGE, 1998), Quantitative Data Analysis With SPSS Release 10 for Windows: A Guide for Social Scientists (Routledge, 2001), Social Research Methods (Oxford University Press, 2001; rev. ed., 2004), Business Research Methods (Oxford University Press, 2003), and Disneyization of Society (SAGE, forthcoming). He is also coeditor of The Handbook of Data Analysis (SAGE, forthcoming). He is the editor of the Understanding Social Research series for Open University Press and is on the editorial board of Leadership Quarterly.
Tim Futing Liao is Professor of Sociology and Statistics at the University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign, and currently (2001–2003) teaches research methods in the Department of Sociology at the University of Essex, UK. His research focuses on methodology, demography, and comparative and historical family studies. He has authored Interpreting Probability Models (SAGE, 1994), Statistical Group Comparison (Wiley, 2002), and research articles in both methods and disciplinary journals. Professor Liao served two terms (1992–1996 & 1996–2000) as Deputy Editor of The Sociological Quarterly, and he is on the Editorial Board of Sociological Methods & Research and the Steering Committee of the ESRC Oxford Spring School in Quantitative Methods for Social Research. His substantive interest led him to a year as visiting research fellow with the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, and his methodological expertise led him to teach summer schools at Peking University, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and the University of Essex. Having a catholic interest in methodology as well as in life, he has lived in or visited more than 20 nations, has done research on five societies, has held formal academic appointments in three educational systems, and speaks three and threequarter languages.
Preface
These volumes comprise an encyclopedia of social science research methods, the first of its kind. Uniqueness explains, at least partly, why we undertook the project. It has never been done before. We also believe that such an encyclopedia is needed. What is an encyclopedia? In ancient Greek, the word signifies “allencompassing education.” This reference set provides readerswithanallencompassingeducationintheways of social science researchers. Why is this needed? No one researcher, expert or not, knows everything. He or she occasionally must look up some methodological point, for teaching as well as for research purposes. And it is not always obvious where to go, or what to look up when you get there. This encyclopedia brings together, in one place, authoritative essays on virtually all social science methods topics, both quantitative and qualitative.
A survey researcher may want to learn about longitudinal analysis in order to make sense of panel data. A student of household division of labor may want to learn the use of time diaries. A regression expert might bone up on multidimensional scaling, so as to be better able to aggregate certain measures. A deconstructionist might want to explore Foucauldian discourse analysis. An experimentalist may wish further understanding of the collinearity problem that nonexperimentalists routinely face. A feminist scholar may seek to know more about the use of films in research. A political scientist could have need of a refresher on experimental design. An anthropologist could raise a question about ethnographic realism. Perhaps a psychologist seeks to comprehend a particular measure of association. A philosopher might want to read more about the laws of social science. A sociologist may desire a review of the different approaches to evaluation research. Even in areas where one is highly expert, much can be gained. For example, in the examination of interaction effects, there are many entries from different perspectives, treating the littleused as well as the muchused techniques. These entries are written by acknowledged leading scholars. One would have to be “more expert” than the experts not to benefit from reading them.
Besides practicing researchers and social statisticians, the encyclopedia has appeal for more general readers. Who might these people be? First, there are students, graduate and undergraduate, in the social science classes in the universities of the world. All the major branches—anthropology, communications, economics, education, geography, political science, psychology, public health, public policy, sociology, urban planning—have their students reading articles and books that require an appreciation of method for their full comprehension. The typical undergraduate needs to know how to read a contingency table, interpret a correlation coefficient, or critique a survey. There are entries on these and other such topics that are completely accessible to this student population. These sorts of entries require no special knowledge of mathematics or statistics to be understood, nor does the student need to have actually done research in order to grasp the essentials.
Of course, graduate students in these fields are obliged to go beyond simple reading comprehension, to actual application of these techniques. Many of the pieces make the “howto” of the method clear, such as some of the entries on regression analysis or interviewing techniques. Then, there are more advanced entries that will challenge, but still inform, the typical graduate student. For example, the pieces on Bayesian analysis, or generalized linear modeling, will certainly allow them to sharpen their academic teeth.
In addition to researchers and students, this encyclopedia will be helpful to collegeeducated readers who want to understand more about social science methodology because of their work (e.g., they are journalists or city managers) or because of their pleasure (e.g., they follow social science reporting in the media). Many entries are written in ordinary English, with no special math or stat requirements, and so will be accessible to such readers. Moreover, many of the more difficult entries are understandable in at least an introductory way, because of instructions to that effect given to our contributors. Having said that, it should be emphasized that none of the essays is “dumbed down.” Instead, they are intelligently written by recognized experts. There is nothing “cookbook” or condescending about them. In this domain of style, the only essential restriction placed on the authors was that of length, for we urged them to present their material as concisely as possible.
Our instructions to authors provided four different lengths for the entries—2,500 words (Alevel), 1,000 words (Blevel), 500 words (Clevel), and 50 words (Dlevel). Of course, certain individual entries—whether A, B, C, or D level—do not conform exactly to these word counts, which are rather more guidelines than rigid standards. Length of entry was finally dictated by the importance, breadth, or, in some cases, complexity of the topic. In general, the longer the entry, the more central the topic. Examples of Alevel entries are Analysis of Variance, Bayesian Inference, Case Study, and Regression. Blevel topics are also important, but do not demand quite so much space to explain the concept clearly. Blevel topics include Historical Method, Inferential Statistics, Misspecification, and Mixed Design. Clevel entries usually treat a rather specific method or issue, such as Curvilinearity, Narrative Interview, Prisoner's Dilemma, and RecordCheck Studies. The A, B, and C entries all end with references to guide the reader further. Dlevel entries, on the other hand, are brief and mainly definitional. Examples of Dlevel entries are Gini Coefficient, Nominal, Secondary Data, and Yates's Correction.
Altogether, there are about 1,000 entries, covering quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as the connections between them. The entries are crossreferenced to each other, as appropriate. For example, take this entry—Discrete (see Categorical, Nominal, Attribute). The number of entries, “1,000,” is not magic, nor was it a goal, but it is the number to which we kept returning in our search for a master list of entries. At the beginning of the project, we aimed to come up with an exhaustive list of all possible methods terms. We consulted written materials—subfield dictionaries, statistics encyclopedias, methods journals, publisher flyers—and individuals—members of our distinguished international board of scholars, editorial boards of methodology journals, colleagues at our home institutions and elsewhere, and, last but not least, our graduate students. As the process unfolded, some entries were culled, some consolidated, some added. We have included every methodological term we could think of that someone reading social science research results in a book, a journal, or a newspaper might come across. In the spirit of the first encyclopedia, l'Encyclopédie, by Diderot and d'Alembert in 1751, we did try “to examine everything” (Il faut tout examiner) that concerned our enterprise. Although something is undoubtedly “not examined,” it remains for our readers to tell us what it is.
Once the entry list was basically set, we began contacting potential contributors. We were heartened by the extent of cooperation we received from the social science community. Senior and junior scholars alike gave us their best, and did so promptly. Remarkably, with a handful of exceptions, everyone met their deadlines. This is one measure, we believe, of the value these busy researchers place on this encyclopedia. As can be seen from the bylines, they compose a varied mix from the relevant disciplines, holding important university and research posts around the world.
Besides the contributors, the board, and the colleagues and students of our home institutions, there are others who are responsible for the success of the encyclopedia. Chris Rojek, senior editor at SAGE London, has to be credited with the initial idea of the project. Without that, it would not have happened. On the US side, C. Deborah Laughton, former senior editor at SAGE California, was a dedicated and tireless supporter of the encyclopedia idea from the very beginning. Without her enthusiasm and insight, the final product would have lacked much. Rolf Janke, vice president at SAGE, was a central source of organization strength and encouragement from the home office. Also at SAGE, Vincent Burns, technical editor, was vital in helping piece together the Web site, the database, and the massive manuscript data files. As well, we should mention Melanie Birdsall, production editor, who patiently shepherded us through the alphabet soup of page proofs. Finally, to save the best for last, we must thank Eileen Haddox, our developmental editor. Eileen made it work by doing the detail work. She sent out the contracts, reminded the authors, logged in the contributions, and sent text and corrections back and forth, in the end making the whole corpus ready for the printer. Always, she labored with efficiency and good cheer. In those realms, she set standards that we, the editors of the encyclopedia, tried to achieve. Sometimes we did.
, ,Introduction
Social science methodology can be said to have entered our consciousness by the late 19th century when Emile Durkheim penned The Rules of Sociological Method, laying the foundation for the systematic understanding and analysis of social phenomena. From that time, it has seen continuous growth characterized by an exponential development over the last few decades of the 20th century. The development came in terms of both the width and the depth of our methodological knowhow. The broad range of methods applicable in the wide circle of social science disciplines, and the sophistication and level in the advancement of some analytical approaches and techniques, would have been unthinkable merely a few score years ago. Focus group and thick description, for example, have virtually become lingua franca among many social science researchers, regardless of their disciplinary orientation. The methods for dealing with missing data and nonresponse, to take other examples, have advanced so much that specialized workshops on such issues are a perennial favorite among analysts of survey data.
It is only natural, at the beginning of a new century, for us to take stock of the entire spectrum of our social science methodological knowledge, even though it is impossible and impractical to include every method that has ever been used in the social sciences. The cardinal aim of this encyclopedia is to provide our readers—be they students, academics, or applied researchers—with an introduction to a vast array of research methods by giving an account of their purposes, principles, developments, and applications. The approximately 1,000 entries, many of which are extensive treatments of the topics and contain recent developments, can be of great use to the novice or the experienced researcher alike.
To accomplish this goal, we offer two major types of entries: Some contain only a definition of no longer than a paragraph or two. These give the reader a quick explanation of a methodological term. True to the encyclopedic form, many other entries are topical treatments or essays that discuss—at varying lengths, oftenwithexamplesandsometimeswithgraphics—the nature, the history, the application, and the implication of using a certain method. Most of these entries also give suggested readings and references for the reader to pursue a topic further. These are part and parcel of the encyclopedia and are invaluable for those who would like to delve into the wonder world of research methods. To help provide a more complete explanation than is often achieved within the scope of a single article, we employ small capital letters, such as those appearing in the first paragraph of this introduction, that refer the reader to related terms that are explained elsewhere in the encyclopedia.
With such a variety of specialized essays to write, we are fortunate to have been able to count on the support of our board members and authors, who contributed many a coherent introduction to a method with definitiveness and thoroughness, often with great flair as well. Sometimes, topics are treated in such a novel way that they are not only pleasurable but also thoughtprovoking to read. For instance, entries such as the essay on econometrics by Professor Damodar Gujarati are a pleasant surprise. Rather than merely introducing the topic with the types of methods and models that econometricians use and nothing else, Gujarati takes us on a journey from the ordinary to the extraordinary. He begins with three quotations that illustrate the broad scope of econometrics; here the simple, usual approach of using quotations accomplishes the seemingly undoable task of defining the terrain on which econometricians work and play. He then walks us twice through the research process, from economic theory to data and models to analysis, once in principle and the second time with an example. Such a process is what many of us preach every day but seldom think of when writing an essay for an encyclopedia. Gujarati uses the ordinary process of going about economic research to achieve an extraordinary, profound impact—an impact that will leave a reader thinking about, instead of just the methods and models, the fundamental purpose of econometrics. Entries like this give us knowledge and food for thought.
The diversity of our entries is also great. To take one of many possible contrasts, some of our entries deal with very philosophical issues, such as poststructuralism, that might appear to be out of step with a set of volumes concerned with methods of research, whereas others discuss advanced statistical techniques that might similarly be viewed as not part of social science research methodology. However, we have taken the view that both are necessary. On the one hand, all researchers need to be aware of the epistemological issues that influence both the nature of research questions and the assumptions that underpin aspects of the research process; on the other hand, we all need to be aware of the full panoply of ways of analyzing quantitative data, so that the most appropriate and robust techniques can be applied in different situations. It is only when we are knowledgeable about the choices available to us—whether epistemological, statistical, or whatever—that we can completely develop our craft as social researchers.
Examples of excellent treatment of a whole host of topics abound in the following pages and volumes. By assembling into one encyclopedia entries of varied origin that serve different research purposes, we, the editors, hope that readers will come to appreciate the rich heritage of our social science methodology and, more importantly, will be able to benefit from this immense source of methodological expertise in advancing their research.
, , 
Appendix
BibliographyOptimal matching methods for historical sequences. Journal of Interdisciplinary History16471–494(1986).,Measuring resemblance in sequence data. American Journal of Sociology96144–185(1990).,(2002). Experimental design and research methods. Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas at Dallas, Program in Cognition and Neuroscience., , , , &(1999). Neural networks. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , &A WidrowHoff learning rule for a generalization of the linear autoassociator. Journal of Mathematical Psychology40175–182(1996)., , ,(1987). The syntax of social life: The theory and method of comparative narratives. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.(1983). Statistical methods for forecasting. New York: Wiley., &Forecast functions implied by ARIMA models and other related forecast procedures. International Statistical Review5451–66(1986).,Mass political attitudes and the survey response. American Political Science Review691218–1231(1975).Measuring representation: Perils of the correlation coefficient. American Journal of Political Science21805–815(1977).(1982). Interpreting and using regression. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1995). Crosslevel inference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., &(1983). The nature of explanation. New York: Oxford University Press.(1969). The legacy of logical positivism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press., &Hawthorne control procedures in educational experiments: A reconsideration of their use and effectiveness. Review of Educational Research59215–228(1989)., ,(1996). Designing and conducting health surveys: A comprehensive guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco: JosseyBass.(1985). Wheeling and dealing. New York: Columbia University Press.(1991). Backboards and blackboards. New York: Columbia University Press., &(1994). Observational techniques. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 377–392). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1998). Peer power. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press., &(1987). Membership roles in field research (Qualitative Research Methods Series vol. 6). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(1979). Dialectic of enlightenment (J. Cumming, Trans.). London: Verso. (Original work published 1944)., &(1996). Computeraided multivariate analysis (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall., &(1973). Ripping and running. New York: Academic Press.(1997). Statistical methods for the social sciences (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall., &(1984). An introduction to categorical data analysis. New York: John Wiley.(1984). Analysis of ordinal categorical data. New York: John Wiley.(1990). Categorical data analysis. New York: John Wiley.(1996). An introduction to categorical data analysis (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.(2002). Categorical data analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley Interscience.Simple and effective confidence intervals for proportions and differences of proportions result from adding two successes and two failures. American Statistician54(4)280–288(2000).,(1997). Statistical methods for social sciences (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall., &(1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(1990). Max Weber's construction of social theory. London: Macmillan.Probing the bounds of conventional wisdom: A comparison of regression, probit, and discriminant analysis. American Journal of Political Science19571–608(1975).,(1984). Linear probability, logit and probit models. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &Type I error rates for Welch's test and James's second order test under nonnormality and inequality of variance when there are two groups. Journal of Educational and Behavorial Statistics19275–291(1994)., ,(1990). Debates on evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(2003). Event history analysis. In M. A. Hardy & A. Bryman (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis. London: Sage.Measures of inequality. American Sociological Review43865–880(1978).(1987). Estimation of linear models with incomplete data. In C. C. Clogg (Ed.), Sociological methodology 1987. San Francisco: JosseyBass.(1999). Multiple regression: A primer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.(2001). Missing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1942). The use of personal documents in psychological science. New York: Social Science Research Council.AI and agents: State of the art. AI Magazine23(3)25–29(2002).Ethnographic content analysis. Qualitative Sociology1065–77(1987).(1996). Qualitative media analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(2002). Creating fear: News and the construction of crisis. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.(1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485–499). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(2000). Statistics with confidence: Confidence intervals and statistical guidelines (2nd ed.). London: British Medical Journal Books., , , &(2003). Numerical methods in statistical computing for the social sciences. New York: Wiley., , &Twostage estimation of nonrecursive choice models. Political Analysis8147–165(2000).,(2000). Reflexive methodology. London: Sage., &(2002). Postmodernism and social research. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(2000). Doing critical management research. London: Sage., &(1985). Advanced econometrics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1994). Introduction to statistics and econometrics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR). (2000). Standard definitions: Final dispositions for case codes and outcome rates for surveys. Ann Arbor, MI: Author.American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Educational Measurement. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.American Psychological Association. Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist471597–1611(1992).American Psychological Association. (2002, October 28). PsycINFO database records [electronic database]. Washington, DC: Author.(1988). Psychological testing (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan.(1996). Psychological testing (7th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall., &(1973). Cluster analysis for applications. New York: Academic Press.(1981). Methods of information integration theory. New York: Academic Press.(1980). On the use of matrices in certain population mathematics. In Statistical methods for comparative studies: Techniques for bias reduction. New York: Wiley., , , , , &Studies in the reliability and validity of the critical incident technique. Journal of Applied Psychology48(1)398–403(1964).,(1967). Multiple classification analysis: A report on a computer program for multiple regression using categorical predictors. Ann Arbor, MI: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research., , &Do the dead have interests? Policy issues of research after life. American Journal of Law & Medicine24261(1998).,The Surplus Theory of Social Stratification and the size distribution of personal wealth. Social Forces65293–326(1986).The statistical signature of pervasive competition on wage and salary incomes. Journal of Mathematical Sociology26217–270(2002).(2000). Rethinking observation: From method to context. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 673–702). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &Identification of causal effects using instrumental variables. Journal of the American Statistical Association91444–455(1996)., ,Involvement in health care decisions: Parents and children with chronic illness. Journal of Family Nursing2(2)174–194(1996).,(1988). Spatial econometrics. Boston: Kluwer Academic.(1998). Spatial dependence in linear regression models, with an introduction to spatial econometrics. In A. Ullah & D. Giles (Eds.), Handbook of applied economic statistics (pp. 237–289). New York: Marcel Dekker., &Cognitivebehavioral stress management intervention buffers distress responses and immunologic changes following notification of HIV1 seropositivity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology59(6)906–915(1991)., , , , , , et al.Multidimensional scaling of measures of distance between partitions. Journal of Mathematical Psychology10148–203(1973).,(1997). Amos users' guide version 3.6. Chicago: Smallwaters Corporation.(1978). Subjects' information processing in information display board studies. In K. Hunt (Ed.), Advances in consumer research, Vol. 5 (pp. 555–559). Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research., , &(1995). Realist social theory: The morphogenetic approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Archer, M., Bhaskar, R., Collier, A., Lawson, T., & Norrie, A. (Eds.). (1998). Critical realism: Essential readings. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.Aristotle. (1977). Metaphysica. Baarn: Het Wereldvenster.An empirical comparison of direct questioning, scenario, and randomized response methods for obtaining sensitive business information. Decision Sciences221073–1090(1991)., , ,Armitage, P., & Colton, T. (Eds.). (1998). Encyclopedia of biostatistics. New York: John Wiley.Armstrong, J. S. (Ed.). (2001). Principles of forecasting. Boston: Kluwer.(1994). The Rorschach technique. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon., , &(1990). Methods of research in social psychology. New York: McGrawHill., , &(1963). Social choice and individual values (2nd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1994). Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology41258–290(1946).(1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership, and men (pp. 177–190). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Press.(1983). Causal modeling (2nd ed., Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–003). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1989). The reflexive thesis: Wrighting sociology of scientific knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Fraud by numbers: Quantitative rhetoric in the Piltdown forgery discovery. South Atlantic Quarterly94(2)591–618(1995).Atkinson, J. M., & Heritage, J. (Eds.). (1984). Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1990). The ethnographic imagination: Textual constructions of reality. London: Routledge.(1994). Ethnography and participant observation. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 248–261). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &Kundera's “immortality”: The interview society and the invention of self. Qualitative Inquiry3(3)304–325(1997).,Editorial: A debate about our canon. Qualitative Research15–21(2001)., ,(1998). The life story interview (Qualitative Research Methods Series, Vol. 44). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.(1995). A model of the emergence of new political actors. In N. Gilbert & R. Conte (Eds.), Artificial societies. London: UCL.(1997). The complexity of cooperation: Agentbased models of competition and collaboration. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.The evolution of cooperation. Science2111390–1396(1981).,(1936). Language, truth and logic. London: Victor Gollancz.(1979). The practice of social research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1995). The practice of social research (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Long memory processes and fractional integration in econometrics. Journal of Econometrics735–59(1996).Artificial social intelligence. Annual Review of Sociology20407–436(1994)., , , , ,(1997). Observing interaction: An introduction to sequential analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press., &(1995). Analyzing interaction: Sequential analysis with SDIS and GSEQ. New York: Cambridge University Press., &Weak measurement vs. strong statistics: An empirical critique of S.S. Stevens' proscriptions on statistics. Educational and Psychological Measurement26291–309(1966)., ,(2001). Econometric analysis of panel data. Chichester, UK: Wiley.(1993). Cointegration, error correction and the econometric analysis of nonstationary series. New York: Oxford University Press., , , &(2001). Visual methods in social research. London: Sage.(2000). Mind in the middle: A practical guide to priming and automaticity research. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (pp. 253–285). New York: Cambridge University Press., &Smallsample degrees of freedom with multiple imputation. Biometrika86948–955(1999).,Zooming out/zooming in: Visualizing globalization. Visual Sociology12(2)5–32(1997).“I didn't leave y'all on purpose”: HIVinfected mothers' videotaped legacies for their children. Qualitative Sociology20(1)7–32(1997)., ,(1974). Elements of sampling theory. Sevenoaks, UK: Hodder & Stoughton.A comparison of aspects of the US and UK censuses of population. Transactions in GIS149–60(1996).(1967). Elements of semiology. London: Jonathan Cape.(1977). Image music text. London: Fontana.(1977). Rhetoric of the image. In Image, music, text (S. Heath, Trans.). London: Fontana.(1999). Latent variable models and factor analysis. London: Arnold., &Multivariate analysis. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B9176–197(1947).(1996). Insideroutsider team research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1988). Nonlinear regression analysis and its applications. New York: John Wiley., &(1942). Balinese character: A photographic analysis. New York: New York Graphic Society., &(1998). The consumer society. London: Sage. (Originally published in 1970)(1978). Hermeneutics and social science. London: Hutchinson.Some thoughts on ethics after reading Milgram's “Behavioral study of obedience.”American Psychologist19421–423(1964).Career publication patterns and collaborative “styles” in American academic science. Journal of Higher Education62613–636(1991).,An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society53370–418(1763).An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances. Biometrika45293–315(1958).(2000). Tune in, log on: Soaps, fandom and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Comparing dynamic specifications: The case of presidential approval. Political Analysis351–87(1991).Beyond linearity by default: Generalized additive models. American Journal of Political Science42596–627(1998).,What to do (and not to do) with timeseries crosssection data. American Political Science Review89634–647(1995).,Whose side are we on?Social Problems14239–247(1967).Photography and sociology. Studies in the Anthropology of Visual Communication1(1)3–26(1974).(1986). Doing things together. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.(1998). Tricks of the trade. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1961). Boys in white. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., , &Becker, S., & Bryman, A. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding research for social policy and practice: Themes, methods and approaches. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.A note on participant observation. Sociology3417–418(1969).Narratives and lives: Women's health politics and the diagnosis of cancer for DES daughters. Narrative Inquiry9(2)1–43(1999).(1977). A paradigm for looking: Crosscultural research with visual media. Norwood, NJ: Ablex., &(1980). Regression diagnostics: Identifying influential data and sources of collinearity. New York: John Wiley., , &(1999). What is random? Chance and order in mathematics and life. New York: Copernicus.(1991). Expert systems. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , &(1998). Randomness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1999). Condemned to repetition? The rise, fall, and reprise of SovietRussian military interventionism, 1973–1996. Cambridge: MIT Press.(1977). Philosophical foundations of the three sociologies. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(1998). Realism and social science. In M. Archer, R. Bhaskar, A. Collier, T. Lawson, & A. Norrie (Eds.), Critical realism: Essential readings. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(1973). Analyse des Données. Tome 2: Analyse des Correspondances [Data analysis: Vol. 2. Correspondence analysis]. Paris: Dunod.(1954). Content analysis. In G. Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 488–522). Reading, MA: AddisonWesley.(2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.(1984). The likelihood principle: A review, generalizations, and statistical implications. Hayward, CA: Institute of Mathematical Statistics., &(1977). Status characteristics and social interaction: An expectation states approach. New York: Elsevier., , , &(1967). The social construction of reality. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin., &The development and evaluation of a training videotape for the resolution of marital conflict. Dissertation Abstracts International343485B(1974).(1997). Marginal models for categorical data. Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.(1995). Statistical assumptions as empirical commitments. In T. G. Blomberg & S. Cohen (Eds.), Law, punishment, and social control: Essays in honor of Sheldon Messinger (pp. 245–258). New York: Aldine de Gruyter., &(1994). Bayesian theory. New York: Wiley., &(1983). Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics and praxis. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.Validity and reliability issues in elite interviewing. PS—Political Science and Politics35679–682(2002).(1984). Nonrecursive causal models. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1993). Understanding regression assumptions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.The margin at the center: On testimonio. Modern Fiction Studies35(1)11–28(1989).(1990). Literature and politics in the Central American revolutions. Austin: University of Texas Press., &(1978). A realist theory of science. Hassocks, UK: Harvester Press.(1979). The possibilities of naturalism: A philosophical critique of the contemporary human sciences. Brighton, UK: Harvester.(1986). Scientific real is mandhuman emancipation. London: Verso.(1997). A realist theory of science. London: Verso. (Original work published 1978)(1998). The possibility of naturalism (2nd ed.). Hemel Hempstead, UK: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (Original work published 1979)Bickman, L., & Rog, D. J. (Eds.). (1998). Handbook of applied social research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Biemer, P. P., Groves, R. M., Lyberg, L. E., Mathiowetz, N. A., & Sudman, S. (Eds.). (1991). Measurement errors in surveys. New York: Wiley.A method of choosing multiway partitions for classification and decision trees. Journal of Applied Statistics1849–62(1991)., ,(1998). Longitudinal data analysis: Designs, models, and methods. London: Sage., & (with , , , & ).(1996). Arguing and thinking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Capturing images in a net: Perceptual modeling of product descriptors using sorting data. Marketing Bulletin1011–23(1999).,(1970). Kinesics and context: Essays on body motion communication. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.(1968). Some latent trait models and their use in inferring an examinee's ability. In F. M. Lord & M. R. Novick (Eds.), Statistical theories of mental test scores. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley.(2001). Introduction to behavioral research on the Internet. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1995). Neural networks for pattern recognition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Responseorder effects and the early Gallup splitballots. Public Opinion Quarterly65479–505(2001).,(1958). The theory of committees and elections. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1999). Doing quantitative research in the social sciences: An integrated approach to research design, measurement, and statistics. London: Sage.(1993). Approaches to social enquiry. Cambridge, UK: Polity.(2000). Designing social research: The logic of anticipation. Cambridge, UK: Polity.(1961). Causal inference in nonexperimental research. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.(1960). Social statistics. New York: McGrawHill.Theory, measurement and replication in the social sciences. American Journal of Sociology66(1)342–347(1961).(1972). Social statistics (2nd ed.). Tokyo: McGrawHill Kogakusha.(1979). Social statistics (rev. 2nd ed.). New York: McGrawHill.(1969). Theory construction: From verbal to mathematical formulations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Blanck, P. D. (Ed.). (1993). Interpersonal expectations: Theory, research, and applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.(2000). Psychophysiological indexes of psychological processes. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (pp. 117–137). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1996). The biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1–51). New York: Academic Press., &Parameters of social structure. American Sociological Review39615–635(1974).(1997). Addressing social problems through qualitative research. In D. Silverman (Ed.), Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice (pp. 221–238). London: Sage.(2002). Techniques of event history modeling: New approaches to causal analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., &(1955). The industrial mobility of labor as a probability process. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press., , &(1968). Probability models for mobility. In P. F. Lazarsfeld & N. W. Henry (Eds.), Readings in mathematical social science (pp. 318–334). Cambridge: MIT Press., , &Sociological analysis and the “variable.”American Sociological Review21683–690(1956).(1969). An empirical appraisal of Thomas and Znaniecki (1918–20) The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. (Original work published 1939)(1969). Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Estimation in a class of simultaneous equation limited dependent variable models. Review of Economic Studies5637–58(1989).,Blurton Jones, N. (Ed.). (1972). Ethological studies of child behaviour. London: Cambridge University Press.(1995). Correlation and regression : Principles and applications for industrial organizational psychology and management. New York: McGrawHill.(1994). An introduction to the analysis of variance. Westport, CT: Praeger.(1999). Participant observation. In B. J. Crabtree & W. L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research (pp. 47–69). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1991). New philosophy of social science: Problems of indeterminacy. Cambridge, UK: Polity.(2001). Narrative methods for organizational and communication research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(in press). Diary methods: Capturing life as it is lived. Annual Review of Psychology., , &(1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: John Wiley.(in press). Latent curve models: A structural equation approach. New York: John Wiley., &(1990). Regression diagnostics: An expository treatment of outliers and influential cases. In J. Fox & J. S. Long (Ed.), Modern methods of data analysis (pp. 257–291). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(2002). Elder mistreatment: Abuse, neglect, and exploitation in an aging America. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press., &Boomsma, A., Van Duijn, M. A. J., & Snijders, T. A. B. (Eds.). (2001). Essays on item response theory. New York: Springer.(1997). Modern multidimensional scaling. New York: SpringerVerlag., &Level of measurement: Once over again. Sociological Methods and Research9147–160(1980).,Borgatta, E. F., & Jackson, D. J. (Eds.). (1980). Aggregate data: Analysis and interpretation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.A process dissociation approach to objectiveprojective test score interrelationships. Journal of Personality Assessment7847–68(2002).Face validity and fakability of objective and projective measures of dependency. Journal of Personality Assessment63363–386(1994)., , ,(1997). Randomized experiments for planning and evaluation: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1979). Assuring the confidentiality of social research data. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press., &The successive pile sort. Cultural Anthropology Methods6(2)7–8(1994).(1999). Engendering resistance: Agency and power in women's prisons. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate/ Dartmouth.(1994). Using videotaped recordings in qualitative research. In J. M. Morse (Ed.), Critical issues in qualitative research (pp. 224–261). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.The limits of social science: II. American Journal of Sociology28(4)443–460(1923).(1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2000). Pascalian meditations (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity.(1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., &(1992). Processing data: The survey example (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–085). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(2003). How to conduct selfadministered and mail surveys (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1994, July). Experiences during and responses to the Loma Prieta earthquake. Oakland: Governor's Office of Emergency Services, State of California., & (with , , , , , & )Survey research. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters1571–101(1997)., ,An analysis of transformations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (B)26(2)211–252(1964).,(1976). Time series analysis: Forecasting and control (rev. ed.). San Francisco: HoldenDay., &A change in level of nonstationary timeseries. Biometrika52181–192(1965).,(1973). Bayesian inference in statistical analysis. New York: Wiley., &Intervention analysis with applications to economic and environmental problems. Journal of the American Statistical Association7070–92(1975).,(1978). Statistics for experimenters. New York: Wiley., , &(1994). Time series analysis: Forecasting and control (3rd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall., , &Time is of the essence: Event history models in political science. American Journal of Political Science41336–383(1997).,Duration models and proportional hazards in political science. American Journal of Political Science45951–967(2001).,Duration models for repeated events. The Journal of Politics64(4)1069–1094(2002).,(1990). Social semigroups: A unified theory of scaling and bockmodeling as applied to social networks. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press.Are social equivalences ever regular? Permutation and exact tests. Social Networks2387–123(2001).,Bracken, B. (Ed.). (1995). Handbook of self concept: Developmental, social and clinical consequences. New York: Wiley.(1985). Distributionfree statistical tests. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(2000). Anthropological poetics. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 949–979). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2003). The time at Darwin's Reef: Poetic explorations in anthropology and history. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.(1985). Multivariate analysis of variance (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–054)Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &(1996). Regression models: Censored, sample selected, or truncated data (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–111). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1984). Classification and regression trees. Monterey, CA: Wadsworth., , , &(1983). Elements of generalizability. Iowa City, IA: American College Testing Program.(2001). Generalizability theory. New York: SpringerVerlag.(2002). Combined survey sampling inference: Weighing Basu's elephants. London: Arnold.(1986). Learning how to ask. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1982). Betrayers of the truth: Fraud and deceit in the halls of science. New York: Simon & Schuster., &(1960). The life and works of A. K. Erlang. Kobenhavn: Akademiet for de Tekniske Videnskaber., , &(1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1989). Critical theory and society: A reader. New York: Routledge., &(1985). Handbook of mathematics (K. A. Hirsch, Trans. & Ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. (Originally published in 1979), &(1991). Ballots of tumult: A portrait of volatility in American voting. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.(1995). Chaos and catastrophe theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1995). Serpents in the sand: Essays on the nonlinear nature of politics and human destiny. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.(1987). Observation and objectivity. New York: Oxford University Press.(1998). Experimental design and analysis (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–074). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1999). Q methodology. In G. J. Miller & M. L. Whicker (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in public administration (pp. 599–637). New York: Dekker., , &Some experimental results in the correlation of mental abilities. British Journal of Psychology12296–322(1910).(1982). Covariance structures. In D. M. Hawkins (Ed.), Topics in applied multivariate analysis (pp. 72–141). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Asymptotic distribution free methods in the analysis of covariance structures. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology3762–83(1984).(1965). Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering. New York: John Wiley.(1960). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Capitalism, socialism, and democracy: An empirical inquiry. European Journal of Political Research15459–470(1987)., ,Organismic achievement and environmental probability. The Psychological Review50255–272(1943).(1985). Positivism in social theory and research. London: Macmillan.(1992). Hierarchical linear models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(2001). Social research methods. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(1997). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS for Windows: A guide for social scientists. New York: Routledge Kegan Paul., &(1966). The human perspective in sociology: The methodology of participant observation. Englewoood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Bulmer, M. (Ed.). (1982). Social research ethics. London: Macmillan.Bulmer, M., & Solomos, J. (Eds.). (2003). Researching race and racism. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(1959). Causality: The place of the causal principle in modern science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.The extended case method. Sociological Theory16(1)4–33(1998).(1984). In the field. London: Allen & Unwin.Burgess, R. G. (Ed.). (1982). Field research: A sourcebook and field manual. London: Allen & Unwin.Economic freedom and democracy: Postcold war tests. European Journal of Political Research37237–253(2000).Comparative democracy: The economic development thesis. American Political Science Review88903–910(1994).,(1995). An introduction to social constructionism. London: Routledge.Dissimilarity measures for unconstrained sorting data. Multivariate Behavioral Research10409–424(1975).Illness narratives: Fact or fiction?Sociology of Health and Illness23(3)263–285(2001).(2001). Accounting. In W. P. Robinson & H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 285–301). Chichester, England: Wiley., &(1998). Complexity theory and the social sciences: An introduction. London: Routledge.(2002). Interpreting quantitative data. London: Sage.(1986). Housing and health. Aldershot, UK: Gower., , , &Electromyographic specificity during simple physical and attitudinal tasks: Location and topographical features of integrated EMG responses. Biological Psychology1885–121(1986)., , ,(2000). Handbook of psychophysiology (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., , &Children and civility: Ceremonial deviance and the acquisition of ritual competence. Social Psychology Quarterly50312–321(1987).Personal stories: Identity acquisition and selfunderstanding in Alcoholics Anonymous. Ethos19210–253(1991).(2001). When resistance becomes reproduction: A critical action research study. Proceedings of the 42nd Adult Education Research Conference. East Lansing: Michigan State University.A method for maximizing splithalf reliability coefficients. Educational and Psychological Measurement37819–825(1977).,(1998). Regression analysis of count data. New York: Cambridge University Press., &Reforms as experiments. American Psychologist24409–429(1969).(1988). Methodology and epistemology for social science: Selected papers (E. S. Overman, Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Methods for the experimenting society. Evaluation Practice12223–260(1991).Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitraitmultimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin5681–105(1959).,(1999). A primer on regression artifacts. New York: Guilford., &(1963). Experimental and quasiexperimental designs for research on teaching. In N. L. Gage (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 171–246). Chicago: Rand McNally., &Confidentialitypreserving modes of access to files and to interfile exchange for useful statistical analysis. Evaluation Quarterly1269–300(1977)., , ,(1968). The influence of interviewer and respondent psychological and behavioral variables on the reporting of household interviews (Vital and Health Statistics Series 2, No. 6). Washington, DC: National Center for Health Statistics., , &(2000). If you go down to the woods today …: Narratives of Newbury. In H. Addams & J. Proops (Eds.), Social discourse and environmental policy: An application of Q methodology (pp. 152–173). Cheltenham, UK: Elgar., &Assessing the discriminant validity of the transformational leadership behaviour as measured by the MLQ. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology71353–358(1998).Carley, K., & Prietula, M. (Eds.). (1994). Computational organization theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1998). Bayes and empirical Bayes methods for data analysis. London: Chapman & Hall/CRC., &Trait ratings from descriptions of behavior as mediated by components of meaning. Multivariate Behavioral Research28111–159(1993).,(1981). Unidimensional scaling (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–024). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &(1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &Carrington, P. J., Scott, J., & Wasserman, S. (Eds.). (2003). Models and methods in social network analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.(2002). The fivefactor personality model: How complete and satisfactory is it? In H. I. Braun, D. N. Jackson, & D. E. Wiley (Eds.), The role of constructs in psychological and educational measurement (pp. 97–126). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Multidimensional scaling. Annual Review of Psychology31607–649(1980).,Analysis of individual differences in multidimensional scaling via a Nway generalisation of EckartYoung decomposition. Psychometrika35283–299, 310–319(1970).,Humancomputer interaction: Psychology as a science of design. Annual Review of Psychology4861–83(1997).(1989). Nature's capacities and their measurement. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(1990). Statistical inference. Belmont, CT: Duxbury., &(2001). Statistical inference (2nd ed.). New York: Wadsworth., &The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research1245–276(1966).(1987). Randomized response: Theory and techniques. New York: Marcel Dekker., &(1982). What is this thing called science?St. Lucia, Australia: University of Queensland Press.(1999). What is this thing called science? (3rd ed.). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(2000). The turn to biographical methods in social science. London: Routledge Kegan Paul., , &Chamberlayne, P., Rustin, M., & Wengraf, T. (Eds.). (2002). Biography and social exclusion in Europe: Experiences and life journeys. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.(1997). New directions in econometric practice (2nd ed.). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar., &Spending priorities in Kent: A Delphi study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health35288–292(1981)., , ,(2002). Broadcast television effects in a remote community. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , &(2000). Grounded theory: Constructivist and objectivist methods. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 509–535). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1983). Statistics for technology (3rd ed.). London: Chapman & Hall.(1996). The analysis of timeseries: An introduction. New York: Chapman & Hall.Structure and meaning in models of breast and cervical cancer risk factors: A comparison of perceptions among Latinas, Anglo women and physicians. Medical Anthropology Quarterly940–74(1995)., , , ,(1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. Chichester, UK: Wiley.(1998). Critical incident technique. In G. Symon & C. Cassell (Eds.), Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: A practical guide (pp. 51–72). London: Sage.Does gender affect business performance? A study of microbusinesses in business services in the U.K. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Regional Development10(4)117–135(1998).,(2002). Correlation: Parametric and nonparametric measures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &From covariation to causation: A causal power theory. Psychological Review104(2)367–405(1997).(1998). Learning from data. New York: Wiley., &(1999). Bootstrap methods: A practioner's guide. New York: WileyInterscience.(1999). Reading pragmatism. New York: Teachers College Press.(1984). Fundamental methods of mathematical economics (3rd ed.). New York: McGrawHill.Psychological constructivisms: A metatheoretical differentiation. Journal of Constructivist Psychology9163–184(1996).,Efficiency of least squares estimation of linear trend when residuals are autocorrelated. Econometrica47115–128(1979).(1999). Discourse in late modernity. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press., &Tests of equality between sets of regression coefficients in linear regression models. Econometrica28(3)591–605(1961).(1997). Exploring geographic information systems. New York: Wiley.(2000). Ethics and politics in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 133–155). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Cicerelli, V. G., & Associates. (1969). The impact of Head Start: An evaluation of the effects of Head Start on children's cognitive and affective development (2 vols.). Athens: Ohio University and Westinghouse Learning Corp.(1974). Theory and method in a critique of Argentine fertility. New York: John Wiley.Attending to patients' stories: Reframing the clinical task. Sociology of Health and Illness14344–370(1992).,(1998). It's about time: Modeling political and social dynamics. In E. Scarborough & E. Tanenbaum (Ed.), Research strategies in the social sciences (pp. 127–155). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press., , &Testing nonnested models of international relations: Reevaluating realism. American Journal of Political Science45724–744(2001).(1995). Ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. In P. ten Have & G. Psathas (Eds.), Situated order: Studies in the social organization of talk and embodied activities (pp. 1–30). Washington, DC: University Press of America., &(2002). The news interview: Journalists and public figures on the air. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., &Error of measurement and the power of a statistical test. The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology22(1)49–55(1969).,(1998). Soft systems analysis. In G. Symon & C. M. Cassell (Eds.), Qualitative methods and analysis in organisational research: A practical guide. London: Sage., &Robust locallyweighted regression and smoothing scatterplots. Journal of the American Statistical Association74829–836(1979).(1993). Visualizing data. Summit, NJ: Hobart.Locally weighted regression: An approach to regression analysis by local fitting. Journal of the American Statistical Association83596–610(1988).,Clifford, J., & Marcus, G. E. (Eds.). (1986). Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.Adjustment of rates using multiplicative models. Demography15523–539(1978).Some models for the analysis of association in multiway crossclassifications having ordered categories. Journal of the American Statistical Association77803–815(1982).Using association models in sociological research: Some examples. American Journal of Sociology88114–134(1982).A flexible procedure for adjusting rates and proportions, including statistical methods for group comparisons. American Sociological Review53267–283(1988).,(1994). Statistical models for ordinal variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &A general statistical framework for adjustment of rates. Sociological Methods & Research19156–195(1990)., ,(1998). The end(s) of ethnography: From realism to social criticism (2nd ed.). New York: Peter Lang.(1998). Introduction to design and analysis of experiments. New York: SpringerVerlag.The comparison of percentages in matched samples. Biometrika37256–266(1950).Analysis of covariance: Its nature and uses. Biometrics13(3)261–281(1957).The planning of observational studies in human populations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A128134–155(1965).(1953). Sampling techniques. New York: Wiley.(1977). Sampling techniques (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.Application of least squares relationships containing autocorrelated error terms. Journal of the American Statistical Association4432–61(1949).,(1996). Making sense of qualitative data: Complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &Statistical properties of the rWG(J) index of agreement. Psychological Methods6297–310(2001)., ,A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement2037–46(1960).Partialed products are interactions; partialed powers are curve components. Psychological Bulletin85858–866(1978).(1988). Statistical power analysis in the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Smallpox vaccinations: How much protection remains?Science294p. 985(2001).(1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., &(2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , &(1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.(1996). Understanding crime data: Haunted by the dark figure. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press., &(1991). Modelling binary data. New York: Chapman and Hall.(1999). Research methods and statistics in psychology. London: Hodder & Staughton.(1994). Critical realism. London: Verso.(1985). Changing order: Replication and induction in scientific practice. London: Sage.Comment on Heckman's “Truth and method: Feminist standpoint theory revisited”: Where's the power?Signs22(21)375–381(1997).Prediction in macrosociology: The case of the Soviet collapse. American Journal of Sociology100(6)1552–1593(1995).(1977). Sociale indicatoren van enkele aspecten van bevolkingsgroei. Doctoral dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Sociology, Leuven.(1994). A method for critical research. In M. Martin & L. C. McIntyre (Eds.), Readings in the philosophy of social science (pp. 625–639). Cambridge: MIT Press.Confidentiality and Data Access Committee. (1999). Checklist on disclosure potential of proposed data releases. Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Statistical Policy Office. Retrieved from http://www.fcsm.gov/committees/cdac/checklist799.docRevised definition for suppressor variables: A guide to their identification and interpretation. Educational and Psychological Measurement3435–46(1974).(2002). Gender. Cambridge, UK: Polity.(1980). Practical nonparametric statistics. New York: Wiley.(1998). Practical nonparametric statistics (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.(2001). Social order in infosocieties: An old challenge for innovation. In R. Conte & C. Dellarocas (Eds.), Social order in multiagent systems (pp. 1–16). Boston: Kluwer Academic., &(1987). Survey research in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1986). Survey questions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &(1964). The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In D. Apter (Ed.), Ideology and discontent (pp. 206–261). New York: Free Press.Plus ca change …: The new CPS Election Study Panel. American Political Science Review7332–49(1979).,On the interpretation of regression plots. Journal of the American Statistical Association91983–992(1996).(1999). Applied regression including computing and graphics. New York: Wiley., &(1982). Residuals and influence in regression. New York: Chapman and Hall., &(1979). Quasiexperimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing., &(2002). Objecting to the objections to using random assignment in educational research. In F. Mosteller & R. Boruch (Eds.), Evidence matters: Randomized trials in education research. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution., &(1990). Quasiexperimentation. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organisational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 491–576). Chicago: Rand McNally., , &Cooke, B., & Kothari, U. (Eds.). (2001). Participation: The new tyranny?London: Zed.The program logic model as an integrative framework for a multimethod evaluation. Evaluation and Program Planning24119–128(2001)., ,(1971). Multivariate data analysis. New York: Wiley., &(1964). A theory of data. New York: Wiley.(1998). Synthesizing research: A guide for literature reviews (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Cooper, H., & Hedges, L. V. (Eds.). (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(1990). Introduction to logic (8th ed.). New York: Macmillan., &Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology88(4)715–730(1996).,(2001). Population size estimation and capture recapture methods. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 17). Amsterdam: Elsevier.(2001). Introduction to algorithms (2nd ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press., , , &The ethnography of an electronic bar: The lesbian cafe. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography24(3)270–298(1995).(2001). Narrative analysis in ethnography. In P. Atkinson, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland, & L. Lofland (Eds.), Handbook of ethnography. London: Sage.Sharing learning through narrative communication. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders36252–257(2001)., , ,(1996). Tree models of similarity and association (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–112). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1993). Using diaries in social research (Social Research Update, Iss. 2). Guildford, UK: University of Surrey, Department of Sociology.(1995). Archiving qualitative research data (Social Research Update No. 10). Surrey, UK: Department of Sociology, University of Surrey., , &What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology7898–104(1993).A comparison of the Murray–TAT and a new Thematic Apperception Test for urban Hispanic children. Hispanic Journal of Behavior Sciences3291–300(1981)., ,(1992). Issues in the design of CAPI questionnaires for complex surveys. In A. Westlake, R. Banks, C. Payne, & T. Orchard (Eds.), Survey and statistical computing (pp. 47–156). London: North Holland., &Criteria for measures of association. American Sociological Review30341–353(1965).WEB surveys: A review of issues and approaches. Public Opinion Quarterly64464–494(2000).Couper, M. P., Baker, R. P., Bethlehem, J., Clark, C. Z. F., Martin, J., Nichols, W. L., et al. (Eds.). (1998). Computer assisted survey information collection. New York: John Wiley.(1988). Differential and integral calculus (2 vols.) (E. J. McShane, Trans.). New York: Wiley. (Originally published in 1934)Use of structure coefficients in published multiple regression articles: β is not enough. Educational and Psychological Measurement61229–248(2001).,(2003). Utilization effects of participatory evaluation. In T. Kellaghan, D. L. Stufflebeam, & L. A. Wingate (Eds.), International handbook of educational evaluation (pp. 245–266). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.Framing participatory evaluation. New Directions in Evaluation805–23(1998).,Regression models and lifetables (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, B34187–220(1972).(1984). Analysis of survival data. New York: Chapman and Hall., &(1990). Probability, frequency, and reasonable expectation. In G. Shafer & J. Pearl (Eds.), Readings in uncertain reasoning (pp. 353–365). New York: Morgan Kaufmann. (Original work published 1946)(1982). The user's guide to multidimensional scaling. London: Heinemann Educational.(1999). Between the sheets: Sexual diaries and gay men's sex in the era of AIDS. London: Cassell.(1999). Sorting data: Collection and analysis (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–127). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1986). Econometric applications of maximum likelihood methods. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2002). Principles and methods of social research (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., &(1980). Tuhami: Portrait of a Moroccan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Crenshaw, K., Gotanda, N., Peller, G., & Thomas, K. (Eds.). (1995). Critical race theory. New York: The New York Press.The criminal violation of financial trust. American Sociological Review15738–743(1950).(1953). Other people's money. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.(1993). Statistics for spatial data. New York: Wiley.Multinomial goodness of tests. Journal of Royal Statistical Society Series B46440–464(1984).,(1995). Research design: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1986). Introduction to classical & modern test theory. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich., &(1986). Systematic classroom observation. Lewes, UK: Falmer.(1994). Univariate tests for timeseries models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , &On estimates of test reliability. Journal of Educational Psychology34485–494(1943).A case study of the splithalf reliability coefficient. Journal of Educational Psychology37473–480(1946).Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika16297–334(1951).Processes affecting scores on “understanding of others” and “assumed similarity.”Psychological Bulletin52177–193(1955).(1990). Essentials of psychological testing (5th ed.). New York: HarperCollins.Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin52281–302(1955).,(1972). The dependability of behavioral measurements: Theory of generalizability of scores and profiles. New York: Wiley., , , &Analyzing change in categorical variables by generalized loglinear models. Sociological Methods & Research29195–229(2000)., ,(1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. London: Sage.(1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley., &(1986). Lexical semantics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1990). Matrices and linear transformations (2nd ed.). New York: Dover.The effects of response rate changes on the index of consumer sentiment. Public Opinion Quarterly64413–428(2000)., ,Respondent selection in a telephone survey: Comparison of three techniques. Journal of Marketing Research21381–385(1982)., ,Reflexivity of actors versus reflexivity of accounts. Theory, Culture and Society11161–168(1994).(1995). The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Dale, A., & Marsh, C. (Eds.). (1993). The 1991 census user's guide. London: HMSO.(1988). Doing secondary analysis. London: Unwin Hyman., , &(2000). Analyzing census microdata. London: Arnold., , &Organizational symbolism: A topic to expand organizational analysis. Academy of Management Review577–82(1980)., ,(1993). Collecting sensitive data by randomized response: An annotated bibliography (2nd ed.). Atlanta: Georgia State University Business Press.The relation between measures of correlation in the universe of sample permutations. Biometrika35129–135(1944).(1990). Regression and linear models. New York: McGrawHill.(1995). A dictionary of econometrics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Markov fields and loglinear models. Annals of Mathematical Statistics431470–1480(1980)., ,(1978). The theory of competing risks (Griffin's Statistical Monograph #39). New York: Macmillan., &Clio and the economics of QWERTY. American Economic Review75332–337(1985).Econometric modelling of the aggregate timeseries relationship between consumers' expenditure and income in the United Kingdom. Economic Journal88661–692(1978)., , ,(1993). Estimation and inference in econometrics. New York: Oxford University Press., &(1985). The logic of causal order (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–055). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1992). The NORC General Social Survey: A user's guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(1997). Boots trap methods and their application. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., &Estimating the components of a mixture of two normal distributions. Biometrika56463–474(1969).(1970). The second sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. (Original work published 1949)de Leeuw, J., & Kreft, I. G. G. (Eds.). (in press). Hand book of quantitative multilevel analysis. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.(1988). The analysis of timebudgets with a latent timebudget model. In E. Diday (Ed.), Data analysis and informatics (Vol. 5, pp. 159–166). Amsterdam: NorthHolland., &(1979). Cours de linguistique générale (T. de Mauro, Ed.). Paris: Payot.de Vaus, D. (Ed.). (2002). Social surveys (4 vols.). London: Sage.(1995). Surveys in social research (4th ed.). Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.(2001). Research design in social research. London: Sage.Collision or collusion? A discussion of the unplanned triangulation of quantitative and qualitative research methods. International Journal of Social Research Methodology147–63(1998)., ,(1999). Researching communications. London: Arnold., , , &Testing for cointegrating relationships with nearintegrated data. Political Analysis899–117(2000).,Rhythm in motherinfant interactions. Infancy4201–217(2003)., ,(2002). Probability and statistics (3rd ed.). Reading, MA: AddisonWesley., &Causal effects in nonexperimental studies: Reevaluating the evaluation of training programs. Journal of the American Statistical Association941053–1062(1999).,Partners in inquiry: Ethical challenges in team research. International Social Science Review753–14(2000).(1997). Social science: Beyond constructivism and realism. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(1992). Logit modeling. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Statistical adjustment of data. New York. Dover.(2002). Money income in the United States (United States Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60–218). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Available: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p60218.pdf, &(1983). Interpretive interactionism. In G. Morgan (Ed.), Beyond method: Strategies for social research (pp. 128–142). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1992). Symbolic interactionism: The politics of interpretation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.(1970). The research act in sociology. Chicago: Aldine.(1989). Interpretive biography. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1989). Interpretive interactionism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.,(1997). Interpretive enthnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.,(2000). The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 1–28). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2000). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 1–28). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.&(1976). Of grammatology (G. Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1995). The gift of death. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.(2001). A taste for the secret. Cambridge, UK: Polity., &(1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1991). Probability and statistics for engineering and the sciences (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.(1970). Elite and specialized interviewing. Evanston, IL: Northwest University Press.(1993). Qualitative data analysis. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(2000). Reference guide on survey research, in Reference manual on scientific evidence. (2nd ed., pp. 229–276). Washington, D. C.: Federal Judicial Center.(2000). Social Darwinism. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(2001). Elements of forecasting (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: SouthWestern.Arousal and physiological toughness: Implications for mental and physical health. Psychological Review9684–100(1989).(1991). How does social science work?Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.Personality structure: Emergence of the fivefactor model. Annual Review of Psychology41417–440(1990).(1978). Mail and telephone surveys: The total design method. New York: Wiley.(2000). Mail and Internet surveys: The tailored design method. New York: Wiley.(1985). Poetry and experience: Selected works (Vol. 5). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology24285–290(1972)., ,Multilevel models: Methods and substance. Annual Review of Sociology20331–357(1994).,Including qualitative research in systematic reviews: Problems and opportunities. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice7125–133(2001)., ,Plotting with confidence: Graphical comparisons of two populations. Biometrika63421–434(1976).,Partitioning networks based on generalized concepts of equivalence. Journal of Mathematical Sociology191–27(1994)., ,(1985). Creative interviewing. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Heuristic inquiry: The internal search to know. Journal of Humanistic Psychology2539–55(1985).,(2001). Implicit and explicit attitudes: Examination of the relationship between measures of intergroup bias. In R. Brown & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intergroup processes (pp. 175–197). Malden, MA: Blackwell., , &(1957). An economic theory of democracy. New York: HarperCollins.(2000). Improving income measurement. The Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP) Methods Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census., , &(1998). Applied regression analysis (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley., &(2000). Foundations for conceptual research in psychoanalysis (Psychoanalytic Monograph 4). London: Karnac.Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (Eds.). (1992). Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2002). Postcommunist democratization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., &Selection bias in linear regression, logit and probit models. Sociological Methods & Research18360–390(1989).,(2001). Pattern classification. New York: Wiley., , &An evaluation of D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), using a Solomon fourgroup design with latent variables. Evaluation Review19(4)409–435(1995)., ,Path analysis: Sociological examples. American Journal of Sociology721–16(1966).(1975). Introduction to structural equation models. New York: Academic Press.Peer influence on aspiration: A reinterpretation. American Journal of Sociology75119–137(1968)., ,(2001). Human nature and the limits of science. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Probability and causality: Why Hume and indeterminism don't mix. Nous22521–536(1988).,Testing for serial correlation in least squares regressions I. Biometrika37409–428(1950).,(1951). Suicide. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.(1952). Suicide. London: Routledge Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1896)(1964). The rules of scientific method. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Trim and fill: A simple funnel plot based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in metaanalysis. Biometrics56276–284(2000).,What is beautiful is good but … A metaanalytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin110109–128(1991)., , ,Using repertory grids in management. Journal of European Industrial Training201–30(1996)., ,(2002). Management research: An introduction (2nd ed.). London: Sage., , &(1987). The new Palgrave: A dictionary of economics. London: Macmillan., , &(1975). Case study and theory in political science. In F. I. Greenstein & N. W. Polsby (Eds.), Handbook of political science: Vol. 7, Strategies of inquiry (pp. 79–137). Reading, MA: AddisonWesley.(1972). Towards a semiotic inquiry into the television message. In Working papers in cultural studies (Vol. 3, pp. 103–121). Birmingham: Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. (Original work published 1965)(1976). A theory of semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1981). The role of the reader: Explorations in the semiotics of texts. London: Hutchinson.Economic and Social Research Council Research Centre on MicroSocial Change. (2001, February 28). British House hold Panel Survey [computer file] (Study Number 4340). Colchester, UK: The Data Archive [distributor].(1990). Pygmalion in management: Productivity as a selffulfilling prophecy. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.On Guttman's scale analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement8313–318(1948).(1957). Techniques of attitude construction. New York: AppletonCenturyCrofts.(1972). Likelihood: An account of the statistical concept of likelihood and its application to scientific inference. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1997). Discourse and cognition. London: Sage.(2000). Introduction to graphical modelling (2nd ed.). New York: SpringerVerlag.(1992). Discursive psychology. London: Sage., &Death and furniture: The rhetoric, politics, and theology of bottom line arguments against relativism. History of the Human Sciences825–49(1995)., ,Evaluation of National Health Interview Survey diagnostic reporting. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat2(120)(1994)., , , et al.Bootstrap methods: Another look at the jackknife. Annals of Statistics71–26(1979).(1982). The jackknife, the bootstrap, and other resampling plans. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.Why isn't everyone a Bayesian?The American Statistician401–5(1986).(1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. New York: Chapman & Hall., &(2001). Systematic reviews in health care: Metaanalysis in context (2nd ed.). London: BMJ Books., , &Bias in metaanalysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal315629–634(1997)., , ,(1989). Human ethology. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review14532–550(1989).On the subject of interpretive reviews. Review of Educational Research68(4)391–399(1998).The new frontier in qualitative research methodology. Qualitative Inquiry3259–273(1997).(1993). Working with archival lives: Studying lives (Sage University Papers on Quantitative Applications on the Social Sciences, 07–088). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , &(1993). Maximum likelihood estimation: Logic and practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Dispositional essentialism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy72(1)27–45(1994).,(1995). Final negotiations: A story of love, loss, and chronic illness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(2003). The ethnographic “I”: A methodological novel on doing autoethnography. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.Sociological introspection and emotional experience. Symbolic Interaction1423–50(1991).(2000). Autoethnography, personal narrative, reflexivity: Researcher as subject. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 733–768). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &Ellis, C., & Bochner, A. P. (Eds.). (1996). Composing ethnography: Alternative forms of qualitative writing. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.(2001). Fundamentals of database systems. New York: AddisonWesley., &(1989). Nuts and bolts for the social sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1989). The cement of society: A study of social order. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Elster, J. (Ed.). (1986). Rational choice. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.(2001). Crosscultural research methods. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira., &Embree, L., Behnke, E. A., Carr, D., Evans, J. C., HuertasJourda, J., Kockelmans, J. J., et al. (Eds.). (1996). The encyclopedia of phenomenology. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.(2000). Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., &On the use of members' responses to researchers' accounts. Human Organization47189–198(1988).,(1995). Writing ethnographic fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., , &What is agency?American Journal of Sociology103(4)962–1023(1998).,(2000). Researching the visual. London: Sage., &Cointegration and error correction: Representation, estimation and testing. Econometrica55251–276(1987).,(1991). Long run relationships: Readings in cointegration. New York: Oxford University Press.,Exogeneity. Econometrica51277–304(1983)., ,Suspicion, affective response, and educational benefit of deception in psychology research. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin24759–768(1998).,(1996). Growing artificial societies: Social science from the bottom up. Cambridge: MIT Press., &(1984). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge: MIT Press., &(1975). Life history and the historical moment. New York: Norton.Intergenerational mobility in three Western European societies. British Journal of Sociology30(1979)., ,(1935). Fircifrede logaritmetavler og andre regnetavler til brug ved undervisning og i praksis. Kobenhavn: G.E.C. Gads.(1978). Wilhelm Dilthey: The critique of historical reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1988). Analyses factorielles multiples [Multiple factor analyses]. Paris: Dunod., &Essed, Ph., & Goldberg, T. D. (Eds.). (2002). Race critical theories: Text and context. Malden, MA: Blackwell.(1988). Quantiles. In S. Kotz, N. L. Johnson, & C. B. Read (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistical sciences (Vol. 7, pp. 424–432). New York: Wiley.European Social Survey Central Coordinating Team. (2001). European Social Survey (ESS): Specification for participating countries. London: Author.Eurostat. (1998). Labour force survey: Methods and definitions (1998 ed.). Luxembourg: Author.(2000). Early childhood counts. Washington, DC: World Bank.(2000). Statistical distributions (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley., , &(1992). The analysis of contingency tables. London: Chapman & Hall.(2001). Cluster analysis (4th ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press., , &(2002). The Rorschach: A comprehensive system (Vol. 1). New York: John Wiley.(2000). New labour, new language?London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as social interaction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &FalsBorda, O., & Anisur Rahman, M. (Eds.). (1991). Action and knowledge: Breaking the monopoly with participatory actionresearch. New York: Apex.(1996). Local polynomial modelling and its applications. London: Chapman & Hall., &Sampling hard to reach populations. Journal of Advanced Nursing26790–797(1997).,Implicit measures in social cognition research: Their meaning and use. Annual Review of Psychology54297–327(2003).,(1978). Opportunity and change. New York: Academic Press., &In pursuit of the postmodernism: An introduction. Theory, Culture & Society5195–215(1988).(1860). Elemente der Psychophysik. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.(1877). In sachen der Psychophysik. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology. (1994). Report on statistical disclosure limitation methodology (Statistical Policy Working Paper #22). Prepared by the Subcommittee on Disclosure Limitation Methodology. Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Statistical Policy Office. Retrieved from http://www.fcsm.gov/workingpapers/wp22.html(1989). Reliability. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3rd ed., pp. 105–146). New York: Macmillan., &(1968). An introduction to probability theory and its applications (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.(1998). True confessions: Crime, deviance, and field research. In J. Ferrell & M. Hamm (Eds.), Ethnography at the edge: Crime, deviance and field research (pp. 2–19). Boston: Northeastern University Press., &(1998). Ethnography: Step by step (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Web surveys to digital movies: Technological tools of the trade. Educational Researcher31(6)29–37(2002).(1978). Against method. London: Verso.(1987). Elementary particles and the laws of physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., &A bluffer's guide to … sphericity. British Psychological Society: Mathermatical, Statistical & Computing Newsletter613–22(1998).(1993). Coding and managing data. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life (pp. 218–238). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1998). Computer analysis and qualitative research. London: Sage., &(1977). The analysis of crossclassified categorical data. Cambridge: MIT Press.(1980). The analysis of crossclassified categorical data (2nd ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press.(1975). An alternative to checklist theories of meaning. In C. Cogen, H. Thompson, G. Thurgood, K. Whistler, & J. Wright (Eds.), Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 123– 131). Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.(1998). Analysing literary texts. In C. Seale (Ed.), Researching society and culture. London: Sage.(1988). How to conduct surveys: A stepbystep guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(2001). Ecological fallacy. International encyclopedia for the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 6, pp. 4023–4026). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.Through the community looking glass: Reevaluating the ethical and policy implications of research on adolescent risk and psychopathology. Ethics & Behavior10(2)99–118(2000).,(1925). Statistical methods for research workers (1st ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Oliver & Boyd.Theory of statistical estimation. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society22700–725(1925).Two new properties of mathematical likelihood. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A144285–307(1934).(1935). The design of experiments (1st ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Oliver and Boyd.(1971). Design of experiments. New York: Hafner Press. (Original work published 1935).The six by six Latin squares. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society30492–507(1934).,The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin51(4)327–358(1954).(2002). An introduction to qualitative research (2nd ed.). London: Sage.(1990). Learning capitalist culture: Deep in the heart of Texas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.(1994). Interviewing: The art of science. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 361–376). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(2000). The interview: From structured questions to negotiated text. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 645–672). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1961). Industrial dynamics. Cambridge: MIT Press.Computer assisted personal interviewing: A method of capturing sensitive information. IASSIST Quarterly23(2)26–38(1999).,(1995). British archives: A guide to archival resources in the United Kingdom (3rd ed.). London: Macmillan., &(1985). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings: 1972–1977 (C. Gordon, Ed.). New York: Pantheon.(1991). Questions of method. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 73–86). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1991). Remarks on Marx: Conversations with Duccio Trombadori (R. J. Goldstein & J. Cascaito, Trans.). New York: Semiotext(e).(1995). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.(1998). The will to knowledge: The history of sexuality (Vol. 1). London: Penguin.(2002). Archeology of knowledge. London: Routledge.(1988). Survey research methods (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1995). Improving survey questions: Design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2002). Survey research methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1990). Standardized survey interviewing. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &Point estimates and confidence intervals in measures of association. Psychological Bulletin98160–165(1985).Testing for substantive significance in applied research by specifying nonzero effect nullhypotheses. Journal of Applied Psychology70215–218(1985).(1991). Regression diagnostics (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–079). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Applied regression analysis, linear models, and related methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2000). Nonparametric simple regression: Smoothing scatterplots. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2000). Multiple and generalized nonparametric regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2002). An R and SPLUS companion to applied regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1986). Randomized response: A method for sensitive surveys. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &Generalized collinearity diagnostics. Journal of the American Statistical Association87178–183(1992).,(1998). Social statistics (3rd ed.). Bellevue, WA: MicroCase.A statistical view of chemometrics regression tools. Technometrics35109–148(1993).,Markov graphs. Journal of the American Statistical Association81832–842(1986).,(1996). Research methods in the social sciences (5th ed.). New York: St. Martin's., &(2000). Research methods in the social sciences (6th ed.). New York: Worth., &(1977). A manual for repertory grid technique. London: Academic Press., &(1998). Time series models for business and economic forecasting. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2002). Macroeconomic policy of developed democracies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2003). From words to numbers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1997). Justice interruptus: Critical reflections on the ‘postsocialist’ condition. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(1999). Partitioning variance in the multivariate case: A stepbystep guide to canonical commonality analysis. In B. Thompson (Ed.), Advances in social science methodology (Vol. 5, pp. 305–318). Stamford, CT: JAI.Development and validation of the Validity Indicator Profile. Law and Human Behavior2459–82(2000).,(2001). Ecological inference and the ecological fallacy. International encyclopedia for the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 6, pp. 4027–4030). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.(2001). On the likelihood of improving the accuracy of the census through statistical adjustment (Tech. Rep. 612). Berkeley: University of California, Department of Statistics., &Review of “A solution to the ecological inference problem.”Journal of the American Statistical Association931518–1522(1998)., , ,(1998). Statistics. 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton, Inc., , &(1983). Margaret Mead and Samoa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Granger causality and the timeseries analysis of political relationships. American Journal of Political Science27325–355(1983).(1989). Survey research by telephone (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.The group interview in social research. The Social Science Journal28175–187(1991).,(1995). How to conduct interviews by telephone and in person. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &Advantages and disadvantages of Internet research surveys: Evidence from the literature. Field Methods14(4)347–365(2002).,(1998). A structural theory of social influence. New York: Cambridge University Press.The use of ranks to avoid the assumption of normality implicit in the analysis of variance. Journal of the American Statistical Association32675–701(1937).The interpolation of timeseries by related series. Journal of the American Statistical Association57729–757(1962).The reevaluation of logical positivism. Journal of Philosophy88(10)505–519(1991).(1970). A sociology of sociology. New York: Free Press.(1992). Mosaic displays for loglinear models. In American Statistical Association (Ed.), Proceedings of the Statistical Graphics Section (pp. 61–68). Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.Mosaic displays for multiway contingency tables. Journal of the American Statistical Association89190–200(1994).(1998). Mosaic displays. In S. Kotz, C. Reed, & D. L. Banks (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistical sciences (Vol. 2, pp. 411–416). New York: John Wiley.Extending mosaic displays: Marginal, conditional, and partial views of categorical data. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics8(3)373–395(1999).(2000). Visualizing categorical data. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.A brief history of the mosaic display. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics11(1)89–107(2002).(2003). Sample selection bias models. In M. A. Hardy & A. Bryman (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis. London: Sage., , &Part of the action, or “going native”? Learning to cope with the politics of integration. Area31(3)221–227(1999).(1987). Measurement error models. New York: John Wiley.(1989). Essentially speaking. New York: Routledge.The biplot graphic display of matrices with application to principal component analysis. Biometrika58453–467(1971).(1975). Truth and method. New York: Seabury.(1989). Truth and method (rev. 2nd ed.). New York: Crossroad.Measurement scales and statistics: Resurgence of an old misconception. Psychological Bulletin87564–567(1980).(1991). Leaving, revisiting, and staying in touch: Neglected issues in field research. In W. B. Shaffir & R. A. Stebbins (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 224–231). London: Sage.Regression toward mediocrity in hereditary stature. Journal of the Anthropological Institute15246–263(1886).(1889). Natural inheritance. London: Macmillan.(1980). Inside the primary classroom. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul., , &Architectural innovation and modular corporate forms. Academy of Management Journal44(6)1229–1249(2001).,(1991). Undoing the social: Towards a deconstructive sociology. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1974). On the origins of the term “ethnomethodology.” In R. Turner (Ed.), Ethnomethodology (pp. 15–18). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.(2002). Ethnomethodology's program: Working out Durkheim's aphorism. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Rowman and Littlefield.(1990). Psycholinguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2002, June). Statnotes: An online textbook [Online]. Retrieved from http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/statnote.htm.(1980). Power and powerlessness: Quiescence and rebellion in an Appalachian valley. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.A linguistic approach to narrative. Journal of Narrative and Life History115–39(1991).(1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.(1983). Local knowledge. New York: Basic Books.(1988). Works and lives: The anthropologist as author. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(2000). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books.Partial least square regression: A tutorial. Analytica Chemica Acta351–17(1986).,Sampling based approaches to calculating marginal densities. Journal of the American Statistical Association85398–409(1990).,(1995). Bayesian data analysis. London: Chapman & Hall., , , &Stochastic relaxation, Gibbs distributions, and the Bayesian restoration of images. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence6721–741(1984).,(2002). Introduction to logic. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(2003). Computational statistics. New York: SpringerVerlag.(1979). Case studies and theory development: The method of structured, focused comparison. In P. G. Lauren (Ed.), Diplomacy: New approaches in history, theory, and policy (pp. 43–68). New York: Free Press.Case studies and theories of organizational decision making. Advances in Information Processing in Organizations221–58(1985).,(1974). Deterrence in American foreign policy: Theory and practice. New York: Columbia University Press., &(1995). Folkloristics: An introduction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press., &Deconstructing the defence for quantification in social science: A content analysis of journal articles on the parametric strategy. Qualitative Sociology9126–144(1986).(1988). Ethnostatistics: Qualitative foundations for quantitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Hazardous measures: An interpretive textual analysis of quantitative sensemaking during crises. Journal of Organizational Behavior18583–622(1997).The effects of personal canvassing, telephone calls, and direct mail on voter turnout: A field experiment. The American Political Science Review94653–664(2000).,(1994). Realities and relationships. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1999). An invitation to social construction. London: Sage.Erzähldaten und Hypothesenkon struktion. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie37230–256(1985).(1986). Patientenkarrieren: Eine ideal typenanalytische Studie. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.The use of Weberian idealtype methodology in qualitative data interpretation: An outline for idealtype analysis. BMS Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique (International Sociological Association, Research Committee 33)4576–126(1994).(1999). Herz und Handlungsrationalität: Eine idealtypenanalytische Studie. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.(2000). Changing times: Work and leisure in postindustrial societies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(1981). Measurement theory for the behavioral sciences. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman., , &(1988). Truncateddata. In S. Kotz, N. L. Johnson, & C. B. Read (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistical sciences (Vol. 9, p. 355). New York: Wiley.(1993). Nonparametric statistics: An introduction. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Nonparametric methods for quantitative analysis (3rd ed.). Columbus, OH: American Sciences Press.(1992). Nonparametric statistical inference (3rd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker., &(2001). Communitybased research: Negotiating agendas and evaluating outcomes. In J. Morse, J. Swanson, & A. J. Kuzel (Eds.), The nature of qualitative evidence (pp. 160–182). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , &(1976). New rules of sociological method. London: Hutchinson.(1979). Central problems in social theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge, UK: Polity.(1998). Methods of life course research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1990). Nonlinear multivariate analysis. New York: Wiley.Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality. Psychological Review103650–669(1996).,(1984). Opening Pandora's box: A sociological analysis of scientists' discourse. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., &(1999). Simulation for the social scientist. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press., &(2000). Generalized linear models: A unified approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2002). Bayesian methods: A social and behavioral sciences approach. London: Chapman & Hall.(2000). Game theory evolving. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1992). ANOVA: Repeated measures (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–084). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1992). Emergence vs. forcing: Basics of grounded theory analysis. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.(1978). Theoretical sensitivity. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.Grounded theory and gender relevance. Health Care for Women International23786–793(2002).(1967). Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine., &(1984). Statistical methods in education and psychology (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., &(1996). Statistical methods in education and psychology (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon., &Consequences of failure to meet assumptions underlying the analysis of variance and convariance. Review of Educational Research42237–288(1972)., ,Primary, secondary, and metaanalysis of research. Educational Research53–8(1976).Integrating findings. Review of Research in Education5351–379(1977).Metaanalysis of research on the relationship of class size and achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis12–16(1978).,(2003). Distinguishing age, period, and cohort effects. In J. Mortimer & M. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 465–476). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Gluck, S. B., & Patai, D. (Eds.). (1991). Women's words: The feminist practice of oral history. London: Routledge.(1980). Theory and evidence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.The interaction order. American Sociological Review481–17(1983).Roles in sociological field observation. Social Forces36217–223(1958).(1969). Roles in sociological field observations. In G. J. McCall & J. L. Simmons (Eds.), Issues in participant observation (pp. 30–38). Reading, MA: AddisonWesley.(1964). Econometric theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons.(1981). Method in the sociology of literature (W. Boelhower, Trans. & Ed.). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.(1987). Multilevel models in educational and social research. London: Griffin.(1995). Multilevel statistical models. London: Edward Arnold.(2003). Multilevel statistical models (3rd ed.). London: Hodder Arnold.(1996). Matrix computations (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press., &(2000). Case study and generalisation. In R. Gomm, M. Hammersley, & P. Foster (Eds.), Case study method: Key issues, key texts. London: Sage., , &Gomm, R., Hammersley, M., & Foster, P. (Eds.). (2000). Case study method. London: Sage.The interface between statistics and philosophy of science. Statistical Science3386–397(1988).(1994). Permutation tests: A practical guide to resampling methods for testing hypotheses. New York: Springer.(1978). The celebration of heroes: Prestige as a control system. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1957). Cultural anthropology and linguistics. In P. L. Garvin (Ed.), Report of the 7th Annual Roundtable on Linguistics and Language Study (pp. 167–173). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.(1997). Inequality in the UK. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press., , &Ecological regression and the behavior of individuals. American Sociological Review18663–664(1953).Statistical methods for the moverstayer model. Journal of the American Statistical Association56841–868(1961).Causal analysis of data from panel studies and other kinds of surveys. American Journal of Sociology781135–1191(1973).The analysis of multidimensional contingency tables when some variables are posterior to others: A modified path analysis approach. Biometrika60179–192(1973).The analysis of systems of qualitative variables when some of the variables are unobservable: I. A modified latent structure approach. American Journal of Sociology791179–1259(1974).(1978). Analyzing qualitative/categorical data. Cambridge, MA: Abt.Simple models for the analysis of association in crossclassifications having ordered categories. Journal of the American Statistical Association74537–552(1979).(1984). The analysis of crossclassified data having ordered categories. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Some useful extensions of the usual correspondence analysis approach and the usual loglinear models approach in the analysis of contingency tables. International Statistical Review54243–309(1986).(1998). Understanding the GoodmanHout approach to the analysis of differences in association and some related comments. In A. E. Raftery (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 249–261). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association., &Measures of association for cross classification. Journal of the American Statistical Association49732–764(1954).,Toward evidencebased medical statistics: 1. The p value fallacy. Annals of Internal Medicine130995–1004(1999).(1981). Conversational organization: Interaction between speakers and hearers. New York: Academic Press.(2002). Assessment and culture: Psychological tests with minority populations. San Diego: Academic Press., &(1981). Timeseries analysis: A comprehensive introduction for social scientists. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1945). The use of personal documents in history, anthropology, and sociology. New York: Social Science Research Council., , &(1973). For sociology. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.Antiminotaur: The myth of a valuefree sociology. Social Problems9199–213(1962).(1996). Biplots. London: Chapman & Hall., &Metric and Euclidean properties of dissimilarity coefficients. Journal of Classification55–48(1986).,Consequences of not interpreting structure coefficients in published CFA research: A reminder. Structural Equation Modeling10142–153(2003)., ,Dynamic systems and inferential information processing in human communication. Neuroendocrinology Letters23(Suppl. 4)15–22(2002)., ,(1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.(1964). Spectral analysis of economic timeseries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Investigating causal relations by econometric models and crossspectral methods. Econometrica3724–36(1969).Some properties of timeseries data and their use in econometric models specification. Journal of Econometrics16121–130(1981).(1983). Cointegrated variables and errorcorrecting models. Discussion Paper No. 1983–13, University of California, San Diego.(1989). Forecasting in business and economics. Boston: Academic Press.(1986). Forecasting economic timeseries (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press., &(2000). Statistics for the behavioral sciences (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth., &(1992). Transaction processing: Concepts and techniques. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann., &(2002). Reclaiming the experimental tradition in political science. In I. Katznelson & H. V. Milner (Eds.), Political science: State of the discipline (3rd ed., pp. 805–832). New York: W. W. Norton., &Tracking opinion over time: A method for reducing sampling error. Public Opinion Quarterly63178–192(1999)., ,(1978). Analyzing multivariate data. Hinsdale, IL: Dryden.(2000). Econometric analysis (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.(1984). Theory and method of correspondence analysis. London: Academic Press.(1993). Correspondence analysis in practice. London: Academic Press.(1994). Correspondence analysis in the social sciences. London: Academic Press., &(1998). The handbook for focus group research. London: Sage.(2000). The MMPI2: An interpretive manual. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.(1993). Econometric analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.(1997). Econometric analysis (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall.(2000). Econometric analysis (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(2003). Econometric analysis (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall.You can't take it with you: Why ability assessments don't cross cultures. American Psychologist52(10)1115–1124(1997).On methods in the analysis of profile data. Psychometrika55431–433(1959).,Quantifying biases in causal models. Epidemiology14300–306(2003).An overview of relations among causal modelling methods. International Journal of Epidemiology311030–1037(2002).,Identifiability, exchangeability, and epidemiological confounding. International Journal of Epidemiology15413–419(1986).,Confounding and collapsibility in causal inference. Statistical Science1429–46(1999)., ,A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, selfesteem, and selfconcept. Psychological Review1093–25(2002)., , , , ,(1998). Introduction to action research: Social research for social change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1982). Semiotics and language: An analytical dictionary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press., &Comparativehistorical analysis and scientific inference: Disfranchisement in the U.S. South as a test case. Historical Methods3013–27(1997)., , , , ,Hybrid corn: An exploration in the economics of technological change. Econometrica25501–522(1957).The anonymity of research participants: Assumptions, ethics, and practicalities. Social Research Update361–4(2002).(1992). Controversies in minority voting: The voting rights act in perspective. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution., &(1998). Fundamentals of queueing theory (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley., &(1928). American marriage and family relationships. New York: Holt., &(1989). Survey errors and survey costs. New York: Wiley.(1998). Nonresponse in household interview surveys. New York: Wiley., &Groves, R. M., Dillman, D. A., Eltinge, J. L., & Little, R. J. A. (Eds.). (2001). Survey nonresponse. New York: Wiley.(1978). Toward a methodology of naturalistic inquiry in educational evaluation. CSE Monograph Series in Evaluation, No. 8. Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California, Los Angeles.Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Communications and Technology Journal2975–92(1981).(1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &(1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105–117). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &Production of hard data in human service organizations. Pacific Sociological Review22115–136(1979).,(1997). The new language of qualitative method. New York: Oxford University Press., &(2002). From the individual interview to the interview society. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of interview research: Context and method (pp. 3–32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1995). Basic econometrics (3rd ed.). New York: McGrawHill.(2002). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). New York: McGrawHill.(1950). The theory of mental tests. New York: Wiley.(1941). An outline for the statistical theory of prediction. In P. Horst (with collaboration of P. Wallin & L. Guttman) (Ed.), The prediction of personal adjustment (Bulletin 48, Supplementary Study B1, pp. 253–318). New York: Social Science Research Council.A basis for scaling quantitative data. American Sociological Review9139–150(1944).Image theory for the structure of quantitative variates. Psychometrika18277–296(1953).Some necessary conditions for common factor analysis. Psychometrika19149–161(1954).“Best possible” systematic estimates of communalities. Psychometrika21273–285(1956).(1993). Evidence and inquiry: Toward a reconstruction of epistemology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.The probability approach in econometrics. Econometrica12(Suppl.)preface, p. iii(1944).(1979). Analysis of qualitative data: Vol. 2. New developments. New York: Academic Press.(1965). The logic of statistical inference. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2001). An introduction to probability and inductive logic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1990). Categorical longitudinal data: Loglinear analysis of panel, trend and cohort data. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1993). Loglinear models with latent variables. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Categorical causal modeling: Latent class analysis and directed loglinear models with latent variables. Sociological Methods and Research26436–486(1998).(2002). Applied latent class analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., &Goodnessoffit measures for probit and logit. American Journal of Political Science36762–784(1992).,Life review: Preventing despair in newly relocated nursing home residents: Shortand longterm effects. International Journal of Aging and Human Development47(2)119–142(1998)., ,(1967). Theory of rank tests. New York: Academic Press., &(1982). Secondary analysis of social research. London: George Allen and Unwin.(1994). Developing and validating multiplechoice test items. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1952). Statistical theory with engineering applications. New York: John Wiley.(1990). A history of probability and statistics and their applications before 1750. New York: John Wiley and Sons.(1982). Positivism and sociology: Explaining social life. London: Allen & Unwin.(1974). Handbook for proxemic research. Washington, DC: Society for the Anthropology of Visual Communication.(1974). The television discourse—Encoding and decoding. In Education and culture (Vol. 35, pp. 8–14). Paris: United Nations Educational, Social, and Cultural Organization.(1991). Fundamentals of item response theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , &(1980). Some contrasting assumptions about case study research and survey analysis. In H. Simons (Ed.), Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation (pp. 78–92). Norwich, UK: Centre for Applied Research in Education University of East Anglia.(1994). Time series analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1990). Modern data analysis: A first course in applied statistics. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.(1992). Regression with graphics: A second course in applied statistics. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.(1967). Empiricism. In P. Edwards (Ed.), The encyclopedia of philosophy (pp. 499–505). New York: Macmillan.(1989). The dilemma of qualitative method: Herbert Blumer and the Chicago school of sociology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.The problem of the concept: Herbert Blumer on the relationship between concepts and data. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography18133–160(1989).(1990). Reading ethnographic research. London: Longman.(1992). What's wrong with ethnography. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.(1995). The politics of social research. London: Sage.Theory and evidence in qualitative research. Quality and Quantity2955–66(1995).Qualitative data archiving: Some reflections on its prospects and problems. Sociology31(1)131–142(1997).(1999). Sociology, what's it for? A critique of the grand conception. Sociological Research Online, 4(3). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/socresonline/4/3/hammersley.html(2000). Taking sides in social research. London: Routledge.On “systematic” reviews of research literatures: A “narrative” reply to Evans and Benefield. British Educational Research Journal27(5)543–554(2001).(1995). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: Routledge., &(1991). Understanding phenomenology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell., , &(1999). Relative distribution methods in the social sciences. New York: SpringerVerlag., &Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology169–97(1973)., ,(1953). Sample survey methods and theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons., , &(1998). Workbook on cointegration. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press., &Hantrais, L., & Mangen, S. (Eds.). (1996). Crossnational research methods in the social sciences. London: Pinter.(1965). Structural models for directed graphs. New York: Free Press., , &(2003). Generalized estimating equations. London: Chapman & Hall., &(1991). Whose science? Whose knowledge?Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.After the neutrality ideal: Science, politics, and “strong objectivity.”Social Research59568–587(1992).Harding, S. (Ed.). (1987). Feminism and methodology. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.(1993). Regression with dummy variables (Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–093). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(2003). Incorporating categorical information into regression models: the utility of dummy variables. In M. A. Hardy & A. Bryman (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis. London: Sage., &Temporal gradient of fear arousal in psychopaths. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology70442–445(1966).(2001). Changing works: Visions of a lost agriculture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Talking about pictures: A case for photo elicitation. Visual Studies17(1)13–26(2002).(1961). Theories and things. London: Sheed & Ward.(1986). Varieties of realism. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.(1972). The explanation of social behaviour. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell., &Some RaoGuttman relationships. Psychometrika27247–263(1962).On the calculation of intraclass and interclass coefficients of correlation from class moments when the number of possible combinations is large. Biometrika9446–472(1913).History and significance of the emic/etic distinction. Annual Review of Anthropology5329–350(1976).(1998). Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination. London: Sage.(1981). Mosaics for contingency tables. In W. F. Eddy (Ed.), Computer science and statistics: Proceedings of the 13th Symposium on the Interface (pp. 268–273). New York: SpringerVerlag., &(1998). The feminist standpoint revisited and other essays. Boulder, CO: Westview.(1979). Exploratory data analysis (Sage University Papers on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &(1990). The econometric analysis of timeseries (2nd ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press.(1990). Forecasting, structural timeseries models, and the Kalman filter. New York: Cambridge University Press.(1999). Guidelines. In W. E. Pentland, A. S. Harvey, M. P. Lawton, & M. A. McColl (Eds.), Time use research in the social sciences (pp. 19–45). New York: Kluwer.(1973). Social justice and the city. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1989). The condition of postmodernity. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.(1987). Myths of the Chicago school of sociology. Aldershot, England: Avebury.(1992). Generalized additive models. In J. M. Chambers & T. J. Hastie (Eds.), Statistical models in S (pp. 249–307). Pacific Grove, CA: Wadsworth and Brooks/Cole.(1990). Generalized additive models. New York: Chapman & Hall., &(2001). The elements of statistical learning. New York: SpringerVerlag, , &Monte Carlo sampling methods using Markov chains. Biometrika5797–109(1970).A structural model of the mobility table. Social Forces56919–953(1978).Specification tests in econometrics. Econometrica461251–1271(1978).Specification tests for the multinomial logit model. Econometrica521219–1240(1984).,Autoethnography: Paradigms, problems and prospects. Human Organization38(1)99–104(1979).Protocol analysis and the “silent dog” method of analyzing the impact of selfgenerated rules. Analysis of Verbal Behavior1557–63(1998)., ,(1972). Statistics for the social sciences. New York: Holt.(1988). Statistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.(1994). Statistics (5th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.(1990). Emics and etics: The insider/outsider debate. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , &(1995). Statistics: A tool for social research (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth.(1998). Secondary analysis of qualitative data [Online]. Social Research Update, 22. Retrieved April 28, 2002, from http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU22.html.Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica47153–161(1979).(1982). Population heterogeneity in demographic models. In K. Land & A. Rogers (Eds.), Multidimensional mathematical demography (pp. 567–599). New York: Academic Press., &