Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Communication
- Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
- Publication Year: 2010 |
- Online Publication Date: August 17, 2010 |
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412959216 |
- Print ISBN: 9781412959209 |
- Online ISBN: 9781412959216 |
- Print Purchase Options
- Subject: General Media, Communication & Cultural Studies, Public Health Education & Health Promotion
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- Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
- Pub. Year: 2010 |
- Online Pub. Date: August 17, 2010 |
- DOI: 10.4135/9781412959216 |
- Print ISBN: 9781412959209 |
- Online ISBN: 9781412959216 |
- Print Purchase Options
- Subject: General Media, Communication & Cultural Studies, Public Health Education & Health Promotion
In the academic world, the term “science communication” refers both to a set of professions (such as science journalism and public information work) and to an interdisciplinary scholarly research specialization. Much of this research is aimed at improving our understanding of the best ways to communicate complex information, especially to people who are not scientists. Science communication specialists are concerned with giving people useful information about health, environment, and technology – as well as science itself. In order to do this, we also need to improve our understanding of how people think, form opinions, and process information.Additionally, professional practitioners in science communication are engaged in strategic and ethical decisions every day, such as: How should reporters cover the issue of climate change? Should the views ...
- Reader's Guide
- Entries A-Z
- Subject Index
- Associations and Organizations
- Audiences, Opinions, and Effects
- Challenges, Issues, and Controversies
- Changing Awareness, Opinion, and Behavior
- Critical Influences and Events
- Global and International Aspects
- Government Agencies (U.S.)
- History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science
- Important Figures
- Journal Publications
- Key Cases and Current Trends
- Law, Policy, Ethics, and Beliefs
- Major Infrastructural Initiatives
- Practices, Strategies, and Tools
- Professional Roles and Careers
- Public Engagement Approaches
- Theory and Research
- Venues and Channels
Susanna Hornig Priest, University of Nevada, Las VegasSenior Advisory Board
Sharon Dunwoody, University of WisconsinMadison
Sharon M. Friedman, Lehigh University
Robert J. Griffn, Marquette University
Bruce V. Lewenstein, Cornell University
Carol L. Rogers, University of Maryland
- Rick Borchelt, U.S. Department of Agriculture
- Cynthia-Lou Coleman, Portland State University
- William Evans, University of Alabama
- Barbara Gastel, Texas A&M University
- Joye C. Gordon, Kansas State University
- Robert A. Logan, University of Missouri (Emeritus)
- Katherine A. McComas, Cornell University
- Lulu Rodriguez, Iowa State University
- Katherine E. Rowan, George Mason University
- JoAnn Myer Valenti, Tampa, Florida (Emerita)
- David Amber
Copyright © 2010 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of science and technology communication / edited by Susanna Hornig Priest.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-5920-9 (cloth)
1. Science news--United States. 2. Communication in science—United States. 3. Communication of technical information—United States. 4. Science and state—United States. I. Priest, Susanna Hornig.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Publisher: Rolf A. Janke
Assistant to the Publisher: Michele Thompson
Acquisitions Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson
Developmental Editor: Sanford Robinson
Reference Systems Manager: Leticia M. Gutierrez
Reference Systems Coordinator: Laura Notton
Production Editor: Carla Freeman
Copy Editors: Amy Freitag, Renee Willers
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreaders: Theresa Kay, Jenifer Kooiman
Indexer: Joan Shapiro
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Marketing Manager: Amberlyn McKay
List of Entries[Page vii]
- [Page viii]
- [Page ix]
- [Page x]
Reader's Guide[Page xi]
The Reader's Guide is provided to help readers find entries on related topics. It classifies entries in 18 categories: Associations and Organizations; Audiences, Opinions, and Effects; Challenges, Issues, and Controversies; Changing Awareness, Opinion, and Behavior; Critical Influences and Events; Global and International Aspects; Government Agencies (U.S.); History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science; Important Figures; Journal Publications; Key Cases and Current Trends; Law, Policy, Ethics, and Beliefs; Major Infrastructural Initiatives; Practices, Strategies, and Tools; Professional Roles and Careers; Public Engagement Approaches; Theory and Research; Venues and Channels. Some entries appear in more than one category.
- Associations and Organizations
- Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow
- American Association for Public Opinion Research
- American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
- American Medical Association
- American Medical Writers Association
- Association for Communication Excellence
- Center for Science in the Public Interest
- Council for the Advancement of Science Writing
- Environmental Defense Fund
- ETC Group
- International Science Journalism Associations
- National Association of Science Writers
- Physicians for Social Responsibility
- Public Communication of Science and Technology
- Royal Society
- Scientists' Institute for Public Information
- Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
- Sigma Xi
- Society for Risk Analysis
- Society for Technical Communication
- Society of Environmental Journalists
- Union of Concerned Scientists
- Audiences, Opinions, and Effects
- Active Audiences and Science
- Attentive Public
- Audiences for Science
- Children's Television and Science
- Communicating Science to Children
- Gender Representations of Scientists
- Health Literacy
- Interpretive Communities
- Knowledge Gap Hypothesis
- Popular Science and Formal Education
- Public Understanding of Research
- Public Understanding of Science
- Role Models in Science
- Science Indicators, History of the NSB Project on
- Science Literacy
- Scientist—Journalist Relations
- Technological Literacy
- Trust and Attitudes
- Challenges, Issues, and Controversies
- Alien Abduction
- Alternative Medicine
- Asteroid Impacts
- Bioterrorism [Page xii]
- Climate Change, Communicating
- Colonizing Other Worlds
- Digital Divide
- Drug Advertising
- Food Irradiation
- Intelligent Design in Public Discourse
- Invasive Species
- Maverick Science and Journalism
- NIMBY (“Not In My Back Yard”)
- Nuclear Power
- Nuclear Waste
- Nuclear Weapons
- Scientist—Journalist Conflicts
- Stem Cell Controversy
- Vaccines, Fear of
- Changing Awareness, Opinion, and Behavior
- Alcohol, Risk Communication for
- Anti-Drug Campaigns
- Anti-Smoking Campaigns
- Breast Cancer Communication
- Cancer Prevention and Risk Communication
- Communication Campaigns in Health and Environment
- Computer-Tailored Messages
- Evidence-Based Medicine
- Fear Appeals
- Food Safety
- Health Communication, Overview
- Health Communication and the Internet
- Highway Safety
- HIV/AIDS Prevention and Communication
- Resource Mobilization
- Social Marketing
- Critical Influences and Events
- Cold War Rhetoric
- Exxon Valdez
- Hurricane Katrina
- Love Canal
- Mad Cow Disease (BSE)
- Three Mile Island
- Global and International Aspects
- Africa, Science in
- Australia, Science in
- Canada, Science Communication in
- East Asia, Science Communication in
- Europe, Research System in
- European Space Agency
- India, Science and Science Communication in
- Latin America, Science Communication in
- Mexico, Science Communication in
- National Development, Science and Technology in
- Government Agencies (U.S.)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
- Department of Agriculture, U.S.
- Department of Energy, U.S.
- Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.
- Food and Drug Administration, U.S.
- House Science Committee, U.S.
- National Academies, U.S.
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.
- National Institutes of Health, U.S.
- National Science Foundation, U.S.
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S.
- Office of Science and Technology Policy, U.S.
- Office of Technology Assessment, U.S.
- Public Health Service, U.S.
- Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S.
- Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S.
- Surgeon General, U.S.
- History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science
- Actor-Network Theory
- Deductive Logic
- Inductive Logic
- Invisible College
- Land Grant System, U.S.
- Logical Positivism
- Peer Review
- Postmodernism and Science
- Science and Politics [Page xiii]
- Science, Technology, and Society Studies
- Scientific Consensus
- Scientific Ethos
- Scientific Journal, History of
- Scientific Method
- Scientific Societies
- Technological Determinism
- Tenure System
- Two Cultures
- Understanding Expertise
- Visible Scientist
- Important Figures
- Asimov, Isaac
- Attenborough, David
- Carson, Rachel
- Carver, George Washington
- Clarke, Arthur C.
- Crick, Francis
- Darwin, Charles
- Dawkins, Richard
- Dewey, John
- Einstein, Albert
- Feynman, Richard
- Franklin, Benjamin
- Galilei, Galileo
- Gould, Stephen Jay
- Hawking, Stephen
- Kuhn, Thomas
- Latour, Bruno
- McClintock, Barbara
- Mead, Margaret
- Mendel, Gregor
- Merton, Robert K.
- Muir, John
- Nelkin, Dorothy
- Nye, Bill
- Oppenheimer, J. Robert
- Popper, Karl
- Sagan, Carl
- Snow, C. P.
- Teller, Edward
- Venter, J. Craig
- Watson, James D.
- Journal Publications
- Issues in Science and Technology
- Public Understanding of Science (Journal)
- Science and Engineering Ethics
- Science Communication
- Science, Technology, & Human Values
- Key Cases and Current Trends
- Agricultural Biotechnology
- Alternative Energy, Overview
- Architecture, Sustainable
- Astronomy, Public Communication of
- Avian Flu
- Bovine Somatotropin (BST or BGH)
- Fuel Cell Technology
- Gene Therapy
- Low-Level Radiation
- Nutrition and Media
- Obesity Epidemic
- Pandemics, Origins of
- Recombinant DNA
- Reproductive Medicine
- Satellites, Science of
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
- Solar Energy
- String Theory
- Synthetic Biology and Genomics
- Wind Power
- Law, Policy, Ethics, and Beliefs
- Big Science
- Bioethicists as Sources
- Censorship in Science
- Clean Air Act
- Clean Water Act
- Community “Right to Know”
- Conflicts of Interest in Science
- Embargo System
- Endangered Species Act
- Environmental Impact Statements [Page xiv]
- Environmental Justice
- Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI)
- Food Libel Laws
- Gene Patenting
- Institutional Review Board
- Nanotechnology, Regulation of
- Planetary Protection
- Precautionary Principle
- Religion, Science, and Media
- Research Ethics, Overview
- Risk Analysis
- Risks and Benefits
- Science Communication and Indigenous North America
- Social Justice
- Technology Assessment
- Toxic Substances Regulation
- Major Infrastructural Initiatives
- Hubble Space Telescope
- Human Genome Project
- Manhattan Project
- Particle Accelerators
- Space Program, Overview
- Space Shuttle
- Superconducting Super Collider
- Practices, Strategies, and Tools
- Effective Graphics
- Interviewing Scientists
- Metaphors in Science Communication
- Narrative in Science Communication
- Physician—Patient Communication
- Risk Communication, Overview
- Scientists as Sources
- Strategic Communication for Science and Technology
- Translational Research
- Visual Images in Science Communication
- Professional Roles and Careers
- Agricultural Journalism
- Beat Reporting
- Career Paths, Medical Writing/Medical Journalism
- Career Paths, Science/Environmental Journalism
- Crisis Communication
- Disaster Coverage
- Environmental Journalism
- Government Public Information
- Medical Journalism
- Public Relations and Science
- Scientist—Journalist Relations
- Social and Behavioral Science Reporting
- Technical Communication
- Weather Reporting
- Public Engagement Approaches
- Citizen Science
- Citizens Jury
- Consensus Conference
- Deliberative Democracy
- Deliberative Polling
- Public Engagement
- Science Café
- Town Hall Meetings
- Upstream Engagement
- Theory and Research
- Agenda Setting and Science
- Conversation and Science Communication
- Cultivation Theory and Science
- Deficit Model
- Diffusion of Innovations
- Digital Rhetoric and Science
- Discourse Analysis and Science
- Evaluation of Science Communication
- Framing and Priming in Science Communication
- Information Seeking and Processing
- Information Society
- Information Subsidies
- Opinion Leaders and Opinion Leadership
- Optimistic Bias
- Planned Behavior, Theory of
- Psychometric Paradigm
- Rhetoric of Medicine
- Rhetoric of Science
- Social Amplification of Risk Framework
- Social Epistemology
- Spiral of Silence and Science [Page xv]
- Third-Person Effect
- Uncertainty in Science Communication
- Venues and Channels
- Internet, History of
- Media Convergence
- Newspaper Science Pages
- Online Media and the Sciences
- Popular Science, Overview
- Science and the Giant Screen
- Science Centers and Science Museums
- Science Circus
- Science Documentaries
- Science Fiction
- Science in Advertising
- Science in Magazines
- Science in the Movies
- Science in Virtual Worlds
- Science Magazines
- Science on Radio
- Science Shops
- Science Theater
- Scientific Publishing, Overview
- Television Science [Page xvi]
About the Editor[Page xvii]
Susanna Hornig Priest is a professor of journalism and media studies at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. She has taught mass communication theory and research methods at the undergraduate and graduate levels since 1989. She holds a doctoral degree in communications from the University of Washington; a master's degree in sociology from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and a bachelor's degree in anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley. Her own research is centered on the role of science in American society and culture, its expression in the mass media, public engagement in science and science policy, and public opinion formation. She is also interested in the social roles of new media technologies.
Priest has served as a member of the Research and Publications committees of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication and as chair and research chair of the association's Science Communication Interest Group. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, past associate editor of the journal Public Understanding of Science, and current editor of the journal Science Commun ication. She regularly serves as an advisor to a wide range of academic projects, government agencies, and private organizations on communication, public engagement, and public opinion issues and reviews research submissions for a variety of academic organizations and scholarly journals. Her current research is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and other sources.
Her publications include more than 30 refereed research articles and nearly 20 book chapters, plus two books.[Page xviii]
Eric A. Abbott, Iowa State University
Len Ackland, University of Colorado at Boulder
Robert W. Adler, University of Utah
William Allen, University of Missouri
Joachim Allgaier, University of Vienna, Austria
Nick Allum, University of Essex, United Kingdom
David Amber, Freelance Science Writer
Jos Azevedo, Porto University, Portugal
Ayelet Baram-Tsabari, The Technion, Israel
Luca Tancredi Barone, Freelance Science Journalist
Deborah R. Bassett, University of Washington
Alice Bell, Imperial College, London
Stephen A. Banning, Bradley University
John C. Besley, University of South Carolina
Linda Billings, George Washington University
Susana Biro, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
Rick Borchelt, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Jason Borenstein, Georgia Institute of Technology
Frederic E. Bouder, King's College London
Bonnie Bressers, Kansas State University
S. Camille Broadway, University of Texas at Arlington
Dominique Brossard, University of WisconsinMadison
Joe Browder, Environmental Issues Consultant Washington, D.C.
Massimiano Bucchi, University of Trento, Italy
Estrella Burgos, National Autonomous University of Mexico Mexico City
Karen Burnham, University of Houston
William E. Burrows, New York University
Radford Byerly Jr., University of Colorado
Archie Carr III, Wildlife Conservation Society
Christian F. Casper, North Carolina State University
Leah Ceccarelli, University of Washington
Bobby Cerini, Australian National University
David Chittenden, Science Museum of Minnesota
Rochelle Christian, Australian National University
Michel Claessens, European Commission
Karina Clement, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia
Cynthia-Lou Coleman, Portland State University
Peter Collins, The Royal Society
Colleen ConnollyAhern, Pennsylvania State University
Julia B. Corbett, University of Utah
James Cornell, International Science Writers Association
Susan E. Cozzens, Georgia Institute of Technology[Page xx]
Lisa Craypo, Samuels and Associates
Ned Crosby, Promoting Healthy Democracy, Minneapolis
Urs Dahinden, University of Applied Sciences HTW Chur, Switzerland
Tinsley Davis, National Association of Science Writers
James W. Dearing, Kaiser Permanente Colorado
M. Robin DiMatteo, University of California, Riverside
Alistair S. Duff, Napier University, United Kingdom
Sonya Forte Duh, University of South Carolina
Sharon Dunwoody, University of Wisconsin Madison
John Durant, MIT Museum
Edna F. Einsiedel, University of Calgary
Gerald L. Epstein, OTA, the Office of Technology Assessment Alumni Network
Larry E. Erickson, Kansas State University
William Evans, University of Alabama
Declan Fahy, Dublin City University, Republic of Ireland
Steven L. Fales, Iowa State University
Andrea Feldpausch, Texas A&M University
Martina Franzen, University of Bielefeld, Germany
Lynn J. Frewer, University of Wageningen, the Netherlands
Sharon M. Friedman, Lehigh University
Lynne Timpani Friedmann, Friedmann Communications
Steve Fuller, University of Warwick, United Kingdom
Miguel Garca-Sancho, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Michele S. Garfinkel, J. Craig Venter Institute
Barbara Gastel, Texas A&M University
Ellen J. Gerl, Ohio University
Joye C. Gordon, Kansas State University
Hannah Grankvist, Linkping University, Sweden
Clair Grant-Salmon, http://SciDev.Net
Ted Greenhalgh, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Robert J. Griffin, Marquette University
Joshua Grimm, Texas Tech University
Jacob Groshek, Iowa State University
Alan G. Gross, University of Minnesota
Karl Grossman, SUNY College at Old Westbury
James A. Guikema, Kansas State University
William Kinglsey Hallman, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Megan K. Halpern, Cornell University
Joseph E. Harmon, Argonne National Laboratory
Gavin D. J. Harper, Cardiff University
Lisa M. Butler Harrington, Kansas State University
Claire Harris, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia
Kelly B. Haskard, Texas State University, San Marcos
J. Scott Hauger, Techn
Robert L. Heath, University of Houston
David Henry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Susana Herrera Lima, ITESO, Guadalajara, Mexico
Heidi Lee Hoerman, University of South Carolina
Richard Holliman, The Open University, United Kingdom
Julie Homchick, University of Washington
Yue Hu, George Mason University
Jerry L. Hudgins, University of NebraskaLincoln[Page xxi]
Lee Humphreys, Cornell University
H. Scott Hurd, Iowa State University
Deborah L. Illman, University of Washington
Jann Ingmire, JAMA & Archives Journals
Gerald Jaax, Kansas State University
Lela Jacobsohn, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Branden Johnson, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
Richard Johnson-Sheehan, Purdue University
Karyn Ogata Jones, Clemson University
Marina Joubert, Southern Science
LeeAnn Kahlor, University of Texas
Aries Keck, Loki Studios
William Keith, University of WisconsinMilwaukee
Lisa Kernen, University of Colorado at Boulder
Vincent Kiernan, Georgetown University
William J. Kinsella, North Carolina State University
Jan Knight, Columnist, SEJournal
Henry Ko, Monash University, Australia
Van Kornegay, University of South Carolina
Bill Kovarik, Radford University
Marjorie Kruvand, Loyola University Chicago
Kate Ksobiech, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Jennifer Kuzma, University of Minnesota
Sally Lawrence, Samuels and Associates
Joan Leach, University of Queensland, Australia
Suman M. Lee, Iowa State University
Bruce V. Lewenstein, Cornell University
Ragnar E. Lfstedt, King's College London
Robert A. Logan, University of Missouri (Emeritus)
Nancy Longnecker, University of Western Australia
Jose A. Magpantay, University of the Philippines
Edward W. Maibach, George Mason University
Lesa Hatley Major, Indiana University Bloomington
Alejandro Manrique, Freelance Science Writer
Jessica Marshall, University of Minnesota
Lucia Martinelli, Istituto Agrario di san Michele all'Adige, Italy
Luisa Massarani, Museum of Life, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Katherine A. McComas, Cornell University
Alan H. McGowan, The New School, New York
Merryn McKinnon, The Australian National University
Mike McRae, Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia
Jennifer Medlock, University of Calgary, Canada
Michael D. Mehta, Thompson Rivers University, Canada
Felicity Mellor, Imperial College London
Matteo Merzagora, TRACES (Thories et Rflexions sur l'Apprendre la Communication et l'Education Scientifiques) Paris
Howard W. Mielke, Tulane University
Ellen Mika, OTA, the Office of Technology Assessment Alumni Network
Carolyn R. Miller, North Carolina State University
Jon D. Miller, Michigan State University
Steve Miller, University College London
Tiago Moreira, Durham University[Page xxii]
Patricia Moy, University of Washington
Henk A.J. Mulder, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Lawrence Mullen, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Jessica Nash, Youngstown State University
Chandra Mohan Nautiyal, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, India
Kathryn A. Neeley, University of Virginia
Kurt Neuwirth, University of Cincinnati
Jeff Niederdeppe, Cornell University
Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen, Aarhus University, Denmark
Matthew C. Nisbet, American University
Mary Nucci, Rutgers University
Garrett J. O'Keefe, Colorado State University
Cristina Olivotto, European Space Agency
William P. Palmer, Curtin University of Technology
Shobita Parthasarathy, University of Michigan
Manoj Patairiya, National Council for Science & Technology Communication
Amy R. Pearce, Arkansas State University
Greg Pearson, National Academy of Engineering
Joseph N. Pelton, Arthur C. Clarke Foundation
Nria Prez-Prez, University of Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
Hans Peter Peters, Forschungszentrum Jlich, Germany
Tarla Rai Peterson, Texas A&M University
Nick Pidgeon, Cardiff University
Jrme Pierrel, Universit de Bordeaux, France
Diego Pineda, Immunizations for Public Health
Andrew Pleasant, Rutgers University and Canyon Ranch Institute, Tucson
Gail Porter, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Maria Powell, University of Wisconsin Madison
Susanna Hornig Priest, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute
William Ramsey, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Carol Reeves, Butler University
Chubo Ren, Washington State University
William D. Rifkin, University of New South Wales, Australia
Anthony J. Roberto, Arizona State University
Simone Rdder, University of Bielefeld, Germany
Michael Rodemeyer, University of Virginia
Lulu Rodriguez, Iowa State University
Tee Rogers-Hayden, University of East Anglia
Aldemaro Romero, Arkansas State University
Connie Roser-Renouf, George Mason University
Melanie Fridl Ross, University of Florida
Steven S. Ross, Corporate Editor, Broadband Properties Magazine
Katherine E. Rowan, George Mason University
Cristine Russell, Council for the Advancement of Science Writing
Jacinta Sagona, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia
Sergei A. Samoilenko, Kansas State University
Sarah Samuels, Samuels and Associates
Peter M. Sandman, Risk Communication Consultant
Dietram A. Scheufele, University of Wisconsin
Steven Selden, University of Maryland
P. Simran Sethi, University of Kansas
James Shanahan, Boston University
Jae-Hwa Shin, University of Southern Mississippi[Page xxiii]
Michael Siegrist, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Helena Silverstein, Lafayette College
Janas Sinclair, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Cobi Smith, Australian National University
Kim Smith, North Carolina A&T State University
Brian G. Southwell, University of Minnesota
Richard A. Stein, Princeton University
Jocelyn Steinke, Western Michigan University
S. Holly Stocking, Indiana University
Daniel Stout, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Kristen Alley Swain, University of Mississippi
Dafna Tachover, Law Offices of Dafna Tachover, Princeton Junction, New Jersey
Karen Taylor, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Ricky Telg, University of Florida
Toby A. Ten Eyck, Michigan State University
Paul B. Thompson, Michigan State University
Stephen Thornton, University of Limerick, Ireland
Denise Tillery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Natalie Tindall, University of Oklahoma
Simon Torok, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia
Chris Toumey, University of South Carolina
Mark Tucker, Purdue University
Tari Turner, Monash University, Australia
Rae Tyson, Former USA TODAY, Environment Editor
Sheldon B. Ungar, University of Toronto Scarborough
JoAnn Myer Valenti, Tampa, Florida, (Emerita Professor)
Shari R. Veil, University of Oklahoma
Vivianne H. M. Visschers, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Alana M. Vivolo, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Caroline S. Wagner, SRI International and George Washington University
Paul Walker, Murray State University
Sherrie Flynt Wallington, Harvard University
Bud Ward, Editor, The Yale Forum on Climate Change & the Media
Eric Thomas Weber, University of Mississippi
Thomas M. Welch, Iowa Department of Transportation
Catherine Westfall, Michigan State University
Bryan B. Whaley, University of San Francisco
Summer L. Williams, Westfield State College
Amelia A. Williamson, Freelance Science Writer
Kris Wilson, Emory University
Kim Witte, Michigan State University
Qingjiang Yao, University of Iowa
Chance York, Kansas State University
Tanya Zanish-Belcher, Iowa State University
Xiaoquan Zhao, George Mason University[Page xxiv]
Introduction[Page xxv]Science Communication as an Interdisciplinary Field
In the academic world, the term science communication refers both to a set of professions (such as science journalism and public information work) and to an interdisciplinary scholarly research specialization. Much of this research is aimed at improving our understanding of the best ways to communicate complex information, especially to people who are not scientists. Science communication specialists are concerned with giving people useful information about health, environment, and technologyas well as science itself. In order to do this, we also need to improve our understanding of how people think, form opinions, and process information. We need to identify the best ways to provide the information people actually want and need to know. And we need to understand some very complex issues, involving both the actual science behind both public opinion and the news and the ethical, environmental, and other policy issues it may raise.
Most people who are science communication scholars use the tools and techniques of social and behavioral science or the humanities to analyze messages and arguments and to assess their influence. Like other communication scholars, they are also concerned with the relationship between access to information and better decision making in a democratic society. They may analyze the ethical and policy issues associated with information access and information distribution, such as the relationship between information and power. While studies designed to make messages more effective are often described as instrumental, meaning directed toward a narrow practical purpose in order to make things function more smoothly, science communication research can also be critical, meaning directed more generally toward the analysis of conflicts and problems in society, such as an unfair distribution of power or influence. Issues in science communication often involve areas beyond the science itself, such as research ethics or environmental justice.
In order to ask and answer research questions in these areas, science communication scholars are generally trained in a social science discipline such as communication studies, media studies, sociology, or political science, or in a closely allied humanities field, such as philosophy or rhetoric. Practicing science communicators may be trained in one of these fields or in the professional side of journalism or public relations; they may also be scientists who have decided it is important to devote part or all of their careers to communication activities. As a result, the field is broadly interdisciplinary, which makes it all the more interesting.Media Theory and Research About Science Communication
Like other communication scholars, science communication scholars generally rely on media theory to understand the influence of media messages or other media content. They take concepts such as agenda setting and cultivation, often derived from studies in political communication or from media effects work, and then apply them to science communication problems and cases. They use typical social and behavioral science research methods such as surveys, experiments, focus groups, interviews, and observations to improve our knowledge in this area. They may also analyze the rhetoric of messages or study their ethical and political implications. Case study research may focus on important historical events, such as the near nuclear disaster at Three Mile Island, for the lessons they may provide. Another group of science communication scholars looks at the history of science [Page xxvi]communication and science journalism, including the efforts by well-known scientists to draw public attention to their findings.
Sometimes work originating in social sciences other than communication is directly relevant to the field, such as sociological studies of the nature of social movements. For example, theory and research derived from the study of social movements, such as resource mobilization theory or actor network theory, helps us to understand how the environmental movement came into being, as well as how more recent and more specific movements concerned with chemicals, food additives, or technologies thought to be harmful arise. Theory and research derived from the study of political and advertising campaigns helps us to understand how to design campaigns in public health, such as the promotion of vaccination or smoking cessation or the avoidance of exposure to HIV/AIDS or food-borne illnesses. This literature is also used in the design of campaigns (both pro and con) surrounding the adoption of controversial science or technology, such as stem cell research or nuclear power generation.
One specialized area of theory and research that is largely unique to science communication is the area of risk communication. People often have trouble understanding information expressed in probabilities, yet they are generally very aware that almost all new technologies have risks as well as benefits. Weighing the risks against the benefits of a new technology is at least as much a matter of applying social values as it is a matter of numerical calculation, but it is still important to know how to help people start with solid scientific information where it is available. Knowing the social psychology of how people react to information about risk expressed in probabilities can facilitate the achievement of this goal.Professional Practice in Science Communication
Alongside these important issues in scholarship are equally important issues having to do with questions that are of primary interest to professional practitioners in science communication, rather than scholars. These involve both strategic and ethical decisions, sometimes closely connected to the concerns and insights of scholars and sometimes not. For example, how should reporters cover the issue of climate change? Should the views of scientists who do not believe that climate change has been caused by human activity be included alongside the views of those who do, in order to give a balanced story, or does this mislead the public into thinking that both of these positions are equally accepted within the scientific community? Should the opinions of maverick scientists promoting unpopular theories be publicizedafter all, it may sometimes turn out they are rightor should only widely accepted science that has already been published by peer-reviewed journals be reported as news? Scholars study these issues, but it is members of the professional community who must decide what to do.
A few scientific journals will not allow scientific results to be discussed in public and reported before the review process is complete and the journal issue has been published. This helps avoid the problem of untested results receiving wide publicity, especially important if it may persuade someone to change their diet, medical treatment, or behavior in some way that could turn out to damage their health (or at least their pocketbook). But it also slows down the process through which new findings will reach the public and diminishes the transparency of science. Insights into these sorts of professional and policy dilemmas may come from science communication scholarship, but in the end these policy decisions cannot usually be resolved by research.
Some critics have argued that science and environmental journalists should let scientists review their stories prior to publication, or even that these journalists should be licensed to practice their trade, but to others these proposals seem inconsistent with freedom of the press. On the other hand, there is increasing pressure on weather reporters to have at least some training in the science of meteorology. Should science journalists, in general, have scientific training? Or is this a conflict of interest because it might make them less likely to lean toward one side in situations where science can become controversial? It is quite natural for those with scientific education to feel positive about most scientific advances; does this make them better journalists because they are sympathetic, or less adequate ones because they are less able to be critical?[Page xxvii]
Those practicing science communication are not just science journalists, however. Physicians, nurses, and other medical professionals who wish to communicate better with their patients on an interpersonal basis are also science communicators. So are public information specialists working for government, public relations specialists working for universities or science-oriented corporations, and environmental advocates working for nonprofit nongovernmental organizations. As traditional newsgathering organizations around the globe undergo economic restructuring, our societies continue to have economies and ways of life that are highly dependent on science and technology, the range of science communication professions is likely to increase in ways presently not fully imagined. A global call for increased public engagement in science and science policy has also expanded our thinking about the best ways to practice science communication.
Making good use of scientists as sources and scientific information as a resource in professional work takes special skills. A bewildering maze of government agencies, as well as universities and research institutions, are in the business of providing this informationand like other types of sources, these organizations often have agendas of their own they are trying to promote. Around the world, the state of science development varies tremendously, and different policy approaches to governing science, technology, and associated risks are in place. These development and policy differences can be important things to understand in analyzing international trends and issues involving science. The science itself can also be daunting, alongside its ethical and legal implications and the social and policy issues it forces us to confront.What This Encyclopedia Offers
This encyclopedia tries to provide as much information as possible on this entire range of interrelated issues in one place. While much of this information may have been published elsewhere, it is scattered across many different parts of the library, from science, engineering, and medicine to the social and behavior sciences and humanities to the professional fields of journalism and public relations. It is the goal of this encyclopedia to make as much information as possible available in a single source, with clear pointers suggesting where to begin the search for more.
Users of this volume will include undergraduate and graduate students in journalism (including those in specialized courses in science journalism and environmental journalism, but also those in general journalism courses) who have been assigned a story or other project on a science-related topic; communication, mass communication, and media studies students at any level who are writing a term paper or designing a research project and are interested in finding out more about this interdisciplinary field; and working journalists, public infor mation officers, and public relations specialists who may or may not be science specialistsor who may be just starting out in the fieldand are looking for quick information and guidance available in a single place.
Entries range from those illustrating the application of media theory and research to problems in science, technology, environment, and health; to case studies of controversial issues in science and technology and biographies of well-known scientist-communicators; to studies of how science journalism is actually done and the problems it faces; and to guidance on using scientific sources, plus helpful descriptions of the missions and structure of prominent science-related agencies and organizations (especially those in the United States, although entries are also included that discuss the state of science and science communication in Africa, Australia, Canada, East Asia, Europe, India, Latin America, and Mexico). By putting this unique collection of science communication material together in a single place, it is my hope that the field will be advanced and that newcomers to it will start to find their way around it with somewhat less difficulty.
Interdisciplinary fields are inherently challenging, but also inherently interesting. Problems of communication across disciplinary boundaries are substantial, but also quite fascinating, in part because they tend to cause us to question our assumptions about the natural order of things. I hope that users of this collection will rise to the challengesand learn to relish the complexities and nuances of those challenges.
Appendix A: Science Communication Programs[Page 949]
This appendix is designed for individuals seeking college- or university-based academic courses or programs in science journalism, science writing, or science communication areas, including health and environment. It is divided into two sections: a guide to U.S. programs, which includes updated information compiled by Professor Sharon Dunwoody at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (used with permission) and a guide to selected international programs. The international listing emphasizes programs taught at least partially in English and should be considered a starting point only, as it is less comprehensive. For a more inclusive list of programs available in Europe specifically, some readers may also wish to consult the European Guide to Science Journalism Training, published by the European Commission (http://ec.europa.eu/research/conferences/2007/bcn2007/guide_to_sciencejournalismen.pdf).Guide to U.S. Programs
Arizona State University (Course)
Walter Cronkite School of Journalism & Mass Communication BA/MA
JMC 445/HON 494 is available for both graduate and honors-college credit. It fulfills the major-emphasis elective requirement in the Cronkite School. Students write several 500-word stories that can come out of many science disciplines, concluding with a major in-depth piece or series relating to the health and medical sciences. Students aim to have their work selected as part of a professionally produced and hosted Web site exploring health and medical issues, aimed at public audiences.
Boston University (Program; Massachusetts)
College of Communication MS
Boston University's graduate program runs for three semesters, with a paid professional summer internship, and leads to a master's of science degree. The university states that it has no “ideal” incoming student. Successful applicants range from PhDs in quantitative disciplines to English majors with a demonstrated interest in science, to professional journalists who want to jump-start a career in science reporting, editing, or production. In addition to courses on site, students are encouraged to take courses at several neighboring institutions in the Boston–Cambridge area.
Ellen Ruppel Shell[Page 950]
Chapman University (Program; California)
Schmid College of Science MS
Chapman University's master's of science in health communication is a 1-year accelerated graduate program. Through extensive research and theory, candidates develop the knowledge and communication skills to pursue careers as teachers, researchers, and policy experts in academia, government, nonprofit, or private organizations. Courses are designed to educate students in human communication theory and methodology and to evaluate important communication topics such as delivering upsetting news, the accuracy of the media, the digital divide, public advocacy, intercultural sensitivity, health literacy, and the quality of interpersonal relationships.
Cleveland State University (Sequence; Ohio)
School of Communication BA
The science writing certificate in the School of Communication provides undergraduates and professionals the opportunity to develop specialized knowledge in media writing, science reporting, the scientific method, and contemporary science. Students attend courses in the School of Com munication and the College of Science and are expected to attain a working knowledge of conte mporary scientific concepts and methodological app roaches. Those earning the certificate gain the tools necessary to explain interesting and complex ideas to a general audience.
Colorado State University (Program)
Department of Journalism and Technical Communication BA/MS/PhD
The BA in technical journalism program has been nationally accredited since 1972. Departmental concentrations include computer-mediated com-mu nication, news-editorial journalism, television news and video communication, public relations, and specialized-technical communication. Each concen tration has its own requirements, and students are encouraged to integrate courses across concen trations for greater breadth. Students also parti cipate in a well-structured internship program with professional media organizations.
Ananda Luttet (BA)
Norma Tamez (MS/PhD)
Columbia University (Program; New York)
Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences & Graduate School of Journalism MA/MS
Columbia University offers a dual master's degree program in earth and environmental science journalism. Students come first to the Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences for a total immersion experience in science. They take classes alongside students who are on track to become the leading environmental scientists of their generation and complete a science research project, while constantly practicing the skills of finding and developing science-rich story ideas. Then they move down to the journalism school for a total immersion experience in journalism. They complete the professional MS program in journalism, including a journalistic master's project on a science or environmental topic and the legendary reporting and writing courses. At the end of the 21-month program, graduates receive two master's degrees, one in earth and environmental sciences and one in journalism.
Cornell University (Program; New York)[Page 951]
Department of Communication BS/MS/PhD
Cornell's Department of Communication is located in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences—a world center for genetic research, community sociology, applied business and economics, biotechnology, and numerous other specialties that advance vital scientific and sustainability issues. The department has an established record of interdisciplinary collaborations across the university, and students are encouraged to take courses in other departments to complement their course-work in communication.
George Mason University (Program; Virginia)
Department of Communication
The Department of Communication at George Mason University offers a broad undergraduate BA program in communication that includes courses in health, risk, and science communication; a 33-credit MA degree in the study and practice of health, risk, and crisis communication; and a 60-credit PhD degree in the study of health and strategic com munication. These programs provide students with a strong theoretical and multimethodological foundation to examine the role of communication in health promotion, disease prevention, quality of care, risk assessment, and crisis management. Faculty and students conduct research concerning consumer–provider relationships, organizational communication, media systems, health campaigns, new information technologies, communication policy, and health communication interventions.
Humboldt State University (Course; California)
Journalism and Mass Communication Department BA
This course offers an opportunity at the upper-division level to conduct in-depth reporting of current science and environmental topics.
Indiana University (Program)
School of Journalism/School of Public and Environmental Affairs MA/PhD
Master's of arts in journalism (MA) with an emphasis on science writing: This is a general MA program, but students with interests in science writing (including, but not limited to, health and environmental writing) can elect to take a science writing workshop and seminar and up to three science courses outside the school, including a course in risk communication. The MA prepares students to work for newspapers, magazines, and online news media and to do public relations work for nonprofits. This degree, the master's of arts in journalism and master's of science in environmental science (MA in journalism, MSES), is a joint degree program that addresses the demands of information specialists who combine environmental science with reporting and writing.
Lesa Hatley Major
Iowa State University (Program)
Greenlee School of Journalism and Communication BS/MS
The Greenlee School science, technology, and risk communication program prepares undergraduate students to combine expertise in science and/or technology with expertise in the following areas of mass communication: print (newspaper and magazine), electronic media (broadcast, cable, and new media), public relations, visual communication, and advertising. The general objective of the master's of science program is to prepare individuals to become leading researchers, educators, communication strategists, and practitioners in the field of science, technology, and risk communication.[Page 952]
Thomas Beell (Undergraduate)
Eric Abbott (Graduate)
Johns Hopkins University (Program; Maryland and District of Columbia)
Master of Arts in Writing Program, Advanced Academic Programs, Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences MA
In this nine-course program, students write in a variety of forms, including feature, explanatory, narrative, essay, memoir, profile, and analysis to produce articles for magazines or newspapers, columns or book chapters. Course requirements include a final thesis that is created from revisions of previous program writing. Students new to writing take two or three core courses that provide a foundation in writing, three workshops to create a body of work, two or three electives, and the final thesis course. Working writers may waive the foundation courses and take additional elec-tives or workshops or an independent study.
Lehigh University (Program; Pennsylvania)
Department of Journalism and Communication BA
The Science and Environmental Writing Program offers an undergraduate major for students who want to write about science, the environment, medicine, health, technology, and engineering for audiences varying from the general public to scientists and engineers. In addition to learning how to write about these fields, students can gain knowledge and experience in media analysis, research, and risk communication. The major requires four science and environmental writing courses, four general journalism courses, a senior-year internship, work on the student newspaper, and four courses in science. A minor in science and environmental writing is available.
Sharon M. Friedman
Loyola University New Orleans (Program; Louisiana)
School of Mass Communication (Center for Environmental Communication) BA
The Loyola University New Orleans program focuses on the following elements of environmental issues: (a) understanding the science, (b) learning research techniques, (c) the importance of context, (d) recognizing issues' many components (science, politics, social and justice concerns, engineering, emotion, etc.), (e) fairness in communication, and (f) the many agendas that drive environmental issues.
Robert A. Thomas
Marquette University (Program; Wisconsin)
Diederich College of Communication MA
The communication about health, environment, science, and sustainability specialization is a formal part of an MA program in a diverse college that includes graduate offerings in departments in journalism, advertising and public relations, broadcast and electronic communication, and communication and rhetorical studies. The spe cia-lization and overall master's degree provide students with the theory, research, and fundamental professional knowledge needed to (a) understand the processes, roles, and effects of communicating about science, health, and the environment interper-sonally in organizations and in society and (b) to apply this understanding to the task of communicating technical, specialized information to a variety of audiences, especially nonexpert, lay audiences.[Page 953]
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Program) Graduate Program in Science Writing, Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies MS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Graduate Program in Science Writing runs for 1 year, awarding a master's of science degree. It is a “big tent” program, teaching science writing across genres, from journalism to creative nonfiction, to science television. Throughout, the program emphasizes science writing as a literary skill, one in which the aesthetics of expression—language, structure, style—matter deeply. There is no “ideal” incoming student. Successful applicants range from PhD candidates in quantitative disciplines to English majors with an amateur's love of science—and many in between. What matters is their love of writing combined with passion for the story of science.
Miami University of Ohio (Program)
English Department BA
The bachelor's of arts in technical and scientific communication teaches general skills in writing and designing print and electronic communications. The program requires a technical or scientific specialty: Students may choose from environmental science, computer science, or medical-health sciences. Students fulfill this requirement by taking courses in other departments. Core courses include basic technical-scientific writing, visual rhetoric, editing, reports and proposals, documentation and usability, and a capstone (practicum). An internship is possible, but is not required.
Michigan State University (Program)
Knight Center for Environmental Journalism BA/MA/PhD
Michigan State University's program offers a comprehensive program in environmental, science, health, and medical journalism. Courses are offered on the undergraduate level, at the master's degree level, and at the PhD level. Among the courses are environmental reporting, science and medical writing, nature writing, computer-assisted reporting, investigative environmental reporting, environmental filmmaking, environmental reporting for broadcast, wilderness writing, and other topics. Michigan State University also offers specialized workshops for professional journalists on computer-assisted reporting, nature photography, reporting about Great Lakes environmental issues, land-use reporting, and other topics.
Barb Miller firstname.lastname@example.org
New York University (Program)
Department of Journalism, Science, Health and Environmental Reporting Program MA
Founded in 1982, New York University's Science, Health and Environmental Reporting Program is one of the oldest and most selective programs of its kind. Its more than 300 alumni are a “who's who” of leading science, environmental, and health journalists in the United States and around the world, including reporters for major newspapers, magazines, and broadcast networks as well as freelancers. A growing number of recent graduates also work in the online world. The small group (typically 15) of admitted students undertakes a cohesive and customized 16-month curriculum (44 credits), including courses in print and multimedia reporting, journalism ethics, current topics in science journalism, science literacy and numeracy, and advanced science reporting, medical reporting, and environmental reporting.[Page 954]
Daniel R. Fagin
Northern Arizona University (Program)
School of Communication BS
The environmental communication program at Northern Arizona University features various channels for communicating about environmental issues, including all mass media channels, such as reporting for newspapers, radio and television, and various community involvement channels, such as focus groups, workshops, public comment venues, and so on. In addition, this program has a course that uniquely focuses on environmental messages in music, visual art, and literature. In addition, the capstone course emphasizes in-depth interpretive research and writing for consumer publications.
Lea Jane Parker
The Ohio State University (Program)
School of Communication BA/PhD
The following courses can be elected in any of these areas: Risk Communication: Students learn how to plan a risk communication effort, how to put it into action, and how to evaluate this effort. Health Communication: Students study the relationship between health care and communication. Health Communication in Interpersonal Contexts, Health Communication in Mass Mediated Contexts, Communication and e-Health: Students focus on the current and future uses of technology in health communication, with an emphasis on technology in both patient–provider relationships and health campaigns. Science Communication: Students explore the structure, meanings, and implications of science communication, with an emphasis on how values, attitudes, social structure, and communication affect public perceptions of science and technology.
Carroll J. Glynn
Ohio University (Program)
School of Communication Studies BS/MA/PhD
The health communication track at Ohio University is broad based and allows students the opportunity to study any number of topics ranging from interpersonal aspects of health care (doctor–patient communication, social support, etc.) to mass mediated campaign messages and cultural aspects of health. The school is oriented more toward human communication, both from a humanistic and social-scientific approach, depending on interests. Ohio University is not a mass communication program, although some of its students do study mediated persuasive messages.
Penn State University (Program; Pennsylvania)
Communication Arts & Sciences BA/MA/PhD
Penn State University has a leading program in communication arts and sciences emphasizing both humanistic and social scientific approaches. In addition to multiple types of rhetorical studies, the following communication science programs are available: Interpersonal Communication: Parent–Child Communication, Lifespan Communication, Family Dynamics, Divorce and Family Communication Systems, At-Risk Behavior in Intimate Relationships, Dialectics of Disclosure and Avoidance, Uncertainty and Information Management; Intercultural Communication: Intergroup Commu nication, Ethnicity and Identity, Inter national Commu nication, Ethnicity and Health; Health Communication: Social Influence, Health Campaigns, Doctor–Patient Communication, Organi zational Commu nication in Health Care Settings, Health Message Design. Penn State University also offers [Page 955]training in small-group communication and decision making and organi zational communication.
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey (Course)
School of Communication & Information BA
This course, which is offered every semester, is for upper-level journalism students who have completed basic writing and reporting courses. The course introduces students to writing about science, health, and medicine; although primarily focused on print, it does discuss writing for television, radio, Internet blogging, and alternate media markets (film, museums, etc).
732 932-7500, ext. 8150
Skidmore College (Course; New York)
English Department BA/BS
Students practice skills needed to write and report on environmental stories. They critique and learn from the work of other environmental journalists and each other. Assignments include a weekly discussion of current environmental news, several short writing assignments, and one major project.
Stevens Institute of Technology (Sequence; New Jersey)
Center for Science Writings
The institute hired veteran science journalist John Horgan in 2005 to teach courses for students who are training to be scientists, engineers, and physicians and who want to supplement their careers by writing books, articles, reviews, opinion pieces, essays, and so on.
Texas A&M University (Program)
College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences MS
The program seeks to prepare graduates solidly grounded in both science journalism and science. Thus, each student completes graduate courses in both realms. Students take three required courses in science and technology journalism, electives in science journalism or related fields, and any of a wide range of science courses from throughout the university. The program is small and highly individualized, with each student's choice of courses geared to his or her interests and goals. Students usually pursue an internship track. A thesis track also is available. Although the program serves primarily graduate students, it can accommodate undergraduate interests and mid-career training on an individualized basis.
University of Alaska–Fairbanks (Course)
The course name sums it up well: Science Writing for Magazines and Newspapers. Students choose their own subjects (with guidance from the instructor), and any subject may be considered as long as it (a) includes science of some sort and (b) has a reasonable chance of meeting the needs of a specific publication aimed at a popular audience.
Brian O'Donaghue[Page 956]
University of California, Santa Cruz (Program)
Division of Physical and Biological Sciences Graduate Certificate
The science writing program at University of California, Santa Cruz is a stand-alone, 1-year graduate certificate program. It is intended for scientists who wish to alter their career paths toward science writing, not for existing journalists who wish to specialize. The focus is on cogent news and feature reporting and narrative storytelling for newspapers, magazines, and the Web. Public information writing is a secondary focus available through mentored internships. Internships are central to the program; all students must complete part-time reporting and writing internships during the first two of their three academic quarters.
University of Colorado at Boulder (Program)
Center for Environmental Journalism, School of Journalism and Mass Communication MA/PhD
In collaboration with the university's interdisciplinary graduate certificate program in environmental policy and society, the School of Journalism and Mass Communication offers students the opportunity to earn a master's degree in journalism with an emphasis in environmental journalism. This emphasis requires completion of the certificate in environmental policy. It takes about 1.5 to 2 years to complete the degree and the certificate, depending on whether the mass communication research or newsgathering option is chosen. To qualify for the certificate, students must complete at least 18 hours of coursework from the more than 40 courses in environmental policy and science offered as part of University of Colorado at Boulder's environmental policy program, including two capstone seminars.
University of Florida (Program)
College of Journalism and Communications BA/MA/PhD
University of Florida's program is open not only to journalists who want to specialize in covering science and health, but also to people planning to work as public affairs or public information officers for science and health organizations, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration, for other com munication specialists and for scientists who need to be able to communicate with the public about their work.
University of Georgia (Program)
Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication MA
Grady College's graduate program not only prepares students to write and produce powerful stories about health and medical issues for any audience, but also gives them a sophisticated understanding of how health inequities arise. The core courses in this 2-year, nonthesis MA concentration emphasize specialized professional training and mass communication research. Areas of concentration offerings examine ties between media and public health; Grady electives enable students to hone specific media skills. Students pursue individual passions and career goals by choosing three cognate courses offered by other University of Georgia schools and colleges.
University of Houston (Program; Texas)
Jack J. Valenti School of Communication BA/MA
Students in health communication will develop and acquire knowledge and skills essential to becoming [Page 957]more effective health care consumers and advocates as well as learn the fundamentals of health campaign planning, implementation, and evaluation. Research, theory, and practical application are combined to help students develop communication strategies associated with positive health outcomes and successful negotiation of the health care system. Students interested in specializing in health care delivery issues will complete coursework across a wide range of health care situations focusing on interpersonal, group, organizational, cultural, and computer-mediated levels of analysis. Students interested in specializing in public health promotion will complete coursework across a wide range of health care contexts focusing on the role of gender, media, tailored messages, and e-health in building, delivering, and evaluating mediated health campaigns to promote health and behavior change.
University of Iowa (Course)
School of Journalism and Mass Communication BA/MA/PhD
The goal of this course is to examine the potential and limits of mass media in educating the public and, where possible, in promoting health campaign goals. Students examine research and theory dealing with health-behavior effects of both information and entertainment mass media. Students look at how theories, models, and assump tions of mass communication relate to effects on public health and public health issues. In doing so, structural components of the mass media will be discussed as means of framing or limiting the students' understanding of health through news, entertainment, and advertising content.
University of Kansas (Program)
William Allen White School of Journalism and Mass Communications BS/MS
This program has converged curriculum so that students take in common two introductory courses, plus ethics and First Amendment courses. Writing courses in each of the two tracks, news and strategic communications, are cross-platform for print (news and magazine), online, and television. The undergra duate students choose to complete the major in news or strategic communications. For news students, their work in science-environmental communications will be an elective in their reporting-writing major courses and are cross-listed with the Environmental Studies Department. Strategic communications students may focus on social marketing; capstone class includes developing a comprehensive, research-based commu nication plan for a real client.
University of Minnesota (Program)
School of Journalism and Mass Communication MA
The master's of arts in health journalism is an innovative program that combines two fields: journalism and public health. The program is aimed at professionals with backgrounds either in journalism or in public health, medicine, or science. Students who enter the program with a background in journalism learn the fundamentals of public health and medical research through such courses as epidemiology, biostatistics, and environmental health. Students who enter the program with a health background learn basic principles of journalism and communication, through courses on advanced reporting and media ethics.
Heather Meyers Larson
University of Nebraska–Lincoln (Course)
College of Journalism and Mass Communications
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln science writing course prepares students in journalism, [Page 958]science, and engineering for success in careers where com municating clearly about science and technology is an essential skill. This rigorous, 3-hour course, which began in the fall of 2004, is an elective open to upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in all majors.
University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Course)
Hank Greenspun School of Journalism & Media Studies MA
A graduate-level course titled Science and Health Communication investigates the application of communication theory and research to understanding processes through which information related to science, health, environment, and technology reaches the public. Emphasis is on mediated communication, but it also considers the interrelated roles of other channels. An undergraduate special topics course on science journalism is also taught on an occasional basis.
University of Nevada, Reno (Program)
Reynolds School of Journalism MA
This is a three-semester master's program that focuses on using new media tools to engage publics in issues related to the environment. Students study the environment through collaboration with scientists and policy analysts in the university's Academy for the Environment and then apply their knowledge of environmental issues by using alternative forms of storytelling including interactive narrative, computer games, and social media.
University of New Mexico (Course)
Department of English Language and Literature BA/MA/PhD
The University of New Mexico has a single course, English 413/513 Science, Environmental, and Medical Writing that relates directly to this topic. The course is offered once a year, recently by a part-time instructor with professional experience and continuing ties to the professional nonacademic communities associated with these topics. The course is part of the university's undergraduate program in professional writing (both the major and minor concentrations) and our MA and PhD programs in rhetoric and writing.
Scott P. Sanders
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Program)
School of Journalism & Mass Communication MA
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill program offers a 2-year postgraduate course of study in medical and science journalism. The focus of the program is on teaching students skills to pursue careers in medical and science journalism in a variety of media, including print, broadcast (television and radio), and online. Master's students in medical and science journalism have the option of pursuing either a multimedia-audio-video or print track.
University of South Carolina (Sequence) School of Journalism and Mass Communications BS/MS/PhD
The school offers graduate-level courses on journalism of science and technology; crisis communication; health, science, and the media; and risk communication. Students can opt to put [Page 959]such courses toward an interdisciplinary certificate of graduate study in health communication offered by the School of Journalism and Mass Communication in cooperation with the Arnold School of Public Health and the School of Library and Information Science.
University of Tennessee (Program)
School of Journalism and Electronic Media BS/MS/PhD
The University of Tennessee Science Communication Program allows students to specialize in writing about science, medicine, health, technology, and the environment; in communication studies of science, medicine, health, technology, and the environment; or to combine these approaches. Undergraduate students can choose the science journalism track and graduate with a BS degree in communications, with a concentration in science journalism. Graduate students can obtain MS and PhD degrees in communications, with a specialization in science communication.
University of Washington (Sequence)
This set of three courses on science and technology writing covers the spectrum from hard news writing to features, narrative, profiles, reviews, and essays. Fall: Writing About Science & Technology for General Audiences. Winter: Science & Technology News and Feature Writing. Spring: Science & Technology Creative Nonfiction Writing.
Deborah L. Illman
University of Wisconsin–Madison (Program)
School of Journalism and Mass Communication BA/BS/MA/PhD
As one of the oldest professional training programs for science and environmental communicators in the country, the 30-credit professional master's degree at the School of Journalism and Mass Communication has a history of graduating indi viduals who go on to distinguished careers in science-environmental journalism and strategic communication. Rather than work within tradi tional channels (that is, newspapers, television, the World Wide Web), the degree concentrates on giving students a communications toolkit that emphasizes understanding audiences, learning how to explain complex concepts and processes, learning how to evaluate evidence, and learning how to tell compelling stories about science.
University of Wisconsin–Madison (Program)
Department of Life Sciences Communication BS/MS/PhD
The undergraduate degree program includes courses that focus on writing and message production for sound, video, visual composition and online media, as well as on planning, designing, and evaluating effective communication campaigns. The graduate program in life sciences communication offers two degrees within three programs: (1) a course-based master's of professional studies designed to prepare students for professional careers in science communication that earns an MS degree, (2) a thesis-based MS degree requiring completion of coursework and also a thesis based on original research, and (3) a PhD focusing on theory and research, jointly administered with the School of Journalism and Mass Communication.
Larry Meiller (undergraduate contact)[Page 960]
Dietram Scheufele (graduate contact)
email@example.comGuide to Selected International Programs
Australian National University (Sequence)
The Centre for the Public Awareness of Science in the College of Medicine, Biology & Environment and College of Physical Sciences BSc/Graduate Certificate/Graduate Diploma/MSc/MPhil/PhD
The Centre for the Public Awareness of Science in the College of Medicine, Biology & Environment and College of Physical Sciences is Australia's most diverse academic science communication centre, located at the Australian National University in Canberra. The postgraduate students are researching new ways to excite the imagination of the public about science and to encourage informed decisions about scientific issues that will concern people in the 21st century. The center trains a new generation of highly qualified scientists to become skilled communicators who can engage people with the science, technology, or medical information that is most relevant to them.
+61 2 6125 0241
Cardiff University, United Kingdom (Program)
School of Social Sciences; School of Journalism, Media, and Cultural Studies; Techniquest MSc
This course is a collaboration between the School of Social Sciences; the School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies; and Techniquest, a science discovery center based in Cardiff. Drawing on expertise in journalism and media studies and the public understanding of science and science communication, the course offers students a unique blend of the practical and theoretical skills. The taught modules cover topics including the organization and funding of scientific research, the reporting of scientific innovation and controversy within different media, and the role of citizens, experts, and the media in decision making where science and technology are contested. In addition, students receive practical, hands-on training in the production of feature stories for use in print, radio, or TV and, if they choose, in the presentation of science to diverse audiences ranging from school children to the general public.
+44 (0)29 2087 4294
Delft University of Technology, Holland (Program)
Applied Sciences MSc
The characteristics of the MSc of science education and communication are a focus on design of communication strategies to transfer technological knowledge, science communication on the meso level, the link between theory and practice, integration of education and science communication, and use of a collaboration of the three Dutch technical universities on education and research.
+31 (0) 15 27 81070
ETH Zurich, University of Zurich, University of Basel, Switzerland
Plantscience, Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center MSc (Courses), PhD (Program)
Plant science embodies an interdisciplinary association of cooperating scientists from the University of Basel, the University of Zurich, and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. The Plant Science Center offers graduate studies in the field of plant sciences at both the master's and the PhD level. The course's primary goal is to increase young scientists' awareness about barriers among communication between the public and the science and to let the students experience—maybe [Page 961]once in their career—ways to reach and dialogue with the public. It is not meant to form science communicators.
+41 (0) 44 632 60 22
Infofirstname.lastname@example.org English and Dutch
Imperial College London (Program)
Humanities Department MSc Science Communication/MSc Science Media Production
The Science Communication Group at Imperial College runs two master's courses aimed at science graduates wishing to enter careers in the media or other sectors of the communications industry. The MSc science communication provides a broad introduction to the field and can be taken either full-time or part-time. The MSc science media production is focused specifically on television and radio and is full-time only. Both courses combine the development of practical skills with academic analysis drawing on work in communication studies and social studies of science. Students are encouraged to develop their creative and critical abilities and to undertake work that will communicate science, technology, and medicine in fresh and imaginative ways. The graduates have success entering a range of communication careers, including in television and radio production, print journalism, museums, science policy, public engagement within science organizations, and public relations.
0207 594 8753
Indian Science Communication Society (Sequence)
Diploma in Science Journalism
Indian Science Communication Society, Lucknow, in association with the National Council for Science & Technology Communications–Department of Science & Technology-GOI, is undertaking this training course, which produces trained science writers, communicators, and journalists. This would enable India to bridge the gap between the scientists-experts who work at the forefront of science and the common person who enjoys the benefits of science or who has to suffer the ills brought about by scientific and technological breakthroughs or misadventures. This 1-year training course in science journalism has the following main focus areas: fundamentals of science journalism, presentation formats of science journalism, techniques of science journalism, mass media for science journalism, and specialization in various fields of science journalism. (Detailed syllabus will be provided at the time of registration.)
V. P. Singh
English and Hindi
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente, Mexico (ITESO) (Program)
Master's Degree Program in the Communication of Science and Culture
Departamento de Estudios Socioculturales MA
This academic program studies public communication of science from a sociocultural point of view. This master's program provides the elements to contextualize and understand the relations between social production of scientific knowledge and social life, as well as the way it is signified by social actors. The students will learn to design projects in communication of science oriented to promote a scientific culture.
Carlos Enrique Orozco Martnez or Susana Herrera Lima
(52) 33 69 34 34 ext. 3304
National Autonomous University of Mexico (Program)[Page 962]
Diplomado en Divulgacion de la Ciencia Graduate Certificate
The Diplomado en Divulgación de la Ciencia is an educational program aimed for science university students who want to prepare themselves with communication skills or for communication university students who want to share scientific knowledge and need to increase their scientific culture. Theoretical and practical sessions take place in the 240 hours of exposure to different professors and communication methodologies. Students develop a final product during the workshop.
52 55 5622 7338
52 55 5622 7336
The Open University, United Kingdom (Program)
MSc in Science and Society Postgraduate Diploma in Science and Society
The MSc in science and society is for those who want to explore aspects of science and society at the postgraduate level. The component courses in this award (communicating science in the information age, contemporary issues in science learning, and a dissertation module) offer opportunities to pursue contemporary issues in science communication, science education, and (upstream) public engagement with science and technology part time and at a distance, using the innovative teaching methods pioneered by the Open University. In completing this award, students will also develop a wide range of skills associated with master's-level study. Two of the three possible component courses are taught, but there is also a compulsory dissertation module that allows students to undertake a substantial piece of independent research, based on the knowledge and skills students will have developed in the taught courses.
+44 (0)1908 654646
SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Italy
Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Advanced Studies
The course lasts for 2 years. It is targeted at graduates with a degree in any scientific discipline or human sciences with an ability to express and convey ideas and an interest in the development and implications of scientific knowledge. The program aims to train scientific communicators in various fields: printed press, radio, TV, and online; institutional and corporate communication; traditional and multimedia communication; and museum curators. Core courses include journalism, communication theory and techniques, science and literature, writing techniques, biology, math and physics, neu-rosciences, earth and environment, science communication theory, communicating risk, book writing, museum curatorship, images, medicine communication, science and cinema, case studies in science communication, analysis of uncertainty, scientific research, and technological innovation.
+39 040 3787462
Sogang University, South Korea (Program)
Academy for Scientific Culture MA/Certificate Program
The academy has two programs: the 10-week certificate program and the master's of arts in science communication program. The former program focuses on training diverse communication skills toward scientists, engineers, science public relations managers, public officials, science teachers, and so on. It provides successful graduates with the certificate in science communication leadership. The latter MA program focuses on producing science communication specialists through the minimum 2-years' theoretical and interdisciplinary course-work and academic thesis writing. Those graduate students are mostly science journalists, science radio/TV program producers, science exhibition curators, science public relations managers, future academicians, and so on. Both the certificate and the MA programs always emphasize the public's perspective of science communication.
Hak-Soo Kim[Page 963]
+82 2 705 7933
English and Korean
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology–Zurich (Course)
The course supports students in improving writing techniques for nonspecialist audiences. It promotes individual writing style and suggests ways to shape writings into an effective narrative. The course is significant to early career scientists, who are increasingly required to engage in dialogue with the public, politicians, and the media.
+41 44 632 39 46
English and Dutch
Technion—Israel's Institute of Technology
Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion
There is a growing consensus that scientists should take part in the public debate regarding science-related issues and that they should be trained to do so. In the practical workshop, students learn to formulate a message to fit the audience and practice writing and presenting science-related issues. In the theoretical part, students learn to understand what the public knows and wants to know about science, what the resources for this knowledge are, and get to know different models for science communication.
University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Mathematics and Natural Sciences MSc
The MSc program in science communication converts a highly specialized bachelor's in a single scientific discipline (for example, biology, chemistry, astrophysics) into a master's of science communication. The 2-year curriculum encompasses 6 months of scientific research in students' original discipline, 14.5 months of communication classes and reflective topics (for example, oral and written skills, communicative design, research methods, backgrounds of science, science [communication] policy, risk communication, public dialogues), including a short external assignment and a short research in science communication, and 3.5 months of optional subjects and/or an apprenticeship. Classes are taught by experts from the faculty of sciences and the faculty of arts. Guest lectures are given by journalists and practitioners from radio or TV, museum, and science shops.
+31 (0) 50 363 3981
+31 (0) 50 363 4436
University of New South Wales (Program)
Faculty of Science BSc
The University of New South Wales hosts a BSc (communication), which involves a major in science plus core subjects in human and organizational communication and science-in-society. Students fortify their study of communication by selecting two additional subjects in any area related to communication: sociology, multimedia, a foreign language, painting, photography, and so on. They also complete an internship, which is the equivalent of 1 day per week for an academic term, 100-plus hours.
+61 2 9385 2748
University of Otago, New Zealand (Program)
Centre for Science Communication MSciComm
This program is for postgraduate students only (although an undergraduate component may feature [Page 964]in future plans). Thirty students are currently enrolled in the MSciComm degree. There are 14 additional students are currently taking paper SCOM 406, which is available to any graduate student in the university, no matter what program they are enrolled in. The Centre for Science Communication endeavors to cater for the needs of three types of students: students from a science background who have decided that they would rather promote science than participate in it, students from an arts background who would like to use their creative skills to popularize science, and students who wish to pursue careers in science and recognize a need to improve their communication skills.
+64 3 479 7654
University of Western Australia (Program)
Faculty of Life and Physical Sciences BSc/MSc/MSc/Education/PhD
The aim of the University of Western Australia science communication program is a broad education that develops critical skills for people wishing to proceed into careers in public affairs and/or informal education areas of science communication. Students develop a portfolio that includes articles, book review, poster, fact sheet, Web site, podcast, digital movie, and consultancy reports. They develop oral presentation skills and are involved in design, construction, and staffing of a temporary display. Many of the postgraduates enrolled in the coursework degrees work and enroll in one unit per semester; they may take four to complete their degree. Others enroll full-time and complete the graduate diploma in 1 year. It is possible for students to add a research project in science communication to their year of coursework and obtain a master's of science communication.
+61 8 6488 3926
University of the West of England, Bristol (Program)
Life Sciences Science Communication MSc
This master's program is available on both a fulltime and part-time basis. Full-time students attend the same sessions as part-time students but take four taught modules instead of two. Thus, fulltime students take Science and Society, Science, the Public and Media and choose two modules from Science Direct in Practice, Writing Science, Broadcasting Science, and New Opportunities in Science Communication.
+44 (0) 117 32 82146
University of Twente, the Netherlands (Program)
Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, Institute ELAN MSc
The 2-year MSc program (120 EC credit points) builds on a bachelor's of science degree and is a mixture of advanced-level science and technology and communications subjects. Graduates need to become specialists yet also be all-round exponents of science and technology and communication and thus deepen and broaden knowledge gained in their bachelor's. Areas such as mass communication, communication science, crisis and risk communication, and science communication research are addressed in detail. Specific attention is given to the relation between science communication and new technologies. As a final demonstration of their capabilities to integrate science and technology with communication, students write a thesis.
053 489 3589
English and Dutch
Appendix B: Annotated Bibliography[Page 965]AAbortion
Balkin, J. M. (Ed.). (2005). What Roe v. Wade should have said: The nation's top legal experts rewrite America's most controversial decision. New York: New York University Press.
Relying only on sources that were available in 1973, 11 constitutional scholars present mock legal opinions on this landmark case.
Ginsburg, F. D. (1998). Contested lives: The abortion debate in an American community. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Examines both the conflict over abortion and women's activism through the lens of a local struggle over an abortion clinic in Fargo, North Dakota.
McDonagh, E. L. (1996). Breaking the abortion deadlock: From choice to consent. New York: Oxford University Press.
Applies such legal principles as self-defense, consent, and use of deadly force to argue that women have a right to terminate their pregnancies and to government funding for abortion.
Saletan, W. (2003). Bearing right: How conservatives won the abortion war. Berkeley: University of California Press.
This work argues that the privacy discourse of the pro-choice movement was successfully usurped by conservative forces, shifting abortion regulations to the right.Active Audiences and Science
Grunig, J. E. (1997). A situational theory of publics: Conceptual history, recent challenges and new
research. In D. Moss, T. MacManus, & D. Vercic (Eds.), Public relations research: An international perspective (pp. 3–48). London: International Thomson Business Press.
Sets forth the author's situational theory of publics, which divides the so-called general public into smaller segments with respect to particular issues, based on their communication behavior. Problem recognition, constraint recognition, and level of involvement are seen as influencing information seeking and processing.
Lee, S., & Rodriguez, L. (2008). The four publics of anti-bioterrorism information campaigns: A test of the situational theory. Public Relations Review, 34, 60–62.
Reports results of a study of audience perceptions of bioterrorism. Problem recognition and involvement were shown to be positively related to information seeking.Actor-Network Theory
Callon, M., Lascoumes, P., & Barthe, Y. (2009). Acting in an uncertain world: An essay on technical democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Callon, Lascoumes, and Barthe outline how best to construct dialogical democratic institutions in societies that are heavily dependent on knowledge and technology. They analyze the interaction between laboratory-based research and the research in the wild conducted by heterogeneous alliances of expert and lay actors.
Latour, B. (1987). Science in action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
In what many consider the bible of ANT, Latour critically reviews 20 years of research into the[Page 966]relationship between science, technology, and society and proposes a new approach underpinned by the concept of an actor-network and the idea of studying science and technology in-the-making and not as ready-made products.
Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An
introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Latour revisits the principles and methodological strategies of ANT research 20 years later. A useful introduction to ANT that reminds readers of the technical nature of the social and the social character of the technical. Accessible and thought provoking.
Law, J., & Mol, A. (Eds.). (2002). Complexities: Social studies of knowledge practices. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
A collection of papers that focuses on the way multiple forms of knowledge are produced and on how they interact. The book includes detailed, rich analyses of fields including economics, medicine, ecology, and aerospace, but in all cases, they are concerned with how ANT principles consider the fluid character of knowledge processes.Africa, Science in
United Nationals Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization: http://www.unesco.org/science/science_africa.pdf
This Web site provides lists of United Nationals Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization chairs in science and technology, biosphere reserves, and world heritage sites in Africa and is listed in “Science in Africa: UNESCO's contribution to Africa's plan for science and technology to 2010.”Agenda Setting and Science
McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. (1972). The agenda-setting function of the mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176–187.
The first real test of agenda-setting theory, in the context of the 1968 election. The study compared issue agendas in the Chapel Hill area of North Carolina to issue rankings of undecided voters in the same region.
Nisbet, M., & Huge, M. (2006). Attention cycles and frames in the plant biotechnology debate: Managing power and participation through the press/policy connection. Press/Politics, 11(2), 3–40.
A current example of how agenda setting, combined with framing, explains cycles of attention to scientific issues and how these issues are eventually resolved within the policy sphere. Also contains an excellent bibliography of studies related to agenda setting, framing, and science.Agricultural Biotechnology
Brossard, D., Shanahan, J., & Nesbitt, T. C. (Eds.). (2007). The public, the media and agricultural biotechnology. Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International.
The book is a collection of studies from different authors with a range of perspectives on the U.S. and European reactions to biotechnology, the role of the media, and the several theoretical models for understanding the relationship between public opinion and the media.
Federoff, N., & Brown, N. M. (2004). Mendel in the kitchen. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Written by a prominent molecular biologist for a lay audience, this book provides a basic scientific background in classical and modern scientific breeding techniques, including rDNA biotechnology. It reviews the major food safety and environmental controversies about GM food, finding little scientific support for concern.
Jasanoff, S. (2005). Designs on nature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
A landmark, wide-ranging historical examination of the influence of cultural and social factors on the public acceptance and regulation of biotechnology in the United States, Germany, and Great Britain.
Priest, S. H. (2001). A grain of truth: The media, the public and biotechnology. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Examines the concerns expressed in U.S. public opinion about various aspects of biotechnology and its association with media coverage and scientific literacy.Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow
Rhoades, E., Ricketts, J., Irani, T., Lundy, L., & Telg, R. (2005). Critical thinking dispositions of agricultural communication students. Journal of Applied Communications, 89(1), 25–34.
This study utilized investigated critical thinking dispositions of agricultural communications students at 12 universities. Results indicated that few[Page 967]agricultural communication students (1%) would be classified as having a strong disposition toward critical thinking, while a large percentage (30%) would be classified as weak in critical thinking dispositions.
Telg, R. W., & Irani, T. (2005). Integrating critical thinking into agricultural communication curricula. Journal of Applied Communications, 89(3), 13–22.
This qualitative study examined agricultural communications instructors' recommendations regarding integrating critical thinking into agricultural communications curricula. Recommendations for implementing critical thinking into agricultural communications curricula include providing opportunities for real-world, practical projects; incorporating case studies into courses; incorporating varying viewpoints, not just a “pro-agriculture” attitude; and emphasizing analysis of information, not just “finding” information.
Toomey, A. C., & Telg, R. (2009). Critiquing the contest: Assessing the benefits of a collegiate academic competition. Proceedings of the 106th annual meeting of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists, Agricultural Communication Section. Atlanta, GA. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from http://agnews.tamu.edu/saas/2009/toomey.pdf
The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of the National Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow's Critique and Contest in terms of contest participation. Academic and professional organizations that host competitions should consider evaluating the preferences and interests of potential contest participants to determine if their contests should be continued, altered, or eliminated.Agricultural Journalism
Pawlick, T. F. (2001). The invisible farm: The worldwide decline of farm news and agricultural journalism training. Chicago: Burnham.
Documents the limited public awareness of the changes that have swept modern agriculture, including pressing issues such as habitat destruction, loss of biodiversity, pollution, and soil degradation.Alcohol, Risk Communication for
Lederman, L. C., Stewart, L. P., & Russ, T. L. (2007). Addressing college drinking through curriculum infusion: A study of the use of experience-based learning in the communication classroom. Communication Education, 56(4), 476–494.
Myths and overrepresentations of college drinking play a key role in the perpetuation of dangerous drinking on campuses. This study indicates the utility of experiential learning simulations to change beliefs and behaviors related to dangerous drinking.
Perkins, H. W., & Wechsler, H. (1996). Variation in perceived college drinking norms and its impact on alcohol abuse: A nationwide study. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(4), 961–974.
This landmark study indicated that perceived norms about drinking on college campuses were responsible for dangerous drinking. Perceiving heavy drinking as normal caused students to drink more than their attitudes about alcohol indicated they would.
Wechsler, H., & Nelson, T. F. (2008). What we have learned from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing attention on college student alcohol consumption and the environmental conditions that promote it. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(4), 481–490.
After the completion of a 14-year-long study of alcohol use by students on college campuses, this study concludes that dangerous drinking on campuses is the result of multiple factors, including setting, social environments, demographics, and anti-drinking policies. Social norms campaigns were not found to reduce drinking on campuses.Alien Abduction
Billings, L. (2005). Sex! Aliens! Harvard? Rhetorical boundary-work in the media (a case study of the role of journalists in the social construction of scientific authority). Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.
With science and the media playing prominent roles in contemporary life, it is important to understand the cultural authority of science and the role of the media in maintaining it. This case study examines print media coverage of controversial research conducted by psychiatry professor John E. Mack of Harvard Medical School.
Jacobs, D. M. (Ed.). (2000). UFOs and abduction: Challenging the borders of knowledge. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.[Page 968]
Jacobs is an associate professor of history at Temple University and the author of many books about UFOlogy and alien abduction. This edited volume contains chapters titled “UFOlogy and Academia: UFO Phenomenon as a Scholarly Discipline” and “Research Directions,” as well as a contribution from John E. Mack.Alternative Energy, Overview
Brown, L. R. (2006). Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble. New York: W. W. Norton. Available at http://www.earth-policy.org/Books/PB2/Contents.htm
The author lays out a concrete plan for making our civilization survive. Instead of Plan A—business as usual—the analysis provides a survival strategy that focuses on what we must do instead.
Krupp, F., & Horn, M. (2008). Earth: The sequel: The race to reinvent energy and stop global warming. New York: W. W. Norton.
Fred Krupp, president of the Environmental Defense Fund, and journalist Miraim Horn recommend a business-oriented approach to the solution of global warming and the energy shortage. The authors argue for “cap and trade” management of carbon emissions.Alternative Medicine
Bodeker, G., & Burford, G. (2007). Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine: Policy and public health perspectives. London: Imperial College Press.
This edited volume of chapters by scholars and experts from around the world addresses policy, public health issues, and research in traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in developing countries.
Commission for Scientific Medicine and Mental Health: http://www.csmmh.org
Commission for Scientific Medicine and Mental Health was established in 2003 to critically examine the claims of alternative medicine. The group publishes two peer-reviewed journals devoted to scientific evaluation of the efficacy of alternative medicine therapies for physical and mental health, The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine and The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice.
National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: http://nccam.nih.gov
This Web site provides information on health conditions and on complementary and alternative medicine therapies; research results and access to complementary and alternative medicine on PubMed, a search engine of all complementary and alternative medicine articles available on PubMed; and information on funding and training through the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Quackwatch, Inc.: http://www.quackwatch.org
Quackwatch, Inc., is a nonprofit corporation started in 1996 whose stated mission is “to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct.”
Weil Lifestyle, LLC: http://www.drweil.com
Andrew Weil's Web site is a popular online resource for information on integrative medicine, including news, articles, vitamin and supplement recommendations, and vitamin and supplement products.
Whorton, J. C. (2002). Nature cures: The history of alternative medicine in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
James C. Whorton traces the origin of alternative medicine in its various forms in the United States from the 19th to the 21st century.American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR)
American Association for Public Opinion Research: http://www.aapor.org
In addition to basic information about the organization, this user-friendly site is a valuable resource for American Association for Public Opinion Research advice and guidelines on ethics and practice, including advice on how to design survey questions, how to calculate response rates, and what basic details to include when releasing survey reports (for example, minimum disclosure).American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
American Association for the Advancement of Science: http://www.aaas.org[Page 969]
The official American Association for the Advancement of Science Web site contains information on the organization's history, structure, governance, programs, fellowships, issues papers, and U.S. and international science policy and serves as a portal for the dissemination of scientific research news to the media and to the public.American Medical Association
American Medical Association: http://www.ama-assn.org
The official Web site of the AMA provides information on the organization's annual meeting, current issues in health care and health care reform, other news of interest to members and others, and a variety of resources for physicians, medical students, and patients. This site includes links to American Medical Association publications. Access to the association's journals is also provided through http://pubs.ama-assn.org.American Medical Writers Association
American Medical Writers Association: http://www.amwa.org
Described as “a resource for medical communicators,” this Web site provides contact information for the organization and a variety of resources for members and others who want to learn about medical writing careers, including further information on the workshop program.Anti-Drug Campaigns
Ellickson, P. L., McCaffrey, D. F., Ghosh-Dastidar, B., & Longshore, D. L. (2003). New inroads in preventing adolescent drug use: Results from a large-scale trial of Project ALERT in middle schools. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1830–1836.
To evaluate Project ALERT, approximately 4,300 students from 55 middle schools completed pre- and postquestionnaires. Results suggest that the Project ALERT program helped to curb cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in middle school students.
Hornik, R. C., Jacobsohn, L. S., Orwin, R., Piesse, A., & Kalton, G. (2008). Effects of the National Youth AntiDrug Media Campaign on Youths. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 2229–2236.
To evaluate effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, a national sample of youth ages 9 to 18 years was surveyed. Cognitions (such as attitudes and norms) and behaviors related to drug use were examined. Over time, greater campaign exposure was associated with favorable norms toward marijuana use and actual marijuana use.
Lynam, D. R., Milich, R., Zimmerman, R., Novak, S. P., Logan, T.K., Martin, C., et al. (1999). Project DARE: No effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 590–593.
Approximately 1,500 students who participated in the DARE program during the 1987 to 1988 school year were asked to complete a survey 5 years after their involvement in the program. Approximately 1,000 surveys were completed. No significant differences were seen among participants in the DARE program and those in the control group.Anti-Smoking Campaigns
Hornik, R. C. (2002). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
This book reviews conceptual issues involved in evaluating campaigns and presents evidence of effectiveness for campaigns addressing a variety of health issues. Several chapters focus specifically on anti-smoking campaigns.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. NCI Tobacco Control Monograph Series Vol. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute.
This monograph presents a detailed review of anti-smoking media campaigns and their effects. Chapter 11 describes the content of previous anti-smoking campaigns, and Chapter 12 reviews the evidence for their effectiveness.Architecture, Sustainable
Alread, J., & Leslie, T., (2007). Design-tech: Building science for architects. Burlington, MA: Architectural Press.
This book is a great introduction, aimed at nonscientists, to the science that underpins sound and successful building design. Using simple language, it introduces a range of building science concepts in a clear and accessible way.
Brown, T. S. (2006). The science of building. BookSurge. While self-published, this book provides an effective, simple guide to the engineering science that underpins[Page 970]building design. The book clearly and concisely explains, in a way unintimidating to the novice, the science of solid materials, electrical circuits, plumbing, heating, ventilation, and a range of other building science topics.
Mc Mullen, R. (2007). Environmental science in building. New York: Macmillan.
This book introduces the science and technology behind the services that deliver comfort in building. It also discusses the science that underpins the environmental performance of buildings.Asilomar
Berg, P., Baltimore, D., Brenner, S., Roblin, O. R., III, & Singer, M. F. (1975). Summary statement of the Asilomar Conference on recombinant DNA molecules. Proceedings of the National Academy Science, 72(6), 1981–1984.
Freely acknowledging that DNA research is not without risks, this original report from the now-famous Asilomar meeting sets forth a strategy of containment proportionate to that risk as a key management principle.
Hindmarsh, R., & Gottweis, H. (Eds.). Recombinant regulation: The Asilomar legacy 30 years on. Science as Culture [Special issue], 14(4), 299–412.
This special issue of the journal Science as Culture on the legacy of Asilomar includes case studies of its impact in Australia, Europe, Israel, and New Zealand.Asimov, Isaac
Asimov, I., & Asimov, J. J. (2002). It's been a good life. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
An autobiography condensed by Asimov's wife, Janet Jeppson Asimov, from all three volumes of Isaac Asimov's autobiographical works. The work also includes some new material, including some from previous unpublished letters.
Isaac Asimov Home Page: http://www.asimovonline.com
This Web site provides a variety of useful resources on Asimov, such as a short biography, book reviews, and a recommended reading list.Association for Communication Excellence
American Association of Agricultural College Editors. (1967). AAACE: Origin and Development, 1913– 1967. Champaign: University of Illinois.
Published to commemorate the 50th annual conference of Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences (then the American Association of Agricultural College Editors), this publication traces the organization's history and provides brief, but interesting, discussions on challenges facing the profession and the organization. Also included are descriptions of the important agricultural communications media of the day, such as exhibits, radio, and television.
Association for Communication Excellence in
Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences: http://www.aceweb.org
The Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences Web site is an updated source of information about its upcoming international conferences and special workshops. The site also features an online newsletter and member directory, information about the organization's Critique and Awards Program, and subscriber and author information for the Journal of Applied Communications.
Carnahan, W. E. (1993). The presidents of ACE. Columbus: The Ohio State University.
This special publication honors 80 years of Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences presidents who represent 31 states and the District of Columbia. A black-and-white photo is provided for each president from the organization's inception until 1993, along with brief biographical information on leaders' professional backgrounds and their unique contributions to ACE.Asteroid Impacts
Clemens, E. S. (1986). Of asteroids and dinosaurs: The role of the press in the shaping of scientific debate. Social Studies of Science, 16, 421–56.
This article examines the ways in which the controversy over the impact extinction hypothesis unfolded through professional and popular publications that were able to reach a multidisciplinary audience. Clemens argues that the organization of communication contributed to the framing and tempo of the scientific debate.
Glenn, W. (Ed.). (1994). The mass extinction debates: How science works in a crisis. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.[Page 971]
This collection brings together contributors from a range of disciplines, including some of the scientists involved, to discuss scientists' arguments and behaviors in the controversy over the hypothesis that an asteroid impact caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.Astrobiology
Dick, S. J., & Strick, J. E. (2004). The living universe: NASA and the development of astrobiology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
This authoritative book, written by historians, provides a thorough and engaging account of the interplay between scientists and the U.S. space agency in creating the field of astrobiology. This historical account documents both the administrative processes and the scientific personalities involved in making astrobiology a science.
Grinspoon, D. (2003). Lonely planets: The natural philosophy of alien life. New York: HaperCollins.
This winner of a PEN Center USA Literary Award, written by a self-described planetary scientist and astrobiologist, constructs what it promises—a natural philosophy of alien life. The author, a graceful and entertaining writer, addresses the idea of extraterrestrial life as science, history, and belief.Astronomy, Public Communication of
Ferris, T. (2002). Seeing in the dark. New York: Simon & Schuster.
This work introduces readers to the fascinating world of amateur astronomy and the contributions of these amateurs to scientific knowledge. The book is punctuated with stories about individual amateurs and their activities and includes appendices useful for stargazers.
Lightman, B. (1997). Constructing Victorian heavens: Agnes Clerke and the “new astronomy.” In B. Gates & A. Shtier (Eds.), Natural eloquence: Women reinscribe science (pp. 61–75). Madison: Wisconsin University Press.
This collection documents the biographies and historical contributions of women scientists and science writers in the English-speaking world, noting that this history of the dissemination of science (where many women made their mark) is understudied. An introductory chapter by Steven Jay Gould helps set the stage.Attenborough, David
Attenborough, D. (2002). Life on air: Memoirs of a broadcaster. London: Random House.
David Attenborough's memoirs detail his career from his early days at the publishing house Hodder and Stoughton to his documentary making. This book is full of stories about the people and animals he has met and the places he has traveled—of which there are many!Attentive Public
Almond, G. A. (1950). The American people and foreign policy. New York: Harcourt Brace.
This is the first presentation of the idea of an attentive public. It has been reprinted in paperback and is focused on public attentiveness to foreign policy. Jon D. Miller, Donald J. Devine, and others used this basic model to examine attentiveness to politics broadly and to specific clusters of issues such as energy, space, and biomedicine.
Miller, J. D. (1983). The American people and science policy. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
This is the first application of the attentiveness model to science and science policy. Although the book covers more than the attentive public, it includes a thorough discussion of the logic of attentiveness and its function in the political system.
Miller, J. D. (2004). Public understanding of, and attitudes toward scientific research: What we know and what we need to know. Public Understanding of Science, 13, 273–294.
This summary article provides time series data on attentiveness and a number of other variables related to science communication. It describes the theoretical foundations for many of these measures and discusses future research needs in regard to communicating science to the public.
Miller, J. D., & Kimmel, L. G. (2001). Biomedical communications: Purposes, audiences, and strategies. New York: Academic Press.
This book focuses on how the public obtains information about personal health matters and biomedical policy issues. It is perhaps the most extensive analysis of issue attentiveness on a single cluster of substantive issues. It may be especially useful for science communicators because it bridges both personal health concerns and broader public policy issue concerns.[Page 972]
Miller, J. D., Pardo, R., & Niwa, F. (1997). Public perceptions of science and technology: A comparative study of the European Union, the United States, Japan, and Canada. Chicago: Chicago Academy of Sciences.
This is the first extensive effort to examine attentiveness to science policy across nations. The book also examines the factors associated with civic scientific literacy and other variables of interest to science communicators.Audiences for Science
Gaskell, G., Einsiedel, E., Hallman, W., Priest, S., Jackson, J., & Olsthoorn, J. (2005). Social values and the governance of science. Science, 310, 1908–1909.
The article presents data that argue for envisioning the populations of both Europe and the United States as being divided among those who do and do not privilege the role of science and scientists in the development of science policy.
Sturgis, P. J., & Allum, N. (2004). Science in society: Re-evaluating the deficit model of public attitudes. Public Understanding of Science, 13(1), 55–75.
This article explores, by means of a meta-analysis, the statistical relationship between knowledge of science and public attitudes toward various scientific developments and issues.Australia, Science in
Australian Vice Chancellor Committee. (2004). Beyond backing Australia's ability: The AVCC response. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from http://www.universitiesaustralia.edu.au/documents/publications/AVCC-Response-to-BAA2.pdf
This report documents the importance of Australia's strategic investment in science and innovation, proposing specific targets for investment and detailing other policy recommendations.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. (2008). The history of CSIRO: A summary of CSIRO's history and its achievements. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from http://www.csiro.au/org/CSIROHistoryOverview.html
Documents the evolution of CSIRO from the 1916 founding of the Advisory Council of Science and Industry, involving 41 scientists working in rented rooms, to today's organization, one of the largest national science agencies in the world.
Council of Rural Research & Development Corporations' Chairs: http://www.ruralrdc.com.au
This site describes the role of Australia's 15 Rural Research & Development Corporations in achieving a doubling of productivity in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries over the past 25 years.
Tropical Savannas CRC. (n.d.). Fire agreement to strengthen communities. Accessed November 5, 2008, from http://www.savanna.cdu.edu.au/view/250363/fire-agreement-to-strengthen-communities.html
This document describes a unique partnership that has been forged between energy interests and aboriginal traditional owners to implement fire management practices designed to limit the spread of wildfires and thereby reduce greenhouse gas emissions.Avian Flu
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.pandemicflu.gov
This interagency Web site developed by the U.S. government provides the latest information about pandemic influenza and related developments. The site includes comprehensive news archive providing live links to informational releases from health organizations worldwide.
World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/en
This Web site of a key international health organization provides comprehensive current information and statistics on all kinds of health issues around the globe, including information on current pandemic threats.BBeat Reporting
Shoemaker, P., & Reese, S. (1996). Mediating the message: Theories of influence on mass media content (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
This book is an excellent introduction, based on media theory, to the levels of influence that affect the production of news content. It attempts to unify a variety of theoretical perspectives and research streams that are useful to understanding why media content is the way that it is.Big Science
de Solla Price, D. (1963). Little science, Big Science … and beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.[Page 973]
This is one of the classic texts that launched the term Big Science. Price, who was both a historian and a physicist, made a convincing argument for a new dynamic in which science was growing exponentially, with dire effects.
Galison, P., & Hevly, B. (Eds.). (1992). Big Science: The growth of large-scale research. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
This is a highly useful collection of essays on Big Science taken from a conference organized by Peter Galison, then a professor at Stanford and now a renown professor at Harvard.
Weinberg, A. (1967). Reflections on Big Science. Cambridge: MIT Press.
This is the other classic text that launched the term Big Science. This critic is often cited and started the debate over whether science had become too big.Bioethicists as Sources
Goodman, K. W. (1999). Philosophy as news: Bioethics, journalism and public policy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 24(2), 181–200.
This article highlights the extent to which the appearance of bioethicists in the news may influence both public policy and personal decision making, imposing special responsibilities on both reporter and source.
Rosenfeld, A. (1999). The journalist's role in bioethics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 24(2), 108–129.
The author argues that science journalists have served as a sort of “early warning system” for bioethical issues, a role that may have diminished with increased public awareness and the development of bioethics as a recognized specialization. The author suggests ways journalists and bioethicists can work together.Biofuels
Mastny, L. (Ed.). (2007). Biofuels for transport: Global potential and implications for sustainable energy and agriculture. Sterling, VA: Worldwatch Institute.
This synthesis is a good place to start for background on the current status and future prospects of biofuels in transportation. In addition to reviewing the economic, energy security, and environmental implications of biofuels, the book discusses market issues and policy recommendations, ending with a series of country-specific case studies.Bioinformatics
Claverie, J. -M., & Notredame, C. (2003). Bioinformatics for dummies. Hoboken, IN: Wiley.
This is an introductory book for people with basic knowledge of molecular biology. It covers practical and theoretical aspects of a wide range of bioinformatics tools with clarity and humor.
Lesk, A. M. (2008). Introduction to bioinformatics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Since its 3rd edition, this text has included work on genome sequences. This book is addressed to undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students. It selects an essential core of information and describes it clearly at an introductory level. As an addendum, an associated Web site links to bioinformatics Web resources referred to in the text.Bioterrorism
Alibek, K., & Handelman, S. (1999). Biohazard: The chilling true story of the largest covert biological weapons program in the world—told from inside by the man who ran it. New York: Random House.
This book documents the potential effects of a serious bioterrorist attack, told by an author with personal experience in the Soviet Union's biological weapons program. It discusses disease as a potential weapon of war.Bovine Somatotropin (BST or BGH)
Leiss, W., & Powell, D. (1997). Mad cows and mother's milk. Montreal, QC, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press.
This book discusses the intersection of food issues and risk communication. A chapter about rBST focuses specifically on the regulation of this compound.Breast Cancer Communication
Andrykowski, M. A., Munn, R. K., & Studts, J. L. (1996). Interest of learning of personal genetic risk for cancer: A general population survey. Preventive Medicine, 25(5), 527–536.
This study demonstrated very high general interest in the learning of possible personal genetic predisposition to developing breast cancer, although the results also call into question whether levels of[Page 974]understanding for many individuals are adequate to make good use of test results.
Jones, K. O., & Pelton, R. (2009). Attribute agenda setting and breast cancer in newspapers. Journal of Health & Mass Communication, 1(1), 77–89.
This article is based on a content analysis of three newspapers and explores the relationship between attributes of content and survey respondent recall of coverage.CCanada, Science Communication in
Gamble, D. (1978). The Berger Inquiry: An impact assessment process. Science, 199, 946–952.
This article documents the Canadian inquiry into issues surrounding the building of a northern gas pipeline, known as the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. The author argues that the inquiry took into account social as well as technical and environmental concerns and predicts the process would have a lasting national impact, whatever the outcome.
Turnbull, L., & Aucoin, P. (2006, March). Fostering Canadians' role in public policy: A strategy for institutionalizing public involvement in policy (Research Report P|07). Ottawa, ON, Canada: Canadian Policy Research Networks. Available at http://www.cprn.org/doc.cfm?doc=1404&1=en
This report presents the arguments for engaging Canadian citizens more fully in the policy making process, including increased effectiveness and legitimacy, inclusion, and social cohesion, as well as possibly reducing public disaffection with the political process.Cancer Prevention and Risk Communication
Edwards, A., Elwyn, G., & Mulley, A. (2002). Explaining risks: Turning numerical data into meaningful pictures. British Medical Journal, 324(7341), 827–830.
This article suggests that risk communication should be an interactive process between physicians and patients and one in which risk information is presented as clearly as possible (including visually) so that more informed decisions can be made.
Julian-Reynier, C., Welkenhuysen, M., Hagoel, L., Decruyenaere, M., & Hopwood, P. (2003). Risk
communication strategies: State of the art and effectiveness in the context of cancer genetic services. European Journal of Human Genetics, 11(10), 725–736.
This article discusses the more recent field of cancer genetic counseling, which involves individualizing information for each patient, yet provides thorough, objective, and accurate information and takes into account the challenges and unknowns of this area of science.
Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., & Welch, H. G. (1999). Risk communication in clinical practice: Putting cancer in context. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, 25, 124–133.
This article suggests how various risk communicators, from physicians to patients, can improve the process of risk communication through the following strategies: providing more information to all providers, giving patients more information, and providing guidelines for those who provide risk communication to the public.
Vernon, S. W. (1999). Risk perception and risk communication for cancer screening behaviors: A review. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, 25, 101–119.
This review discusses how personal perceptions of risk predict patients' decisions about cancer screening and discusses whether interventions are effective. Studies included provide more information on the relationship between risk perceptions and breast cancer screening, compared to other types of cancer screening. Evidence suggests interventions can be beneficial in changing risk perceptions.Career Paths, Medical Writing/Medical Journalism
Gastel, B. (2005). Health writer's handbook (2nd ed.). Ames: Iowa State University Press.
This book provides guidance on writing for the public about medicine and health. Among areas addressed are gathering and evaluating information, crafting articles, and identifying educational and career opportunities.
Iverson, C., Christiansen, S., Flanagin, A., Fontanarosa, P. B., Glass, R. M., Gregoline, B., et al. (2007). AMA manual of style: A guide for authors and editors (10th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Although primarily a style manual, this book also offers more general guidance for medical writing and[Page 975]editing. It can especially aid those writing or editing for medical journals.Career Paths, Science/Environmental Journalism
National Association of Science Writers: http://www.nasw.org
This is the Web site of the nation's leading organization of science journalists and other science writers, the National Association of Science Writers. The site contains news, tips, discussion Listservs, and a host of other resources—including information on their annual meeting.
Society of Environmental Journalists: http://www.sej.org
The Society of Environmental Journalists is North America's only organization of journalists that covers the environment. Membership, job, contest, and conference information are regular features, along with news of the field.Carson, Rachel
Carson, R. (2002). Silent spring (40th anniversary ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
This very well-known book documented the impact of improper usage of pesticides such as DDT on the environment. The book was first serialized in The New Yorker, allowing its message to penetrate the public conscience and gain notoriety. This book is often credited with bringing about the environmental and “green” movements.Carver, George Washington
Kremer, G. R. (Ed.). (1987). George Washington Carver in his own words. Columbia: University of Missouri.
This collection gives the reader an opportunity to read the words of George Washington Carver through essays, his letters, and reminiscences. Of particular interest is his correspondence with colleagues and friends and the many students he mentored and letters documenting his sometimes difficult times at Tuskegee.
Legacy of George Washington Carver (Iowa State University): http://www.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/gwc/home.html
This Web site provides a number of resources relating to the life of Carver, including bibliographies, images, publications authored by Carver, and correspondence between Carver and his mentor at Iowa State, Louis Pammel.
McMurry, L. O. (1981). George Washington Carver: Scientist and symbol. New York: Oxford University Press.
Linda McMurry's work is considered the best biography of George Washington Carver available. The author gives a straightforward view of Carver's life experiences, as well as what he symbolized for U.S. culture. McMurry captures the distinct contradictions inherent in this complex and mythologized scientist who achieved so much.Censorship in Science
Collins, H., & Pinch, T. (1998). The golem. New York: Cambridge University Press.
This book contains reports from a number of scientific debates, including studies of memory, Louis Pasteur's work, and the sex lives of whip-tailed lizards. The authors show how some scientific work gets pushed to the margins of scientific discussions.
Vaughn, J. (2006). Environmental politics: Domestic and global dimensions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
This book is an in-depth treatment of environmental policy, and it provides examples of how political pressures have been applied in controversies involving endangered species.Center for Science in the Public Interest
Center for Science in the Public Interest: http://www.cspinet.org
The Web site of the Center for Science in the Public Interest provides extensive information about the organization's mission, activities, and funding and provides a link to its Integrity in Science project.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control: http://www.cdc.gov
This Web site contains (or links to) an amazing wealth of information about how CDC is organized, tips to prevent disease and injury, topical discussions of current health issues, and an A-to-Z index of articles on public health topics—from specific diseases, to toxic substances, to conditions of work, to communication strategies.Chernobyl
Burlakova, E. B., & Naidich, V. I. (2006). 20 years after the Chernobyl accident: Past, present, and future. New York: Nova Science.[Page 976]
This book reviews the evidence on low-rate radiation and its health consequences, including premature aging. It then uses this knowledge to assess the current health status of the population of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that was exposed to the effects of the Chernobyl accident.
Perrow, C. (1999). Normal accidents: Living with high-risk catastrophes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Charles Perrow's book has become well known as an eye-opening discussion of the extent to which industrial accidents are now an accepted part of modern life. In it, he makes the case that our increasingly complex systems and organizations make disasters practically inevitable.Children's Television and Science
LaFollette, M. C. (2002). A survey of science content in U.S. television broadcasting, 1940s through 1950s. Science Communication, 24(1), 34–71.
This article shows how pioneering broadcasters demonstrated that serious science programs could also dramatize and otherwise entertain. This early programming sometimes mixed fact and fiction. The science content of early television broadcasting is examined, and its influence on more recent trends is discussed.
Steinke, J., & Long, M. (1996). A lab of her own? Portrayal of female characters on children's educational science programs. Science Communication, 18(2), 91–115.
This study of female characters on television series for children found that over twice as many male as female characters and twice as many male as female scientists were shown. Of the 86 females appearing, 68 were portrayed in secondary roles such as students or assistants.Citizen Science
Irwin, A. (1995). Citizen science: A study of people, expertise and sustainable development. London: Routledge.
Reviews developments in science–society interactions, using case studies to introduce the concept of citizen science, which argues for taking citizens' views and knowledge as integral parts of the scientific research process in order to build a sustainable relationship between science, society, and the environment. A case study of science shops as an ideal type of citizen science is included.
Leadbeater, C., & Miller, P. (2004). The pro-am revolution: How enthusiasts are changing our economy and society. London: Demos.
This is an insightful study on how nonspecialist enthusiasts can become semiprofessionals in their hobbies who act according to professional standards and contribute to expert fields.
Phillips, T., Lewenstein, B., & Bonney, R. (2006). A case study of citizen science. In C. Donghong, J. Metcalfe, & B. Schiele (Eds.), At the human scale: International practices in science communication (pp. 317–334). Beijing, China: Science Press.
This book chapter introduces a citizen science project pioneered by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology as a case study for citizen science and explains how the aims of increasing the public understanding of avian biology, ecology, and the scientific process can benefit both citizens and scientists involved in the project.
Ratcliffe, M., & Grace, M. (2003). Science education for citizenship: Teaching socio-scientific issues. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
This book introduces the concept of scientific citizenship and its relevance for formal science education in schools. The authors suggest that teaching socioscientific issues is one way of ensuring that science education in schools becomes more relevant to the lives of the citizens of tomorrow and offer various practical ways of including them in the science classroom.Citizens Jury
Gastil, J., & Levine, P. (Eds.). (2005). The deliberative democracy handbook: Strategies for effective civic engagement in the 21st century. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This handbook provides a resource for practitioners and theorists alike, providing a broad range of case studies illustrating the role of citizen participation in the development of public policy.Clarke, Arthur C.
McAleer, N. (1992). Arthur C. Clarke: The authorized biography. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
This book, with a foreword by the renowned science fiction writer Ray Bradbury, chronicles Arthur C.[Page 977]Clarke's rich life, based on interviews with the man himself and those who knew him. The author sets both Clarke's fiction and his nonfiction writing in context.Clean Air Act
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007, April). The plain English guide to the Clean Air Act (Publication No. EPA-456/K-07-001). Available at http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/peg
This guide introduces the act, explains its main provisions, and documents its successes and challenges. Successes include major drops in the most common air pollutants and in air toxics from large industrial sources, much cleaner cars, and production halts for most ozone-depleting chemicals. Challenges include large increases in energy consumption and vehicle use.Clean Water Act
Adler, R. W., Landman, J. C., & Cameron, D. M. (1993). The Clean Water Act 20 years later. Washington, DC: Island Press.
This book assesses the successes and failures of the 1972 act over its first 20 years, addressing broad human and ecological health impacts alongside traditional indicators of water quality.
Novotny, V., & Brown, P. (Eds.). (2007). Cities of the future: Towards integrated sustainable water and landscape management. London: IWA.
This collection is based on a Wingspread International Workshop that was held in the United States in 2006. Scholars and other experts explore the interplay among urban water quality, hydrology, and green urban growth.Climate Change, Communicating
Kolbert, E. (2006). Field notes from a catastrophe: Man, nature, and climate change. New York: Bloomsbury.
Of the many popular books on climate change, this is one of the best, perhaps the best of all. Elizabeth Kolbert, a writer for The New Yorker, takes the reader into the lives of climate scientists, shows how the research is being conducted, and explains present and possible future impacts. This book also demonstrates how to write about climate science in a clear, compelling way.
Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., & Leiserowitz, A. (2009). Global warming's six Americas 2009: An audience segmentation analysis. Available at http://climatechange.gmu.edu
This report describes six U.S. target audiences—their values, beliefs, behaviors, and patterns of media use—in great detail; it can be used by communicators to understand the groups they are seeking to reach, thereby increasing the potential effectiveness of their messages.
Mann, M. E., & Kump, L. R. (2008). Dire predictions: Understanding global warming: The illustrated guide to the findings of the IPCC. New York: Kindersley.
An easy-to-understand introduction to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, written by one of the lead IPCC authors (Michael E. Mann) and the lead author of the most widely used textbook on earth systems (Lee R. Kump). It covers the basics of climate science, the causes of climate change, projected impacts, adaptation and mitigation, and ethical and social consequences. Charts, figures, and photos graphically illustrate these points.
Moser, S. C., & Dilling, L. (Eds.). (2007). Creating a climate for change: Communicating climate change and facilitating social change. New York: Cambridge University Press.
With chapters by many of the leading scholars working in the area of climate change communication, this text summarizes a wide range of relevant literatures, describes a number of communication interventions, and recommends methods of engaging and influencing audiences.Cloning
Haran, J., Kitzinger, J., McNeil, M., & O'Riordan, K. (2008). Human cloning in the media: From science fiction to science practice. London: Routledge.
This text provides a synthesis of science and technology studies with media and cultural studies of human cloning in the media. The authors discuss the scientific and literary genealogy of human cloning, the actors involved, and the social and bioethical implications, and they base their discussion on a variety of data and perspectives.
Stanford Encyclopedia on Philosophy, “Cloning”: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cloning
This entry in a highly useful online encyclopedia describes the most important areas of debate regarding the ethics of human cloning.[Page 978]Cold War Rhetoric
Brockriede, W., & Scott, R. L. (1970). Moments in the rhetoric of the cold war. New York: Random House.
This first book-length treatment of cold war rhetoric posits a view of rhetoric as comprised of interpersonal, ideational, and situational dimensions. The authors assess the 1947 Truman Doctrine speech, speeches by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev made in a 1959 U.S. visit, and Kennedy administration decisions in the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
Medhurst, M. J., & Brands, H. W. (Eds.). (2000). Critical reflections on the cold war: Linking rhetoric and history. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Martin Medhurst observes in the concluding essay that the cold war “is a rich amalgam” of people, events, and symbols. Historians, political scientists, and communication scholars illuminate Medhurst's claim with a diverse collection of studies.
Medhurst, M. J., Ivie, R. L., Wander, P., & Scott, R. L. (1997). Cold war rhetoric: Strategy, metaphor, and ideology. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
This book examines the strategic, metaphoric, and ideological dimensions of cold war discourse. Case studies address Dwight Eisenhower's “Atoms for Peace” speech, Kennedy and the resumption of atmospheric tests, Murrow v. McCarthy on See It Now, the rhetoric of U.S. foreign policy, and the discourse of cold war idealists.
Public Papers of the Presidents. The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu
John Woolley and Gerhard Peters created and oversee The American Presidency Project, which includes the Public Papers of the Presidents. All statements by Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan cited in the entry on cold war rhetoric may be found at this site, easily searchable by date, topic, and speaker.Colonizing Other Worlds
Billings, L. (2007). Ideology, advocacy, and space flight: Evolution of a cultural narrative. In S. J. Dick & R. D. Launius (Eds.), Societal impacts of space flight (pp. 483–500, NASA SP-2007-4801). Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Available at http://history.nasa.gov/sp4801-part2.pdf
This paper, first presented at a National Aeronautics and Space Administration history conference, reviews more than 50 years of rhetoric about space exploration and considers the array of possible meanings of key terms and concepts, such as the idea of the space frontier.
Pyne, S. J. (2003). Seeking newer worlds: The future of exploration. Sarton Lecture, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Denver, CO. Available at http://www.public.asu.edu/∼spyne/FUTURE.pdf
The author, an accomplished historian and skilled writer, examines space exploration as a cultural phenomenon. He compares the so-called age of space exploration to other historical phases of exploration and suggests that the past and future of space exploration will necessarily be different.Communicating Science to Children
Buckingham, D. (2000). The making of citizens: Young people, news and politics. New York: Routledge.
David Buckingham's books on edutainment, sex education, digital media, and children's responses to television are also highly recommended for anyone thinking about science communication for children.
Turner, S. (2008). School science and its controversies; or, whatever happened to scientific literacy? Public Understanding of Science, 17(1), 55–72.
This article is an extremely useful primer on the recent history of school science, one clearly written for an international audience and that does not assume expertise in education studies.Communication Campaigns in Health and Environment
O'Keefe, G. J., & Shepard, R. L. (2002). Overcoming the challenges of environmental public information and action programs. In J. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The handbook of persuasion: Theory and practice (pp. 661–690). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This chapter focusing specifically on the special difficulties of designing effective environmental campaigns is one of 34 chapters in a comprehensive 800-plus page handbook of theory, practice, and research related to informational campaigns intended to persuade.[Page 979]
Rice, R. E., & Atkin, C. K. (2001). Public communication campaigns (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Just over 30 chapters are contained in this recent edition of a highly useful collection of explorations of strategic campaign choices, many of them case study based and written by some of the most recognizable names in campaign design and evaluation research.Community “Right to Know”
Florini, A., & Stiglitz, J. E. (2007). The right to know: Transparency for an open world. New York: Columbia University Press.
This work presents a much broader assessment of the concept and status of right to know, focusing on worldwide barriers to disclosure of all sorts of government and corporate secrets.
The Right-to-Know Network: http://www.rtknet.org
A very handy repository of right-to-know data sets, including but not limited to the Toxic Release Inquiry data. The site also offers links to organizations focusing on right to know and other resources of value.Computer-Tailored Messages
Goodman, B., & Rushkoff, D. (Writers & Directors). (2003). The persuaders [Television series episode]. In R. Dretzin, B. Goodman, & M. Soenens (Producers), Frontline. Boston, MA: WGBH Educational Foundation.
“The Persuaders” is a 90-minute documentary that examines how changes in marketing practices are influencing U.S. culture and politics. The last two segments of this program discuss the use of tailoring or narrowcasting in both politics and business. The program is available free of charge online athttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/persuaders.
Noar, S. M., Benac, C., & Harris, M. (2007). Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of tailored print health behavior change interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 673–693.
This article is a meta-analysis of 57 tailoring studies dealing with numerous topics and target audiences that are guided by a variety of different theoretical perspectives. It provides information regarding the overall effects of tailored messages and factors that were found to moderate this effect.
Noar, S. M., Harrington, N. G., & Aldrich, R. S. (2009). The role of message tailoring in the development of persuasive health communication messages. In C. S. Beck (Ed.), Communication yearbook 33 (pp. 73–134). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
This chapter provides a comprehensive literature review of the message tailoring literature, including a review of several seminal studies and recent meta-analyses, as well as a list and brief description of dozens of exemplary tailoring projects.Conflicts of Interest in Science
Cook, D. M., Boyd, E. A., Grossmann, C., & Bero, L. A. (2007). Reporting science and conflicts of interest in the lay press. PLoS ONE, 2(12), e1266.
The authors report on a content analysis of 1,152 newspaper stories about science. While funding sources and other financial ties were reported in many of the stories, over a quarter of those stories not reporting financial ties could have gotten this information from publicly available disclosures in scholarly journals.
Davis, M. (2001). Introduction. In M. Davis & A. Stark (Eds.), Conflict of interest in the professions (pp. 3–19). New York: Oxford University Press.
Coeditor Michael Davis's introduction to this book describes 17 chapters on conflict of interest across various professions, ranging from law, business, and finance to health care, as well as academics.
Merton, R. K. (1973). The sociology of science: Theoretical and empirical investigations (N. W. Storer, Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This is a collection of Robert Merton's classic papers on the sociology of science, edited and with an introduction by Norman W. Storer. It includes Merton's insights on the normative structure of science, work originally published in 1942.Consensus Conference
Joss, S., & Durant, J. (Eds.). (1995). Public participation in science: The role of consensus conferences in Europe. London: Science Museum.
This work describes the process through which the call for increased public involvement in science and technology policy resulted in Danish, Dutch, and British consensus conference experiments. It also considers the issue of evaluation.[Page 980]Conversation and Science Communication
Hilgartner, S. (1990). The dominant view of popularization: Conceptual problems, political uses. Social Studies of Science, 20, 519–539.
This piece offers an overview of the long-standing debate about the appropriate role for science education efforts in elevating public understanding of science.
Hwang, Y., & Southwell, B. G. (2007). Can a personality trait predict talk about science? Sensation seeking as a science communication targeting variable. Science Communication, 29(2), 198–216.
Yoori Hwang and Brian Southwell address the question of who talks about science and why they might do so from the perspective of individual personality differences.
Wagner, W. (2007). Vernacular science knowledge: Its role in everyday life communication. Public Understanding of Science, 16(1), 7–22.
Wolfgang Wagner emphasizes that the context of discussion matters and points to important constraints affecting the translation of scientific research into everyday talk.Council for the Advancement of Science Writing
Council for the Advancement of Science Writing: http://casw.org
This site provides detailed information about current programs and resources. It includes information about the New Horizons in Science program, fellowship and award opportunities, and more.Creationism
Eve, R. A., & Harrold, F. B. (1991). The creationist movement in modern America. Boston: Twayne.
This book focuses on 20th-century creationism in the United States. It documents the attempts to halt teaching of evolution in the public schools and analyzes the fears about science that underlie them.
Young, C. C., & Largent, M. A. (2007). Evolution and creationism: A documentary and reference guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
This guide includes material from 40 key primary source documents produced over the last 200 years that pertain to the history of the evolution—creationism debate, arranged in chronological order.Crick, Francis
Olby, R. (2009). Francis Crick: Hunter of life's secrets. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
This work is a scholarly and comprehensive biography based on the personal papers of Francis Crick and compiled by a science historian, an expert on the DNA double helix history, who had worked with Crick since the 1970s.
Ridley, M. (2006). Francis Crick: Discoverer of the genetic code. New York: Atlas Books/HarperCollins.
This is an entertaining and short biography of Francis Crick. Despite the misleading title—Crick did not discover the genetic code—the book rightly emphasizes Crick's longstanding work on its deciphering.Crisis Communication
Anthonissen, P. (2008). Crisis communication: Practical PR strategies for reputation management and company survival. London: Kogan Page.
This work shows the reader how to turn a crisis into an opportunity and how to avoid a disaster though a compilation of contributions from authors around the world. It is a valuable resource full of practical crisis communication advice.
Coombs, W. T. (2007). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This book provides public relations professionals and university students a variety of multidisciplinary perspectives on crisis communication.Cultivation Theory and Science
Gerbner, G. (1987). Science on television: How it affects public conceptions. Issues in Science and Technology, 3, 109–115.
This article applies cultivation theory specifically to television portrayals of science and scientists. It argues that these television representations may cultivate a negative view.
Gerbner, G., & Gross, L. (1976). Living with television: The violence profile. Journal of Communication, 26(2), 173–199.
This classic study presents many of the important underlying ideas behind cultivation theory, [Page 981]emphasizing research results concerned with television's portrayal of violence.
Morgan, M., & Shanahan, J. (1997). Two decades of cultivation research: An appraisal and meta-analysis. In B. R. Burleson (Ed.), Communication yearbook 20 (pp. 1–46). New York: Routledge.
This article reviews many of the cultivation studies done in the 20 years since George Gerbner and his colleagues introduced the concept and draws conclusions about general cultivation effects.DDarwin, Charles
Bowler, P. J. (2003). Evolution: The history of an idea (3rd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
This is a major work by an Irish historian of science and a very good introductory text about Darwin and his theory. It explains the theory and its evidence by relating them to their social and historical context.
The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online: http://darwin-online.org.uk
The site contains over 77,000 pages of searchable text and 188,000 electronic images. It is currently based at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
Darwin, C. (2002). Autobiographies (M. Neve & S. Messenger, Eds.). New York: Penguin.
Darwin's memoirs concentrate on his public career and towering scientific achievements and are full of lively anecdotes about his family and his contemporaries.
Darwin Correspondence Project: http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk
This collection includes around 9,000 of Darwin's letters. The project was founded in 1974 by Frederick Burkhardt, with the aid of Sydney Smith, a zoologist at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.Dawkins, Richard
Dawkins, R. (1989). The selfish gene (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
This book presents Richard Dawkins's notion that genes use organisms to propagate themselves. Widely praised for its clear writing, it changed how many people think about evolution.Deductive Logic
Hurley, P. J. (2003). A concise introduction to logic (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
One of the better-known and widely used textbooks for courses in logic, this book stresses deductive reasoning, while also discussing informal logic and induction.Deficit Model
Gross, A. G. (1994). The roles of rhetoric in the public understanding of science. Public Understanding of Science, 3(1), 3–23.
In this article, Alan G. Gross reviews the roles of rhetoric in both analyzing and creating public understanding. Gross argues that the deficit model is one of two models of public understanding; the contextual model is the second. The deficit model assumes that science must accommodate public needs and limitations, whereas the contextual model adapts science to the public interest.Deliberative Democracy
Fishkin, J., & Laslett, L. (2003). Debating deliberative democracy. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
This book, composed of contributions by a broad range of scholars, including skeptics, links deliberative democracy to environmental ethics and related scientific issues.
Guttman, A., & Thompson, D. (2004). Why deliberative democracy? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
This book includes a clear explanation of what deliberative democracy involves and considers its role in bioethics and health care. It analyzes the purposes, principles, and moral foundations of deliberative democracy.Deliberative Polling
Fishkin, J. S. (1997). The voice of the people: Public opinion and democracy (2nd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
The text provides philosophical and historical context for the concept of deliberation as it relates to opinion[Page 982]quality. It outlines early efforts to use Deliberative Polling to address these limitations.
McCombs, M. E., & Reynolds, A. (1999). The poll with a human face: The National Issues Convention experiment in political communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
This edited volume includes chapters that detail a number of studies focused around a large-scale deliberative event in the context of the 1996 U.S. federal election, as well as a discussion of key concepts related to deliberation.Department of Agriculture, U.S.
U.S. Department of Agriculture: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome
As the home site of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this site provides information on a very broad range of areas with which the agency is involved, from food and nutrition to renewable energy, commodity markets, and rural development. Many of these areas are mentioned above.Department of Energy, U.S.
U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.doe.gov
The official DOE site provides a wealth of energy-related information not only about DOE activities, including those of the national laboratories, but also about consumer energy conservation and state-by-state news and status reports with respect to energy issues.Dewey, John
Dewey, J. (1944). Democracy and education. New York: The Free Press.
Originally published in 1916, this work represents Dewey's classic statement about the subject matter where his influence is often considered to have been the greatest: philosophy of education.Diffusion of Innovations
Dearing, J. W., Maibach, E., & Buller, D. (2006). A convergent diffusion and social marketing approach for disseminating proven approaches to physical activity promotion. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31(Suppl. 4), S11–S23.
When one tries to apply diffusion concepts to affect the rate at which innovations diffuse, the resulting diffusion intervention has much in common with marketing science. This article is an explicit pairing of diffusion of innovation and marketing science concepts to accelerate the spread of evidence-based innovations.
Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass communications. New York: Free Press.
Even though individuals directly receive most information about innovations directly from mediated sources such as the Internet, for consequential innovations—those innovations that will require behavioral change—influence through interpersonal networks is still the key to innovation adoption. This landmark book shows the large extent to which interpersonal relations mediate mass media.
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
Diffusion has been studied across many disciplines and in many countries for a wide range of innovations. This book is the definitive synthesis about the process of diffusion, with emphasis on the functions played by people in this process.Digital Divide
Norris, P. (2001). Digital divide: Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press.
One of the defining books on the subject, this book analyzes the Internet in terms of its democratic potential and shortcomings. The Internet reflects rather than transforms the structural features of a given social system, but it can provide new access points into political systems and provide other linkages.
Sunstein, C. R. (2007). http://Republic.com 2.0. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
This work identifies the ways in which new communication technologies, specifically the Internet, can fragment society into ever-narrowing niches. It reevaluates the idea of the personalized newspaper as something that might undermine democratic discourse.
van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2006). The network society: Social aspects of new media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
In this pioneering book, the author details how mediated networks of communication contribute to the transition of a mass society to a network society;[Page 983]this transformation as described is gradual and evolutionary, but not revolutionary.Digital Rhetoric and Science
Bazerman, C. (1988). Shaping written knowledge: The genre and activity of the experimental article in science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
This is an important study of just one genre in science, the experimental research article, done from a variety of different analytical perspectives.
Crawford, S. Y., Hurd, J. M., & Weller, A. C. (1996). From print to electronic: The transformation of scientific communication. Medford, NJ: Information Today.
Although it is a little dated now, this book is a good introduction to the ways that digital media are changing scientific communication. It includes a speculative model of scientific communication without traditional journals.
Ziman, J. (1968). Public knowledge: The social dimension of science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
This book makes the important argument that science is inherently communal (or social) and that science therefore simply cannot happen without communication.Disaster Coverage
Chui, G. (2006). Earth sciences. In D. Blum, M. Knudson, & R. M. Henig (Eds.), A field guide for science writers (2nd ed., pp. 236–242). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
This book offers guidance on the craft of science writing and available markets, as well as commentary from a range of science writers outlining their tips and approaches for science writing in a range of fields. There is also a very informative chapter on communicating science from within institutions and organizations.
Gunawardene, N., & Noronha, F. (Ed.). (2007).
Communicating disasters: An Asia Pacific resource book. Bangkok, Thailand: UNDP Regional Centre in Bangkok and TVE Asia Pacific. Available at http://www.tveap.org
This book is a review of communication after the Asian tsunami of 2004, covering the perspectives of aid workers, organizational representatives, and media professionals.Discourse Analysis and Science
Gee, J. P. (1999). Introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. New York: Routledge.
James Gee's general introduction to discourse analysis is an excellent start for readers interested in an overview of this method and is a clear explanation of how to study the relationships between discourse and social institutions.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1993). Writing science: Literacy and discursive power. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
M. A. K. Halliday's broad study starts with Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin to illustrate how specialized scientific language has enabled the development of science as a discipline.
Latour, B., & Woolgar, S. (1986). Laboratory life: The social construction of scientific facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
While more properly described as a work of ethnography, this study of a working laboratory in the Salk Institute illustrates some of the methods of discourse analysis, particularly in its careful attention to the ways that statements of scientific facts gradually evolve as they are introduced and then cited in subsequent publications.
Myers, G. (1990). Writing biology: Texts in the social construction of science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
An important work in discourse analysis and science communication, this in-depth study of the writing practices of two prominent biologists as they wrote grant proposals and research articles shows the connections between social institutions, conventions, values, and the language of science.Drug Advertising
Angell, M. (2004). The truth about the drug companies: How they deceive us and what to do about it. New York: Random House.
Written by a former editor in chief of the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine, this book documents the major investment by pharmaceutical companies in advertising their products.
Peterson, M. (2008). Our daily meds: How the pharmaceutical companies transformed themselves into slick marketing machines and hooked the nation on prescription drugs. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.[Page 984]
A former New York Times reporter takes on the pharmaceutical industry. The author argues that today's pharmaceutical companies are marketing machines above all, with disturbing results—including 100,000 deaths per year attributable to prescription drugs used as directed.EEast Asia, Science Communication in
Cheng, D., & Zhou, H. (2007). Science communication on demand. In M. Claessens (Ed.), Communicating European research, 2005 (pp. 31–35). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
This book chapter reviews how the China Association for Science and Technology worked hard to improve science and technology popularization through different channels, such as training and consultation, hand-in-hand teaching, science museums and wagons, and crisis communications, to meet the needs of different peoples who are living in different conditions.
Ishizu, S., Sekiya, M., Ishibashi, K.-I., Negami, Y., & Ata, M. (2008). Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: Our scope. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 10, 229–254.
This article discusses how Japanese scientists, government, companies, and consumer organizations interacted with nanotechnology research & development and suggests that it is crucial for scientists to tell the public both the positive and the negative about nanotechnology products to maintain public trust and enhance public science literacy.
Kim, H.-S. (2007). A new model for communicative effectiveness of science. Science Communication, 28(3), 287–313.
Using data from two Korean national surveys, the study found that the public lacked appreciation of science and suggested that the concept of public understanding of science was no longer suitable. The author proposed a new model of public engagement with the goal to improve the effectiveness of science communication.
Lee, K. (2008). Making environmental communications meaningful to female adolescents: A study in Hong Kong. Science Communication, 30(2), 147–176.
The study surveyed 3,035 Hong Kong female teenagers and found that, in responding to the recycling advertisements, Hong Kong female adolescents were more easily activated by passionate concerns rather than the rational arguments. Possibly due to collectivism, they relied more on others and acted less by themselves.Effective Graphics
Holmes, N. (1990) Designer's guide to creating charts and diagrams. New York: Watson-Guptill.
This is a classic book from the former art director of Time magazine, who shows how to graphically display information and how to make it memorable and entertaining for a mass media audience.
Tufte, E. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information (2nd ed.). Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
A classic on informational graphics, this book criticizes heavily illustrated informational graphics as “chartoons” and argues instead in favor of clear, simple graphics that are stylistically more suited to academic journals and presentations.Einstein, Albert
Calaprice, A., & Lipscombe, T. (2005). Albert Einstein: A biography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
This biography is shorter and more to the point than many others and is written at an easy-to-read level. It has a helpful timeline at the beginning and provides a good outline of Einstein's life and career.
Isaacson, W. (2007). Einstein: His life and universe. New York: Simon & Schuster.
This comprehensive, in-depth biography features a “main characters list” at the beginning that provides a quick reference guide to some of the main people in Einstein's life.Embargo System
Kiernan, V. (2006). Embargoed science. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Based in part on a series of interviews with daily newspaper journalists, this book shows how embargoes on science news help foreground material from a limited number of powerful journals and ultimately exert a strong—and possibly unhealthy—influence on the news about science and medicine that is received by the public.[Page 985]Endangered Species Act
Burgess, B. B. (2001). Fate of the wild: The Endangered Species Act and the future of biodiversity. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
This is a well-written technical treatment of the Endangered Species Act, including its history, the politics surrounding the act, the implementing agencies, and the suitability of the act to address challenges of the future.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora: http://www.cites.org
This site is a very complete resource about the purpose and function of the convention. The site includes information on listed species, membership (CITES is an international treaty and that voting members are nation-states), current issues, and a “resources” section that includes databases, manuals, national reports, and other relevant links.
Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: http://www.fws.gov/endangeredThis is a valuable resource with a diversity of topics germane to the Endangered Species Act, including current news, appeals for public input on impending decisions, numerous tools and downloadable reports, and a “Kids' Corner.”Environmental Defense Fund
Environmental Defense Fund: http://www.edf.org
This Web site lays out the organization's philosophy and its strategies for using science and scientists, harnessing market forces, and engaging the corporate sector in finding solutions to environmental problems.Environmental Impact Statements
Clark, R., & Canter, L. (Eds.). (1997). Environmental policy and NEPA: Past, present and future. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press.
This widely cited book reviews the successes and failures of the National Environmental Policy Act—past, present, and prospects for the future—based on the analyses provided by 28 contributing authors.
National Environmental Policy Act: http://www.nepa.gov
This Web site provides the full text of the 1969 statute, as amended, links to NEPA sites for each affected federal agency, and provides other useful details, including information on current federal environmental impact statement procedures and cases.Environmental Journalism
Allan, S., Adam, B., & Carter, C. (Eds.). (2000). Environmental risks and the media. London: Routledge.
In a series of research studies, this text explores the impact of environmental news coverage on public perception of environmental hazards. In so doing, it offers valuable lessons on traditional news practices and how they might be improved.
LaMay, C. L., & Dennis, E. E. (Eds.). (1991). Media and the environment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
This collection of essays from former and current news professionals explores persistent questions that have shaped and challenged environmental journalism, including the objectivity-advocacy debate. Each author offers inspiration and much food for thought for those considering an environmental reporting career.
Neuzil, M., & Kovarik, W. (1996). Mass media and environmental conflict: America's green crusades. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Mark Neuzil and William Kovarik focus on the role of U.S. newspapers and other media in environmental controversies from the mid-1800s on, including the post–Civil War wildlife conservation crusade and the 1920s fight to call public attention to radium exposure in the workplace. Through the lens of history, the authors offer a better understanding of current news practices and social attitudes toward environmental issues.Environmental Justice
Bullard, R. (1990). Dumping in Dixie: Race, class, and environmental quality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
This book was based on the initial research Robert Bullard conducted for the 1979 lawsuit, Bean v. Southwestern Waste Management Corporation, and provides a historical record of environmental racism in the United States.
United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice. (1987). Toxic wastes and race in the United States: A national report on the racial and socio-economic characteristics of communities with hazardous waste sites. New York: Author.[Page 986]
The original report, along with the updated version “Toxic Waste and Race at 20,” available at http://www.nccecojustice.org/toxicwasteandrace.htm, provides a comprehensive definition of environmental justice and the actions required to rectify environmental inequity.Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov
This is the official U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web site, which provides general information and news about the agency and about environment-related science, technology, and laws and regulations.ETC Group
ETC Group: http://www.etc.org
This is the official Web site of the organization known as the ETC Group. This site provides access to news and reports on technology issues from the organization's perspective.Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI)
Clayton, E. W. (2003). Ethical, legal and social issues in genomic medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 562–569.
This essay provides a succinct overview of current ELSI research occasioned by the rise of genomics. It includes earlier work done in connection with the human genome initiative.
Meslin, E. M., Thomson, E. J., & Boyer, J. T. (1997). Bioethics inside the beltway: The ethical, legal, and social implications research program at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 7, 291–298.
The authors provide a history and assessment of the emergence of ELSI programming at the National Institutes of Health, and examine how it is connected to work in research ethics that was focused on protecting human subjects.
Mnyusiwalla, A., Daar, A. S., & Singer, P. A. (2003). “Mind the gap”: Science and ethics in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology, 14, R9–R13.
This brief article reviews some areas in emerging technology that the authors believe need a research effort comparable to the ELSI initiative undertaken in connection with the human genome initiative.
Wynne, B. (2001). Creating public alienation: Expert cultures of risk and ethics on GMOs. Science as Culture, 10, 445–481.
Brian Wynne is critical of ELSI-style research. In this article, he suggests that in creating “experts on risk and ethics,” ELSI work effectively disenfranchises the voice of the public and undercuts democratic guidance of science.Eugenics
Gould, S. J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: W. W. Norton.
This book debunks the idea that intelligence can be measured by cranial size, shape, or the scores on so-called IQ tests, which capture at most only a narrow measure of ability, and argues that attempts to reduce intelligence to such measures serve primarily to reward the rich and powerful by preserving their status.
Sandel, M. (2007). The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
The author, a Harvard professor of government and a former member of the President's Council on Bioethics, argues against genetic manipulation of humans on secular grounds, beginning with the premise that life is a gift.Europe, Research System in
European Commission. (2008). Science, technology and innovation in Europe. Luxembourg, Germany: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Available at http://www.imamidejo.si/resources/files/doc/KS-EM-08–001-EN.pdf
This publication of the European Commission provides detailed information about R&D investments, personnel, productivity and competitiveness, and other statistical indicators related to European research activity and accomplishments.
European Organization for Nuclear Research: http://public.web.cern.ch/public/Welcome.html
This site provides a wealth of information about the facilities and educational, environmental, and technology transfer programs, as well as scientific activities, of the European Organization for Nuclear Research. This site provides the portal to visit the organization and to visit with an expert.
National Science Board, U.S. (2008). Science and engineering indicators 2008. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind08
This rich compilation of national and international statistics is a wonderful and very usable resource for[Page 987]data on research investment, research productivity, public attitudes toward research, educational achievement, and a range of related topics.European Space Agency
European Space Agency: http://www.esa.int
The Web portal of the European Space Agency offers news and information about space from a European perspective. A variety of education and communication materials (such as brochures, press kits, education kits, and videos) can be downloaded or ordered for free. Media professionals can subscribe to dedicated mailing lists and learn about press events.
Russo, A., Krige, J., & Sebesta, L. (2000). A history of the European Space Agency, 1958–1987. Noordwijk, the Netherlands: European Space Agency.
This extensive essay offers a detailed history of the European Space Agency. It contains detailed information and a critical analysis of the factors that led to the creation of ESA and explains the decision-making process in one of the most important European scientific organizations.Evaluation of Science Communication
Corbett, J. B., & Durfee, J. L. (2004). Testing public (un)certainty of science: Media representations of global warming. Science Communication, 26, 129–151.
This widely cited article demonstrates that the type of context in which global warming research is presented (for example, whether or not controversy is emphasized) can influence audience interpretation of the results.
Miller, J. D., Augenbraun, E., Schulhof, J., & Kimmel, L. G. (2006). Adult science learning from local television newscasts. Science Communication, 28, 216–242.
Recognizing the general importance of television as a source of news for most U.S. adults, this article explores the impact of local television news stories on science and health topics.Evidence-Based Medicine
Cochrane Collaboration: http://www.cochrane.org
The Cochrane Collaboration is an international collaboration of researchers and health care professionals that perform systematic reviews of current best evidence to help guide health care decision making. It also coordinates research in improving EBP methodologies and dissemination of evidence.
Higgins J. P. T., & Green, S. (Eds.). (2008). The Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Available at http://www.cochrane-handbook.org
The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official guidance and reference handbook for any researcher conducting systematic reviews.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, UK: http://www.nice.org.uk
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence is one of the preeminent health care organizations that provide evidence-based guidance on various health care interventions for the U.K. health service. Examples of evidence-based guidelines and health information are available on its Web site.Exxon Valdez
Lebedoff, D. (1997). Cleaning up: The story behind the biggest legal bonanza of our time. New York: Free Press.
This book provides extensive technical details of the complex litigation that followed the spill. Writing somewhat in the style of a novelist, the author based this nonfiction account on thousands of pages of records and interviews with a number of the key players.FFear Appeals
Goodall, C. E., & Roberto, A. J. (2008). An Inconvenient Truth: An application of the extended parallel process model. Communication Teacher, 22, 97–100.
This teaching tool illustrates how the principles described in the extended parallel process model are used in An Inconvenient Truth to encourage viewers to take steps to prevent global warming.
Witte, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs, 59, 329–349.
In this article, Kim Witte first advanced the extended parallel process model to explain the[Page 988]successes and failures of fear appeals. It contains a history of fear appeal theories and research, along with the initial propositions of the extended parallel process model. Witte, K., & Allen, M. (2000). A meta-analysis of fear appeals: Implications for effective public health campaigns. Heath Education Behavior, 27, 591–614.
This article provides a comprehensive examination and synthesis of the fear appeal literature via a meta-analysis of 98 fear appeal studies. Among other things, results indicate that high-threat and high-efficacy messages lead to the greatest behavior change, whereas high-threat and low-efficacy messages lead to the greatest defensive responsiveness.
Witte, K., Meyer, G., & Martell, D. (2001). Effective health risk messages: A step-by-step guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This book provides a detailed overview of how to develop behavioral changes messages. It includes an overview of the fear appeal literature, a review of several other prominent behavioral change theories, and a discussion of the common types and methods of program evaluation.Feynman, Richard
Gleick, J. (1992). Genius: The life and science of Richard Feynman. New York: Pantheon.
True to its title, this biography not only presents Richard Feynman as a person, but also sets his life and work in the context of the revolutionary physics he helped developed.Food and Drug Administration, U.S.
Goodwin, L. S. (1999). The pure food, drink, and drug crusaders, 1879–1914. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Written by a retired pharmacist and historian, the book chronicles the enactment of the 1906 Pure Food and Drink Law, including the involvement of activist (especially women's) groups in pushing for its adoption.Food Irradiation
Diehl, J. F. (1995). Safety of irradiated foods (2nd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.
An overview of worldwide research on, and commercial utilization of, irradiated foods, this book examines the exaggerations, misunderstandings, and muddled terminology that often characterize the controversies regarding the safety of food irradiation.Food Libel Laws
Atkins, R., & Mintcheva, S. (Eds.). (2006). Censoring culture. New York: New Press.
While this is not a book about food, it is a very nice collection of essays on how our words can be used against us, as well as how groups are silenced. This is the kind of book one needs to read if one is interested in why certain voices are heard in the press, while others are kept silent.
Schlosser, E. (2001). Fast food nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
This is probably one of the more popular books on the food industry in the last few years. It gives a good account of how different groups have felt about news reports of their conduct, ranging from cattle ranchers to the fast food industry.Food Safety
Miles, S., & Scaife, V. (2003). Optimistic bias and food. Nutrition Research Reviews, 16, 3–19.
This is a review of optimistic bias in the area of food choice.
Nauta, M. J., Fischer, A. R. H., van Asselt, E. D., de Jong, A. E. I., Frewer, L. J., & de Jonge, R. (2008). Food safety in the domestic environment: The effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks. Risk Analysis, 28, 179–192.
This article presents research examining risk communication surrounding food issues and its impact on behavior in relation to domestic hygiene practices and disease risks.
Verbeke, W., Vanhonacker, F., Frewer, L. J., Sioen, I., de Henauw, S., & van Camp, J. (2008). Communicating risks and benefits from fish consumption: Impact on Belgian consumers' perception and intention to eat fish. Risk Analysis, 28, 951–967.
This research examines some of the problems associated with risk-benefit communication and consumer food choices with respect to fish consumption.[Page 989]Framing and Priming in Science Communication
Scheufele, D. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication, 49, 103–122.
This article proposes the use of a process model to understand the way frames are created and can influence audiences. The author summarizes prior research on framing and identifies four separate processes that may be involved: frame building, frame setting, individual-level processing, and feedback from audiences to journalists.Franklin, Benjamin
Cohen, I. B. (1995). Science and the Founding Fathers—Science in the political thought of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and James Madison. New York: W. W. Norton.
The author, a Harvard professor of the history of science, examines the links between the scientific thinking and the political ideas of those who created the U.S. constitutional government.Freelancing
Harper. T. (Ed.). (2003). The ASJA (American Society of Journalists and Authors) guide to freelance writing. New York: St. Martin's.
This well-known guide is a collection of individually authored essays that provides extensive guidance on many of the tasks any science writer, including freelancers, must master, along with information about the nature of specific media that provide outlets for this work.Fuel Cell Technology
Ogden, J. (2006). High hopes for hydrogen. Scientific American, 295(3), 94–101.
This article discusses the use of hydrogen fuel cells as an alternative to continued consumption of crude oil. It outlines the challenges of providing needed infrastructure, in addition to those of developing inexpensive, durable, long-distance vehicles that make use of this technology.GGalileo Galilei
Biagioli, M. (1993). Galileo, courtier. The practice of science in the culture of absolutism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
The author sets Galileo's life and fame in the context of 17th-century Italian court life and the impact of this system of court patronage on scientific discourse.
Drake, S. (1978). Galileo at work: His scientific biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This biography documents Galileo's life and scientific contributions, while setting those contributions in the context of his family and educational influences and his professional career.Gender Representations of Scientists
LaFollette, M. C. (1988). Eyes on the stars: Images of women scientists in popular magazines. Science, Technology and Human Values, 13(3–4), 262–275.
This study documented portrayals of women scientists in magazine biographies from 1920 to 1955. These portrayals perpetuated the stereotype that scientific careers often meant great personal sacrifice for women scientists. Those who succeeded in balancing career and family were portrayed as “superscientists.”
Long, M., Boiarsky, G., & Thayer, G. (2001). Gender and racial counter-stereotypes in science education television: A content analysis. Public Understanding of Science, 10, 255–269.
This study of children's educational science programs from the 1990s included an analysis of the gender and race of scientist characters. This study found that male characters had a much greater overall screen presence because they appeared on television for longer periods of time than female characters.
Steinke, J. (2005). Cultural representations of gender and science: Portrayals of female scientists and engineers in popular films. Science Communication, 27, 27–63.
This study analyzed cultural representations of gender conveyed through images of female scientists and engineers in popular films in the United States from 1991 to 2001. This article noted the greater representation of male scientists and engineers and explored how depictions of female scientists and engineers reinforce gender stereotypes of science.Gene
Cook-Deegan, R. (1994). The gene wars: Science, politics and the Human Genome Project. New York: W. W. Norton.
This book documents the origins of the Human Genome Project, including the public-private race to sequence the human genome. Written by a medical[Page 990]doctor who directed the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment's study of genome research from 1986 to 1988.
Kevles, D., & Hood, L. (Eds.). (1992). The code of codes: Scientific and social issues in the Human Genome Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
An anthology about the Human Genome Project that provides a variety of views based on contributions by a wide range of scientists, scholars, and social critics.Gene Patenting
Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation, National. (2006). Reaping the benefits of genomic and proteomic research: Intellectual property rights, innovation, and public health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
This publication considers the patenting and licensing of human genetic material as an extension of intellectual property rights that occurs well in advance of the development of related therapies. The report concludes that these restrictions are less significant for biomedical research at present than they will be in the future.
Shapiro, C. (2001). Navigating the patent thicket: Cross licenses, patent pools, and standard setting. In E. Jaffe, J. Lerner, & S. Stern (Eds.), Innovation Policy and the Economy (Vol. 1, pp. 119–150). Cambridge: MIT Press.
This discussion appears in the first volume of a series designed to explore the relationship between public policy and innovation. Does policy affect science and technology innovation, and does science and technology—in turn—affect economic growth? This series seeks the answers.
Thompson, A. K., & Chadwick, R. F. (Eds.). (1999). Genetic information: Acquisition, access, and control. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
This collection of papers considers issues involved with the control of, and access to, genetic information, using a variety of theoretical and disciplinary frameworks.Gene Therapy
Habermas, J. (2003). The future of human nature. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
In this book, Jürgen Habermas, an influential German philosopher, discusses the question of the permissibility of the genetic engineering of human beings. He is concerned with whether societies have the right stringently to regulate genetic engineering, or whether it ought to be left to individual choice and therefore to the market.
Walters, L., & Palmer, J. G. (1997). The ethics of human gene therapy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Bioethicist LeRoy Walters and attorney Julie Gage Palmer discuss some of the difficult ethical and public policy issues surrounding gene therapy and genetic enhancement in this book. The book is very accessible to the nonscientist, with descriptions of the structure and function of DNA, genes, and cells, as well as the technologies behind gene therapy.Gould, Stephen Jay
Ruse, M. (1999). Mystery of mysteries. Is evolution a social construction? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
In this book, Ruse presents the thinking of a broad range of evolutionary theorists and popularizers, analyzing the ways in which social ideas have influenced each of them. Chapter 7, “Speaking Out for Paleontology,” is devoted to Stephen Jay Gould.Government Public Information
Borchelt, R. E. (2001). Communicating the future. Science Communications, 23, 194–211.
NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center chartered a 15-member working group to develop a research strategy to address the big questions in science communication identify best practices. This is their report.
Porter, G. J. (Ed.). (2002). Communicating the future: Best practices in communicating about science and technology to the public. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
This is the full proceedings of a 2002 conference focusing on “best practices” in the communication of science and technology to the public, held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland.Greenpeace
Weyler, R. (2004). Greenpeace: How a group of ecologists, journalists, and visionaries changed the world. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Books.[Page 991]
Written by one of the group's earliest members, this book chronicles how the group of activists that first came together in Vancouver in 1970 evolved into an internationally recognized organization that is today nearly synonymous with proenvironmental and antinuclear protest.HHawking, Stephen
Hawking, S. (1988). A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes. New York: Bantam.
Almost certainly Stephen Hawking's best-known popular book, this slim volume continues to sell briskly. It explains the nature of the universe, space, time, and uncertainty in under 200 pages.Health Communication, Overview
U.S. Health and Human Services Department. (2002). Healthy people 2010 (2nd ed.). McLean, VA: International Medical.
This very widely cited report sets out goals for the United States to aspire to, in terms of creating a more healthy population by 2010.Health Communication and the Internet
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. (2004). Health literacy: A prescription to end confusion. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
This report helped launch a new research discipline and a host of accompanying efforts by hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, government institutions, and foundations to improve the nation's health literacy. The report also indirectly addresses e-health's potential to improve the public understanding of health and medicine.
National Cancer Institute. (2008). Health information trends survey. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://hints.cancer.gov
This is the most comprehensive survey of how the public uses and seeks health information. Besides its value as a reference, the dataset (which includes all the study's findings and original questions) can be downloaded and used for personal research.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy people 2010 (Conference ed., Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
This comprehensive report indirectly addresses e-health's potential contributions to improving the nation's public and personal health, as well as e-health's impact on health disparities. It also discusses the need to boost the nation's health literacy, among other health communication issues. The 2020 edition, currently in preparation, will more directly address the role of e-health.Health Literacy
Pleasant, A. (2008). A second look at the health literacy of American adults and the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Focus on Basics, 9(B), 46–52.
This article evaluates the design and effectiveness of the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy in the United States and makes key recommendations about how those data should be reported.
Pleasant, A., & Kuruvilla, S. (2008). A tale of two health literacies? Public health and clinical approaches to health literacy. Health Promotion International, 23(2), 152–159. Retrieved Feb. 28, 2008, from http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/dan001v1
This article reports on empirical research that is perhaps the most concrete evidence to date of the two-sided nature of health literacy and how the public and health care professionals can put their health literacy skills to different uses in the same informational context.
Zarcadoolas, C., Pleasant, A., & Greer, D. (2006). Advancing health literacy: A framework for understanding and action. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
This book provides a comprehensive framework of health literacy that is useful for understanding health literacy, building health literacy interventions, and evaluating health literacy projects.Highway Safety
Vanderbilt, T. (2008). Traffic: Why we drive the way we do (and what it says about us). New York: Knopf.
This book attempts to explain in a user-friendly style how our perceptions can be deceived and our decisions misguided with respect to what is safe, and what is risky, about driving.HIV/AIDS Prevention and Communication
Greene, K., Derlega, V. J., Yep, G. A., &, Petronio, S. (2003). Privacy and disclosure of HIV in interpersonal[Page 992]relationships: A sourcebook for researchers and practitioners. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
This book offers insights into many facets surrounding a person's decision-making processes regarding disclosure (or not) of his or her HIV status to family, friends, and sexual partners. Types of disclosures, how they occur, and their consequences are all discussed, offering readers a more personal look into this complex issue.
Noar, S. M., Palmgreen, P., Chabot, M., Dobransky, N., & Zimmerman, R. S. (2009). A 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress? Journal of Health Communication, 14(1), 15–42.
This article summarizes results of HIV prevention campaigns disseminated via the mass media. Its multipage table is useful for anyone interested in a quick understanding of what types of campaigns have been attempted worldwide, targeting audiences ranging from injection drug users to senior citizens.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. (n.d.). Making health communication programs work. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from http://www.cancer.gov/pinkbook
This popular book is now available completely online. Its intent is to provide a step-by-step approach to formulating, designing, instituting, and evaluating health communication programs in an easy-to-understand format. Appendices provide links to campaign materials and other useful resources for anyone interested in conceptualizing and implementing a health communication program.Holography
Ackermann, G. K., & Eichler, J. (2007). Holography: A practical approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
From the very basics right through to more advanced techniques, this book provides a practical introduction to holography. Written at a level that makes it suitable for use as a university textbook, the book also contains experiments that will help to illuminate the science behind holography.
Saxby, S. (2003). Practical holography (3rd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis.
This immense tome on the subject of holography is written in a style that makes it immediately clear and accessible. The book covers in great detail a range of different techniques and practical information on the science of holography, without being unduly overwhelming. It covers the full gamut of setups.
Unterseher, F., Schlesinger, B., & Hansen, J. (1996). The holography handbook (3rd ed.). Berkeley, CA: Ross Books.
A must-read for hobbyist holographers, this handbook provides a straightforward introduction, for those with little or no science background, to the science of holography through the practice of actually making one. The book is comprehensively illustrated and gives proven strategies for holography success.House Science Committee, U.S.
Hechler, K. (1980). Toward the endless frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959–79. U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
This very detailed work, 1,072 pages, is the best single source for historical information about the committee up to the year 1979.Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope: http://hubblesite.org
This is the official Hubble Space Telescope site, full of updated information and free spectacular images.
Star Witness News:http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/news
The homepage of an online newspaper bringing you the latest from the Hubble Space Telescope, with easy-to-understand language, graphics, and illustrations.Human Genome Project
Geransar, R., & Einsiedel, E. (2008). Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: Informed choices or buyers beware? Genetic Testing, 12(1), 13–23.
The authors discuss several companies that provide direct-to-consumer genetic testing and examine several issues such as the involvement of health care providers, the availability of genetic counseling, and the scientific validity of the genetic associations tested.
Gollust, S. E., Wilfond, B. S., & Hull, S. C. (2003). Direct-to-consumer sales of genetic services on the Internet. Genetic Medicine, 5(4), 332–337.[Page 993]
Sarah E. Gollust and collaborators examine genetic tests available for sale over the Internet and discuss the ethical and regulatory implications.
International HapMap Consortium. (2003). The International HapMap Project. Nature, 426, 789–796.
The first major publication from the International HapMap Consortium describes the mapping of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome, providing basic information about this initiative.
Redon, R., Ishikawa, S., Fitch, K. R., Feuk, L., Perry, G. H., Andrews, D., et al. (2006). Global variation in copy number in the human genome. Nature, 444(7118), 444–454.
The authors examined 270 individuals from four different populations and generated the first map of copy number variations in the human genome, revealing that this provides an important source of interindividual genomic variation in addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Weinstein, M., Widenor, M., & Hecker, S. (2005).
Health and employment practices: Ethical, legal, and social implications of advances in toxicogenomics. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Journal, 53(12), 529–533.
This article addresses ethical and legal aspects of pre-and postemployment workplace genetic testing, along with social implications and outstanding questions that will need to be addressed in the years to come.Hurricane Katrina
National Hazards Center. (2006). Learning from catastrophe: Quick response research in the wake of Hurricane Katrina (Special publication No. 40). Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Scientists responded quickly to Katrina, and this publication includes 18 chapters based on social science research investigating responses to Katrina from a range of perspectives. It provides not only perspectives on the specific disaster, but also concepts that may be applicable in other disaster situations as well.
Thevenot, B. (2005). Apocalypse in New Orleans. American Journalism Review, 27(5), 24–31.
This article reviews how New Orleans journalists dealt with covering the effects of Hurricane Katrina. A sense of how disasters affect those who cover them for the media, as well as empathy for residents directly affected, is needed for those who will find themselves in this position professionally.
Times-Picayune. (2002). Special report: Washing away. Five-part series, June 23–27. Available at http://www.nola.com/hurricane/content.ssf?/washingaway/index.html
This background series was an important precursor alarm that described the setting and potential damage that could occur from a major hurricane striking New Orleans, which was demonstrated by Katrina a little over 3 years afterwards.IIndia, Science and Science Communication in
Bhargava, P. M., & Chakrabarty, C. (2003). The saga of Indian science since independence: In a nutshell. Bangalore, India: University Press.
This is an excellent critique of science in India. The first author played a critical role in development of cellular molecular biology in India. The book traces the evolution of Indian science from ancient times up to 2001. It also touches on issues such as the introduction of jyotish (Vedic astrology) in the curriculum.Inductive Logic
Toulmin, S. (1994). The uses of argument. New York: Oxford University Press.
While a number of well-known textbooks used in courses on logic provide extensive coverage of the various types of inductive reasoning, this book by Stephen Toulmin incorporates more of a specific focus on induction.Information Seeking and Processing
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. New York: Harcourt Brace.
This book provides an in-depth discussion of attitudes and an oft-cited 42-page chapter that introduces, delineates, and differentiates the elaboration likelihood and heuristic-systematic processing models. Strengths and weaknesses of both models are discussed.
Griffin, R., Dunwoody, S., & Neuwirth, K. (1999). Proposed model of the relationship of risk information seeking and processing to the development of preventive behaviors. Environmental Research, 80, 230–245.[Page 994]
This seminal research article discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the authors' risk information seeking and processing model. A brief explication of the model's basic concepts is offered alongside a graphic representation of the model.
McGuire, W. (1974). Psychological motives and communication gratification. In J. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communication: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 167–198). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
This chapter discusses the individual characteristics, needs, and expectations that drive information seeking and processing. The author surveys the motivation literature, reviewing 16 paradigms on that topic.Information Society
Bell, D. (1999). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1973)
A magnum opus in the field, this book is nevertheless written in an accessible style by the journalist turned sociologist, Daniel Bell. Since first published, it has been the subject of wide discussion and critique.
Duff, A. S. (2000). Information society studies. London: Routledge.
This research monograph attempted a comprehensive overview and evaluation of the competing schools of thought devoted to the information society thesis. It includes details of the Japanese contribution.
Webster, F. (2006). Theories of the information society (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.
Available in paperback, this work has established itself as the standard textbook for university courses. Often critical, it deals chapter by chapter with a range of information society theorists.Information Subsidies
Gandy, O. H. (1982). Beyond agenda setting: Information subsidies and public policy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
This book describes how corporations, politicians, and other advocates influence public policy by providing subsidized information to the mass media, ultimately shaping the outcomes of policy debates.
Lang, G. E., & Lang, K. (1983). The battle for public opinion: The president, the press and the polls during Watergate. New York: Columbia University Press.
This case study of the Watergate controversy describes the agenda-building process in which news media participate with other institutions in the creation of a public agenda.Institutional Review Board
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Human Research Protections: http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp
This agency Web site provides extensive information about human subjects protections, including an online version of 45 CFR 46, Protection of Human Subjects, the Belmont Report of Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research, and international resources including the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki.Intelligent Design in Public Discourse
Behe, M. J. (1996). Darwin's black box: The biochemical challenge to evolution. New York: Free Press.
A scientist argues that life is too complex to have evolved as Darwin proposed—that is, that it is “irreducibly complex.” The author's position is that complex biochemical processes at the cellular level could not have come about through gradual selection.
Forrest, B., & Gross, P. R. (2007). Creationism's Trojan horse: The wedge of intelligent design. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
The authors link the intelligent design movement to traditional creationist thinking and analyze the strategies of its proponents. Following a major setback in a highly publicized federal case in Dover, Pennsylvania, the movement has regrouped and continues its attempt to alter the teaching of science in public schools.
Intelligent design argument, special issue. (1998). Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 1(4).
This special issue presents the positions of several proponents of intelligent design with responses from those speaking for the scientific community. The final article in this special issue provides a review of literature stressing the analysis of intelligent design as rhetoric.International Science Journalism Associations
Drillsma, B. (Ed.). (2006). The barriers are down: EUSJA advances across Europe. Strasbourg, France: European Union of Science Journalists' Associations.[Page 995]
Available for ordering from the official EUSJA Web site athttp://www.eusja.org, this book chronicles the history of the organization and its founding.
International Science Writers Association: http://www.internationalsciencewriters.org
This Web site provides membership information, announcements of important events, and links to science news. A members-only area also provides job information, announcements of grants and awards, and access to the International Science Writers Association newsletter.Internet, History of
Alesso, H. P., & Smith, C. F. (2008). Connections: Patterns of discovery. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.
This work describes the history of the Internet and that of computing generally. The authors apply a systematic perspective, highlighting the growing relevance of connections (between circuits, computers, networks, and so on) to this history. It also provides a resource rich in specific facts and figures and a detailed index, making it a very useful reference.
Leiner, B. M., Cerf, V. G., Clark, D. D., Kahn, R. E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D. C., et al. (2003). A brief history of the Internet. Retrieved September 07, 2009, from http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml
This interesting paper presents the history of the Internet from the perspective of many of those who developed it. The article provides not only many details about the individuals, institutions, and technologies involved, but also some general reflections on long-term trends.
Slater, W. F. (2002). Internet history and growth. Retrieved September 07, 2009, from http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/2002_0918_Internet_History_and_Growth.ppt
This presentation introduces many of the important technological steps in Internet history and the pioneers who made them. Furthermore, the rapid growth of the Internet is illustrated with a number of attractive visualizations.Interpretive Communities
Fish, S. (1980). Is there a text in this class? The authority of interpretive communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
A literary theorist examines the relationship between the reader and a text. This is the work most often cited as originating the concept of the interpretive community.Interviewing Scientists
Cohn, V., & Cope, L. (2001). News & numbers: A guide to reporting statistical claims and controversies in health and other fields (2nd ed.). Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Two of the country's most respected medical and science reporters wrote this now classic guide to the questions that journalists should ask on behalf of consumers of health science news.
Dreifus, C. (2001). Scientific conversations: Interviews on science from the New York Times. New York: Henry Holt.
This collection by the New York Times contributing writer Claudia Dreifus contains questions and answers with some of the country's top scientists, including the late Stephen Jay Gould. Among other things, interviews with leading female scientists recount instances of sexism they have encountered over the course of long, successful careers.
This Web site, published by a former health journalist and health journalism professor and funded by the nonprofit Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making, rates health news stories on accuracy, completeness, and balance. The criteria used to rank stories cover most of the elements that may need to be in a health news story.Invasive Species
International Union for the Conservation of Nature. (2009). Invasive species. Retrieved August 9, 2009, from http://www.iucn.org/about/union/secretariat/offices/iucnmed/iucn_med_programme/species/invasive_species
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) was founded in 1948 as the world's first global environmental organization. The IUCN co-coordinates the Global Invasive Species Programme, which enables communities to improve pest prevention and control systems and to identify priorities for the development of new tools.[Page 996]World Trade Organization. (1995). Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures. Retrieved August 14, 2009, from http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/15-sps.pdf
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments.Invisible College
Wagner, C. S. (2008). The new invisible college: Science for development. Washington, DC: Brookings Press.
In this book, Wagner documents the rise of the global science networks that constitute today's invisible college, creating unprecedented opportunities. She also offers advice for policy leaders in the developing world who want to turn these trends to their nations' advantage.kKnowledge Gap Hypothesis
Ettema, J. S., & Kline, F. G. (1977). Deficits, differences, and ceilings: Contingent conditions for understanding the knowledge gap. Communication Research, 4(2), 179–202.
The authors introduce motivational factors as variables predicting knowledge gaps. They suggest that gaps between higher-SES and lower-SES groups are not necessarily due to the effects of less formal education or economic deprivation, but to different levels of motivation, interest, and the salience of specific topics.
Gaziano, C. (1983). Knowledge gap: An analytical review of media effects. Communication Research, 10, 447–486.
This article examines research evidence on knowledge gaps. Characteristics of 58 studies are analyzed. Theoretical and methodological differences among the studies are pointed out, and some conclusions are drawn about media effects on knowledge disparities and conditions under which knowledge gaps may or may not occur.
Hyman, H. H., & Sheatsley, P. B. (1947). Some reasons why information campaigns fail. Public Opinion Quarterly, 11, 412–423.
Based on national samples of Americans, this classic research underpins the knowledge gap hypothesis. The authors contend that even if all physical barriers to communication were removed, psychological barriers would remain. Interested people acquire more information, people absorb facts that match existing attitudes, and groups interpret the same information differently.
Tichenor, P., Donohue, G., & Olien, C. (1970). Mass media flow and differential growth in knowledge. Public Opinion Quarterly, 34, 159–170.
The authors synthesized several prior studies in developing their knowledge gap hypothesis, which argues that as the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases, segments of the population with higher SES tend to acquire the information at a faster rate than the lower-SES segments.
Viswanath, K., & Finnegan, J. R. (1996). The knowledge gap hypothesis: Twenty-five years later. In B. Burleson (Ed.), Communication yearbook (Vol. 19, pp. 187–227). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This chapter reviews and critiques the development of the knowledge gap hypothesis over 25 years. Based on a comprehensive review, the authors identify variables that potentially influence knowledge gap phenomena and areas that require future research. The authors evaluate the knowledge gap hypothesis as a scientific research program.Kuhn, Thomas
Kuhn, T. S. (2000). The road since structure: Philosophical essays, 1970–1993. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
The latest version of Kuhn's influential work, the book describes the process of science, the role of paradigms, and the evolution of science in response to anomalies, which lead to the development of new paradigms and eventual progress in science.LLand Grant System, U.S.
Nevins, A. (1962). The state universities and democracy. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
This book describes the history of the state university system in the United States and its early role in democratizing access to education. The author's passion for this mission shines through.[Page 997]
Seevers, B., Graham, D., Gamon, J., & Conklin, N. (1997). Education through cooperative extension. New York: Delmar.
This is a comprehensive treatment of the cooperative extension mission and practice. It includes information on origins and purpose and also on key programs and strategies for teaching, learning, and evaluation.Latour, Bruno
Latour, B. (1993). We have never been modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
If we define “modernity” as the embrace of science, Latour argues that (quite literally) we have never been modern at all. Many contemporary problems represent “hybrids” in which arguments about science and arguments about society are fused.
Latour, B., & Woolgar, S. (1979). Laboratory life: The social construction of facts. London: Sage.
This is a classic work that considers how scientific “findings” are constructed in the social milieu of the laboratory, through conversation and interpretation of whatever it is that is going on—socially—when “results” are observed.Logical Positivism
Zalta, E. N. (Ed.). (2009). Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu
Scholars (whether students or senior academics) seeking further information about philosophical debates, including debates about the philosophy of science, will find this free online encyclopedia an invaluable resource.Love Canal
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. (n.d.). The Love Canal collections. University Archives. Available at http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/specialcollections/lovecanal/index.html
This university archive collection is a repository for a variety of documents pertaining to environmental issues in western New York State, with a special emphasis on Love Canal. It includes a news clippings database.Low-Level Radiation
National Safety Council. (2005, July). Understanding radiation in our world. Available at http://www.nsc.org/safety_home/BringSafetyHome/Documents/UnderstandingRadiation.pdf
This is a 100-page layperson's radiation guidebook.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). RadTown USA. Available at http://www.epa.gov/radtown/
An animated, interactive Web site that provides basic information on radiation in the world, RadTown USA is a virtual community showing a wide variety of radiation sources as people may encounter them in everyday life.MMad Cow Disease (BSE)
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (n.d.). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/surveillance/bse_disease_surv.shtml
This site provides detailed information about the surveillance and testing efforts of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service with respect to BSE in the United States.Manhattan Project
Hales, P. B. (1997). Atomic spaces: Living on the Manhattan Project. Urbana, IL: University of Chicago Press.
This cultural history of the Manhattan Project by historian of architecture Peter Hales examines the social geographies of the three main Manhattan sites, focusing on disputes with locals over the requisition of lands and on the workers and families who were relocated to the sites.
Hughes, J. (2003). The Manhattan Project. London: Icon Books.
In this short book, historian of science Jeff Hughes argues that the Manhattan Project was not the radical change in the organization of science that it is sometimes presented as. Rather, the project accelerated a move toward Big Science that was already under way.Maverick Science and Journalism
Clarke, C. E. (2008). A question of balance: The autism-vaccine controversy in the British and American elite press. Science Communication, 30(1), 77–107.[Page 998]
This article examines the effects of journalistic definitions of “balance” on coverage of an alleged link between autism and vaccines in the British and American press. It discusses the implications for journalistic norms and ethics.
Dearing, J. W. (1995). Newspaper coverage of maverick science: Creating controversy through balancing. Public Understanding of Science, 4, 341–361.
This article explores the ways that maverick scientists and maverick science are represented to the public in newspaper accounts using three case examples: an earthquake prediction, an alternative theory of AIDS, and the “discovery” of cold fusion.McClintock, Barbara
Ferdoroff, N., & Botstein, D. (1992). The dynamic genome: Barbara McClintock's ideas in the century of genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
This book is a collection of essays written by people who knew and worked with McClintock, as well as several reprints of her papers. It is a valuable source of in-depth scientific information, as well as recollections of McClintock's character.
Fox Keller, E. (1983). A feeling for the organism: The life and work of Barbara McClintock. New York: W. H. Freeman.
This full biography of McClintock's life up until 1983 combines an insight into her upbringing and personal life with some scientific information. It is a good source for those without a scientific background.Mead, Margaret
Mead, M. (1928). Coming of age in Samoa: A psychological study of primitive youth for Western civilisation. New York: William Morrow.
Widely read around the world, this beautifully written book argues that the Western expectation that the teenage years will be emotionally challenging is cultural, not biological. In Samoa, things seemed different. The validity of Mead's specific findings remains controversial, but her more general point about gender roles endures.
Mead, M. (1935). Sex and temperament in three primitive societies. New York: William Morrow. Studies of three different societies—the Arapesh, Mundugumor, and Tchambuli peoples—each with strikingly different expectations for the social roles of men and women, are covered in this well-known volume, confirming Mead's own expectation that culture is the driver.Media Convergence
Bennett, J. (2009). From flow to user flows: Understanding “good science” programming in the UK digital television landscape. In R. Holliman, E. Whitelegg, E. Scanlon, S. Smidt, & J. Thomas (Eds.), Investigating science communication in the information age: Implications for public engagement and popular media (pp. 183–204). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
In this chapter, the author makes a critical examination of science programming on U.K. television, focusing on examples of “un-natural history,” and relating his arguments to current discussions in the United Kingdom about the shifting role of public service broadcasting in the emerging digital television landscape.
Chalmers, M. (2009). Communicating physics in the information age. In R. Holliman, J. Thomas, S. Smidt, E. Scanlon, & E. Whitelegg (Eds.), Practising science communication in the information age: Theorising professional practices (pp. 67–80). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
In this chapter, the author looks at the ways contemporary communication issues are being managed within the physics community. He examines Web 2.0 technologies and finds some physicists to be more reluctant adopters of them than many nonscientists.
Montgomery, S. (2009). Science and the online world: Realities and issues for discussion. In R. Holliman, J. Thomas, S. Smidt, E. Scanlon, & E. Whitelegg (Eds.), Practising science communication in the information age: Theorising professional practices (pp. 83–97). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
In this chapter, the author provides perspective on the communication of science stretching from the distant past to the near future. Rather than assuming that the Internet is necessarily a force for good, Montgomery concludes that digital technologies need to be considered in terms of existing social relations and dependencies.Medical Journalism
Cohn, V., & Cope, L. (2001). News and numbers: A guide to reporting statistical claims and controversies[Page 999]in health and other fields (2nd ed.). Ames: Iowa State University Press.
This book offers easy-to-understand guidance in comprehending and evaluating the study, design, and statistical aspects of medical and other research.
Gastel, B. (2005). Health writer's handbook (2nd ed.). Ames, IA: Blackwell.
This book provides guidance on writing for the public about medicine and health. Among areas addressed are gathering and evaluating information, crafting articles, and identifying educational and career opportunities.Mendel, Gregor
Corcos, A. F., & Monaghan, F. V. (Eds.). (1993). Gregor Mendel's experiments on plant hybrids: A guided study. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
This publication includes a translation of Mendel's original 1866 paper with interpretive comments by the authors, plus introductory biographical and scientific material. It includes illustrations.
Duchesneau, F. (2007). The delayed linkage of heredity with the cell theory. In S. Müller-Wille & H. J. Rheinberger (Eds.), Heredity produced: At the crossroads of biology, politics, and culture, 1500– 1870 (pp. 293–314). Cambridge: MIT Press.
A fresh historical account that explores the history of the concept of heredity and its linkage with agricultural breeding and evolution since the early 16th century, much before Mendel and Darwin.Merton, Robert K.
Baran, S., & Davis, D. (2008). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future (5th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth.
This overview of media studies theory documents the substantial contributions of sociologists such as Robert K. Merton, Paul Lazersfeld, and others to the present-day field.
Sztompka, P. (2007). Trust in science: Robert K. Merton's inspirations. Journal of Classical Sociology, 7(2), 211–220.
This article argues that Merton's four principles of scientific ethos, considered the basis of the trust that society has in science, are challenged by the emergence of what may be termed “post-academic science,” involving major investment, privatization, and commercialization. As a result, trust in science could be eroding.Metaphors in Science Communication
Giles, T. D. (2008). Motives for metaphor in scientific and technical communication. Amityville, NY: Baywood.
The author considers historical cases and contemporary controversies (for example, cloning) in constructing an argument that metaphor has epistemological significance. He argues that the use of metaphor in communicating science deserves more pedagogical attention.Muir, John
Muir, J. (1901). Our national parks. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Muir reaches a broad audience with descriptive writing designed to persuade the American public of the importance of preserving natural environments.
Muir, J. (1909). Stickeen: The story of a dog. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
One of Muir's most popular books, the story of a plucky dog who traveled with Muir through dangerous mountaineering situations, and an example of Muir's skill as a popular communicator.NNanotechnology
Binnig, G., & Rohrer, H. (1985, August). The scanning tunneling microscope. Scientific American, 253, 50–56.
This is a clear explanation of one of the principal instruments for making three-dimensional images of atomic surfaces by the scientists who earned the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of this instrument.
Macnaghten, P., Kearnes, M., & Wynne, B. (2005). Nanotechnology, governance, and public deliberation. Science Communication, 27(2), 268–291.
A representative statement of the British discourse on upstream public engagement, it includes a sense of the intended consequences for influencing science and science policy.
Nanotech: The science of the small gets down to business. (2001). Scientific American, 285(3) [Special issue].[Page 1000]
This special issue provides the reader with a valuable anthology of near-future applications from nanotechnology, including nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, and fabrication.
Toumey, C. (2006). National discourses on democratizing nanotechnology. Quaderni, 61, 81–101.
This is a history and comparison of British and American theories and experiences regarding upstream public engagement and democratizing science as they articulate concerns about nanotechnology.Nanotechnology, Regulation of
Davies, C. J. (2007). EPA and nanotechnology: Oversight for the 21st century (PEN 9). Washington, DC: Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies.
In this report, the author argues for a revised approach to nanotechnology regulation that would include reform of existing laws or new ones. The focus is on the EPA and its role for new chemical regulation under TSCA; however, broader principles of oversight are also discussed.
Kuzma, J. (2006). Nanotechnology oversight: Just do it. Environmental Law Reporter, 36, 10913–10923.
This article argues for a regulatory approach based on existing laws and regulations with guidance documents, executive orders, and policies to cover a multitude of products and potential risks. An analogy to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology is made to guide the development of nanotechnology oversight.
Wilsdon, J., & Willis, R. (2004). See-through science: Why public engagement needs to move upstream. London: Demos. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://www.demos.co.uk/files/Seethroughsciencefinal.pdf
In this important report, the authors highlight the need for early upstream public dialogue about the governance of science and technology. Nanotechnology is used as an example for increasing opportunities for public engagement in decision-making processes.Narrative in Science Communication
Downs, A. (1972). Up and down with ecology—The “issue-attention” cycle. Public Interest, 28, 38–51.
This is an often-cited, very influential theory of why media attention to scientific and technical issues, especially environmental ones, is cyclical and sporadic, rising after initial identification of a controversy and then falling as the paths to resolution of the controversy emerge as difficult—or expensive—to follow.
Miller, S. (2001). Public understanding of science at the crossroads. Public Understanding of Science, 10(1), 115–120.
Following intensive efforts in the United Kingdom to improve “science literacy,” Miller discusses the challenges faced in communicating science, including problems with the traditional “deficit model.”National Academies, U.S.
The National Academies: Advisors to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine: http://www.nationalacademies.org/
This is the homepage of the Web site of the National Academies, with links to all four of its affiliated institutions accessible through the link labeled “About the National Academies.” Many publications of the National Academies institutions, including books published by the National Academies Press, can be read online for free.National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.
U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: http://www.nasa.gov
This Web site provides extensive information on NASA's activities, organized for access by a variety of audiences, from students and educators to policymakers and the news media, as well as NASA's employees. Consistent with the agency's mission, the site is not only information dense but also graphics rich.National Association of Science Writers
National Association of Science Writers: http://www.nasw.org
The official Web site of NASW provides tips and resources for science writers, teachers, and public information professionals, as well as annual meeting information and news of the profession.National Development, Science and Technology in
Hobday, M. (1997). Innovation in East Asia: The challenge to Japan. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. This book details the technology acquisition strategies[Page 1001]that benefited firms in a number of Asian countries now competing with Japan, including South Korea and Taiwan, enabling them to catch up to their key competitor. Innovation theory is applied to a series of case studies to yield Hobday's conclusions.
Teresi, D. (2003). Lost discoveries: The ancient roots of modern science—from the Babylonians to the Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Science writer Dick Teresi documents the contributions of past civilizations to today's scientific and technology knowledge across a variety of fields to produce a detailed history of non-Western science—a history that is often ignored or forgotten altogether.National Institutes of Health, U.S.
Hamowy, R. (2007). Government and public health in America. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Hamowy provides an in-depth analysis of how the federal government became involved in public health in the United States and the current implications of that involvement.
Leuchtenburg, W. (2009). Herbert Hoover: The 31st president, 1929–1933. New York: Henry Holt.
The book examines the complex nature of Hoover, whose popularity rose before the Great Depression and nose-dived afterward, when his policies to deal with the economic collapse failed.National Science Foundation, U.S.
National Science Board, U.S. (2008). Science and engineering indicators. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind08
This is the latest report of a series published by the board every 2 years on the state of scientific education and research and available online, in print, or on CD. Chapter 7 contains extensive information on public attitudes, sometimes including studies of media consumption and likely media influence.
National Science Foundation, U.S. (2008). About the National Science Foundation. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/about/
Part of the official Web site of the National Science Foundation, this “about” page gives a convenient overview of the structure and mission of the agency. The organization's home page athttp://www.nsf.govoften contains timely news of the results emerging from NSF-funded science, as well as links to program details and funding opportunities.Nature
The official Web site for the prestigious journal and its sister publications, as well as links to a variety of other Nature Publishing Group projects, ranging from the group's Second Life project to commentary on its open peer-review experiment.Nelkin, Dorothy
Nelkin, D. (1995). Selling science: How the press covers science and technology (Expanded ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. (Original work published 1987)
A lasting contribution from the point of view of anyone interested in science journalism, this book chronicles the social history of the emergence of mass media coverage of science in the 20th century. Particularly memorable is the connection Nelkin draws between the scientific and journalistic notions of “objectivity.”Newspaper Science Pages
Clark, F., & Illman, D. L. (2006). A longitudinal study of the New York Times Science Times section. Science Communication, 27(4), 496–513.
The Science Times section of the New York Times is one of the better-known science sections around, at least in the United States. This article presents the institutional history of the section over a 20-year period from 1980 to 2000.NIMBY [“Not in My Backyard”]
Sandman, P. M. (1986). Getting to maybe: Some communications aspects of siting hazardous waste facilities. Seton Hall Legislative Journal, 9, 437–465. Available at http://www.psandman.com/articles/seton.htm
This represents the author's early attempt to apply the principles of risk communication to the siting of hazardous waste facilities.Nuclear Power
Deutch, J., Moniz, E. J., Ansolabehere, S., Driscoll, M., Gray, P. E., Holdren, J. P., et al. (2003). The future of nuclear power: An interdisciplinary MIT study. Cambridge, MA: Report for Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 1, 2009, from http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/pdf/nuclearpower-full.pdf[Page 1002]
This work examines barriers to retaining the “option” of relying on nuclear power as a partial solution to the challenge of climate change. Notes necessity of addressing critical problems in cost, safety, storage of waste, and nuclear proliferation to do so.
Makhijani, A. (2007). Carbon-free and nuclear free: A roadmap for U.S. energy policy. Takoma Park, MD: IEER Press.
This is a comprehensive study that concludes that a U.S. economy with zero carbon dioxide generation can be created within 30 to 50 years while reducing dependence on foreign oil by developing wind, solar, and other alternative energy sources.Nuclear Waste
Ackland, L. (2002). Making a real killing: Rocky Flats and the nuclear west (2nd ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
This study of a nuclear weapons plant located in a Denver suburb is told through the eyes of those most affected: managers, workers, activists, and residents. It includes maps.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission: http://www.nrc.gov
The NRC Web site provides extensive information on policy and activities of the commission and includes a link to the DOE license application for construction of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility.Nuclear Weapons
Kinsella, W. J. (2005). One hundred years of nuclear discourse: Four master themes and their implications for environmental communication. In S. L. Senecah (Ed.), Environmental communication yearbook (Vol. 2, pp. 49–72). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
This chapter examines nuclear communication as a coherent discursive formation, focusing on themes of mystery, potency, secrecy, and entelechy. It reviews communication scholarship and other related commentaries on nuclear language, discourse, and rhetoric.
Taylor, B. C. (1998). Nuclear weapons and communication studies: A review essay. Western Journal of Communication, 62(3), 300–315.
This article reviews the body of nuclear communication scholarship that emerged during the late cold war period, providing a foundation for extending scholarship into the post–cold war context.
Taylor, B. C., Kinsella, W. J., Depoe, S. P., & Metzler, M. S. (Eds.). (2007). Nuclear legacies: Communication, controversy, and the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
This edited book examines the material and communicative legacies of cold war weapons production and the past, present, and prospective future of the U.S. nuclear weapons production complex, focusing on issues of democracy and public deliberation.Nutrigenomics
Bergmann, M. M., Gorman, U., & Mathers, J. C. (2008). Bioethical considerations for human nutrigenomics. Annual Review of Nutrition, 28, 447–467.
The authors provide an overview of the emerging field of nutrigenomics and personalized nutrition and highlight important ethical concepts and social implications associated with research on gene–diet interactions.
Geransar, R., & Einsiedel, E. (2008). Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: Informed choices or buyers beware? Genetic Testing, 12(1), 13–23.
The study analyzes several companies that provide and/or advertise nutrigenomic genetic tests directly to consumers and discusses important concepts, such as the involvement of health care professionals, the availability of counseling, and the clinical validity and utility of the various tests offered.
Kaput, J., Noble, J., Hatipoglu, B., Kohrs, K., Dawson, K., & Bartholomew, A. (2007). Application of nutrigenomic concepts to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 17(2), 89–103.
The study exemplifies nutrigenomic concepts by using type 2 diabetes mellitus as an example and reveals that 52 genes, which belong to several cellular pathways, are candidates or were conclusively linked to this condition.
Kelly, T., Yang, W., Chen, C. S., Reynolds, K., & He, J. (2008). Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. International Journal of Obesity, 32(9), 1431–1437.
The analysis of data from population-based studies from several regions around the world, including[Page 1003]developed and developing countries, reveals that overweight and obesity represent important health burdens that are predicted to affect even more adults in the decades to come.
Ordovas, J. M., & Corella, D. (2004). Nutritional genomics. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 5, 71–118.
The authors examine gene–nutrient interactions for several medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and emphasize the importance of integrating findings from several disciplines to provide an ideal understanding of the interactions between genetic and dietary factors.Nutrition and Media
Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2003). Pestering parents: How food companies market obesity to children. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.cspinet.org/pesteringparents
This November 2003 news release provides links to a longer report by CSPI that gives further details about the marketing of low-nutrition food items to children.
Dorfman, L. (2008). Using media advocacy to influence policy. In R. J. Bensley & J. Brookins-Fisher (Eds.), Community health education methods: A practical guide (3rd ed., pp. 383–410). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
This contribution on media advocacy by Lori Dorfman complements 13 other chapters on how to engage in community health education and advocacy. Other chapters cover topics ranging from multicultural competency to social marketing to developing effective presentations.OObesity Epidemic
Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. (2008). Weight management research to practice series. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/professionals/researchtopractice/index.html
This article provides a convincing communication example that also summarizes the latest science issues on weight management for a general public.
Saguy, A. C., & Almeling, R. (2008). Fat in the fire? Science, the news media, and the “Obesity Epidemic.” Sociological Forum, 23(1), 53–83.
This study contributes a critical analysis of the media coverage of obesity, which too often simply follows the framing provided by science.Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S.
Mintz, B. W. (1984). OSHA: History, law, and policy. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs.
Mintz, a former attorney in the Department of Labor's Office of the Solicitor, has compiled extensive insight, case law, and legislative documents that serve as a great introduction to the federal agency. Mintz examines the tumultuous history of OSHA (the act) and examines how occupational safety and health policies were viewed, shaped, and implemented by OSHA itself (the agency), the court system, and the court of public opinion.
Rothstein, M. A. (2008). Occupational safety and health law. Eagan, MN: Thomson West.
Written for legal publisher Thomson West, this book details specific legal doctrines and judicial interpretations of various facets of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.
Schneid, T. D. (2008). Corporate safety compliance: OSHA, ethics, and the law. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
This practical manual is written for corporate safety officers and administrators. Schneid covers the history of OSHA and its penalties, inspection procedures, and appeals procedures, along with a discussion of worker's compensation, corporate compliance issues, and other federal laws that influence safety (for example, Americans with Disabilities Act, Family and Medical Leave Act, Fair Labor Standards Act, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act).Office of Science and Technology Policy, U.S.
Bush, V. (1945). Science: The endless frontier (A report to the president by Vannevar Bush, Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.
The text of this famous report, written the director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development[Page 1004]under Franklin D. Roosevelt, led to the creation of the National Science Foundation and is available in its entirely athttp://www.nsf.gov/about/history/vbush1945.htm.Office of Technology Assessment, U.S.
Bimber, B., & Guston, D. H. (Eds.). (1997). Technology assessment: The end of OTA [Special issue]. Technological Forecasting and Social Change: An International Journal, 54(2–3), 125–286.
Papers from long-term practitioners at OTA and senior members of the academic technology assessment community looking at the lessons of OTA's demise for future technology assessment revisit whether technology assessment is defined by what OTA did, or whether it is an intellectual movement to anticipate and understand technological consequences, from which OTA departed.
Blair, P. (1994). Technology assessment: Current trends and the myth of a formula (plenary remarks at the first meeting of the International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions, Bergen, Norway, May 2, 1994). Retrieved July 27, 2009 from http://fas.org/ota/technology_assessment_and_congress/blair/
This review of OTA's history, structure, and process is from a senior OTA official. The remarks' concluding paragraph ties OTA activities to the philosophy of Thomas Jefferson.
Epstein, G. (2009, March 31). Restart the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. Science Progress. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from the Center for American Progress, http://www.scienceprogress.org/2009/03/restart-ota
This advocacy piece calls for the restoration of funding for the Office of Technology Assessment. It points out that OTA's authorizing legislation remains on the books and needs only an appropriation of funds to resume its efforts.
Morgan, M. G., & Peha, J. (Eds.). (2003). Science and technology advice for Congress. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
This book is a review of Congress's need for and uses of technical information, why OTA was created and lessons from its demise, and analysis of several alternatives for providing Congress with the services that OTA had provided.
Office of Technology Assessment Archive: http://www.fas.org/otaThis Web site is a complete archive of all publications OTA produced over its history, together with a great deal of supporting documentation, much not otherwise available.Online Media and the Sciences
Allan, S. (2006). Online news: Journalism and the Internet. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
This book provides a wide-ranging analysis of online news and the factors affecting contemporary journalism. It includes discussion of the emergence of citizen journalism via online media drawing on evidence from reporting of the South Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.
Berners-Lee, T. (1999). Weaving the Web: The original design and ultimate destiny of the World Wide Web by its inventor. New York: HarperCollins.
Written by the physicist behind its development—now director of the World Wide Web consortium—this is an account of how the Web was invented, discussing the history and philosophy behind the Internet.
Gartner, R. (2009). From print to online: Developments in access to scientific information. In R. Holliman, J. Thomas, S. Smidt, E. Scanlon, & E. Whitelegg (Eds.), Practising science communication in the information age: Theorising professional practices (pp. 99–111). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
In this chapter, the author discusses the impact of electronic provision of information on how scientific information is accessed. In so doing, the author discusses moves toward greater openness by charting the emergence of open access journals and institutional repositories.
Van Dijk, J. (2005). The deepening divide: Inequality in the information society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
One of the world's leading experts on communication explores issues of unequal access to online information, including how this might affect the sciences. The author shows that online inequality has many subtleties related to cultural, psychological, and economic factors, and how it operates within advanced nations as well as less-developed ones.Opinion Leaders and Opinion Leadership
Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. (1955). Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass[Page 1005]communications. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishing.
This book concludes that the media may have only “limited effects” in the process of mass persuasion; a number of variables intervene between media and their audiences. Among these, the authors focus on selective processes of exposure, retention, and perception and on the influence of interpersonal communication.
Lazarsfeld, P. F., Berelson, B., & Gaudet, H. (1944). The people's choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.
This study of voters' decision making during the 1940 presidential election campaign surprised its authors by showing that informal personal contacts were more important than the mass media as sources of influence. This became the basis for the two-step flow hypothesis, which asserts that the media influences most people via opinion leaders.
Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
This is the standard textbook and reference for understanding how a new idea, artifact, or technique moves from creation to use. Rogers describes the mechanisms of adoption that predict whether and how a new invention will be successful. He analyzes adopter categories, technology characteristics, and opinion leader influences.Oppenheimer, Robert
Jungk, R. (1958). Brighter than a thousand suns. London: Victor Gollancz.
This book, by an author deeply involved in the peace movement, is about the scientists who discovered the power of fusion and their subsequent struggles with the consequences, with one chapter specifically focused on Oppenheimer.
Thorpe, C. (2006). Oppenheimer: The tragic intellect. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. In the author's phrase, this is a “sociological biography” of Oppenheimer, a book that describes both the man's Los Alamos years and his subsequent official downfall in cultural and historical context.Optimistic Bias
Weinstein, N. D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806–820.
This was a seminal study. It demonstrated optimistic bias across a range of positive and negative life events. Several conditions under which optimistic bias might become particularly pronounced were also identified.PPandemics, Origins of
Gao, F., Bailes, E., Robertson, D. L., Chen, Y., Rodenburg, C. M., Michael, S. F., et al. (1999). Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature, 397(6718), 436–441.
Gao and collaborators report that HIV-1 is the result of at least three independent events in which SIVcpz, a simian immunodeficiency virus infecting Pan troglodytes troglodytes, a chimpanzee species inhabiting Africa, was introduced into the human population.
Jones-Engel, L., Engel, G. A., Schillaci, M. A., Rompis, A., Putra, A., Suaryana, K. G., et al. (2005). Primate-to-human retroviral transmission in Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(7), 1028–1035.
Jones-Engel and collaborators used molecular and serological approaches to confirm the first animal-to-human foamy virus transmission at a monkey temple in Bali, Indonesia.
Lau, S. K., Woo, P. C., Li, K. S., Huang, Y., Tsoi, H.-W., Wong, B. H. L., et al. (2005). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(39), 14040–14045.
The authors identify a coronavirus, which they call bat-SARS-CoV, related to the virus that caused the SARS outbreak and reveal that 84% of Chinese horseshoe bats isolated in Hong Kong harbor antibodies to this virus.
Smith, T. C., Male, M. J., Harper, A. L., Kroeger, J. S., Tinkler, G. P., Moritz, E. D., et al. (2008). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST398 is present in Midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers. PLoS One, 4(1), e4258.
Smith and collaborators reveal that a high percentage of swine in a swine production system in the Midwestern United States are colonized with MRSA and warn that agricultural animals can function as a reservoir for this bacterium.[Page 1006]
Yu, H., Zhang, G. H., Hua, R. H., Zhang, Q., Liu, T.-Q., Liao, M., et al. (2007). Isolation and genetic analysis of human origin H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications, 356(1), 91–96.
Between 2005 and 2006, Yu and collaborators performed surveillance for swine influenza viruses in eight provinces in China and provided evidence for the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses, emphasizing the need for increased influenza virus surveillance.Particle Accelerators
Lederman, L. (1993). The God particle: If the universe is the answer, what is the question? Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Anyone interested in learning more about the standard model of physics and how our study of the smallest particles of matter is inextricably linked to questions about cosmology and astronomy will find this book useful. Lederman moves from a consideration of the smallest scale that we can study to the largest and from there to implications about philosophy and theology.
McAlpine, K. (2008). Large Hadron Rap. Voiceover by W. Barras, with images from http://particlephysics.ac.uk, http://space.com, the Institute of Physics, NASA, Symmetry, Marvel, Einstein Online, and Physics World. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j50ZssEojtM
For a look at how the newest generation of particle physicists makes sense of their own role and the significance of the LHC, this video presents a synopsis of how the accelerator functions and what the goals are. This rap music rendition uses footage from the actual site and has received over five and a half million YouTube views at the time this volume was published.
Traweek, S. (1994). Beamlines and lifetimes: The world of high energy physics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
For those interested in learning more about the practices of high-energy physics without necessarily wanting to learn more about the science, Traweek's book presents a sociology of science woven throughout with subtle humor. The author explores the emergence of norms that work across cultures and how massive scientific projects are coordinated with less overhead than is typical in private industry.Peer Review
Chelimsky, E. (1994). Peer review: Reforms needed to ensure fairness in federal agency grant selection: Report to the chairman, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.
The author examines the fairness of peer-review processes in federal agencies and argues that although peer review appears to work reasonably well, agencies need to take further steps to ensure fairness in selecting reviewers, conducting reviews, and awarding funds.
Keiper, A., Nicol, C., Levin, Y., Rosen, C., Schulman, A. N., Cohen, E., et al. (2006). Rethinking peer review. The New Atlantis, 13, 106–110. Available at http://www.thenewatlantis.com
The editors of the New Atlantis advocate change brought by new technologies to the current peer-review system and predict the Internet will revamp the traditional peer-review processes.
Shatz, D. (2004). Peer review: A critical inquiry. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
This book covers a broad range of issues, including arguments for and against blind review of journal submissions, the alleged conservatism of peer review, issues of bias and anonymity, the value of work that is not peer reviewed, and the future of peer review in the Internet age.
Ware, M. (2008). Peer review benefits, perceptions and alternatives. London: Publishing Research Consortium.
Based on an international survey of 3,040 academics, this report describes peer-review practices. The survey finds agreement on the benefits of peer review, but it also reports discontent and a perceived need for alternative approaches.Physician-Patient Communication
DiMatteo, M. R. (2004). Variations in patients' adherence to medical recommendations: A quantitative review of 50 years of research. Medical Care, 42(3), 200–209.
This article analyzes empirical research on adherence rates published from 1948 to 1998. On the basis of a meta-analysis of over 500 such studies, the author calculates an average nonadherence rate of 25% and discusses factors that appear to predict adherence.[Page 1007]
Lambert, B. L., Street, R. L., Jr., Cegala, D. J., Smith, D. H., Kurtz, S., & Schofield, T. (1997). Provider-patient communication, patient-centered care, and the mangle of practice. Health Communication, 9, 27–43.
Authors discuss the patient-centered care (PCC) movement and its challenges, including the need to better integrate psychosocial and biological concepts of health. PCC strives to respect the patient at all times but lacks an integrated theory linking these two perspectives.
Roter, D. L., & Hall, J. A. (2004). Physician gender and patient-centered communication: A critical review of empirical research. Annual Review Public Health, 25, 497–519.
This article summarizes the research data regarding the relationship between gender of physicians and communication with patients. Available data show that patient visits involving female physicians were about 10% (2 minutes) longer than those involving male physicians, and that female physicians engaged in more patient-centered communication.Physicians for Social Responsibility
Farrow, L., & Sidel, V. W. (1998). From Hiroshima to mutual assured destruction to abolition 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(5), 456–461.
The authors are affiliated with leading medical colleges and both PSR and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. This article reviews the history of the nuclear weapons era from a medical perspective, from the aftermath of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima to the approach of the millennium.
Physicians for Social Responsibility: http://www.psr.orgThe PSR Web site provides a look at the organization's origins, evolution, and philosophy. Links to resources and issue-relevant news articles are also provided on the site.
Stocker, C. (1989, December 5). Caldicott's crusade changes course: Putting personal turmoil behind her, the impassioned activist turns to ecological battles. The Boston Globe, 69.
The author, a Boston Globe staff member, is among the journalists who have sought to explicate over the years the influences on Helen Caldicott's personal and private life, and Caldicott's influence in turn on the antinuclear movement.Planetary Protection
Committee on Space Research. (2005). COSPAR planetary protection policy. Available online at http://cosparhq.cnes.fr/Scistr/PPPolicy(20-July-08).pdf
This document defines the five categories of protection and other elements of PP policy as developed by the international Committee on Space Research.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Planetary Protection: http://www.planetaryprotection.nasa.gov
This Web site outlines NASA's policies regarding biological cross-contamination and explains how these policies are managed. Also provides a link to information on the PP course available in the United States and Europe for those with responsibilities in this area, from lab technicians to designers and engineers.Planned Behavior, Theory of
Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TPB questionnaire: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Retrieved August 2008, from http://people.umass.edu/aizen
This is one of several useful resources available through the Web site of TPB research of Icek Ajzen at the University of Massachusetts. The site contains many other references and resources related to this model.
Conner, M., & Sparks, P. (2005). Theory of planned behaviour and health behaviour. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour (2nd ed., pp. 170–222). Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Edited by two social psychologists, this research-based collection explores social cognition models that help our understanding of health behaviors, including the theory of planned behavior. It also includes chapters on the health belief model, protection motivation theory, stage theories, and the role of implementation intentions.Popper, Karl
Conner, M., & Sparks, P. (2005). Theory of planned behaviour and health behaviour. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour (2nd [Page 1008]ed., pp. 170–222). Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Edited by two social psychologists, this research-based collection explores social cognition models that help our understanding of health behaviors, including the theory of planned behavior. It also includes chapters on the health belief model, protection motivation theory, stage theories, and the role of implementation intentions.
Popper, K. R. (1959). The logic of scientific discovery. London: Hutchinson.
This is a partial translation of Logik der Forschung, which is arguably Popper's most important contribution to the philosophy of science.
Popper, K. R. (1963, 1965, 1969). Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. London: Routledge.
A series of essays in the philosophy of science, this collection represents one of the most accessible of Popper's works.Popular Science, Overview
Fyfe, A., & Lightman, B. (Eds.). (2007). Science in the marketplace: Nineteenth-century sites and experiences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Not just for scholars of the 19th century, this book contains a set of fascinating case studies with some fresh approaches to analyzing popular science.
Hilgartner, S. (1990). The dominant view of popularization: Conceptual problems, political uses. Social Studies of Science, 20(3), 519–539.
This paper remains a key starting point for understanding popular science in history and it is still highly applicable to much contemporary popular science.
Lyotard, J.-F. (1983). The postmodern condition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Original work published 1979)
Originally commissioned by the Quebec Higher Education Funding Council, this book launched the current usage of “postmodern” to refer to the multiple hybrid sources of scientific innovation in the 20th century, much of it outside the university and involving the state and industry in interdisciplinary collaborations.
Turney, J. (1999). The word and the world. In E. Scanlon, E. Whitelegg, & S. Yates (Eds.), Communicating science: Contexts and channels (pp. 120–133). London: Routledge.
Although Turney's focus is books, many of his points can be made cross-media. He has been prolific on this topic, contributing introductions to popular science for several science communication textbooks.Popular Science and Formal Education
Zimmerman, C., Bisanz, G. L., Bisanz, J., Klein, J. S., & Klein, P. (2001). Science at the supermarket: A comparison of what appears in the popular press, experts' advice to readers, and what students want to know. Public Understanding of Science, 10(1), 37–58. The authors surveyed the science content of popular print publications and concluded that most science-related articles were in the form of news briefs. Information students spontaneously requested was not likely to be present.Postmodernism and Science
Bell, D. (1973). The end of post-industrial society. New York: Basic Books.
This is the first major work to popularize the term postmodernism, which Bell identified with the knowledge-based postindustrial society that had emerged in the postwar welfare states. However, he saw this as largely an improvement, rather than a rejection of modernism.Precautionary Principle
Hammitt, J. K., Wiener, J. B., Swedlow, B., Kall, D., & Zhou, Z. (2005). Precautionary regulation in Europe and the United States: A quantitative comparison. Risk Analysis, 25, 1215–1228.
Based on systematic analysis of 100 randomly selected risks, the authors compare the stringency of regulation in the United States and Europe. Contrary to what some scholars might have expected, there is no evidence of clear and consistent difference in the level of precaution observed.
Löfstedta, R. E., & Vogel, D. (2001). The changing character of regulation: A comparison between Europe and the United States. Risk Analysis, 21(3), 399–405.
Argues for the existence of a flip-flop period in which risk regulation in Europe was becoming more strict during a period in which consumer and environmental issues in the United States had lost salience and contentiousness.[Page 1009]Pseudoscience
Adorno, T. W. (1994). Adorno: The stars down to earth and other essays on the irrational in culture. London: Routledge.
An important figure in critical analysis of popular media, Adorno assesses the appeal of newspaper horoscopes in “The Stars Down to Earth,” an essay reprinted in this volume. An excellent introduction by editor Stephen Crook will help readers unacquainted with Adorno grapple with the complex (but brilliant) analysis offered.
Hansson, S. O. (2008, Fall). Science and pseudo-science. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pseudo-science/
In addition to seemingly millions of Web sites created by proponents of various pseudoscientific claims, the Internet hosts an impressive collection of scholarly analyses related to pseudoscience. Hansson's review is a good starting point for readers interested in exploring the ways in which philosophers attempt to demarcate science and pseudoscience.
Lamont, P. (2007). Paranormal belief and the avowal of prior scepticism. Theory and Psychology, 17, 681–696.
Lamont explores in depth a common feature of storytelling about paranormal experiences, the claim that the storyteller had been skeptical regarding the paranormal prior to experiencing it. Along the way, Lamont reviews much of the available research about how both witnesses and authors tend to recount extraordinary experiences.
National Science Board. (2008). Science and engineering indicators 2008. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind08/start.htm
The U.S. National Science Foundation biennially releases reports on the status of science and technology in the United States, reports that for some time have included a chapter on public understanding of science and technology. These reports provide data on science literacy, interest in science, and attention to science news.
Shermer, M. (2006). Science and pseudoscience. In D. M. Borchert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of philosophy (2nd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 669–673). Detroit, MI: Gale Research.
Shermer notes the long-running controversy among philosophers regarding how to identify pseudoscience. To provide practical guidance for journalists and other nonexperts, Shermer offers 10 questions that ought to be asked about claims that conflict with scientific consensus. For example, “Have the claims been verified by another source?”Psychometric Paradigm
Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P., Lichtenstein, S., Read, S., & Combs, B. (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences, 9(2), 127–152.
One of the classic studies of early risk perception research, this paper helps to introduce the concept of “psychometric” research and identifies the dimensions of primary interest.
Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236(4799), 280–285.
Another classic paper, this article presents data on how various groups of people evaluate the risks of a host of hazardous activities, concluding that “unknown risk” and “dread risk” explain a great deal of the variation.Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST)
Bucchi, M. (Ed.). (2008). Handbook of public communication of science and technology. New York: Routledge.
This collection brings together many perspectives on public communication of science and technology to consider issues of national development, new communication technology, public participation and public relations, the role of specific communication media, and a host of other relevant topics.Public Engagement
Beierle, T. C., & Cayford, J. (2002). Democracy in practice: Public participation in environmental decisions. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
This comprehensive text provides an extensive review of research on participation in the context of the environment and attempts to distill what factors contribute to the success and failure of different procedures.
Gastil, J., & Levine, P. (2005). The deliberative democracy handbook: Strategies for effective civic[Page 1010]engagement in the twenty-first century. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This edited handbook provides a review of a number of specific types of deliberative forums as well as an overall discussion of the place of deliberation in public engagement.
McComas, K. A., Arvai, J. L., & Besley, J. C. (2008). Linking public participation and decision making through risk communication. In R. L. Heath & D. H. O'Hair (Eds.), Handbook of crisis and risk communication (pp. 364–385). New York: Routledge.
This chapter from an edited book highlights the various levels of deliberation that different forms of engagement can be expected to foster. It also emphasizes the factors that may enhance or decrease the likelihood that citizens will engage.
Renn, O., Webler, T., & Wiedemann, P. M. (1995). Fairness and competence in citizen participation: Evaluating models for environmental discourse. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
This edited text provides an often-cited framework for evaluating and discussing public participation methods around environment decision making. Text describes a range of different studies on this theme.
Rowe, G., & Frewer, L. J. (2005). A typology of public engagement mechanisms. Science Technology & Human Values, 30(2), 251–290.
This journal article argues that the range of different ways to organize public engagement can be understood by focusing on factors such as the mechanisms meant to foster information flow, information transfer, and participant agreement.Public Health Service, U.S.
Bateman-House, A., & Fairchild, A. (2008). Medical examinations of immigrants at Ellis Island. Virtual Mentor, 10(4), 235–241.
In this article in the American Medical Association's online ethics journal, the authors outline the historical medical examination processes at Ellis Island and extend the discussion to current medical screening practices for immigrants.
Parascandola, J. L. (1998). Public health service. In G. T. Kurian (Ed.), A historical guide to the U.S. government (pp. 487–493). New York: Oxford University Press.
In this chapter, historian John L. Parascandola traces the history of the U.S. Public Health Service from its origins in 1798 through the mid-1990s.
Trafford, A. (1997, May 6). The ghost of Tuskegee. The Washington Post, A19.
The editor of the Washington Post's Health Section writes an op-ed article that details the continuing legacy of the Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro. She argues the study is the reason African Americans too often decline medical care and has “cast a shadow over public (health) initiatives from immunizations to organ donation drives.”Public Relations and Science
Beck, U. (2004). Risk society revisited: Theory, politics, and research programmes. In B. Adam, U. Beck, & J. Van Loon (Eds.), The risk society: Critical issues for social theory (pp. 211–229). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ulrich Beck has worked to develop the risk society theme and was among the first to articulate the crucial place risk management plays in the organization of today's complex societies.
Donohew, L., Palmgreen, P., Zimmerman, R., Harrington, N., & Lane, D. (2003). Health risk takers and prevention. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrated approach (pp. 164–182). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Douglas, M. (1992). Risk and blame. London: Routledge.
Anthropologist Mary Douglas, one of the pioneers in the discussion of the cultural theory of risk, presents what she sees as a needed rethinking of the course of research in social science that this theory entails.
Heath, R. L., & O'Hair, H. D. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of crisis and risk communication. New York: Routledge.
This comprehensive book examines major theories of crisis and risk as well as key challenges to source, message, channel, and context. Includes contributions led by risk scholars Ortwin Renn, Katherine Rowan, Vincent Covello, Ingar Palmlund, and Katherine McComas, as well as by cultural theorists of risk James Tansey and Steve Rayner.
Morgan, M. G., Fischhoff, B., Bostrom, A., & Atman, C. J. (2002). Risk communication: A mental models approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
These authors are recognized as the primary developers and advocates of the mental models[Page 1011]approach to risk communication, which promotes the study of nonexpert models of risk phenomena to define communication strategies.
Slovic, P. (1992). Perception of risk: Reflections on the psychometric paradigm. In S. Krimsky & D. Golding (Eds.), Social theories of risk (pp. 117–152). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Paul Slovic has been one of the most important leaders in developing risk communication protocols that are adapted to psychometric interpretations of risks. His research helped bring the psychometric perspective to prominence.Public Understanding of Research
Chittenden, D., Farmelo, G., & Lewenstein, B. V. (Eds.). (2004). Creating connections: Museums and the public understanding of research. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
This book explains how the concept of public understanding of research informs what science museums do as well as identifies opportunities, challenges, and pitfalls of this approach.
Current Science and Technology Center, Museum of Science, Boston: http://www.mos.org
This Web site provides a calendar of events, including links to currently available live presentations, podcasts, and videocasts, so even those not in Boston can get a sense of the range of topics covered and listen to or view many of them.Public Understanding of Science (Journal)
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1990). Science for all Americans. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Provides an atlas, benchmarks, blueprints, and designs for making science available to all Americans and resources for teachers who want to rise to the challenge.
Royal Society of London. (1985). The public understanding of science (Report of a Royal Society ad hoc group endorsed by the Council of the Royal Society). London: Author.
A report that helped to launch the public understanding of science movement in the United Kingdom. It argues that public understanding of science is vitally important and should be pursued through a variety of means, including the mass media and science museums.RRecombinant DNA
Lorenzet, A., & Neresini, F. (2005). Science, risks and social representations. The IPTS reports, European Science and Technology Observatory. Available at http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/home/report/english/articles/v0182/SCI2E826.htm
This work outlines the argument for taking public concerns seriously. It explains the nature of social representations and the ways in which public debate on scientific issues may differ from purely scientific debate.
Myskja, B. (2006). The moral difference between intragenic and transgenic modification of plants. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 19, 225–238.
This article outlines the reasons for considering the substitution of intragenic for transgenic modification, including respect for public concerns, reduction of risks and uncertainties, and showing respect for nature, which can never be fully controlled.Religion, Science, and Media
Lindberg, D. C., & Numbers, R. L. (Eds.). (1986). God and nature: Historical essays on the encounter between Christianity and science. Berkeley: University of California Press.
This is a collection of 18 essays exploring issues and controversies such as the trial of Galileo, Darwinism, creationism, and other topics. The book takes a dialectical approach, suggesting that religion and science have influenced each other throughout their histories.
McGrath, A. E. (1999). Science and religion: An introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
This book is a detailed introduction that explores the differences between the sacred and the sciences. It also discusses times where these phenomena have converged throughout history.
Redondi, P. (1987). Galileo heretic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
A biographical treatment of the trial of Galileo; it not only explores the dilemma of heliocentrism for the[Page 1012]Catholic Church, but also chronicles the reactions of religious leaders to the scientific claim that atoms comprise the core of matter.Reproductive Medicine
Schwartz, J. L., & Gabelnick, H. L. (2002). Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. Current Contraceptive Research, 34(6), 310–316.
This paper outlines the research currently underway into the development of novel contraceptives and presents the arguments for the development of these birth control methods.
World Health Organization. (2009). Reproductive health. Available at http://www.who.int/topics/reproductive_health/en
General informational Web site outlining the aims of the World Health Organization in promoting reproductive health and medicine issues on a global basis. The site provides fact sheets and links to technical information.Research Ethics, Overview
Shamoo, A. E., & Resnik, D. B. (2009). Responsible conduct of research (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
This recent second edition covers the broad range of common ethical challenges that can arise in the conduct of research. Chapters cover mentoring, authorship, private–public collaborations, intellectual property and peer review, misconduct, conflicts of interest, animal and human subjects, and the issues associated with genetics-related research, such as cloning and the use of stem cells.Resource Mobilization
Piven, F. F., & Cloward, R. A. (1977). Poor people's movements. New York: Vintage Books.
This has been the key book on resource mobilization for many social scientists. It lays out a number of movements that have been successful, including the early labor unions and the civil rights movement.
Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. New York: Simon & Schuster.
This is one of the most-read books on the idea of social capital. Putnam argues that Americans are losing social capital because they are no longer interested in developing ties with other people. Instead of joining bowling leagues and generating relationships, we are “bowling alone” through life.
Segal, J. Z. (2007). Health and the rhetoric of medicine. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
This book offers a clear rationale for studying the rhetoric of medicine and a series of case studies that expose the centrality of persuasion in areas such as disease classification, health care policy, and death and dying.Rhetoric of Medicine
Derkatch, C., & Segal, J. Z. (2005). Realms of rhetoric in health and medicine. University of Toronto Medical Journal, 82, 138–142.
Written for medical students and nonspecialists, this article presents a helpful introduction to rhetoric's roles in health and medicine.Rhetoric of Science
Burke, K. (1969). A rhetoric of motives. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
This renowned and widely cited author in the field of rhetoric analyzes the elements of persuasion and identification characteristic of the many forms of symbolic expression common in society.
Myers, G. (1990). Writing biology: Texts in the construction of scientific knowledge. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
In this important work, one of the better-known studies of the persuasive character of scientific rhetoric, Myers studies the rhetoric of two scientists through successive attempts to obtain funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation.Risk Analysis
Kammen, D. M., & Hassenzahl, D. (2001). Should we risk it? Exploring environmental, health and technological problem solving. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
This book organizes theories and methods for environmental/health/technological risk analysis using case studies and worked-out problems to illustrate risk and decision analysis while teaching applied statistics. Specific topics include exposure assessment, [Page 1013]dose–response relations, extrapolation of animal data to humans, modeling, and managing and estimating uncertainty, among others.
Krimsky, S., & Golding, D. (Eds.). (1992). Social theories of risk. Westport, CT: Praeger.
This edited volume covers social, cultural, and psychological theories of risk analysis; discusses the role of science in risk assessment; and reviews frameworks (primarily from decision analysis) for considering risk-management questions.
Society for Risk Analysis: http://www.sra.org
In addition to organization-specific information, this Web site provides a glossary of risk analysis terms; links to academic, governmental, nonprofit, and business risk-related Web sites; and job opportunities. The site also provides links to Risk Analysis, the organization's official journal, and the Journal of Risk Research.Risk Communication, Overview
Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity (M. Ritter, Trans.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Beck argues that unequal distribution of contemporary risks, such as those from genetically modified food or environmental pollution, is a fundamental feature of contemporary “risk societies.”
Fischhoff, B. (1996, May). Public values in risk research. In H. Kunreuther & P. Slovic (Eds.), Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 545: Challenges in risk assessment and risk management (pp. 75–84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fischhoff argues that experts should improve risk communication research by focusing on the values, concerns, and communication needs of those burdened by hazards.
Lowrance, W. W. (1976). Of acceptable risk. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann.
This book is an analysis of risk communication from the perspective of a chemist. It contains a case study of DDT explaining why this pesticide was viewed as a modern miracle during and after World War II and then garnered a different image after Rachel Carson published Silent Spring.
Morgan, M. G., Fischhoff, B., Bostrom, A., & Atman, C. J. (2002). Risk communication: A mental models approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
The authors explain why experts' and novices' conceptions of hazards differ; they offer methods for describing these differences and approaches to using results to develop effective explanatory materials.Risks and Benefits
Finucane, M. L., Alhakami, A., Slovic, P., & Johnson, S. M. (2000). The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13, 1–17.
The risk perceptions of laypersons are shown to be explained by the affective feelings associated with the hazard. If the hazard mainly evokes positive feelings, people see the hazard as a benefit rather than a risk, and vice versa when they mainly associate negative feelings with it.
Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P., Lichtenstein, S., Read, S., & Combs, B. (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences, 9, 127–152.
This landmark paper presents one of the first studies in which a risk's qualitative characteristics are demonstrated to explain laypeople's risk perception. Although the study has been criticized for its use of aggregated data, which may have increased the explained variance of the study, the study's main finding remains of great value for risk perception research.
National Research Council. (1989). Improving risk communication. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
This practice-oriented book aims to bridge the gap between experts and practitioners in the area of risk communication. Possible difficulties in risk communication are identified and recommendations for how to approach these problems are given. Risk communication is seen as a two-way process that should lead to an informed decision.Role Models in Science
Evans, M. A., Whigham, M., & Wang, M. C. (1995). The effect of a role model project upon the attitudes of ninth-grade science students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(2), 195–204.
This article describes a school intervention program using female role models to change the attitudes of ninth graders toward science, mathematics, and technology education. Attitudinal scores of both girls[Page 1014]and boys who participated in the intervention improved more than those of others.
Lockwood, P., Marshall, T. C., & Sadler, P. (2005). Promoting success or preventing failure: Cultural differences in motivation by positive and negative role models. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 379–392.
The authors report research on the impact of negative versus positive role models for members of different ethnic cultures, whether individualistic or collectivistic. Their results suggest ethnic group membership does matter to which type of role model is more influential.Royal Society
Gribbin, J. (2005). The fellowship: Gilbert, Bacon, Wren, Newton and the story of a scientific revolution. London: Allen Lane.
This book provides an accessible account of the origins of the Royal Society, its historical context, and the men who became the founding fathers of Western science.
Hall, A. R., & Hall, M. B. (1962). Why blame Oldenburg? Isis, 53, 482–491.
Chronicles Newton's reaction to Hooke's review of his work in the context of defending Oldenburg from the idea that he was responsible for the poor relationship between Hooke and Newton.
Klug, A. (2000). Address of the President, Sir Aaron Klug, O.M., P.R.S., given at the anniversary meeting on 30 November 1999. Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 54(1), 99–108.
The 1999 presidential address by Aaron Klug to the Royal Society describes the functions of the Royal Society and includes material on the origins of the scientific journal.SSagan, Carl
Davidson, K. (1999). Carl Sagan: A life. New York: Wiley.
This is a detailed, in-depth biography that takes readers interested in the complete story through Sagan's life, providing a comprehensive picture of who he was, both professionally and personally.
Spangenburg, R., & Moser, K. (2004). Carl Sagan: A biography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
This relatively brief biography includes a very helpful timeline at the beginning. It provides an outline of the major points in Sagan's life and career and is a good place to start for someone looking for an easy-to-read introduction.Satellites, Science of
Elbert, B. R. (2008). Introduction to satellite communication. Boston: Artech House.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of satellite communication and satellite networks that includes everything from applications to launch options. While much of the material is technical, this book is designed to be accessible to nonengineers.Science
Science magazine: http://www.sciencemag.org
In addition to access to the journal's news and peer-reviewed scientific papers, the publication's Web site offers both The Science Contributor's FAQ and a Science Media Kit for Product Advertising.Science and Engineering Ethics
Science and Engineering Ethics:http://www.springer.com/philosophy/ethics/journal/11948
This is the publisher's home page for the journal and contains descriptive information as well as content access links and instructions for authors and others.Science and Politics
Jasanoff, S. (2007). Designs on nature: Science and democracy in Europe and the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
This discussion by a well-known and widely respected commentator on the relationship between science and policy in democratic societies considers issues of the[Page 1015]management and regulation of biotechnology in different cultural contexts.
Parthasarathy, S. (2007). Building genetic medicine: Breast cancer, technology, and the comparative politics of health care. Cambridge: MIT Press.
This book dissects the implications of our understanding of the genetic contribution to breast cancer susceptibility made possible through BRCA testing, in the context of U.S. versus U.K. policy and politics.Science and the Giant Screen
Acland, C. R. (1998). IMAX technology and the tourist gaze. Cultural Studies, 12(3), 429–445.
Analyzes and critiques the role of IMAX technology in reintroducing what the author refers to as the “tourist gaze,” that is, the placing of the viewer in the position of tourist with respect to what is presented, often with the help of subsidies from both corporate and government clients.
Dean, C. (2005, March 19). A new screen test for IMAX: It's the Bible vs. the Volcano. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/19/national/19imax.html?_r=1
News article about the refusal by some IMAX theaters, including a handful in science museums, to show films about evolution and related scientific subjects for fear of offending audiences.
Ploeger, J. (2004). Techno-scientific spectacle: The rhetoric of IMAX in the contemporary science museum. Poroi, 3(2), 73–93.
This article documents the incursion of market considerations and entertainment values into the ways in which science is presented on the giant screen and argues this turns viewers into “science tourists.”Science Café
Dallas, D. (2006). Café scientifique—Déj vu. Cell, 126(2), 227–229.
This short piece is a first-person explanation of the Café Scientifique movement written by one of its founders in the United Kingdom. It is not a broad review or scholarly evaluation, but useful as a short history of where, why, and how these events developed.
Lehr, J. L., McCallie, E., Davies, S. R., Caron, B. R., Gammon, B. & Duensing, S. (2007). The value of “dialogue events” as sites of learning: An exploration of research and evaluation frameworks. International Journal of Science Education, 29(12), 1467–1487.
This piece briefly describes the PEST movement and then explores the role of “dialogic events” (such as Cafés Scientifiques) within this movement. The article describes several kinds of learning, beyond simply learning about scientific issues, that can be facilitated in dialogic events.Science Centers and Science Museums
Chittenden, D., Farmelo, G., & Lewenstein, B. V. (Eds.). (2004). Creating connections: Museums and the public understanding of current research. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira.
This book looks at the issue of public understanding of research and how the science museum or science center can contribute—what works and what does not in this quest. Almost two dozen chapters by leading commentators and practitioners present a variety of perspectives.Science Circus
Stocklmayer, S. M., Gore, M. M., & Bryant, C. (Eds.). (2002). Science communication in theory and practice. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
This book includes case studies on the Shell Questacon Science Circus and the related science center, among other interactive science communication examples, complemented by sections on science communication theory and science journalism.Science Communication
SAGE Publications Academic Journals: http://www.sagepub.com/journals.nav
This is the Web site of the academic journals published by SAGE Publications, including both Science Communication and Public Understanding of Science. As for most journal Web sites, information for contributors is included.Science Communication and Indigenous North America
Christians, C., Ferré, J. P., & Fackler, M. P. (1993). Good news: Social ethics and the press. New York: Oxford University Press.[Page 1016]
In this text, the authors struggle with the role of news organizations in communicating meaningful information to a range of communities.
Deloria V., Jr., & Wildcat, D. R. (2001). Power and place: Indian education in America. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Resources.
Vine Deloria Jr. was a leading scholar of Native American history, politics, and epistemologies, and this text illuminates native ways of knowing.
James, K. (Ed.). (2001). Science and Native American communities. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
The chapters in this collection are written by Native Americans who discuss science, education, and Indian perspectives. It provides a rare opportunity to hear about science from an indigenous vantage point.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
In what is widely considered a groundbreaking book, Kuhn extends Karl Popper's views on scientific theory construction to a social context, where scientists operate within paradigms that ground (and sometimes limit) scientific perspectives.Science Documentaries
Chris, C. (2002). All documentary, all the time? Discovery Communications Inc. and trends in cable television. Television & New Media, 3(1), 7–28.
This article documents the rise to prominence of the Discovery Channel from its 1985 debut. The author describes how the channel and its associated business ventures took a niche that was considered “out-of-vogue” and used it to create something of an empire.Science Fiction
Disch, T. M. (2005). On SF. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Disch offers a variety of essays on the genre, including book reviews, revisitations of classic works, obituarylike comments on dead science fiction authors, and commentaries on the status, position, influence, and meaning of this “provincial” genre of literature.
Pierce, J. J. (1987). Foundations of science fiction. New York: Greenwood.
Through a thematic review of foundational elements of science fiction, Pierce links its evolution with the literary imagination of its early authors, tracing the connections between science fiction and other literature to illustrate its significance to philosophy and science.
Roberts, A. (2006). The history of science fiction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Roberts begins his history with classical Greek cosmology and continues through the Dark Ages, Renaissance, and Enlightenment to the influential 20th-century “golden age” and new wave periods, concluding with the multimodal representations of the genre in the last two decades.Science in Advertising
Bostdorff, D. M., & Vibbert, S. L. (1994). Values advocacy: Enhancing organizational images, deflecting public criticism, and grounding future arguments. Public Relations Review, 20(2), 141–158.
The general concept of issue advocacy is discussed in terms of appeals to shared values, and three campaign goals are identified: enhancing the image of an organization; deflecting criticism of the organization, and/or its policies, products, and services; and establishing a premise for future discourse.
Pfau, M., Haigh, M. M., Sims, J., & Wigley, S. (2007). The influence of corporate front-group stealth campaigns. Communication Research, 34(1), 73–99.
An experiment tests the effects of corporate front-group stealth campaigns, some of which involve technology advocacy, on public attitudes. Campaigns generated positive attitudes toward the issue and front group, but not the corporate sponsor. Exposure of the front group eroded positive attitudes toward the issue and generated negative perceptions of the sponsor.
Sinclair J., & Miller, B. (in press). Understanding public response to technology advocacy campaigns: A persuasion knowledge approach. In L. Kahlor & P. Stout (Eds.), Understanding science: New agendas in science communication. New York: Routledge.
This chapter examines technology advocacy and discusses evidence on how members of the public respond to these campaigns. A proposed model is grounded in persuasion theory and identifies perceptions of accountability and trust as key to outcomes, which are thought to be mediated by motives to critically evaluate and identify with the campaign messages.Science Indicators, History of the NSB Project on
Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well being. New York: Plenum Press.[Page 1017]
This book is a landmark collection of essays about the conceptualization and measurement of social indicators in the United States. Many of the indicators of social progress cited by science communicators have their origins in these essays.
Miller, J. D. (2004). Public understanding of, and attitudes toward, scientific research: What we know and what we need to know. Public Understanding of Science, 13, 273–294.
This is a report on 20 years of time series data on a set of indicators of public understanding of science and the public consumption of selected media. It is a good baseline summary to understand communication trends in the second half of the 20th century.
National Science Board. (1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008). Science and engineering indicators. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
The NSB's Indicators series provides the most comprehensive database concerning science and the public perception of science in the second half of the 20th century. The series actually goes back to 1973; prior reports were published under the title Science Indicators. Many of these reports can be obtained electronically fromhttp://www.nsf.gov/statisticsScience in Magazines
Blum, D., Knudson, M., & Henig, R. M. (Eds.). (2005). A field guide for science writers (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
This well-known guide, an official publication of the National Association of Science Writers, features contributions by science writers about the nature of their work. Designed to serve as a resource for present and future science writers.
Kitch, C. (2005). Pages from the past: History and memory in American magazines. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
The author explores the role of the magazine in creating a shared identity and shared memories for Americans, based on an analysis of over 60 popular consumer magazines.Science in Movies
Huppauf, B., & Weingart, P. (Ed.). (2007). Science images and popular images of the sciences. New York: Routledge.
Four chapters of this collection of essays are devoted to science and cinema, including a review of the main types of representation of scientists in fictional films.
Kirby, D. A. (2008). Cinematic science. In M. Bucchi & B. Trench (Eds.), Handbook of public communication of science and technology (pp. 41–56). New York: Routledge.
David Kirby's research has focused on the role of consultants in Hollywood films and on genetics in films. In this essay, he reviews the academic approaches to the study of the role of cinema in the public communication of science and to the evolution of the representation of science in fictional cinema.
Merzagora, M. (2006). Scienza da vedere. L'immaginario scientifico sul grande e sul piccolo schermo [Watching science: The scientific imaginary on movie and TV screens]. Milan, Italy: Sironi Editore.
This book includes six thematic essays on the way science is portrayed in feature films, as well as reviews of more than 200 films featuring science and scientists.
Perkowitz, S. (2007). Hollywood science. New York: Columbia University Press.
Written by a scientist with a deep passion for cinema, Hollywood Science is an entertaining and stimulating reading, focusing in particular on American cinema and on science fiction films.Science in Virtual Worlds
Bartle, R. A. (2004). Designing virtual worlds. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.
This book provides a comprehensive history and overview of virtual worlds. Author Richard Bartle cowrote the first virtual world or MUD (multiuser dungeon) in 1978. It includes a detailed discussion of virtual world design and construction.
Boellstorff, T. (2008). Coming of age in Second Life: An anthropologist explores the virtually human. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
The author spent over 2 years in Second Life as his alter ego—a virtual character named “Tom Bukowski”—documenting “in-world” activities and conducting interviews with Second Life users. He takes a scholarly approach in exploring issues of race and gender, as well as class conflict, culture, and politics.
Guest, T. (2007). Second lives: A journey through virtual worlds. New York: Random House.[Page 1018]
An account of Second Life and other virtual worlds from a journalistic perspective. Covers popular topics from virtual art to virtual sex. Includes statistics and background, as well as a personal narrative based on experiences within Second Life.Science Literacy
Allum, N., Sturgis, P., Tabourazi, D., & Brunton-Smith, I. (2008). Science knowledge and attitudes across cultures: A meta-analysis. Public Understanding of Science, 17(1), 35–54.
This important article compiles data on science literacy from close to 200 previous studies involving 40 countries. The authors argue that there is some relationship between attitudes and factual knowledge, and that this relationship deserves further exploration.Science Magazines
Hilgartner, S. (1990). The dominant view of popularization: Conceptual problems, political uses. Social Studies of Science, 20(3), 519–539.
This article discusses the “dominant view” of science popularization as involving two stages in which scientists first develop new knowledge and then popularizers spread it. Popularization is seen as either simplification or as distortion.
Lewenstein, B. V. (1992). The meaning of “public understanding of science” in the United States after World War II. Public Understanding of Science, 1, 45–68.
This article traces the equation of “public understanding” with “public appreciation” of science in the United States to the influence of four groups: commercial publishers, scientific societies, science journalists, and government agencies.
Nelkin, D. (1997). Selling science: How the press covers science and technology. New York: W. H. Freeman.
This well-known work discusses the historical emergence of science journalism in the United States, which is seen as taking largely a promotional rather than a critical role. Includes discussion of the historical interplay between scientific and journalistic concepts of “objectivity.”Science on Radio
DeMichele, J. (2002). Science on the radio. Journal of Young Investigators, 6(5).
This article provides an excellent summary of leading science radio programs and interviews with leading science reporters in the United States, exploding the myth that radio is just about music or talk shows.Science Shops
Living Knowledge: The International Science Shop Network: http://www.livingknowledge.org
Organizational Web site of science shops and community based research available at Material available on this site explains the concept and mission of the science shop and provides a variety of other information, resources, and useful links for finding out more about this network of practitioners.Science, Technology, & Human Values
Blanpied, W. A. (1982). Reflections on the first decade. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 7(40), 6–7.
This article reviews the first decade of the publication of ST&HV. The author concludes that the journal was key to demonstrating how serious interdisciplinary research has informed our understanding of the relationship between science, technology, and society, with implications for public policy.Science, Technology, and Society (STS) Studies
Baron, N. S. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
This book analyzes the ways information technology, particularly online and mobile technologies, has and has not influenced written and spoken communication. Included is a detailed examination of how new language technologies have functioned to this point, with an emphasis on the need to make conscious choices about how and when to use those technologies.
Hubbard, R. (1990). The politics of women's biology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
This book develops the view that nature itself is part of history and culture by asking three key questions: how do we know, what do we know, and how do we use it? It's an accessible introduction to science criticism, particularly the feminist approach, using the example of biology, and it demonstrates the relevance of STS.
Johnson, D. G. (2005). Social construction of technology. In C. Mitcham (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Science, [Page 1019]Technology, and Ethics (pp. 1791–1794). Detroit, MI: Gale Research.
This chapter provides an overview of social construction of technology; contrasts this with technological determinism; discusses specific theories of social construction; explains how social construction works using the case of the bicycle; identifies economics, regulation, and culture as relevant social factors; and considers the relationship between social construction and ethics.
Wetmore, J. M. (2007). Distributing risks and responsibilities: Flood hazard mitigation in New Orleans. Social Studies of Science, 37(1), 119–126.
This article uses the concept of sociotechnical systems to analyze the flood hazard mitigation system and demonstrates how conventional notions of responsibility are problematic in large sociotechnical systems. It highlights the role of communication.Science Theater
Jackson, A. (2007). Theatre, education and the making of meanings: Art or instrument? Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Jackson examines how theater has been used as an educational tool for many subjects, including health and medical issues as well as science. As the subtitle suggests, the book explores the tension between theater as an art form and as an educational tool.
Shepherd-Barr, K. (2006). Science on stage: From “Doctor Faustus” to “Copenhagen.” Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Shepherd-Barr examines the history of science theater and explores several themes, such as medicine, intentions, or mathematics, within the genre. The book also considers the possible reasons science and theater are a good match.Scientific Consensus
Latour, B., & Woolgar, S. (1986). Laboratory life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
A very well-known work that uses ethnographic research to investigate the way laboratory science is actually accomplished; it examines how the communication practices among those actively engaged in research are intimately intertwined with the process of discovery.
Reeves, C. (2005). The language of science. New York: Routledge.
This book summarizes available scholarship on the use and misuse of scientific rhetoric into a single useful and accessible text that explores the relationship between language and science.Scientific Ethos
Campbell, J. A. (2003). Why was Darwin believed? Darwin's Origin and the problem of intellectual revolution. Configurations, 11, 203–237.
This article uses Darwin's Origin of the Species as a means to explore the tension between conventional and radical ideas within science and the ways in which established ideas change.Scientific Journal, History of
Gross, A. G., Harmon, J. E., & Reidy, M. (2002). Communicating science: The scientific article from the 17th century to the present. New York: Oxford University Press.
This is a historical survey of the development of the scientific article in English, French, and German. It describes the emergence of contemporary forms of scientific argumentation and considers their future.Scientific Method
Kuhn, T. (1996). The structure of scientific revolutions (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
One of the most important books in the history and philosophy of science. In Kuhn's view, the history of science involves a series of larger-scale theories, or paradigms. Because paradigms may influence the conceptual, observational, and methodological principles scientists embrace, scientific thinking is not driven simply by observational results and logical principles.
Popper, K. (1963). Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
This important collection of Popper's essays and talks includes his influential essay, “Science: Conjectures and Refutations.” Here, Popper presents and defends his position that scientific theories are distinctive by being falsifiable and that science does not depend on inductive generalizations. Popper also discusses such wide-ranging topics as truth, language, and public opinion.
Shapin, S., & Schaffer, S. (1985). Leviathan and the air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.[Page 1020]
In this influential examination of the culture of science, the authors focus on Boyle's air-pump experiments to argue that political and social factors were deeply intertwined with Boyle's methodology. The book provides support for the view that scientific knowledge is largely a social construction and illustrates how studying the history of science can reveal details about method.Scientific Publishing, Overview
Cox, J., & Cox, L. (2008). Scholarly publishing practice: Academic journal publishers' policies and practices in online publishing (3rd ed.). Brighton, UK: Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers.
This book presents the results of a survey conducted in 2008 assessing practices and policies of scholarly publishers for online publications. A high response rate includes results from the majority of major scientific journal publishers. It compares findings to those of two earlier surveys identifying changes and trends.
Fjällbrant, N. (1997). Scholarly communication: Historical development and new possibilities. Paper presented at the 18th IATUL Conference: Scholarly Communication in Focus, Trondheim, Norway. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from the International Association of Technical University Libraries Web site, http://www.iatul.org/doclibrary/public/Conf_Proceedings/1997/Fjallbrant.doc
Written early in the era of online publishing, this paper briefly outlines the history of scientific publishing. It lists the purposes of publishing in science and the varieties of scientific communication and gives an example from Galileo of the use of scientific anagrams and ciphers to restrict communication of preliminary findings.
Suber, P. (2007, June). Open access overview: Focusing on open access to peer-reviewed research articles and their preprints. The SPARC Open Access Newsletter. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from http://www.earlham.edu/∼peters/fos/overview.htm
This work describes the history of the open access movement and gives an overview for those new to it, as well as more detailed descriptions. The author has created a detailed timeline of open access developments from 1966 to 2008. The timeline is available as a wiki for continued updating (http://oad.simmons.edu/oadwiki/Timeline).Scientific Societies
American Association for the Advancement of Science, U.S. Office of Research Integrity. (2000). The role and activities of scientific societies in promoting research integrity: A report of a conference. Washington, DC.
This report reviews recent history concerning the roles and activities of scientific societies in promoting ethical conduct, codes of ethics, and support activities. It concludes with recommendations for research and action.
Ornstein, M. (1928). The role of the scientific societies in the seventeenth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This well-known book on scientific societies begins with biographies of famous scientists of the 17th century, including Galileo Galilei, William Harvey, Francis Bacon, Renee Descartes, and others. Chapters concern the development of important societies, the first scientific journals, and early universities.Scientist–Journalist Conflicts
Nautiyal, C. M. (2008). A look at S&T awareness—Enhancements in India. Journal of Science Communication, 7(2).
This article analyzes the present situation for science popularization in India, reviews the need for science and technology communication there, and argues that rural people are benefiting from science communication activities.
Patairiya, M. (2002, March 20). Science communication in India: Perspectives and challenges. Available at http://www.SciDev.Net
This article documents the historical context behind the science communication movement in India and reviews both current media and future prospects.Scientist–Journalist Relations
Friedman, S. M., Dunwoody, S., & Rogers, C. L. (Eds.). (1988). Scientists and journalists: Reporting science as news. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
While somewhat dated, this collection of essays and analyses documents some of the important issues, strategies, and challenges associated with covering science stories in the news, many of which remain relevant today.[Page 1021]Scientists as Sources
Boorstin, D. (1961). The image: A guide to pseudo-events in America. New York: Atheneum.
This book describes changes in American culture that have created a time in which the reproduction or simulation of an event has become more important than the event itself.
Dunwoody, S. (1986). The scientist as source. In S. M. Friedman, S. Dunwoody, & C. L. Rogers (Eds.), Scientists and journalists: Reporting science as news. New York: Free Press.
The author of this chapter uses a number of studies to sketch the portrait of a scientist. It examines the attitudes of scientists who work with journalists and identifies the benefits and costs to scientists who take on such a public role.
Press, E., & Washburn, J. (2006, March). The kept university. Atlantic Monthly, 39–54.
This article argues that more and more universities are conducting themselves like for-profit companies, putting at risk the supreme value—impartial inquiry—of higher education.Scientists' Understanding of the Public
Davies, S. R. (2008). Constructing communication: Talking to scientists about talking to the public. Science Communication, 29(4), 413–434.
This article examines the ways scientists and engineers talk about public communication. The author argues that the dominant framework for this talk is one-way communication, and that public communication is understood as difficult and potentially dangerous.Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
Shklovskii, I. S., & Sagan, C. (1966). Intelligent life in the universe (P. Fern, Trans.). San Francisco: Holden Day.
Although now over 40 years old, this early Carl Sagan project is a revised and extended English language version of an earlier work by a Soviet astrophysicist, and much of the material is reported to remain relevant today, even though subsequent developments in planetary exploration establish some elements as outdated.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Greenfeld, K. (2006). China syndrome: The true story of the 21st century's first great epidemic. New York: HarperCollins.
Written by a former Times Asia editor who reported on SARS from Asia at a time when little information was available from the Chinese, this book provides a balanced view of SARS coverage in China in the context of the radical changes affecting that country.Sigma Xi
Sigma Xi. (2007). Embracing globalization. Research Triangle Park, NC: Author. Available at http://www.sigmaxi.org
See American Scientist, September–October, 2007, for a summary.
Sigma Xi. (2009). About Sigma Xi: Overview. Organizational overview available at http://www.sigmaxi.org
This article about Sigma Xi on the organization's main Web site provides a description of the society and its activities, with links to many other pages that provide extensive details.
Snow, C. P., & Snow, C. P. (1959). The two cultures and the scientific revolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Snow's famous treatise on the educational divide between scientific and humanistic cultures raises arguments about the contribution of each that continue to be brought up and discussed today.Social Amplification of Risk Framework
Kasperson, J. X., & Kasperson, R. E. (2005). The social contours of risk volume 1: Publics, risk communication and the social amplification of risk. London: Earthscan.
This very thorough volume is an edited collection of the key papers published by Roger and Jeanne Kasperson over many years on the various components of the social amplification model. It is an invaluable resource.
Kasperson, R. E., Renn, O., Slovic, P., Brown, H. S., Emel, J., Goble, R., et al. (1988). The social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework, Risk Analysis, 8, 177–187.[Page 1022]
This important paper outlines the basics of the SARF. It is accompanied in the journal volume by a series of peer critiques of the ideas that are also useful sources.
Pidgeon, N. F., Kasperson, R. K., & Slovic, P. (Eds.). (2003). The social amplification of risk. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
This edited volume arose from a workshop held in England to review and update the framework 15 years after its inception. It contains chapters from leading researchers on conceptual foundations, case studies of amplification processes in various contexts, and reflections on the role of epistemology, governance, and public participation.Social Justice
Besley, J. C., & McComas, K. A. (2005). Framing justice: Using the concept of procedural justice to advance political communication research. Communication Theory, 15(4), 414–436.
This article focuses on using theory associated with social psychology of justice in the context of science and political communication. Specifically argues that communication scholars should consider how people view the justice of procedures and treatment in the study of decision making.
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
This classic and updated political philosophy text focuses on elaborating the place that fairness should play in the design of political systems. This book lays out key concepts, such as an “original position” and the “veil of ignorance,” that are key to understanding how to conceptualize just governance processes.
Satterfield, T. A., Mertz, C. K., & Slovic, P. (2004). Discrimination, vulnerability, and justice in the face of risk. Risk Analysis, 24(1), 115–129.
This article empirically demonstrates the role that variables such as gender and race play in how people perceive environmental health risks that are at the heart of science and technology communication.Social Marketing
Andreasen, A. R. (1995). Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social, development, and the environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This book describes social marketing in terms beginners can understand and seasoned users will appreciate. Presentation is divided into sections on “preparing” (emphasizing understanding the “customer”) and “doing” (how to capitalize on this information).Society for Technical Communication
Durack, K. T. (2003). From the moon to the microchip: Fifty years of technical communication. Technical Communication, 50, 571–584.
This article reviews the history of technology being used for the production of text over the past 50 years, from typewriters to erasable paper to computer-based word processing systems.Society of Environmental Journalists
Society of Environmental Journalists: http://www.sej.org
This organizational Web site provides extensive information on the society, including publications, membership and conference details, and career information. A special area accessible to members only provides Listserv access, a membership directory, and other tools.Solar Energy
Harper, G. D. J. (2007). Solar energy projects for the evil genius. New York: McGraw-Hill.
This book invites readers to understand the potential of solar power through practical projects, including creation of simple photovoltaic and photochemical cells from scratch using hobbyist-level equipment. Projects are designed to practically demonstrate the potential of solar power, as well as to communicate the science and technology behind photovoltaics.
Kemp, R. J. (1995). Practical photovoltaics. Ann Arbor, MI: Aatec Publications.
A very thorough and comprehensive introduction to solar energy that covers the physics behind photovoltaic devices as well as discusses different solar materials and makes predictions for the future. It includes practical advice on assembling a solar array and comprehensive lists of further readings.Space Program, Overview
Clarke, A. C. (1968). 2001: A space odyssey. New York: New American Library.[Page 1023]
While not actually published until after the release of the film by the same name, this science fiction “modern classic” was developed concurrently with the screenplay. Both the book and the film provide a strong critique of modern computer technology and a serious, if mysterious, statement regarding the role of technology in humankind's prehistory and future.
Verne, J. (1865). From the Earth to the Moon. Newark, NJ: Newark Printing and Publishing. (Originally published as De la terre la Lune)
The original text of this early science fiction classic has been reprinted so many times that it is difficult to attribute it to a specific contemporary publisher. Its relevance to the actual U.S. space program remains remarkable, however.Space Shuttle
Smith, M. (1985). Space shuttle. Newbury Park, CA: Haynes.
This book, which may be hard to find, is a space nerd's dream, crammed with data about NASA's space shuttle system and its real and imagined antecedents.
Smith, M. S. (2006). NASA's space shuttle program: The Columbia, tragedy, the Discovery Mission, and the future of the shuttle (RS21408). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
This report, prepared by a knowledgeable analyst, reviews “previous spaceflight-related crew fatalities,” the findings of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, and the space shuttle's return to flight. At the top of the list of issues identified for Congress to address at the time was “cost.”
Trento, J. J. (1987). Prescription for disaster: From the glory of Apollo to the betrayal of the shuttle. New York: Crown.
This book, authored by a self-described investigative reporter, provides a decent short account of the Challenger accident, analyzing the event in its historical context.
Williamson, R. A. (1999). Developing the space shuttle. In J. M. Logsdon (Ed.), Exploring the unknown: Selected documents in the history of the U.S. civil space program, Volume IV: Accessing space (NASA SP-4407). Washington, DC: History Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
This chapter in a NASA History publication, authored by a reliable researcher, provides an excellent historical overview of the evolution and development of NASA's space shuttle system.Spiral of Silence and Science
Neuwirth, K., Frederick, E., & Mayo, C. (2007). The spiral of silence and fear of isolation. Journal of Communication, 57(3), 450–468.
This recent discussion argues that pressures to conform may have been understated in some past research. The authors use data from the 2002 U.S. congressional elections to explore fear of isolation and other variables related to the theory in a study of opinion surrounding whether the United States would invade Iraq. Noelle-Neumann, E. (1993). The spiral of silence: Public opinion, our social skin (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This book by the scholar who first articulated the idea of “spiral of silence” is based on the original German book setting forth the theory (published in 1980). This edition responds to questions raised in the intervening decades. It includes related essays on public opinion by other well-known scholars and new material from the author.
Priest, S. H. (2006). A spiral-of-silence analysis of biotechnology opinion in the United States. Science Communication, 28(2), 195–215.
This article is one of the few providing empirical evidence of a spiral of silence for a scientific controversy, in this case biotechnology opinion in the United States. The analysis is based on data from an opinion survey.Stem Cell Controversy
Korobkin, R., & Munzer, S. R. (2007). Stem cell century: Law and policy for a breakthrough technology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
This book provides a readable introduction to the complex policy issues that have arisen as a result of the discovery of the medical potential of stem cells for future therapies.Strategic Communication for Science and Technology
Borchelt, R. E. (2001). Communicating the future: Report of the research roadmap panel for public communication of science and technology in the [Page 1024]twenty-first century. Science Communication, 23(2), 194–211.
This article summarizes findings of a 15-member working group chartered by NASA's Space Science Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center to find the big questions about science communication that academic research should address, plus it identifies best practices currently in place.String Theory
Greene, B. (1999). The elegant universe: Superstrings, hidden dimensions, and the quest for the ultimate theory. New York: W. W. Norton.
The author of this book, a noted string theorist, provides a clear and easy-to-understand explanation of general relativity, quantum theory, and how the conflict between the two theories led to the development of string theory. It includes a helpful glossary.
Greene, B. (2004). The fabric of the cosmos: Space, time, and the texture of reality. New York: Knopf.
This is the author's second popular book on string theory and includes a more up-to-date look at research in the field. Vivid examples and clear explanations make this an informative and interesting book for the general public. It includes a glossary.
Musser, G. (2008). The complete idiot's guide to string theory. New York: Penguin.
An easy-to-understand starting point for grasping some of the complex concepts associated with general relativity, quantum theory, and string theory. The author makes no assumptions about the reader's knowledge. The margins contain useful definitions.Superconducting Super Collider
Riordan, M. (2001). A tale of two cultures: Building the Superconducting Super Collider, 1988–1993. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 32(1), 125–144.
This paper argues that the SSC can be understood as part of a continuing struggle for control of large-scale projects between high-energy physicists and engineers hailing from the military-industrial complex. Riordan attributes problems with the management of the project to a clash of cultures between the two groups.
Weinberg, S. (1994). Dreams of a final theory. New York: Vintage.
This is the popular book in which Weinberg attempted to persuade readers of the value of the SSC by explaining the physics involved. This revised edition includes an afterword on the cancellation of the project.Superfund
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Superfund: Cleaning up the nation's hazardous wastes sites. Available at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/index.htm
This official U.S. EPA site provides access to the NPL and detailed information about contaminants and the law. It includes a tool to locate Superfund sites near your home and information on how to organize your community to take action.Surgeon General, U.S.
Harris, G. (2007, July 11). Surgeon General sees 4-year term as compromised. The New York Times, 1.
The author reports on testimony by former Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona to the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, then considering ways to strengthen the Office of the Surgeon General, stating that he had faced repeated political pressure to suppress or weaken public health reports.
Jehl, D. (1994, December 10). Surgeon General forced to resign by White House. The New York Times, 1.
The reporter outlines events leading to the resignation of Joycelyn Elders as U.S. Surgeon General and asserts that her outspoken views about drugs and sexuality had made her the target of a conservative effort to have her removed from office.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov
The official Web site of the Office of the Surgeon General provides extensive information about the office, including its history and the biographies of past and current surgeons general, its public health priorities, and available reports and publications.Surveys
Dillman, D. A. (2007). Mail and Internet surveys: The tailored design method (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Dillman's book is considered one of the standard textbooks on survey research. He provides an[Page 1025]exhaustive overview of issues related to sampling, questionnaire construction, and survey implementation from a methodological perspective. His approach is often described as the “Tailored Design Method.”
Scheufele, D. A. (2006). Messages and heuristics: How audiences form attitudes about emerging technologies. In J. Turney (Ed.), Engaging science: Thoughts, deeds, analysis and action (pp. 20–25). London: The Wellcome Trust.
This chapter outlines how audiences make sense of issues related to science and technology and how these dynamics influence if and how we can conduct public opinion surveys among mass publics who often have little or no factual information about a topic.Sustainability
Cox, R. (2006). Environmental communication and the public sphere. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This theoretically informed book describes and analyzes the field of environmental communication, including the environmental movement and environmental rhetoric, media and online communication, public participation and dispute resolution, risk communication, environmental justice, and green marketing.
May, S. K., Cheney, G., & Roper, J. (Eds.). (2007). The debate over corporate social responsibility. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Over 30 individually authored chapters present issues and challenges associated with corporate social responsibility. It includes case studies from around the globe, as well as theoretical discussion.Synthetic Biology and Genomics
Bügl, H., Danner, J. P., Molinari, R. J., Mulligan, J. T., Park, H.-O., Reichert, B., et al. (2007). DNA synthesis and biological security. Nature Biotechnology, 25, 627–629.
This paper is a useful consideration of the familiar constellation of societal concerns about biotechnology from the perspectives of for-profit companies and from the biosecurity community that has concerns that the technologies employed by those companies could be used maliciously.
De Vriend, H. (2006). Constructing life: Early social reflections on the emerging field of synthetic biology (Working Document No. 97). The Hague, the Netherlands: Rathenau Institute. Available at http://www.lisconsult.nl/images/stories/Downloads/wed97_constructing_life_2006.pdf
This is an excellent summary of current and potential societal concerns about synthetic biology, including various national and regional perspectives, with respect to biosafety, biosecurity, ethics, intellectual property rights, and philosophy.
Smith, H. O., Hutchison, III, C. A., Pfannkoch, C., & Venter, J. C. (2003). Generating a synthetic genome by whole genome assembly: ϕX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 100, 15440–15445.
While other researchers had demonstrated that it was possible in principle to construct small and medium-sized viruses from scratch, this group showed how it could be done in a matter of weeks, from relatively inexpensive starting materials.TTechnical Communication
Connors, R. (1982). The rise of technical writing instruction in America. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 12(4), 329–352.
This article traces the history of technical writing instruction in American colleges as it evolved into a recognized academic specialty with its own courses and texts.
Eisenstein, E. (1980). The printing press as an agent of change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
The author is famous for her work on the relationship between the invention of the movable type printing press in Europe and fundamental, sweeping changes that occurred in society and science. This book is her best-known contribution.
O'Hara, F. (2001). A brief history of technical communication. Proceedings of the Society of Technical Communication 2001 Conference. Available at http://www.stc.org/ConfProceed/2001/PDFs/STC48–000052.pdf
This brief account goes back in time to uncover the beginnings of the fields of technical communication and scientific writing, from ancient writings to the 14th-century blossoming of scientific inquiry and then on to modern times.[Page 1026]Technological Determinism
Ellul, J. (1976). The technological society (J. Wilkinson, Trans.). New York: Knopf.
Originally published in 1954, this is one of the most prominent of the scholarly books that argue for technological determinism. Ellul paints a generally bleak picture of the effects of technology on society.
Meyrowitz, J. (1985). No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.
Drawing extensively on the work of scholars Marshall McLuhan and Erving Goffman, this book is one of the foundations of medium theory that marries technological determinism with media and communication technology specifically.
Smith, M. R., & Marx, L. (Eds.). (1994). Does technology drive history?: The dilemma of technological determinism. Cambridge: MIT Press.
This is an excellent collection of essays that explores various aspects of technology's role in the course of history, emphasizing the nuances of a deterministic position on the relationship between human history and technological development.Technological Literacy
National Academy of Engineering and National
Research Council. (2002). Technically speaking: Why all Americans need to know more about technology. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
This work argues that in our technology-rich and technology-dependent society, our relationship to technology has become almost invisible, with most Americans taking it for granted. The last chapter provides specific recommendations for education for technological literacy in both formal and informal settings. This and other National Academies publications are available free online.
Rutherford, F. J., & Ahlgren, A. (1990). The nature of technology. In Science for all Americans (pp. 25–37). New York: Oxford University Press.
This important publication sets forth specific recommendations about what all Americans need to understand and the “habits of mind” they need to cultivate with respect to science to lead productive and fulfilling lives. The material about engineering and technology is concentrated in the two chapters cited.Technology Assessment
Hughes, T. P. (1989). The evolution of large
technological systems. In W. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes, & T. J. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology (pp. 51–82). Cambridge: MIT Press.
This chapter develops the influential concept of technological momentum.
Morgan, M. G., & Peha, J. M. (Eds.). (2003). Science and technology advice for Congress. Washington, DC: RFF Press.
A collection of essays resulting from a 2001 workshop on “Creating Institutional Arrangements to Provide Science and Technology Advice to the U.S. Congress,” broadly supported and attended by the American science policy community. The essays consider the demise of the U.S. OTA and new models for communication about technology between scientific, engineering, and policy communities.
Wood, F. B. (1997). Lessons in technology assessment: Methodology and management at OTA. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 54, 145–162.
An excellent history of the life and times of the U.S. OTA by one of its senior staff members. Argues that technology assessment (TA) will continue to be crucial due to the expanding role of science and technology in society, and suggests new methodological approaches.Television Science
LaFollette, M. C. (2008). Science on the air: Popularizers and personalities on radio and early television. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
A comprehensive survey of science content of early television broadcasting in the United States, as well as earlier radio broadcasts. It addresses the tension between entertainment and educational values.
National Research Council. (2008). Learning science in informal environments: People, places and pursuits (P. Bell, B. Lewenstein, A. W. Shouse, & M. A. Feder, Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
The eighth chapter of this book reviews the latest research and thinking on the media as a context and tool for science learning.[Page 1027]Teller, Edward
Teller, E., & Shoolery, J. L. (2001). Memoirs: A twentieth-century journey in science and politics. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
Teller's autobiography provides an overview of his life and work, describing the events, people, and plans that were instrumental in the development of nuclear science and defense strategies in the 20th century.Tenure System
Krebs, P. M. (2008, September/October). The future of tenure. Academe, 94(5).
This is one of a number of articles published in this issue of Academe that address current ideas about tenure and its future.
Metzger, W. P. (1993). The 1940 statement of principles on academic freedom and tenure. In W. W. Van Alstyne (Ed.), Freedom and tenure in the academy (pp. 3–77). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
This statement is considered the basis for academic tenure at most institutions. According to the AAUP Web site, 100 professional and disciplinary organizations have now endorsed this statement.Third-Person Effect
Davison, W.P. (1983). The third-person effect in communication. Public Opinion Quarterly, 47, 1–15.
This is the founding article for the third-person effect and the springboard for all research that came after. It is also remarkably clear and persuasive; even though the experiments reported were not rigorous, they paved the way for others. In light of research that has occurred since, Davison's ideas proved surprisingly accurate.
Perloff, R. M. (1999). The third-person effect: A critical review and synthesis. Media Psychology, 1(4), 353–378.
This article evaluated the previous third-person effect research and was the first credible article to say the third-person effect was “robust” rather than speculative. Perloff's careful scholarship in a number of third-person effect articles gave credibility to this seminal study and the concept in general.Three Mile Island
Kemeny Commission. (1979, October). Report of the public's right to information task force of the President's commission on the accident at Three Mile Island (#052-003-00734-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available at http://www.threemileisland.org/downloads/192.pdf
This report of the group known as the Kemeny Commission, headed by John Kemeny, is the most authoritative account available of the actions of both sources and journalists in the weeks after the accident.
Sandman, P. M., & Paden, M. (1979, July/August). At Three Mile Island. Columbia Journalism Review, 43–58. Available at http://www.psandman.com/articles/3-mile.htm
While reporters were covering the TMI story, the authors were covering the reporters—and the sourcing. The result is this “inside story” of the actions and reactions of the press and those they spoke to.Town Hall Meeting
Bryan, F. (2004). Real democracy: The New England town meeting and how it works. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
In this book, author Frank Bryan describes his 28 years of fieldwork examining over 1,500 town meetings in Vermont. He argues that town meeting democracy, still practiced in New England states, offers perhaps the nearest illustration what real democracy might have looked like 2,500 years ago in Greece.
McComas, K., Besley, J., & Trumbo, C. (2006). Why citizens do and don't attend public meetings about local cancer clusters. Policy Studies Journal, 34, 671–698.
This article focuses on results collected during a multiyear investigation of the use of public meetings for risk communication. Specifically, this article examines the open-ended responses received from meeting attendees and nonattendees during a seven-community study about why people chose to attend or not to attend local public meetings during cancer cluster investigations.[Page 1028]Toxicogenomics
Barahmani, N., Carpentieri, S., Li, X.-N., Wang, T., Cao, Y., Howe, L., et al. (2009). Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms may predict adverse effects after therapy in children with medulloblastoma. Neuro-oncology, 11(3), 292–300.
This article reveals that interindividual genetic variations may predict adverse effects, such as cognitive impairment, in children treated for medulloblastoma, a tumor of the central nervous system.
Giacomini, K. M., Krauss, R. M., Roden, D. M., Eichelbaum, M., Hayden, M. R., & Nakamura, Y. (2007). When good drugs go bad. Nature, 446(7139), 975–977.
The authors reflect on the widespread impact and the consequences of adverse drug effects and discuss the possibilities to reduce the risk to these severe reactions.
Lazarou, J., Pomeranz, B. H., & Corey, P. N. (1998). Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(15), 1200–1205.
The authors examined several studies conducted at U.S. hospitals and estimated an overall incidence of medication adverse effects exceeding 6% and an overall incidence of fatal adverse effects of approximately 0.3% among hospitalized patients.
Perlis, R. H., Mischoulon, D., Smoller, J. W., Wan, Y.-J. Y., Lamon-Fava, S., Lin, K.-M., et al. (2003). Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and adverse effects with fluoxetine treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 54(9), 879–883.
The study shows that among individuals treated with fluoxetine for major depression, those harboring a 44 base-pair deletion upstream of the serotonin transporter gene are at higher risk to develop insomnia and agitation as a result of treatment.
Schulte, P. A., & Lomax, G. (2003). Assessment of the scientific basis for genetic testing of railroad workers with carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45(6), 592–600.
The authors review the scientific literature to examine whether there is a scientific basis for the link between a specific SNP that was tested for in railroad track workers and carpal tunnel syndrome and reveal that no scientific evidence supports the decision to conduct this genetic testing.Toxic Substances Regulation
Comparison of U.S. and recently enacted European Union approaches to protect against the risks of toxic chemicals: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07825.pdf
This report is an overview and comparison of the framework of regulation developed by the U.S. Congress through TSCA and the EU regulation through the REACH policy to control toxic chemicals. One key difference is the assignment of the burden of responsibility regarding the safety of chemicals.
McCally, M. (Ed.). (2002). Life support: The environment and human health. Cambridge: MIT Press.
This text is an excellent compilation of articles about the many chemical substances released into the environment and the implications of exposures to human health. It is an excellent primer on the topic of environmental health and toxicology.
Mielke, H. W., Anderson, J. C., Berry, K. J., Mielke, P. W., Chaney, R. L., & Leech, M. (1983). Lead Concentrations in inner-city soils as a factor in the child lead problem. American Journal of Public Health, 73(12), 1366–1369.
Pioneering and classic paper on Baltimore, Maryland, that demonstrates the geographic pattern and statistical characteristics of metals in urban soils.Translational Research
Kerner, J., Rimer, B., & Emmons, K. (2005). Dissemination research and research dissemination: How can we close the gap? Health Psychology, 24, 443–446.
This article provides an overview of the case for a strong role for behavioral sciences in dissemination research, as well as in addressing definitional and conceptual issues.
Wandersman, A., Duffy, J., Flaspohler, P., Noonan, R., Lubell, K., Stillman, L., et al. (2008). Bridging the gap between prevention research and practice: The Interactive Systems Framework for dissemination and implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 171–181.
This article presents a framework—the Interactive Systems Framework—for intervention, which is now used in several Centers for Disease Control R2P programs.[Page 1029]
Wolfe, S. (2008). The meaning of translational research and why it matters. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 211–213.
This article consists of a commentary on the growth of translational research in the health sciences and the need for more emphasis on type 2 research.Trust and Attitudes
Siegrist, M., Earle, T. C., & Gutscher, H. (2007). Trust in cooperative risk management: Uncertainty and scepticism in the public mind. London: Earthscan.
Leading trust researchers present their theoretical work and empirical studies of trust in risk management.
Slovic, P. (1993). Perceived risk, trust, and democracy. Risk Analysis, 13, 675–682.
One of the first papers about trust and risk. There is a strong emphasis on the trust asymmetry.Two Cultures
Fuller, S. (2006). The philosophy of science and technology studies. London: Routledge.
This book explores the rather uncertain philosophical basis of the two cultures problem that has centered on science and technology studies in the wake of the science wars, in which the field has been portrayed as not merely ignorant of the natural sciences but downright hostile to them.
Ross, A. (Ed.). (1996). Science wars. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
This book, which officially christened the science wars, collects together many of the original pieces, authored by both scientists and humanists, that appeared in the ill-fated issue of Social Text that included the Sokal Hoax, along with specially commissioned articles that try, to a certain extent, to justify the affair.UUFOlogy
Collins, H. M., & Pinch, T. J. (1982). Frames of meaning: The social construction of extraordinary science. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Social scientists Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch have a scholarly interest in the broad and fuzzy boundary areas between legitimate and illegitimate science, which they explore in this book.
Gieryn, T. F. (1999). Cultural boundaries of science: Credibility on the line. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This scholarly book presents a collection of informative and entertaining case studies of the social construction of science and nonscience. The authors maintain that people use “cultural maps” to distinguish the two.
Hynek, J. A. (1998). The UFO experience. New York: Marlowe.
This mass-market edition of a book originally published in 1972 provides a UFOlogist's perspective on the subject. The book is organized into three parts: The UFO Phenomenon, The Data and the Problem, and Where Do We Go From Here? Chapter 1 is titled “The Laughter of Science.”
Smith. M. S. (1983). The UFO enigma (Revised and updated by G. D. Havas, Report No. 83-205 SPR). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
This report, prepared by reliable Congressional Research Service analysts, is an excellent, comprehensive source of information on U.S. government studies of the UFO phenomenon. It is properly dispassionate, neither dismissive and debunking nor approving and accepting.Uncertainty in Science Communication
Friedman, S. M., Dunwoody, S., & Rogers, C. L. (Eds.). (1999). Communicating uncertainty: Media coverage of new and controversial science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
This book, edited by top science communication scholars, is a landmark volume containing significant thinking about the communication of scientific uncertainty. While accessible enough for undergraduates, it is still a must-read for any social scientist seeking to do research on the public communication of scientific uncertainty.
Stocking. S. H., & Holstein, L. W. (2009). Manufacturing doubt: Journalists' roles and the construction of ignorance in a scientific controversy. Public Understanding of Science, 18, 23–42.
This article offers a case study in which a trade association for the hog industry issued rhetorical claims intended to sow public confusion and uncertainty about research that threatened the industry. Journalists' use of these claims appeared to be a function of their perceptions of their roles and audiences, as well as their scientific knowledge.[Page 1030]
Welch-Ross, M. K., & Fasig, L. G. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook on communicating and disseminating behavioral science. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This volume, edited by psychologists, is aimed at social scientists who want to communicate their findings in ways that will foster public understanding. The chapter authors include both social scientists and science communication scholars. One chapter is specifically devoted to considering scientific complexities and uncertainties, but many of the chapters touch on this important topic.Understanding Expertise
Cohen, E. (1973). Tranquility for the decision maker. In L. Nader & T. W. Maretzki (Eds.), Cultural illness and health: Essays in human adaptation (pp. 89–96). Anthropological Studies (No. 9). Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.
This chapter presents compelling analyses of decision making, even though it draws on decision-making processes undertaken in traditional societies in Africa that seem, on the face of it, to be much different from those of other societies.
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1976). Witchcraft, oracles and magic among the Azande. New York: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1937)
A study of African “witch doctors” by one of the big names of social anthropology, E. E. Evans-Pritchard. He saw in witch doctor behaviors strategies that he recognized from the behaviors of professionals in his native England.
Rifkin, W. D. (2001, July 8). How to spot an “expert” [Transcript of the radio program Ockham's Razor, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Radio National]. Accessed July 7, 2009, from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/ockhamsrazor/stories/2001/323986.htm
This radio essay provides a tongue-in-cheek view of the cues that we use to determine who deserves expert status, as well as who does not.
Tannen, D. (1994). Talking from 9 to 5: Women and men in the workplace: Language, sex and power. New York: HarperCollins.
An easy-to-understand analysis of contrasts in the ways in which women and men talk in the United States. Tannen's work provides a good introduction to how people vie for power and influence through their strategies for talking.Union of Concerned Scientists
Gell-Mann, M. (1994). The quark and the jaguar. New York: W. H. Freeman.
While UCS brought physicists into U.S. environmental policy debates, Murray Gell-Mann, a science legend, led a study of the Everglades in the same year he received a Nobel Prize for physics, helping to bring his discipline into the analysis of biological systems, energy, and climate change.
Union of Concerned Scientists. (2009). Union of Concerned Scientists: Citizens and scientists for environmental solutions. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/
The Web site of UCS features the organization's reports, environmental news, and links to issue-specific pages about their concerns, as well as suggestions for taking individual action. The text of the 1968 Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty document that provided UCS's original foundation is also available on the site.VVaccines, Fear of
Myers, M. G., & Pineda, D. (2008). Do vaccines cause that?! A guide for evaluating vaccine safety concerns. Galveston, TX: Immunizations for Public Health.
Designed to give science-based answers to questions about the safety of vaccines, this book proposes to provide “the facts.” It was created in part for parents who want to learn how to balance the risks and benefits of immunizations.Venter, J. Craig
Shreeve, J. (2005). The genome war: How Craig Venter tried to capture the code of life and save the world. New York: Ballantine.
Documents the politics and personalities, as well as the science, behind the decoding of the human genome—and describes the intractable problems of intellectual property the project brought to the fore.Visible Scientist
Goodell, R. (1977). The visible scientists. Boston: Little, Brown.[Page 1031]
Arguably the first to coin the term, Goodell dissects the “visible scientist” phenomenon. She argues that it is not the nature of the scientist's discoveries, but their ability to communicate with the public and engage with public controversies, that determines their visibility.Visual Images in Science Communication
Gross, A. G., Harmon, J. E., & Reidy, M. (2002). Communicating science: The scientific article from the 17th century to the present. New York: Oxford University Press.
A systematic analysis of scientific articles and their wording and imagery from the 17th to the 20th century. Focusing on scientific argumentation, this book examines both verbal and visual style and presentation of science articles.
Hodges, E. R. S. (Ed.). (2003). The guild handbook of scientific illustration (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
A step-by-step scientific imagery reference manual with over 600 illustrations, written by top illustrators, scientists, and industry professionals. It includes chapters on basic computer graphics, murals, model building, illustrating molecules, astronomy, three-dimensional modeling, and earth sciences.WWatson, James
Olby, R. (1994). The path to the double helix: The discovery of DNA. New York: Dover.
This book is a classical historical account starting in the late 19th century and finishing in 1953. It tends to interpret the past in light of further scientific achievements.
Watson, J. D. (1980). The double helix: A personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA. New York: W. W. Norton.
This critical edition includes a prologue with references to the controversy following the publication of the original, reviews written in 1968, and reprints of the 1953 paper and subsequent scientific articles.Weather Reporting
American Meteorological Society. (2008). AMS station scientist. Available at http://www.ametsoc.org/stationscientist/index.html
The Web site describes the AMS concept of identifying meteorologists—often a TV station's only scientifically trained reporters—as “station scientists.” The policy promotes the utilization of station meteorologists as individuals who can report on and provide context for a variety of science-related topics, not limited to the weather forecast.
National Weather Association. (2008). NWA broadcaster's seal of approval information. Available at http://www.nwas.org/seal.html
This Web site describes the application and recertification procedures and policies for earning, maintaining, and using the NWA weathercaster seal of approval.Wind Power
Manwell, J. F., McGowan, J. G., & Rogers, A. L. (2002). Wind energy explained: Theory, design, and application. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
A comprehensive textbook on the subject of wind energy production. While the book provides a wealth of technical details, the writing style is reasonably accessible to those without extensive engineering training or other technical background.
U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.energy.govThis Web site provides a wide selection of information about a host of energy sources, including wind power, along with up-to-date information about DOE's activities in research and development related to sustainable sources.[Page 1032]