The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods
Encyclopedias
Edited by: Michael S. LewisBeck, Alan Bryman & Tim Futing Liao
Abstract
This Encyclopedia provides readers with authoritative essays on virtually all social science methods topics, quantitative and qualitative, by an international collection of experts. Organized alphabetically, the Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods covers research terms ranging from different methodological approaches to epistemological issues and specific statistical techniques.
Written to be accessible to general readers, the Encyclopedia entries do not require advanced knowledge of mathematics or statistics to understand the purposes or basic principles of any of the methods. To accomplish this goal, there are two major types of entries: definitions consisting of a paragraph or two to provide a quick explanation of a methodological term; and topical treatments or essays that discuss the nature, history, applications, and implications of using a certain method, including suggested readings ...
 Entries AZ
 Subject Index

 Analysis of Variance
 Association and Correlation
 Basic Qualitative Research
 Basic Statistics
 Causal Modeling
 Discourse/Conversation Analysis
 Econometrics
 Epistemology
 Ethnography
 Evaluation
 Event History Analysis
 Experimental Design
 Factor Analysis and Related Techniques
 Feminist Methodology
 Generalized Linear Models
 Historical/Comparative
 Interviewing in Qualitative Research
 Latent Variable Model
 Life History/Biography
 LogLinear Models (Categorical Dependent Variables)
 Longitudinal Analysis
 Mathematics and Formal Models
 Measurement Level
 Measurement Testing and Classification
 Multilevel Analysis
 Multiple Regression
 Qualitative Data Analysis
 Sampling in Qualitative Research
 Sampling in Surveys
 Scaling
 Significance Testing
 Simple Regression
 Survey Design
 Time Series

 A
 B
 C
 D
 E
 F
 G
 H
 I
 J
 K
 L
 M
 N
 O
 P
 Q
 R
 S
 T
 U
 V
 W
 X
 Y
 Z

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Copyright
Copyright © 2004 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
LewisBeck, Michael S.
The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods/Michael S. LewisBeck, Alan Bryman, Tim Futing Liao.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0–7619–2363–2 (cloth)
1. Social sciences—Research—Encyclopedias. 2. Social sciences—Methodology—Encyclopedias. I. Bryman, Alan. II. Liao, Tim Futing. III. Title.
H62.L456 2004
300.! 72—dc22
2003015882
03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Chris Rojek
Publisher: Rolf A. Janke
Developmental Editor: Eileen Haddox
Editorial Assistant: Sara Tauber
Production Editor: Melanie Birdsall
Copy Editors: Gillian Dickens, Liann Lech, A. J. Sobczak
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Mattson Publishing Services, LLC
Indexer: Sheila Bodell
Cover Designer: Ravi Balasuriya
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Reader's Guide
 Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
 Main Effect
 Model I ANOVA
 Model II ANOVA
 Model III ANOVA
 OneWay ANOVA
 TwoWay ANOVA
Analysis of Variance Association
 Association Model
 Asymmetric Measures
 Biserial Correlation
 Canonical Correlation Analysis
 Correlation
 Correspondence Analysis
 Intraclass Correlation
 Multiple Correlation
 Part Correlation
 Partial Correlation
 Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
 Semipartial Correlation
 Simple Correlation (Regression)
 Spearman Correlation Coefficient
 Strength of Association
 Symmetric Measures
Association and Correlation Autobiography
 Life History Method
 Life Story Interview
 Qualitative Content Analysis
 Qualitative Data Management
 Qualitative Research
 Quantitative and Qualitative Research, Debate About
 Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data
Basic Qualitative Research Alternative Hypothesis
 Average
 Bar Graph
 BellShaped Curve
 Bimodal
 Case
 Causal Modeling
 Cell
 Covariance
 Cumulative Frequency Polygon
 Data
 Dependent Variable
 Dispersion
 Exploratory Data Analysis
 F Ratio
 Frequency Distribution
 Histogram
 Hypothesis
 Independent Variable
 Median
 Measures of Central Tendency
 N(n)
 Null Hypothesis
 Pie Chart
 Regression
 Standard Deviation
 Statistic
 tTest
 X¯
 Y Variable
 zTest
Basic Statistics Causality
 Dependent Variable
 Effects Coefficient
 Endogenous Variable
 Exogenous Variable
 Independent Variable
 Path Analysis
 Structural Equation Modeling
Causal Modeling Accounts
 Conversation Analysis
 Critical Discourse Analysis
 Deviant Case Analysis
 Discourse Analysis
 Foucauldian Discourse Analysis
 Interpretative Repertoire
 Proof Procedure
Discourse/Conversation Analysis ARIMA
 Cointegration
 DurbinWatson Statistic
 Econometrics
 Fixed Effects Model
 MixedEffects Model
 Panel
 Panel Data Analysis
 RandomEffects Model
 Selection Bias
 Serial Correlation (Regression)
 TimeSeries CrossSection (TSCS) Models
 TimeSeries Data (Analysis/Design)
 Tobit Analysis
Econometrics Constructionism, Social
 Epistemology
 Idealism
 Interpretivism
 Laws in Social Science
 Logical Positivism
 Methodological Holism
 Naturalism
 Objectivism
 Positivism
Epistemology Autoethnography
 Case Study
 Creative Analytical Practice (CAP) Ethnography
 Critical Ethnography
 Ethnographic Content Analysis
 Ethnographic Realism
 Ethnographic Tales
 Ethnography
 Participant Observation
Ethnography Applied Qualitative Research
 Applied Research
 Evaluation Research
 Experiment
 Heuristic Inquiry
 Impact Assessment
 Qualitative Evaluation
 Randomized Control Trial
Evaluation Censoring and Truncation
 Event History Analysis
 Hazard Rate
 Survival Analysis
 Transition Rate
Event History Analysis Experiment
 Experimenter Expectancy Effect
 External Validity
 Field Experimentation
 Hawthorne Effect
 Internal Validity
 Laboratory Experiment
 Milgram Experiments
 QuasiExperiment
Experimental Design Cluster Analysis
 Commonality Analysis
 Confirmatory Factor Analysis
 Correspondence Analysis
 Eigenvalue
 Exploratory Factor Analysis
 Factor Analysis
 Oblique Rotation
 Principal Components Analysis
 Rotated Factor
 Rotations
 Varimax Rotation
Factor Analysis and Related Techniques Feminist Ethnography
 Feminist Research
 Gender Issues
 Standpoint Epistemology
Feminist Methodology General Linear Models
 Generalized Linear Models
 Link Function
 Logistic Regression
 Logit
 Logit Model
 Poisson Regression
 Probit Analysis
Generalized Linear Models Comparative Method
 Comparative Research
 Documents, Types of
 Emic/Etic Distinction
 Historical Methods
 Oral History
Historical/Comparative Biographic Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM)
 Dependent Interviewing
 Informant Interviewing
 Interviewing in Qualitative Research
 Narrative Interviewing
 Semistructured Interview
 Unstructured Interview
Interviewing in Qualitative Research Confirmatory Factor Analysis
 Item Response Theory
 Factor Analysis
 Latent Budget Analysis
 Latent Class Analysis
 Latent Markov Model
 Latent Profile Model
 Latent Trait Models
 Latent Variable
 Local Independence
 Nonparametric RandomEffects Model
 Structural Equation Modeling
Latent Variable Model Autobiography
 Biographic Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM)
 Interpretive Biography
 Life History Method
 Life Story Interview
 Narrative Analysis
 Psychoanalytic Methods
Life History/Biography Association Model
 Categorical Data Analysis
 Contingency Table
 Expected Frequency
 GoodnessofFit Measures
 LogLinear Model
 Marginal Model
 Marginals
 Mobility Table
 Odds Ratio
 Saturated Model
 Sparse Table
LogLinear Models (Categorical Dependent Variables) Cohort Analysis
 Longitudinal Research
 Panel
 Period Effects
 TimeSeries Data (Analysis/Design)
Longitudinal Analysis Algorithm
 Assumptions
 Basic Research
 Catastrophe Theory
 Chaos Theory
 Distribution
 Fuzzy Set Theory
 Game Theory
Mathematics and Formal Models Attribute
 Binary
 Categorical
 Continuous Variable
 Dichotomous Variables
 Discrete
 Interval
 Level of Measurement
 Metric Variable
 Nominal Variable
 Ordinal Measure
Measurement Level Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement
 Generalizability Theory
 Item Response Theory
 Likert Scale
 MultipleIndicator Measures
 Summated Rating Scale
Measurement Testing and Classification Contextual Effects
 Dependent Observations
 Fixed Effects Model
 MixedEffects Model
 Multilevel Analysis
 Nonparametric RandomEffects Model
 RandomCoefficient Model
 RandomEffects Model
Multilevel Analysis Adjusted RSquared
 Best Linear Unbiased Estimator
 Beta
 Generalized Least Squares
 Heteroskedasticity
 Interaction Effect
 Misspecification
 Multicollinearity
 Multiple Regression Analysis
 Nonadditive
 RSquared
 Regression
 Regression Diagnostics
 Specification
 Standard Error of the Estimate
Multiple Regression Analytic Induction
 CAQDAS
 Constant Comparison
 Grounded Theory
 In Vivo Coding
 Memos, Memoing
 Negative Case
 Qualitative Content Analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis Purposive Sampling
 Sampling in Qualitative Research
 Snowball Sampling
 Theoretical Sampling
Sampling in Qualitative Research Multistage Sampling
 Quota Sampling
 Random Sampling
 Representative Sample
 Sampling
 Sampling Error
 Stratified Sampling
 Systematic Sampling
Sampling in Surveys Attitude Measurement
 Bipolar Scale
 Dimension
 Dual Scaling
 Guttman Scaling
 Index
 Likert Scale
 Multidimensional Scaling (MDS)
 Optimal Scaling
 Scale
 Scaling
 Semantic Differential Scale
 Thurstone Scaling
Scaling Alpha, Significance Level of a Test
 Confidence Interval
 Level of Significance
 OneTailed Test
 Power of a Test
 Significance Level
 Significance Testing
 Statistical Power
 Statistical Significance
 Substantive Significance
 TwoTailed Test
Significance Testing Coefficient of Determination
 Constant
 Intercept
 Least Squares
 Linear Regression
 Ordinary Least Squares
 Regression on…
 Regression
 Scatterplot
 Slope
 YIntercept
Simple Regression ComputerAssisted Personal Interviewing
 Internet Surveys
 Interviewing
 Mail Questionnaire
 Secondary Analysis of Survey Data
 Structured Interview
 Survey
 Telephone Survey
Survey Design ARIMA
 BoxJenkins Modeling
 Cointegration
 Detrending
 DurbinWatson Statistic
 Error Correction Models
 Forecasting
 Granger Causality
 Interrupted TimeSeries Design
 Intervention Analysis
 Lag Structure
 Moving Average
 Periodicity
 Serial Correlation
 Spectral Analysis
 TimeSeries CrossSection (TSCS) Models
 TimeSeries Data (Analysis/Design)
 Trend Analysis
Time Series
Contributors
Abdi, Hervé
University of Texas, Dallas
Adair, John G.
University of Manitoba, Canada
Aditya, Ram N.
Florida International University, Miami
Adler, Peter
University of Denver, Colorado
Adler, Patricia A.
University of Colorado, Boulder
Aiken, Leona S.
Arizona State University, Tempe
Albritton, Robert B.
University of Mississippi
Aldridge, Alan
University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Allison, Paul D.
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Altheide, David L.
Arizona State University, Tempe
Altman, Micah
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Alvesson, Mats
University of Lund, Sweden
Amoureux, Jacque L.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Andersen, Robert
McMaster University, Canada
Anderson, Carolyn J.
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Angle, John
US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC
Angrosino, Michael V.
University of South Florida, Tampa
Anselin, Luc
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Aronow, Edward
Montclair State University, New Jersey
Ashmore, Malcolm
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Atkinson, Robert
University of Southern Maine, Gorham
Atkinson, Rowland
University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Bacher, Johann
Universität ErlangenNürnberg, Germany
Baird, Chardie L.
Florida State University, Tallahassee
Bakeman, Roger
Georgia State University, Atlanta
Bakker, Ryan
University of Florida, Gainesville
Baltagi, Badi H.
Texas A&M University
Barr, Robert
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Bartunek, Jean M.
Boston College, Massachusetts
Batson, C. Daniel
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Beck, Nathaniel
University of California, San Diego; New York University
Becker, Saul
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Becker, Mark P.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Benton, Ted
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Berk, Richard A.
University of California, Los Angeles
Billig, Michael
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Bishop, George F.
University of Cincinnati, Ohio
Black, Thomas R.
University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Blaikie, Norman
Formerly at the University of Science, Malaysia and the RMIT University, Australia
Blascovich, Jim
University of California, Santa Barbara
Boehmke, Frederick J.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
BoklundLagopoulos, Karin
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Bollen, Kenneth A.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Bornat, Joanna
The Open University, United Kingdom
Bornstein, Robert F.
Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania
Bottorff, Joan L.
University of British Columbia, Canada
Bourque, Linda B.
University of California, Los Angeles
BoxSteffensmeier, Janet M.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Brady, Ivan
State University of New York, Oswego
Brennan, Robert L.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Brewer, Marilynn B.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Brick, J. Michael
Westat, Rockville, Maryland
Brookfield, Stephen D.
University of St. Thomas, MinneapolisSt. Paul
Brown, Courtney
Emory University, Atlanta
Brown, Steven R.
Kent State University
Bryman, Alan
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Buck, Nicholas H.
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Burkhart, Ross E.
Boise State University, Idaho
Burr, Vivien
University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Byrne, David
University of Durham, United Kingdom
Cameron, Amna
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Carless, Sally A.
Monash University, Australia
Carmines, Edward G.
Indiana University, Bloomington
Chapin, Tim
Florida State University, Tallahassee
Charlton, Tony
University of Gloucestershire, United Kingdom
Charlton, John R. H.
Office for National Statistics, United Kingdom
Charmaz, Kathy
Sonoma State University, California
Chartrand, Tanya L.
Duke University, North Carolina
Chell, Elizabeth
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Chen, Peter Y.
Colorado State University, Fort Collins
Christ, Sharon L.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Ciambrone, Desirée
Rhode Island College, Providence
Civettini, Andrew J.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Clark, M. H.
The University of Memphis, Tennessee
Clarke, Harold D.
University of Texas, Dallas
Clegg, Chris
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Clinton, Joshua D.
Princeton University, New Jersey
Coffey, Amanda
Cardiff University, United Kingdom
Cole, Michael
University of California, San Diego
Cooper, Harris M.
Duke University, North Carolina
Copp, Martha A.
East Tennessee State University, Johnson City
Corbin, Juliet M.
The University of Alberta, Canada
Corter, James E.
Columbia University, New York
Corti, Louise
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Cortina, Jose M.
George Mason University, Virginia
Couper, Mick P.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Coxon, Anthony P. M.
University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Craib, Ian
Late of University of Essex, United Kingdom
Cramer, Duncan
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Crano, William D.
Claremont Graduate University, California
Croll, Paul
The University of Reading, United Kingdom
Croon, Marcel A.
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Currivan, Douglas B.
University of Massachusetts, Boston
Dale, Angela
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
De Boef, Suzanna
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
de Vaus, David A.
La Trobe University, Australia
Denzin, Norman K.
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
DixonWoods, Mary
University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Doreian, Patrick
London School of Economics, United Kingdom
Dovidio, John F.
Colgate University, New York
Dressler, William W.
The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Drew, Paul
University of York, United Kingdom
EasterbySmith, Mark
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Edwards, Derek
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Edwards, W. Sherman
Westat, Rockville, Maryland
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.
Stanford University, California
Eliason, Scott R.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Ellis, Charles H.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Essed, Philomena
University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Fairclough, Norman
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Fetterman, David M.
Stanford University, California
Filmer, Paul
Goldsmiths' College, United Kingdom
Finkel, Steven E.
University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Flint, John
University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Foley, Hugh J.
Skidmore College, New York
Fontana, Andrea
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Fowler, Jr., Floyd J.
University of Massachusetts, Boston
Fox, James Alan
Northeastern University, Massachusetts
Fox, John
McMaster University, Canada
Franzosi, Roberto
University of Reading, United Kingdom
Frederick, Richard I.
US Medical Center for Federal Prisoners, Missouri
Freedman, David A.
University of California, Berkeley
Frey, James H.
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Friendly, Michael
York University, Canada
Fuller, Duncan
University of Northumbria at Newcastle, United Kingdom
Furbee, N. Louanna
University of Missouri, Columbia
Gallagher, Patricia M.
University of Massachusetts, Boston
Gallmeier, Charles P.
Indiana University Northwest, Gary
Garson, G. David
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Gephart, Jr., Robert P.
University of Alberta, Canada
Gergen, Kenneth J.
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania
Gerhardt, Uta
Universität Heidelberg, Germany
Gershuny, Jonathan
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Gibbons, Jean D.
University of Alabama
Gibbs, Graham R.
University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Gibson, Nancy
University of Alberta, Canada
Gilbert, Nigel
University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Gill, Jeff
University of Florida, Gainesville
Glasgow, Garrett
University of California, Santa Barbara
Glenn, Norval D.
University of Texas, Austin
Goldstone, Jack
University of California, Davis
Green, Donald P.
Yale University, Connecticut
Greenacre, Michael
Universitat Pomepu Fabra, Spain
Greenland, Sander
University of California, Los Angeles
Greenwood, Davydd J.
Cornell University, New York
Griffith, James W.
Northwestern University, Illinois
Gross, Alan L.
City University of New York
Gschwend, Thomas
University of Mannheim, Germany
Guba, Egon G.
Indiana University
Gubrium, Jaber F.
University of Missouri, Columbia
Gujarati, Damodar N.
United States Military Academy, West Point
Guo, Guang
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Guy, Will
University of Bristol, United Kingdom
Hagenaars, Jacques A.
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Hagle, Timothy M.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Hammersley, Martyn
The Open University, United Kingdom
Han, ShinKap
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Hancock, Gregory R.
University of Maryland, College Park
Handcock, Mark S.
University of Washington, Seattle
Hansen, Peter Reinhard
Brown University, Rhode Island
Hardy, Melissa A.
Pennsylvania State University, State College
Hargens, Lowell L.
University of Washington, Seattle
Harper, Douglas
Duquesne University, Pennsylvania
Harré, Rom
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Headland, Thomas N.
SIL International, Dallas, Texas
Henry, Gary T.
Georgia State University, Atlanta
Herron, Michael C.
Dartmouth College, New Hampshire
Hessling, Robert M.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Hine, Christine M.
University of Surrey United Kingdom
Hipp, John R.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Hocutt, Max
The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Hollway, Wendy
The Open University, United Kingdom
Holman, Darryl J.
University of Washington, Seattle
Holman, David J.
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Holstein, James A.
Marquette University, Wisconsin
Homan, Roger
University of Brighton, United Kingdom
Horrace, William C.
Syracuse University, New York
House, Ernest R.
University of Colorado, Boulder
Hoyle, Rick H.
Duke University, North Carolina
Hughes, Rhidian
King's College London, United Kingdom
Hundley, Vanora
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Iversen, Gudmund R.
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania
Jaccard, James J.
State University of New York, Albany
Jackman, Simon
Stanford University, California
Jacoby, William G.
Michigan State University, East Lansing
Jasso, Guillermina
New York University
Jefferis, Valerie E.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Jefferson, Tony
Keele University, United Kingdom
Jenkins, Richard
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Johnson, Jeffrey C.
East Carolina University, Greenville
Johnson, Paul E.
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Jones, Michael Owen
University of California, Los Angeles
Kanuha, Valli Kalei
University of Hawaii, Honolulu
Kaplan, David W.
University of Delaware, Newark
Karuntzos, Georgia T.
RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
Katz, Jonathan N.
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
Kedar, Orit
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Kennedy, Peter E.
Simon Fraser University, Canada
Kenny, David A.
University of Connecticut, Storrs
Kimball, David C.
University of Missouri, St. Louis
King, Jean A.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Kirk, Roger E.
Baylor University, Texas
Knoke, David H.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Kolen, Michael J.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Korczynski, Marek
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Kovtun, Mikhail
Duke University, North Carolina
Krauss, Autumn D.
Colorado State University, Fort Collins
Kroonenberg, Pieter M.
Leiden University, The Netherlands
Krueger, Richard A.
University of Minnesota, St. Paul
Kuhn, Randall
University of Colorado, Boulder
Kuzel, Anton J.
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond
Lagopoulos, Alexandros
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Langeheine, Rolf
Formerly at the University of Kiel, Germany
Laurie, Heather
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Lauriola, Marco
University of Rome, “La Sapienza” Italy
Lavrakas, Paul J.
Nielsen Media Research, New York
Le Voi, Martin
The Open University, United Kingdom
Leahey, Erin
University of Arizona, Tucson
Ledolter, Johannes
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Lee, Raymond M.
Royal Holloway University of London, United Kingdom
Lee (Zhen Li), Jane
University of Florida, Gainesville
Levin, Irwin P.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
LewisBeck, Michael S.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Liao, Tim Futing
University of Essex, United Kingdom; University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Lincoln, Yvonna S.
Texas A&M University
Little, Daniel
University of Michigan, Dearborn
Little, Jani S.
University of Colorado, Boulder
Liu, Cong
Illinois State University, Normal
Lockyer, Sharon
De Montfort University, United Kingdom
Long, Karen J.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Lowe, Will
University of Bath, United Kingdom
Lykken, David T.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Lynch, Michael
Cornell University, New York
Lynn, Peter
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Madsen, Douglas
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Magidson, Jay
Statistical Innovations, Belmont, Massachusetts
Mahoney, Christine
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Mahoney, James
Brown University, Rhode Island
Maines, David R.
Oakland University, Michigan
Manton, Kenneth G.
Duke University, North Carolina
Marsden, Peter V.
Harvard University, Massachuesetts
Marsh, Lawrence C.
University of Notre Dame, Indiana
Mason, Jennifer
University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Mathiowetz, Nancy
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Maxim, Paul S.
University of Western Ontario, Canada
May, Tim
University of Salford, United Kingdom
Maynard, Mary
University of York, United Kingdom
McDowall, David
State University of New York, Albany
McElhanon, Kenneth A.
Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics, Texas
McGraw, Kenneth O.
University of Mississippi
McGuigan, Jim
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
McIver, John P.
University of Colorado, Boulder
McKelvie, Stuart J.
Bishop's University, Canada
Meadows, Lynn M.
University of Calgary, Canada
Menard, Scott
University of Colorado, Boulder
Merrett, Mike C.
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Mertens, Donna M.
Gallaudet University, Washington, DC
Miller, Arthur G.
Miami University, Ohio
Millward, Lynne
University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Moffett, Kenneth W.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Mooney, Christopher Z.
University of Illinois, Springfield
Moreno, Erika
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Morris, Martina
University of Washington, Seattle
Morse, Janice M.
University of Alberta, Canada
Moyé, Lemuel A.
University of Texas, Houston
Mueller, Charles W.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Mueller, Daniel J.
Indiana University, Bloomington
Mueller, Ralph O.
The George Washington University, Washington, DC
Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki
University of Denver, Colorado
Mulaik, Stanley A.
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
Nagler, Jonathan
New York University
Nash, Chris
University of Technology, Australia
Nathan, Laura
Mills College, California
Nishisato, Shizuhiko
University of Toronto, Canada
Noblit, George W.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Norpoth, Helmut
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Noymer, Andrew
University of California, Berkeley
Oakley, Ann
University of London, United Kingdom
Olsen, Randall J.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Olsen, Wendy K.
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Ondercin, Heather L.
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Outhwaite, R. William
University of Sussex, United Kingdom
Page, Stewart
University of Windsor, Canada
Palmer, Harvey D.
University of Mississippi
Paluck, Elizabeth Levy
Yale University, Connecticut
Pampel, Fred
University of Colorado, Boulder
Parcero, Osiris J.
Bristol University, United Kingdom
Park, Sung Ho
Texas A&M University
Parry, Ken W.
Griffith University, Australia
Pattison, Philippa
University of Melbourne, Australia
Patton, Michael Quinn
The Union Institute & University, UtilizationFocused Evaluation, Minnesota
Paul, Pallab
University of Denver, Colorado
Pavlichev, Alexei
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Paxton, Pamela
Ohio State University, Columbus
Peng, ChaoYing Joanne
Indiana University, Bloomington
Phillips, Nelson
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Phua, VoonChin
City University of New York
Pickering, Michael J.
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Pink, Sarah
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Platt, Lucinda
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Platt, Jennifer
University of Sussex, United Kingdom
Plummer, Ken
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Poland, Blake D.
University of Toronto, Canada
Pollins, Brian M.
The Mershon Center, Columbus, Ohio
Post, Alison E.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Potter, Jonathan A.
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Prosch, Bernhard
Universität ErlangenNürnberg, Germany
Pye, Paul E.
University of Teesside, United Kingdom
Quinn, Kevin M.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Ragin, Charles C.
University of Arizona, Tucson
Rässler, Susanne
Universität ErlangenNürenberg, Germany
Redlawsk, David P.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Reis, Harry T.
University of Rochester, New York
Richardson, Laurel
Ohio State University, Columbus
Riessman, Catherine K.
Boston University, Massachusetts
Ritzer, George
University of Maryland, College Park
Robinson, Dawn T.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
University of Oklahoma, Norman
Rodríguez, Germán
Princeton University, New Jersey
Roncek, Dennis W.
University of Nebraska, Omaha
Rosenthal, Robert
University of California, Riverside
Rosnow, Ralph L.
Temple University, Pennsylvania
Rothstein, Hannah R.
Baruch College, New York
Rubin, Donald B.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Rudas, Tamás
Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary
Sandelowski, Margarete
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Santos, Filipe M.
INSEAD, France
Sapsford, Roger
University of Teesside, United Kingdom
Sasaki, Masamichi
Hyogo Kyoiku University, Japan
Schafer, William D.
University of Maryland, College Park
Schelin, Shannon Howle
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Schenker, Nathaniel
National Center for Health Statistics, Maryland
Schmidt, Tara J.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Schrodt, Philip A.
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Scott, Steven L.
University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Scott, John
University of Essex, United Kingdom
Seale, Clive
Brunel University, United Kingdom
Shadish, William R.
University of California, Merced
Shaffir, William
McMaster University, Canada
Shannon, Megan L.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Shipan, Charles R.
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Shu, Xiaoling
University of California, Davis
Sieber, Joan E.
California State University, Hayward
Sijtsma, Klaas
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Silver, N. Clayton
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Slagter, Tracy Hoffmann
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Smith, Peter W. F.
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Smith, John K.
University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls
Smithson, Michael
Australian National University, Australia
Snijders, Tom A. B.
University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Spector, Paul E.
University of South Florida, Tampa
Standing, Lionel G.
Bishop's University, Canada
Stark, Philip B.
University of California, Berkeley
Stevens, Gillian
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Stillman, Todd
University of Maryland, College Park
Stokes, S. Lynne
Southern Methodist University, Texas
Stovel, Katherine
University of Washington, Seattle
Strohmetz, David B.
Monmouth University, New Jersey
Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Sutton, Alex
University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Sweeney, Kevin J.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Swicegood, C. Gray
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Tacq, Jacques
Catholic University of Brussels, Belgium
Tcherni, Maria
Northeastern University, Massachusetts
Thomas, Jim
Northern Illinois University, DeKalb
Thompson, Bruce
Texas A&M University
Thorne, Sally E.
University of British Columbia, Canada
Tien, Charles
City University of New York
Ting, Kwokfai
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Toothaker, Larry E.
University of Oklahoma, Norman
Tracy, Karen
University of Colorado, Boulder
Traugott, Michael W.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Traxel, Nicole M.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Tsuji, Ryuhei
Meiji Gakuin University, Japan
Tuchman, Gaye
University of Connecticut, Storrs
Tuma, Nancy Brandon
Stanford University, California
Vallet, LouisAndré
LASMASInstitut du Longitudinal (CNRS) and Laboratoire de Sociologie Quantitative (CREST), France
van de Pol, Frank J. R.
Statistics Netherlands, The Netherlands
van der Ark, L. Andries
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
van Manen, Max
University of Alberta, Canada
van Teijlingen, Edwin R.
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Vann, Irvin B.
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Vermunt, Jeroen K.
Tilburg University, The Netherlands
von Hippel, Paul T.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Walker, Robert
University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Walsh, Susan
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Wand, Jonathan
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Wang, ChengLung
Florida State University, Tallahassee
Warren, Carol A. B.
University of Kansas, Lawrence
Wasserman, Stanley
University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign
Weisberg, Herbert F.
Ohio State University, Columbus
Weisfeld, Carol C.
University of Detroit Mercy, Michigan
Wengraf, Tom
Middlesex University, United Kingdom
Whitten, Guy
Texas A&M University
Wilcox, Rand R.
University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Williams, Malcolm
University of Plymouth, United Kingdom
Wood, B. Dan
Texas A&M University
Woods, James
West Virginia University, Morgantown
Xie, Yu
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Zimmerman, Marc
University of Houston, Texas
Zorn, Christopher
National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia
About the Editors
Michael S. LewisBeck is F. Wendell Miller Distinguished Professor of Political Science and Chair, at the University of Iowa. He has edited the SAGE green monograph series Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences (QASS) since 1988. Also, he is Data Editor for the journal French Politics. He is past Editor of the American Journal of Political Science. Professor LewisBeck has authored or coauthored more than 110 books, articles, or chapters. His publications in methods include Applied Regression: An Introduction and Data Analysis: An Introduction. His publications in substantive areas of political science include Economics and Elections: The Major Western Democracies, Forecasting Elections, How France Votes, and The French Voter: Before and After the 2002 Elections. Besides the University of Iowa, he has taught quantitative methods courses at the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR, University of Michigan); the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR, University of Essex, England); the TARKI Summer School on Statistical Models (University of Budapest, Hungary); and the Ecole d'Eté de Lille (University of Lille, France). Also, Professor LewisBeck has held visiting appointments at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques (Sciences Po) in Paris; the Harvard University Department of Government; the University of Paris I (Sorbonne); the Catholic University in Lima, Peru; and the National Institute for Development Administration in Guatemala City. He speaks French and Spanish. His current research interests include election forecasting, and the modeling of coup behavior in Latin America.
Alan Bryman is Professor of Social Research in the Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University, England. His main research interests lie in research methodology, leadership studies, organizational analysis, the process of Disneyization, humananimal relations, and theme parks. He is author or coauthor of many books, including Quantity and Quality in Social Research (Routledge, 1988), Charisma and Leadership in Organizations (SAGE, 1992), Disney and His Worlds (Routledge, 1995), Mediating Social Science (SAGE, 1998), Quantitative Data Analysis With SPSS Release 10 for Windows: A Guide for Social Scientists (Routledge, 2001), Social Research Methods (Oxford University Press, 2001; rev. ed., 2004), Business Research Methods (Oxford University Press, 2003), and Disneyization of Society (SAGE, forthcoming). He is also coeditor of The Handbook of Data Analysis (SAGE, forthcoming). He is the editor of the Understanding Social Research series for Open University Press and is on the editorial board of Leadership Quarterly.
Tim Futing Liao is Professor of Sociology and Statistics at the University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign, and currently (2001–2003) teaches research methods in the Department of Sociology at the University of Essex, UK. His research focuses on methodology, demography, and comparative and historical family studies. He has authored Interpreting Probability Models (SAGE, 1994), Statistical Group Comparison (Wiley, 2002), and research articles in both methods and disciplinary journals. Professor Liao served two terms (1992–1996 & 1996–2000) as Deputy Editor of The Sociological Quarterly, and he is on the Editorial Board of Sociological Methods & Research and the Steering Committee of the ESRC Oxford Spring School in Quantitative Methods for Social Research. His substantive interest led him to a year as visiting research fellow with the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, and his methodological expertise led him to teach summer schools at Peking University, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and the University of Essex. Having a catholic interest in methodology as well as in life, he has lived in or visited more than 20 nations, has done research on five societies, has held formal academic appointments in three educational systems, and speaks three and threequarter languages.
Preface
These volumes comprise an encyclopedia of social science research methods, the first of its kind. Uniqueness explains, at least partly, why we undertook the project. It has never been done before. We also believe that such an encyclopedia is needed. What is an encyclopedia? In ancient Greek, the word signifies “allencompassing education.” This reference set provides readerswithanallencompassingeducationintheways of social science researchers. Why is this needed? No one researcher, expert or not, knows everything. He or she occasionally must look up some methodological point, for teaching as well as for research purposes. And it is not always obvious where to go, or what to look up when you get there. This encyclopedia brings together, in one place, authoritative essays on virtually all social science methods topics, both quantitative and qualitative.
A survey researcher may want to learn about longitudinal analysis in order to make sense of panel data. A student of household division of labor may want to learn the use of time diaries. A regression expert might bone up on multidimensional scaling, so as to be better able to aggregate certain measures. A deconstructionist might want to explore Foucauldian discourse analysis. An experimentalist may wish further understanding of the collinearity problem that nonexperimentalists routinely face. A feminist scholar may seek to know more about the use of films in research. A political scientist could have need of a refresher on experimental design. An anthropologist could raise a question about ethnographic realism. Perhaps a psychologist seeks to comprehend a particular measure of association. A philosopher might want to read more about the laws of social science. A sociologist may desire a review of the different approaches to evaluation research. Even in areas where one is highly expert, much can be gained. For example, in the examination of interaction effects, there are many entries from different perspectives, treating the littleused as well as the muchused techniques. These entries are written by acknowledged leading scholars. One would have to be “more expert” than the experts not to benefit from reading them.
Besides practicing researchers and social statisticians, the encyclopedia has appeal for more general readers. Who might these people be? First, there are students, graduate and undergraduate, in the social science classes in the universities of the world. All the major branches—anthropology, communications, economics, education, geography, political science, psychology, public health, public policy, sociology, urban planning—have their students reading articles and books that require an appreciation of method for their full comprehension. The typical undergraduate needs to know how to read a contingency table, interpret a correlation coefficient, or critique a survey. There are entries on these and other such topics that are completely accessible to this student population. These sorts of entries require no special knowledge of mathematics or statistics to be understood, nor does the student need to have actually done research in order to grasp the essentials.
Of course, graduate students in these fields are obliged to go beyond simple reading comprehension, to actual application of these techniques. Many of the pieces make the “howto” of the method clear, such as some of the entries on regression analysis or interviewing techniques. Then, there are more advanced entries that will challenge, but still inform, the typical graduate student. For example, the pieces on Bayesian analysis, or generalized linear modeling, will certainly allow them to sharpen their academic teeth.
In addition to researchers and students, this encyclopedia will be helpful to collegeeducated readers who want to understand more about social science methodology because of their work (e.g., they are journalists or city managers) or because of their pleasure (e.g., they follow social science reporting in the media). Many entries are written in ordinary English, with no special math or stat requirements, and so will be accessible to such readers. Moreover, many of the more difficult entries are understandable in at least an introductory way, because of instructions to that effect given to our contributors. Having said that, it should be emphasized that none of the essays is “dumbed down.” Instead, they are intelligently written by recognized experts. There is nothing “cookbook” or condescending about them. In this domain of style, the only essential restriction placed on the authors was that of length, for we urged them to present their material as concisely as possible.
Our instructions to authors provided four different lengths for the entries—2,500 words (Alevel), 1,000 words (Blevel), 500 words (Clevel), and 50 words (Dlevel). Of course, certain individual entries—whether A, B, C, or D level—do not conform exactly to these word counts, which are rather more guidelines than rigid standards. Length of entry was finally dictated by the importance, breadth, or, in some cases, complexity of the topic. In general, the longer the entry, the more central the topic. Examples of Alevel entries are Analysis of Variance, Bayesian Inference, Case Study, and Regression. Blevel topics are also important, but do not demand quite so much space to explain the concept clearly. Blevel topics include Historical Method, Inferential Statistics, Misspecification, and Mixed Design. Clevel entries usually treat a rather specific method or issue, such as Curvilinearity, Narrative Interview, Prisoner's Dilemma, and RecordCheck Studies. The A, B, and C entries all end with references to guide the reader further. Dlevel entries, on the other hand, are brief and mainly definitional. Examples of Dlevel entries are Gini Coefficient, Nominal, Secondary Data, and Yates's Correction.
Altogether, there are about 1,000 entries, covering quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as the connections between them. The entries are crossreferenced to each other, as appropriate. For example, take this entry—Discrete (see Categorical, Nominal, Attribute). The number of entries, “1,000,” is not magic, nor was it a goal, but it is the number to which we kept returning in our search for a master list of entries. At the beginning of the project, we aimed to come up with an exhaustive list of all possible methods terms. We consulted written materials—subfield dictionaries, statistics encyclopedias, methods journals, publisher flyers—and individuals—members of our distinguished international board of scholars, editorial boards of methodology journals, colleagues at our home institutions and elsewhere, and, last but not least, our graduate students. As the process unfolded, some entries were culled, some consolidated, some added. We have included every methodological term we could think of that someone reading social science research results in a book, a journal, or a newspaper might come across. In the spirit of the first encyclopedia, l'Encyclopédie, by Diderot and d'Alembert in 1751, we did try “to examine everything” (Il faut tout examiner) that concerned our enterprise. Although something is undoubtedly “not examined,” it remains for our readers to tell us what it is.
Once the entry list was basically set, we began contacting potential contributors. We were heartened by the extent of cooperation we received from the social science community. Senior and junior scholars alike gave us their best, and did so promptly. Remarkably, with a handful of exceptions, everyone met their deadlines. This is one measure, we believe, of the value these busy researchers place on this encyclopedia. As can be seen from the bylines, they compose a varied mix from the relevant disciplines, holding important university and research posts around the world.
Besides the contributors, the board, and the colleagues and students of our home institutions, there are others who are responsible for the success of the encyclopedia. Chris Rojek, senior editor at SAGE London, has to be credited with the initial idea of the project. Without that, it would not have happened. On the US side, C. Deborah Laughton, former senior editor at SAGE California, was a dedicated and tireless supporter of the encyclopedia idea from the very beginning. Without her enthusiasm and insight, the final product would have lacked much. Rolf Janke, vice president at SAGE, was a central source of organization strength and encouragement from the home office. Also at SAGE, Vincent Burns, technical editor, was vital in helping piece together the Web site, the database, and the massive manuscript data files. As well, we should mention Melanie Birdsall, production editor, who patiently shepherded us through the alphabet soup of page proofs. Finally, to save the best for last, we must thank Eileen Haddox, our developmental editor. Eileen made it work by doing the detail work. She sent out the contracts, reminded the authors, logged in the contributions, and sent text and corrections back and forth, in the end making the whole corpus ready for the printer. Always, she labored with efficiency and good cheer. In those realms, she set standards that we, the editors of the encyclopedia, tried to achieve. Sometimes we did.
, ,Introduction
Social science methodology can be said to have entered our consciousness by the late 19th century when Emile Durkheim penned The Rules of Sociological Method, laying the foundation for the systematic understanding and analysis of social phenomena. From that time, it has seen continuous growth characterized by an exponential development over the last few decades of the 20th century. The development came in terms of both the width and the depth of our methodological knowhow. The broad range of methods applicable in the wide circle of social science disciplines, and the sophistication and level in the advancement of some analytical approaches and techniques, would have been unthinkable merely a few score years ago. Focus group and thick description, for example, have virtually become lingua franca among many social science researchers, regardless of their disciplinary orientation. The methods for dealing with missing data and nonresponse, to take other examples, have advanced so much that specialized workshops on such issues are a perennial favorite among analysts of survey data.
It is only natural, at the beginning of a new century, for us to take stock of the entire spectrum of our social science methodological knowledge, even though it is impossible and impractical to include every method that has ever been used in the social sciences. The cardinal aim of this encyclopedia is to provide our readers—be they students, academics, or applied researchers—with an introduction to a vast array of research methods by giving an account of their purposes, principles, developments, and applications. The approximately 1,000 entries, many of which are extensive treatments of the topics and contain recent developments, can be of great use to the novice or the experienced researcher alike.
To accomplish this goal, we offer two major types of entries: Some contain only a definition of no longer than a paragraph or two. These give the reader a quick explanation of a methodological term. True to the encyclopedic form, many other entries are topical treatments or essays that discuss—at varying lengths, oftenwithexamplesandsometimeswithgraphics—the nature, the history, the application, and the implication of using a certain method. Most of these entries also give suggested readings and references for the reader to pursue a topic further. These are part and parcel of the encyclopedia and are invaluable for those who would like to delve into the wonder world of research methods. To help provide a more complete explanation than is often achieved within the scope of a single article, we employ small capital letters, such as those appearing in the first paragraph of this introduction, that refer the reader to related terms that are explained elsewhere in the encyclopedia.
With such a variety of specialized essays to write, we are fortunate to have been able to count on the support of our board members and authors, who contributed many a coherent introduction to a method with definitiveness and thoroughness, often with great flair as well. Sometimes, topics are treated in such a novel way that they are not only pleasurable but also thoughtprovoking to read. For instance, entries such as the essay on econometrics by Professor Damodar Gujarati are a pleasant surprise. Rather than merely introducing the topic with the types of methods and models that econometricians use and nothing else, Gujarati takes us on a journey from the ordinary to the extraordinary. He begins with three quotations that illustrate the broad scope of econometrics; here the simple, usual approach of using quotations accomplishes the seemingly undoable task of defining the terrain on which econometricians work and play. He then walks us twice through the research process, from economic theory to data and models to analysis, once in principle and the second time with an example. Such a process is what many of us preach every day but seldom think of when writing an essay for an encyclopedia. Gujarati uses the ordinary process of going about economic research to achieve an extraordinary, profound impact—an impact that will leave a reader thinking about, instead of just the methods and models, the fundamental purpose of econometrics. Entries like this give us knowledge and food for thought.
The diversity of our entries is also great. To take one of many possible contrasts, some of our entries deal with very philosophical issues, such as poststructuralism, that might appear to be out of step with a set of volumes concerned with methods of research, whereas others discuss advanced statistical techniques that might similarly be viewed as not part of social science research methodology. However, we have taken the view that both are necessary. On the one hand, all researchers need to be aware of the epistemological issues that influence both the nature of research questions and the assumptions that underpin aspects of the research process; on the other hand, we all need to be aware of the full panoply of ways of analyzing quantitative data, so that the most appropriate and robust techniques can be applied in different situations. It is only when we are knowledgeable about the choices available to us—whether epistemological, statistical, or whatever—that we can completely develop our craft as social researchers.
Examples of excellent treatment of a whole host of topics abound in the following pages and volumes. By assembling into one encyclopedia entries of varied origin that serve different research purposes, we, the editors, hope that readers will come to appreciate the rich heritage of our social science methodology and, more importantly, will be able to benefit from this immense source of methodological expertise in advancing their research.
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Appendix
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