The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods
Publication Year: 2011
This 42 chapter volume represents the state of the art in visual research. It provides an introduction to the field for a variety of visual researchers: scholars and graduate students in art, sociology, anthropology, communication, education, cultural studies, women's studies, ethnic studies, global studies and related social science and humanities disciplines.
The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods encompasses the breadth and depth of the field, and points the way to future research possibilities. It illustrates “cutting edge” as well as long-standing and recognized practices. This text is not only “about” research, it is also an example of the way that the visual can be incorporated in data collection and the presentation of research findings. Contributors to the book are from diverse backgrounds and include both ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Part 1 Framing the Field of Visual Research
- 1 An Integrated Conceptual Framework for Visual Social Research
- 2 Looking Two Ways: Mapping the Social Scientific Study of Visual Culture
- 3 Visual Studies and Empirical Social Inquiry
- 4 Seeing Things: Visual Research and Material Culture
- Part 2 Producing Visual Data and Insight
- 5 Anthropological Filmmaking: An Empirical Art
- 6 Repeat Photography in Landscape Research
- 7 Rephotography for Documenting Social Change
- 8 Visual Research Methods in the Design Process
- Part 3 Participatory and Subject-Centered Approaches
- 9 Community-Based Participatory Video and Social Action in Rural South Africa
- 10 Differentiating Practices of Participatory Visual Media Production
- 11 Some Theoretical and Methodological Views on Photo-Elicitation
- 12 Children-Produced Drawings: An Interpretive and Analytical Tool for Researchers
- 13 The Photo Diary as an Autoethnographic Method
- Part 4 Analytical Frameworks and Approaches
- 14 Quantitative Content Analysis of the Visual
- 15 Iconography and Iconology as a Visual Method and Approach
- 16 Visual Semiotics: Key Features and an Application to Picture Ads
- 17 Press Photography and Visual Rhetoric
- 18 Methodological Approaches to Disclosing Historic Photographs
- 19 Researching Film and History: Sources, Methods, Approaches
- 20 Looking Closely: Toward a Natural History of Human Ingenuity
- 21 Ethnomethodology and the Visual: Practices of Looking, Visualization, and Embodied Action
- 22 Videography: An Interpretative Approach to Video-Recorded Micro-Social Interaction
- Part 5 Visualization Technologies and Practices
- 23 Eye Tracking as a Tool for Visual Research
- 24 Expanding Cartographic Practices in the Social Sciences
- 25 Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) in Visual Research
- 26 Numbers into Pictures: Visualization in Social Analysis
- 27 Visual Conceptualization Opportunities with Qualitative Data Analysis Software
- Part 6 Moving beyond the Visual
- 28 Multimodality and Multimodal Research
- 29 Researching Websites as Social and Cultural Expressions: Methodological Predicaments and a Multimodal Model for Analysis
- 30 How to ‘Read’ Images with Texts: The Graphic Novel Case
- 31 A Multisensory Approach to Visual Methods
- Part 7 Options and Issues for Using and Presenting Visual Research
- 32 Interactive Media Representation
- 33 Doing and Disseminating Visual Research: Visual Arts-Based Approaches
- 34 Making Arguments with Images: Visual Scholarship and Academic Publishing
- 35 Making a ‘Case': Applying Visual Sociology to Researching Eminent Domain
- 36 Visual Research Ethics at the Crossroads
- 37 Legal Issues of Using Images in Research
The Natural Home[Page ii]
SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups, and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors, and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
Preface and editorial arrangement © Eric Margolis and Luc Pauwels 2011
Chapter 1 © Luc Pauwels 2011
Chapter 2 © Richard Chalfen 2011
Chapter 3 © Jon Wagner 2011
Chapter 4 © Jon Wagner 2011
Chapter 5 © David MacDougall 2011
Chapter 6 © Mark Klett 2011
Chapter 7 © Jon H. Rieger 2011
Chapter 8 © Prasad Boradkar 2011
Chapter 9 © Claudia Mitchell and Naydene de Lange 2011
Chapter 10 © Richard Chalfen 2011
Chapter 11 © Francesco Lapenta 2011
Chapter 12 © Tirupalavanam G. Ganesh 2011
Chapter 13 © Elisabeth Chaplin 2011
Chapter 14 © Annekatrin Bock, Holger Isermann and Thomas Knieper 2011
Chapter 15 © Marion G. Müller 2011
Chapter 16 © Winfried Nöth 2011
Chapter 17 © Terence Wright 2011
Chapter 18 © Eric Margolis and Jeremy Rowe 2011
Chapter 19 © James Chapman 2011
Chapter 20 © Ray McDermott and Jason Raley 2011
Chapter 21 © Michael Ball and Gregory Smith 2011
Chapter 22 © Hubert Knoblauch and René Tuma 2011
Chapter 23 © Bettina Olk and Arvid Kappas 2011
Chapter 24 © Innisfree McKinnon 2011
Chapter 25 © Daniel Collins 2011
Chapter 26 © John Grady 2011
Chapter 27 © Raewyn Bassett 2011
Chapter 28 © Theo van Leeuwen 2011
Chapter 29 © Luc Pauwels 2011
Chapter 30 © Jan Baetens and Steven Surdiacourt 2011
Chapter 31 © Sarah Pink 2011
Chapter 32 © Roderick Coover 2011
Chapter 33 © Dónal O'Donoghue 2011
Chapter 34 © Darren Newbury 2011
Chapter 35 © Brian Gran 2011
Chapter 36 © Rose Wiles, Andrew Clark and Jon Prosser 2011
Chapter 37 © Jeremy Rowe 2011
First published 2011
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About the Authors
Preface: Aims and Organization of this Handbook[Page xix]
Throughout the past several decades, visual research as a methodology and research on the visual as a topic of interest have produced an increasingly articulated set of paradigms and fields.
This handbook seeks to provide an accessible and coherent ‘state-of-the-art’ account of visual research across a growing number of disciplines and from a host of different perspectives.
It is intended as a guide for those new to the field, and interested in designing visual research projects, but also as a companion for seasoned visual researchers. We expect readers to come from across the academic spectrum: sociology, anthropology, psychology, communication, media studies, education, cultural studies, journalism, health, nursing, women's studies, ethnic studies, global studies, cultural geography, art and design, etc.
The handbook elucidates the theoretical currents and key controversies, but also different approaches to gathering, analyzing, and presenting visual data. It aims to present ‘cutting-edge’ as well as long-standing and recognized practices, exemplify both the best and most recent methods and techniques, and also present some emerging trends and debates.
Because visual research methods and interest in visual studies are global phenomena, we tried to include contributors, both leading authorities and new voices, from a wide geographical spread and from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds: sociology, anthropology, communication studies, geography, psychology, photography, the fine arts, history, film studies, education, semiotics, and legal studies, among others.
While a certain coherence is pursued in this handbook, it is not achieved by suppressing points of view or imposing an artificial uniformity based on just a few dominant theoretical perspectives. The contributions represent a wide range of epistemological positions and include methods and techniques as varied as eye tracking research, autoethnography, and arts-based approaches.
It was the deliberate choice of the handbook editors to reflect the empirical, theoretical, and methodological diversity typical for this burgeoning field of research. Authors were encouraged to present their views in substantiated ways, even if their views at times diverted or contradicted those of other contributors, including those of the editors. Thus, the handbook does not produce a consistent view or voice, but seeks to exemplify the diversity in methods and techniques as well as the sometimes conflicting views and assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of those approaches. This seemed to result in a more valid presentation of the field in its current diverse state of development.
The 37 chapters of this handbook have been arranged in seven parts that each highlight a key aspect or option of visual research in its present form of development. While this works well [Page xx]for most chapters, some have been difficult to classify because issues of collecting, producing, analyzing, and presenting visuals are typically intertwined in visual research. Moreover, many more threads tend to crosscut the seven sections, such as cross-disciplinary exchanges, for instance, between design and ethnography, or geography and sociology. Moreover, the very nature of the visual suggests the meeting and perhaps conflict of art and science.
Part One: Framing the Field of Visual Research provides a detailed view of the state of the field by discussing, theorizing, and conceptualizing the history, place, prospects, and broader context of visual methods and visual studies. It presents an integrated analytical framework that pinpoints key issues and options in visual research (Pauwels), offers a proposal to redirect visual culture studies to examine how one is looking, with or without camera technology, and how one is being seen or looked at (Chalfen), examines three manifestations of visual studies (as ‘offshoot, branch, and root’) including a systematic description of the material challenges of empirical enquiry (Wagner), and closes with a provocative exploration of the relationship between culture, materiality, and visibility (Wagner).
Part Two: Producing Visual Data and Insight consists of four chapters that elaborate on and discuss different ways to generate and process visual data. These ‘researcher-generated production’ methods cover both moving and still images, as well as computer-based and free-hand drawing techniques. This section covers a wide area ranging from anthropological filmmaking (MacDougall), the techniques and uses of repeat photography in both landscape research (Klett) and for documenting social change (Rieger), to the use of visualization methods in design practice (Boradkar).
Part Three: Participatory and Subject-centered Approaches similarly focuses on visual data production techniques, but particularly on those that explicitly seek to stimulate respondent participation in various forms, some of which challenge or interrogate the researcher—respondent or observer—subject divide. This section covers participatory video (Mitchell and De Lange), an integrated discussion of the many participatory techniques that enjoy an increasing popularity (Chalfen), photo-elicitation (Lapenta), subject-produced drawing (Ganesh), and concludes with a discussion and an example of the photo diary as auto-ethnography (Chaplin).
Part Four: Analytical Frameworks and Approaches presents the main theoretical frameworks and methodological tools for analyzing images ('found images' but also researcher produced ones): content analysis (Bock, Isermann, and Knieper), iconography (Müller), semiotics (Nöth), and rhetoric (Wright), as well as ethnomethodological (Ball and Smith) and microethnographic accounts for producing and using images (McDermott and Raley; Knoblauch and Tuma). Special attention is paid to trying to make sense of historic images, both still (Margolis and Rowe) and moving images (Chapman).
Part Five: Visualization Technologies and Practices foregrounds rapidly emerging technologies for conducting and presenting visual research. It contains contributions about ‘eye tracking’ as a unique tool for examining how people literally are looking (Olk and Kappas), the emerging uses of cartography in social and cultural research (McKinnon), using Geographic Information Systems in a more participatory way (Collins), visualizing quantitative data (Grady), and using various software to analyze visual data (Bassett).
Recognizing both the expressive boundaries of the visual as well as its convoluted connections with other expressive systems and sensory experiences, Part Six: Moving Beyond the Visual first introduces the concept of ‘multimodality’ (van Leeuwen), to further include a multimodal tool for analyzing Internet phenomena (Pauwels), insights about image text relations (Baetens and Surdiacourt), and a call for research that also tries to include non-visual (auditory, olfactory, tactile) sensory experiences (Pink).[Page xxi]
The final section of this collection, Part Seven: Options and Issues for Using and Presenting Visual Research, first addresses new multimedia opportunities (Coover), and arts-based research and presentation (O'Donoghue). Other chapters discuss: expressive (Newbury), ethical (Wiles, Clark, and Prosser) and legal (Rowe) issues of performing and publishing visual research. There is also an example of applying visual research methods to make a legal case (Gran).
While this collection colors outside the lines of traditional (visual) social science, and covers a broad spectrum of issues and uses, it cannot claim to cover the whole hybrid and dispersed universe of visual studies and visualization practices in the sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. Moreover, the field is in rapid flux due to technological innovations, the adoption of visual research methods by traditional disciplines, and the rapidly developing transdisciplinary research groups. We strongly believe that the future of visual research will depend on the continued effort to cross disciplinary boundaries and engage in constructive dialogue with different schools of thought. The aim is to produce a more integrated knowledge base about the visual as a source, tool, and form of scholarly expression.and