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Institutional or institutionalized racism is defined as racially linked, systematic, differential practices and outcomes, as perpetrated by social, economic, and academic institutions, private and public sector organizations, or legal systems. The term was first used by Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton in Black Power (1967) to describe social and economic disenfranchisement of people of color. Scholars argue that institutional racism is distinguishable from other forms of discrimination in that it can occur without individual intent. Instead, disparate outcomes are attributed to broad patterns of behavior and policies (both explicit and implicit) that support prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors. This entry provides illustrative examples of institutionalized racism and a review of key associated outcomes.
Social Contexts of Institutionalized Racism
Defining Race and Ethnicity
The experience of institutionalized racism ...