Reform Movements in Justice

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  • The American criminal justice system is intended to uphold fundamental positive values: community safety, fairness and consistency in the law, accountability for harm, and boundaries of acceptable behavior. Reform movements in justice attempt to remedy perceived abuses against these values. Reformers seek to amend, or in some cases transform, the processes by which we apprehend, prosecute, defend, sentence, punish, and supervise those charged with criminal offenses. But reforms almost always fall short of expectations. Some sociologists ...

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    • Adversarial Justice
    • Abortion
    • Arpaio, Joseph M.
    • Anarchists
    • Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
    • Alabama
    • An American Tragedy
    • American Revolution and Criminal Justice
    • Child Abuse, Contemporary
    • Atlanta, Georgia
    • Automobile and the Police
    • Adams, John (Administration of)
    • American Bar Association
    • African Americans
    • Ableman v. Booth
    • Abrams v. United States
    • Chinese Americans
    • American Civil Liberties Union
    • Adams, John Quincy (Administration of)
    • Ballistics
    • Baltimore, Maryland
    • Child Abuse, History of
    • Court of Common Pleas
    • Autobiographies, Criminals'
    • Alaska
    • Anti-Federalist Papers
    • Bakker, Jim
    • Augustus, John
    • Adultery
    • Alcatraz Island Prison
    • Chicago, Illinois
    • Las Vegas, Nevada
    • American Law Institute
    • Bigamy/Polygamy
    • Beaumont, Gustave de
    • Berkowitz, David
    • Articles of Confederation
    • Arizona
    • Buntline, Ned
    • Court of Oyer and Terminer
    • Child Abuse, Sociology of
    • Birmingham, Alabama
    • Bertillon System
    • Arthur, Chester (Administration of)
    • Civil Disobedience
    • Adair v. United States
    • Barron v. Mayor of Baltimore
    • Civil Rights Laws
    • Buchanan, James (Administration of)
    • Border Patrol
    • Camden, New Jersey
    • Child Murderers, History of
    • Court of Quarter Sessions
    • Christie, Agatha
    • Arkansas
    • Billy the Kid
    • Blackstone, William
    • Blood Sports
    • Antitrust Law
    • Los Angeles, California
    • Miami, Florida
    • Appeals
    • Bootlegging
    • Brennan, William J., Jr.
    • Bodine, Polly
    • California
    • Dime Novels, Pulps, Thrillers
    • Courts of Indian Offenses
    • Children, Abandoned
    • Cincinnati, Ohio
    • Bounty Hunters
    • Buren, Martin Van (Administration of)
    • Codification of Laws
    • Knapp Commission
    • Bowers v. Hardwick
    • Brandenburg v. Ohio
    • Ku Klux Klan
    • Criminalization and Decriminalization
    • Bush, George H. W. (Administration of)
    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
    • Cleveland, Ohio
    • Children's Rights
    • Coverture, doctrine of
    • Film, Crime in
    • Colorado
    • Boles, Charles
    • Brockway, Zebulon
    • Bail Reform Act
    • Burglary, Contemporary
    • Appellate Courts
    • New York City
    • Newark, New Jersey
    • Attica
    • Burglary, History of
    • Bible
    • Burger, Warren
    • Bonnie and Clyde
    • Connecticut
    • Film, Police in
    • Equality, Concept of
    • Compton, California
    • Code of Silence
    • Bush, George W. (Administration of)
    • Fear of Crime
    • Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Brown v. Mississippi
    • Lawyers Guild
    • Gun Control
    • Carter, Jimmy (Administration of)
    • Community Policing and Relations
    • Dayton, Ohio
    • Juvenile Corrections, Contemporary
    • Great Depression
    • Film, Punishment in
    • Delaware
    • Booth, John Wilkes
    • Bush, George H. W. (Administration of)
    • Bill of Rights
    • Burglary, Sociology of
    • Bail and Bond
    • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    • San Francisco, California
    • Bedford Hills Correctional Facility
    • Computer Crime
    • Bodie of Liberties
    • Bush, George W. (Administration of)
    • Borden, Lizzie
    • Florida
    • Grafton, Sue
    • History of Crime and Punishment in America: Colonial
    • Juvenile Corrections, History of
    • Detroit, Michigan
    • Corruption, Contemporary
    • Cleveland, Grover (Administration of)
    • Hispanic Americans
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    • Buck v. Bell
    • Caminetti v. United States
    • National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement
    • Insanity Defense
    • Clinton, William (Administration of)
    • Corruption, History of
    • Jackson, Mississippi
    • Juvenile Corrections, Sociology of
    • History of Crime and Punishment in America: 1783–1850
    • Green, Anna K.
    • Georgia
    • Brocius, William
    • Byrnes, Thomas
    • Book of the General Lawes & Libertyes
    • Confidence Games and Frauds
    • Capital Punishment
    • Chain Gangs and Prison Labor
    • Corruption, Contemporary
    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
    • Cummings, Homer
    • Bundy, Ted
    • Hawai'i
    • Hammett, Dashiell
    • History of Crime and Punishment in America: 1850–1900
    • Juvenile Courts, Contemporary
    • Kansas City, Missouri
    • Corruption, Sociology of
    • Coolidge, Calvin (Administration of)
    • Irish Americans
    • National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline
    • Chandler v. Florida
    • Chisholm v. Georgia
    • National Organization for Women
    • Italian Americans
    • Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Administration of)
    • Crime Prevention
    • Memphis, Tennessee
    • Juvenile Courts, History of
    • History of Crime and Punishment in America: 1900–1950
    • Hillerman, Tony
    • Idaho
    • Capone, Al
    • Darrow, Clarence
    • Civil Rights Act of 1866
    • Corruption, History of
    • Chillicothe Correctional Institution
    • Citizen Participation on Juries
    • Corruption, Sociology of
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Devery, William
    • Chapman, Mark David
    • Illinois
    • Literature and Theater, Crime in
    • History of Crime and Punishment in America: 1950–1970
    • Juvenile Delinquency, History of
    • New Orleans, Louisiana
    • Crime Scene Investigation
    • Fillmore, Millard (Administration of)
    • Japanese Americans
    • National Prison Association
    • Cohens v. Virginia
    • Coker v. Georgia
    • Penitentiary Study Commission
    • Jewish Americans
    • Ford, Gerald (Administration of)
    • Customs Service as Police
    • Oakland, California
    • Juvenile Delinquency, Sociology of
    • History of Crime and Punishment in America: 1970-Present
    • Literature and Theater, Police in
    • Indiana
    • Cunningham, Emma
    • Dewey, Thomas E.
    • Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914
    • Counterfeiting
    • Civil Rights Laws
    • Clemency
    • Crime and Arrest Statistics Analysis
    • Colonial Charters and Grants
    • Douglas, William O.
    • Czolgosz, Leon
    • Iowa
    • Literature and Theater, Punishment in
    • Homeland Security
    • Juvenile Justice, History of
    • St. Louis, Missouri
    • Detection and Detectives
    • Grant, Ulysses S. (Administration of)
    • Libertarianism
    • President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice
    • Crabtree v. State
    • Davis v. State
    • Securities and Exchange Commission
    • Morality
    • Harding, Warren G. (Administration of)
    • Drug Enforcement Administration
    • Washington, D.C.
    • Juvenile Offenders, Prevention and Education
    • Prohibition
    • Memoirs, Police and Prosecutors
    • Kansas
    • Dahmer, Jeffrey
    • Garfield, James
    • Constitution of the United States of America
    • Crime in America, Causes
    • Clinton Correctional Facility
    • Codification of Laws
    • Crime in America, Distribution
    • Giuliani, Rudolph
    • DeSalvo, Albert
    • Kentucky
    • Music and Crime
    • Puritans
    • Juvenile Offenders in Adult Courts
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
    • Harrison, Benjamin (Administration of)
    • Native Americans
    • Students for a Democratic Society and the Weathermen
    • Dennis v. United States
    • Dillard v. the State of Georgia
    • Wickersham Commission
    • Obscenity Laws
    • Hayes, Rutherford B. (Administration of)
    • Federal Policing
    • School Shootings
    • Salem Witch Trials
    • News Media, Crime in
    • Louisiana
    • Dillinger, John
    • Hamilton, Alexander
    • Declaration of Independence
    • Crime in America, Types
    • Colonial Courts
    • Common Law Origins of Criminal Law
    • Crime Rates
    • Dyer Act
    • Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.
    • Everleigh Sisters
    • Maine
    • News Media, Police in
    • Victorian Compromise
    • Lindsey, Ben
    • Forensic Science
    • Hoover, Herbert (Administration of)
    • Political Dissidents
    • Dred Scott v. Sandford
    • Duren v. Missouri
    • Quakers
    • Jackson, Andrew (Administration of)
    • Incapacitation, Theory of
    • News Media, Punishment in
    • Maryland
    • Ferguson, Colin
    • Hoover, J. Edgar
    • Elkins Act of 1903
    • Criminology
    • Community Service
    • Comstock Law
    • Domestic Violence, Contemporary
    • Emergency Quota Act of 1921
    • Jefferson, Thomas
    • Floyd, Charles Arthur
    • Massachusetts
    • Internal Revenue Service
    • Jefferson, Thomas (Administration of)
    • Racism
    • Eisenstadt v. Baird
    • Estes v. Texas
    • Sin
    • Johnson, Andrew (Administration of)
    • Interrogation Practices
    • Michigan
    • Poe, Edgar Allen
    • Gacy, John Wayne
    • Kennedy, Robert F.
    • Enforcement Acts of 1870–1871
    • Domestic Violence, History of
    • Confession
    • Convict Lease System
    • Domestic Violence, Sociology of
    • English Charter of Liberties of 1100
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr.
    • Genovese, Vito
    • Spillane, Mickey
    • Minnesota
    • Military Police
    • Slavery
    • Fletcher v. Peck
    • Frontiero v. Richardson
    • Urbanization
    • Kennedy, John F. (Administration of)
    • Miranda v. Arizona
    • Mississippi
    • Television, Crime in
    • Gotti, John
    • Kunstler, William
    • Espionage Act of 1917
    • Drinking and Crime
    • Corporal Punishment
    • Corrections
    • Drug Abuse and Addiction, Contemporary
    • Ethics in Government Act of 1978
    • La Guardia, Fiorello
    • Guiteau, Charles
    • Television, Police in
    • Missouri
    • M'Naghten Test
    • Lincoln, Abraham (Administration of)
    • Xenophobia
    • Furman v. Georgia
    • Gates v. Collier
    • Madison, James (Administration of)
    • Mug Shots
    • Montana
    • Television, Punishment in
    • Hauptmann, Bruno
    • Leopold and Loeb
    • Federalist Papers
    • Drug Abuse and Addiction, History of
    • Courts
    • Critical Legal Studies Movement
    • Drug Abuse and Addiction, Sociology of
    • Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure
    • Livingston, Edward
    • James, Jesse
    • To Kill a Mockingbird
    • Nebraska
    • Narcotics Laws
    • McKinley, William (Administration of)
    • Gibbons v. Ogden
    • Gideon v. Wainwright
    • Monroe, James (Administration of)
    • National Police Gazette
    • Nevada
    • Wambaugh, Joseph
    • Kaczynski, Ted
    • Marshall, John
    • Freedom of Information Act of 1966
    • Embezzlement
    • Cruel and Unusual Punishment
    • Death Row
    • Environmental Crimes
    • Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
    • McCarthy, Joseph
    • Kevorkian, Jack
    • New Hampshire
    • Native American Tribal Police
    • Nixon, Richard (Administration of)
    • Glidewell v. State
    • Gregg v. Georgia
    • Obama, Barack (Administration of)
    • Police, Women as
    • New Jersey
    • Klebold, Dylan, and Eric Harris
    • Ness, Eliot
    • Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
    • Espionage
    • Defendant's Rights
    • Deportation
    • Felonies
    • Habeas Corpus Act of 1679
    • Paine, Thomas
    • Leopold and Loeb
    • New Mexico
    • Police Abuse
    • Pierce, Franklin (Administration of)
    • Griffin v. California
    • Griswold v. Connecticut
    • Polk, James K. (Administration of)
    • Political Policing
    • New York
    • Luciano, “Lucky”
    • Parker, William
    • Habeas Corpus Act of 1863
    • Fornication Laws
    • Deterrence, Theory of
    • Discretionary Decision Making
    • Fraud
    • Harrison Act of 1914
    • Penn, William
    • Manson, Charles
    • North Carolina
    • Posses
    • Reagan, Ronald (Administration of)
    • Grutter v. Bollinger
    • Holden v. Hardy
    • Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Administration of)
    • Private Detectives
    • North Dakota
    • Percival, Robert V.
    • Homestead Act of 1862
    • Frontier Crime
    • District Attorney
    • Due Process
    • Gambling
    • Independent Treasury Act
    • Ragen, Joseph
    • Menendez, Lyle and Erik
    • Ohio
    • Private Police
    • Roosevelt, Theodore (Administration of)
    • Holt v. Sarver
    • Hurtado v. California
    • Taft, William Howard (Administration of)
    • Private Security Services
    • Oklahoma
    • Mudgett, Herman
    • Rockefeller, Nelson
    • Indian Civil Rights Act
    • Gangs, Contemporary
    • Eastern State Penitentiary
    • Electric Chair, History of
    • Gangs, History of
    • Indian Removal Act
    • Roosevelt, Theodore (Administration of)
    • Muhammad, John Allen
    • Oregon
    • Professionalization of Police
    • Taylor, Zachary (Administration of)
    • Johnson v. Avery
    • Korematsu v. United States
    • Truman, Harry S. (Administration of)
    • Reform, Police and Enforcement
    • Pennsylvania
    • Nelson, “Baby Face”
    • Snyder, Ruth
    • Internal Security Act of 1950
    • Gangs, Sociology of
    • Electronic Surveillance
    • Elmira Prison
    • Guns and Violent Crime
    • Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
    • Steenburgh, Sam
    • Nitti, Frank
    • Rhode Island
    • Rural Police
    • Tyler, John (Administration of)
    • Lochner v. New York
    • Loving v. Virginia
    • Washington, George (Administration of)
    • Secret Service
    • South Carolina
    • Oswald, Lee Harvey
    • Sutherland, Edwin
    • Intolerable Acts of 1774
    • Hereditary Crime
    • Executions
    • Famous Trials
    • Identity Theft
    • Judiciary Act of 1789
    • Thaw, Harry K.
    • Peterson, Scott
    • South Dakota
    • Sheriffs
    • Wilson, Woodrow (Administration of)
    • Mapp v. Ohio
    • Marbury v. Madison
    • State Police
    • Tennessee
    • Rader, Dennis
    • Thoreau, Henry David
    • Landrum-Griffin Act of 1859
    • Immigration Crimes
    • Federal Prisons
    • Fingerprinting
    • Incest
    • Law Enforcement Assistance Act
    • Tocqueville, Alexis de
    • Ramirez, Richard
    • Texas
    • Strikes
    • Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
    • McCleskey v. Kemp
    • Technology, Police
    • Utah
    • Ray, James Earl
    • Vollmer, August
    • Laws and Liberties of Massachusetts
    • Indecent Exposure
    • Fish and Game Laws
    • Fornication Laws
    • Infanticide
    • Lindbergh Law
    • Walling, George
    • Rothstein, Arnold
    • Vermont
    • Texas Rangers
    • McCulloch v. Maryland
    • McNabb v. United States
    • Training Police
    • Virginia
    • Sacco and Vanzetti
    • Warren, Earl
    • Magna Carta
    • Kidnapping
    • Gender and Criminal Law
    • Habeas Corpus, Writ of
    • Larceny
    • Mann Act
    • Wickersham, George
    • Schultz, “Dutch”
    • Washington
    • Uniform Crime Reporting Program
    • Minor v. Happersett
    • Miranda v. Arizona
    • Vice Reformers
    • West Virginia
    • Sheppard, Sam
    • Wilson, James Q.
    • Maryland Toleration Act of 1649
    • Livestock and Cattle Crimes
    • Hanging
    • Judges and Magistrates
    • Lynchings
    • Mayflower Compact
    • Wilson, O. W.
    • Simpson, O. J.
    • Wisconsin
    • Vigilantism
    • Mississippi v. Johnson
    • Muller v. Oregon
    • Wyoming
    • Sirhan Sirhan
    • Zeisel, Hans
    • National Security Act of 1947
    • Moonshine
    • Juries
    • Jurisdiction
    • Murder, Contemporary
    • Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    • Smith, Susan
    • Munn v. Illinois
    • Olmstead v. United States
    • Torrio, John
    • Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968
    • Murder, History of
    • Justice, Department of
    • Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary
    • Murder, Sociology of
    • Pendleton Act of 1883
    • Wuornos, Aileen
    • Padilla v. Kentucky
    • People v. Pinnell
    • Yates, Andrea
    • Presidential Proclamations
    • Murders, Unsolved
    • Legal Counsel
    • Matteawan State Hospital
    • Obscenity
    • Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition of 1775
    • Zodiac Killer
    • People v. Superior Court of Santa Clara County
    • Plessy v. Ferguson
    • Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
    • Organized Crime, Contemporary
    • Military Courts
    • “New Punitiveness”
    • Organized Crime, History of
    • Reports on Prison Conditions
    • Procunier v. Martinez
    • Reynolds v. United States
    • Sedition Act of 1918
    • Organized Crime, Sociology of
    • Parole
    • Penitentiaries
    • Pickpockets
    • Selective Service Act of 1967
    • Ricci v. DeStefano
    • Roberts v. Louisiana
    • Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
    • Political Crimes, Contemporary
    • Petty Courts
    • Plea
    • Political Crimes, History of
    • Smith Act
    • Roe v. Wade
    • Romer v. Evans
    • Stamp Act of 1765
    • Political Crimes, Sociology of
    • Prison Privatization
    • Prison Riots
    • Pornography
    • State Blue Laws
    • Roth v. United States
    • Santobello v. New York
    • State Slave Codes
    • Prostitution, Contemporary
    • Prisoner's Rights
    • Probation
    • Prostitution, History of
    • Tea Act of 1773
    • Schenck v. United States
    • Sheppard v. Maxwell
    • Townshend Acts of 1767
    • Prostitution, Sociology of
    • Punishment Within Prison
    • Race, Class, and Criminal Law
    • Race-Based Crimes
    • USA PATRIOT Act of 2001
    • Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States
    • State v. Heitman
    • Vice Commission
    • Rape, Contemporary
    • Reform Movements in Justice
    • Rehabilitation
    • Rape, History of
    • Violence Against Women Act of 1994
    • Strauder v. West Virginia
    • Taylor v. State
    • Volstead Act
    • Rape, Sociology of
    • Rule of Law
    • San Quentin State Prison
    • Religion and Crime, Contemporary
    • Terry v. Ohio
    • Texas v. White
    • Religion and Crime, History of
    • Segregation Laws
    • Sentencing
    • Religion and Crime, Sociology of
    • Twining v. New Jersey
    • United States v. Ballard
    • Riots
    • Sentencing: Indeterminate Versus Fixed
    • Sex Offender Laws
    • Robbery, Contemporary
    • United States v. E. C. Knight Company
    • United States v. Hudson and Goodwin
    • Robbery, History of
    • Shaming and Shunning
    • Sing Sing Correctional Facility
    • Robbery, Sociology of
    • United States v. Nixon
    • United States v. One Book Called Ulysses
    • Serial and Mass Killers
    • Slavery, Law of
    • Supreme Court, U.S.
    • Sex Offenders
    • Webb v. United States
    • Weeks v. United States
    • Sexual Harassment
    • Suspect's Rights
    • Torture
    • Smuggling
    • Whitney v. California
    • Wolf v. Colorado
    • Sodomy
    • Trials
    • Victim Rights and Restitution
    • Tax Crimes
    • Yates v. United States
    • Terrorism
    • Witness Testimony
    • Women in Prison
    • Theories of Crime
    • Traffic Crimes
    • Vagrancy
    • Victimless Crime
    • Violent Crimes
    • White-Collar Crime, Contemporary
    • White-Collar Crime, History of
    • White-Collar Crime, Sociology of
    • Women Criminals, Contemporary
    • Women Criminals, History of
    • Women Criminals, Sociology of
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