The SAGE Handbook of Measurement
Publication Year: 2010
The SAGE Handbook of Measurement is a unique methodological resource in which Walford, Viswanathan, and Tucker draw together contributions from the authors of the classic works in Measurement studies of the past twenty five years.
Each chapter focuses on a different aspect of Measurement, so that the Handbook as a whole covers the full spectrum of core issues related to design, method, and analysis within measurement studies.
The Handbook covers the full range of disciplines where Measurement studies are common; policy studies, education studies, health studies, business studies, etc.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- 1 Reflections on social measurement: How social scientists generate, modify, and validate indicators and scales
- SECTION ONE: METHODS FOR DATA COLLECTION
- 2 How to get valid answers from survey questions: What we learned from asking about sexual behavior and the measurement of sexuality
- 3 The SAT®: Design principles and innovations of a quintessential American social indicator
- 4 Measurement as cooperative communication: What research participants learn from questionnaires
- 5 Developing instruments for assessing ‘difficult to measure’ dimensions of quality in early childhood practice
- 6 Studying teacher effectiveness: The challenges of developing valid measures
- 7 Identifying consumers' compulsive buying tendencies: Lessons learned for measuring consumer-related phenomena
- SECTION TWO: THE CONTEXT OF MEASUREMENT
- 8 Linguistic factors in the assessment of English language learners
- 9 Measurement issues in cross-cultural research
- 10 Conceptualizing and measuring culture: Problems and solutions
- 11 International comparisons of educational attainment: Purposes, processes, and problems
- 12 Reflections on measuring behavior: Time and the grid
- 13 Approaches to measuring multi-dimension constructs across the life course: Operationalizing depression over the lifespan
- 14 Description and discovery in socio-spatial analysis: The case of space syntax
- SECTION THREE: FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN MEASUREMENT
- 15 Understanding the intangibles of measurement in the social sciences
- 16 Towards a more rigorous scientific approach to social measurement: Considering a grounded indicator approach to developing measurement tools
- 17 Measuring conceptualisations of morality: Or how to invent a construct and measure it too
- 18 The problem with poverty: Definition, measurement and interpretation
- 19 Ethical issues in social measurement
- 20 Measuring is more than assigning numbers
- 21 Is social measurement possible, and is it necessary?
- SECTION FOUR: THE REAL WORLD PRACTICE OF MEASUREMENT
- 22 Sensitive issues and the difficulty to measure: The case of measuring child sexual abuse
- 23 Indirect measurement
- 24 Increasing the measurement accuracy of consumption intentions
- 25 Making applied measurement effective and efficient
- 26 Contemporary challenges of longitudinal measurement using HRS data
- 27 Measuring the dimensions of social capital in developing countries
- 28 The use of administrative data to answer policy questions: Secondary data on crime and the problem with homicide
- 29 Assessing performance of school systems: The measurement and assessment challenges of NCLB
Editorial arrangement and Chapter 1 © Eric Tucker, Madhu Viswanathan, and Geoffrey Walford 2010
Chapter 2 © Aniruddha Das and Edward O. Laumann 2010
Chapter 3 © Howard T. Everson 2010
Chapter 4 © Norbert Schwarz 2010
Chapter 5 © Elena Soukakou and Kathy Sylva 2010
Chapter 6 © Linda Darling-Hammond, Jack Dieckmann, Ed Haertel, Rachel Lotan, Xiaoxia Newton, Sandy Philipose, Eliza Spang, Ewart Thomas, and Peter Williamson 2010
Chapter 7 © Kent B. Monroe, Nancy M. Ridgway, and Monika Kukar-Kinney 2010
Chapter 8 © Jamal Abedi 2010
Chapter 9 © A. Timothy Church 2010
Chapter 10 © Louis Tay, Sang Eun Woo, Jennifer Klafehn, and Chi-yue Chiu 2010
Chapter 11 © David Phillips 2010
Chapter 12 © Roger Bakeman 2010
Chapter 13 © Briana Mezuk and William W. Eaton 2010
Chapter 14 © Bill Hillier and Noah Raford 2010
Chapter 15 © Madhu Viswanathan 2010
Chapter 16 © Eric Tucker 2010
Chapter 17 © Remo Ostini 2010
Chapter 18 © Robert Walker, Mark Tomlinson, and Glenn Williams 2010
Chapter 19 © Martin Bulmer and Josephine Octoo 2010
Chapter 20 © Stephen Gorard 2010
Chapter 21 © Martyn Hammersley 2010
Chapter 22 © Will Tucker and Ross Cheit 2010
Chapter 23 © David J. Bartholomew 2010
Chapter 24 © Brian Wansink 2010
Chapter 25 © Ujwal Kayande 2010
Chapter 26 © John J. McArdle 2010
Chapter 27 © Veronica Nyhan Jones and Michael Woolcock 2010
Chapter 28 © Marc Riedel 2010
Chapter 29 © Sean Mulvenon 2010
First published 2010
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List of Contributors[Page ix]
Jamal Abedi is a Professor at the School of Education of the University of California, Davis and a research partner at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Abedi's research interests include studies in the area of psychometrics and test and scale developments. His recent works include studies on the validity of assessments, accommodations and classification for English language learners (ELLs), opportunities to learn for ELLs, and measurement of creativity. Abedi is the recipient of the 2003 national Professional Service Award in recognition of his ‘Outstanding Contribution Relating Research to Practice’ by the American Educational Research Association. He is also the recipient of the 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award by the California Educational Research Association. He holds a Master's and a PhD degree from Vanderbilt University in Psychometrics.
Roger Bakeman (PhD, University of Texas at Austin) is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. He is the author, with J. M. Gottman, of Observing interaction: An introduction to sequential analysis (2nd ed., 1997), and with V. Quera, of Analyzing Interaction: Sequential Analysis with SDIS and GSEQ (1995). His interests include observational methodology and sequential analysis of observational data, social development of infants and toddlers, and analysis of behavioral science data generally, especially as related to health psychology. He is a fellow of both the American Psychological Society and the American Psychology Association.
David Bartholomew was born in England in 1931. After undergraduate and postgraduate study at University College London, specializing in statistics, he worked for two years in the operational research branch of the National Coal Board. In 1957, he began his academic career at the University of Keele and then moved to the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth as lecturer, then senior lecturer in statistics. This was followed by appointment to a chair in statistics at the University of Kent in 1967. Six years later he moved to the London School of Economics as Professor of Statistics where he stayed until his retirement in 1996. During his time at the LSE he also served as Pro-Director for three years. He is a Fellow of the British Academy, a Member of the International Statistical Institute, a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and has served as Honorary Secretary, Treasurer and President of the Royal Statistical Society. He has authored, co-authored or edited about 20 books and 120 research papers and articles many of them in the field of social statistics, broadly interpreted.[Page x]
Martin Bulmer is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the University of Surrey, UK. From 2000 to 2008 he was director of the ESRC Question Bank, an online resource of social survey questionnaires from major probability surveys which was established to strengthen the academic infrastructure for UK social scientists in relation to survey research [http://surveynet.ac.uk/sqb/qb]. From 2002 to 2008 he was also director of the ESRC Survey Link Scheme, designed to give UK social scientists an acquaintance with professional social survey data collection. His recent works include edited collections in the Sage Landmarks in Social Research series, Secondary Analysis of Survey Data (with P. Sturgis and N. Allum, 2009) and Questionnaires (2004). He is the editor of the journal Ethnic and Racial Studies, ranked number one in the ISI Ethnic Studies category, 2008. His major books include The Chicago School of Sociology, Institutionalisation, Diversity and the Rise of Sociological Research (1985).
Ross Cheit is an Associate Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Brown University. He has a doctorate in Public Policy and a law degree from the University of California at Berkeley and he attended Williams College as an undergraduate. Professor Cheit is a member of the Rhode Island Ethics Commission and he is working on a book about child sexual abuse in America.
Chi-yue Chiu is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois and a Professor at the Nanyang Business School of the Nanyang Technological University. He is interested in studying cultures as knowledge traditions, and is conducting research on the social, cognitive, and motivational processes that mediate construction and evolution of social consensus. This theoretical perspective has been applied to understand cultural differences and similarities in social justice, conflict resolution, responsibility attribution, and political elections. He is also interested in the dynamic interactions of cultural identification and cultural knowledge traditions, and their implications for cultural competence and intercultural relations.
A. Timothy Church received his PhD in Psychology from the University of Minnesota and is currently a Professor of Counseling Psychology at Washington State University. His research interests include personality and its measurement across cultures, cross-cultural and indigenous psychology, and the integration of trait and cultural psychology perspectives in the study of personality across cultures. His publications on these topics have appeared in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Research in Personality, Journal of Personality, European Journal of Personality, and Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, among others. He has served on the editorial boards of these and other journals and is a former Associate Editor of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
Linda Darling-Hammond is Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University where her research, teaching, and policy work focus on issues of teaching quality, school reform, and educational equity. She is a former president of the American Educational Research Association and member of the National Academy of Education. Among more than 300 publications that she has authored are Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and be Able to Do (with John Bransford, for the National Academy of Education, winner of the Pomeroy Award from AACTE), Teaching as the[Page xi]Learning Profession: A Handbook of Policy and Practice (with Gary Sykes, recipient of the National Staff Development Council's Outstanding Book Award for 2000), and The Right to Learn (recipient of the American Educational Research Association's Outstanding Book Award for 1998).
Aniruddha Das is a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Center on Aging and NORC, University of Chicago. His current research interests are centered in the social structuration of the life process. Substantive dimensions of interest within this area include sexuality and gender, physical and mental health, and biosocial processes. Secondary interests include the design features of health and associated systems, and their impact on patients and health-care providers. Dr. Das was associated with the 1999–2000 Chinese Health and Family Life Survey, and is currently affiliated with the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project sponsored by the National Institute of Aging. He has published on various aspects of sexuality, including masturbation, sexual harassment, and sexual practices and problems among the elderly.
Jack Dieckmann is a G. J. Lieberman doctoral fellow at Stanford University. His research is in the area of mathematics education examines the relationship among teaching and learning of mathematics and the mediating role of language, symbols, and other representational tools. Prior to coming to Stanford, Jack worked in educational advocacy in Texas at the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) as a senior education associate in the division of professional development. Formerly a middle and high school math teacher, Jack currently teaches pre-service math teachers at Stanford's Teacher Education Program (STEP).
William W. Eaton, PhD, is the Chair of the Department of Mental Health at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. He is the principal investigator of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, a population-based longitudinal study of mental health originally recruited in 1981 that has been followed for the past 23 years. He is an expert in study design and measurement of psychopathology, and is the author of The Sociology of Mental Disorders.
Howard T. Everson is Senior Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in Education, Graduate Center, City University of New York, and serves as consulting research scientist to number of organizations, including the American Councils for International Education, the American Institutes for Research, and the National Center for Education and the Economy. Prior to joining the City University, Dr. Everson was a Professor of Psychology and Psychometrics at Fordham University in New York. Professor Everson's research and scholarly interests focus on the intersections of cognitive psychology, instruction, and assessment. He has contributed to developments in educational psychology, psychometrics, and quantitative methods in psychology. Dr. Everson was founding director of the Educational Statistics Services Institute (for NAEP) at the American Institutes for Research. Dr. Everson also served as Vice President and Chief Research Scientist for the College Board, and was a Psychometric Fellow at the Educational Testing Service. Dr. Everson is a Fellow of the American Educational Research Association and the American Psychological Association, a charter member of the American Psychological Society, and past-president [Page xii]of the Division of Educational Psychology (Division 15) of the American Psychological Association.
Stephen Gorard holds the centrally funded Chair in Education Research at the University of Birmingham, UK. His research is focused on issues of equity, especially in educational opportunities and outcomes, and on the effectiveness of educational systems. Recent project topics include widening participation in learning (Overcoming the barriers to higher education, Trentham), the role of technology in lifelong learning (Adult learning in the digital age, 2006, Routledge), and teacher supply and retention (Teacher supply: the key issues, 2006, Continuum). He is particularly interested in the process and quality of research, having recently led the UK ESRC Research Capacity-building Network, and an ESRC Researcher Development Initiative to improve the understanding of randomised controlled trials in social science. He is the author of hundreds of pieces on research methods (and editor of Quantitative Research in Education, 2008, Sage).
Edward Haertel is Jacks Family Professor of Education and Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs at Stanford University, where he has been a faculty member since 1980. He is an expert in educational testing and assessment. His research centers on policy uses of achievement test data; the measurement of school learning; statistical issues in testing and accountability systems; and the impact of testing on curriculum and instruction. He has been closely involved in the creation and maintenance of California's school accountability system, and has served on advisory committees for other states and for testing companies. Haertel has served as president of the National Council on Measurement in Education (1998–99), as a member of the National Assessment Governing Board (1997–2003), and as a member of the joint committee for 1999 edition of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (1994–99). He was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (1994–95) and is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a member of the National Academy of Education.
Martyn Hammersley is Professor of Educational and Social Research at the Open University, UK. His early research was in the sociology of education. Later work has been concerned with the methodological issues surrounding social and educational enquiry. With Paul Atkinson he wrote what has become a standard introductory text on ethnography – Ethnography: Principles in Practice (first published in 1983 with the second edition published by Routledge, 1995 and reprinted many times since). Some of the topics he has addressed in recent years include objectivity and partisanship in social research, case study and the nature of causality, the status of discourse analysis as a self-sufficient paradigm, the relationship between research and policymaking, and the concepts of ‘systematic review’ and ‘evidence-based practice’. His most recent books are: Taking Sides in Social Research (Routledge, 2000); Educational Research, Policymaking and Practice (Paul Chapman, 2002); Media Bias in Reporting Social Research? The case of reviewing ethnic inequalities in education (Routledge, 2006); and Questioning Qualitative Inquiry (Sage, 2008).
Bill Hillier is Professor of Architectural and Urban Morphology in the University of London, Chairman of the Bartlett School of Graduate Studies and Director of the Space Syntax Laboratory in University College London. As the original pioneer of the methods for the [Page xiii]analysis of spatial patterns known as ‘space syntax’, he is a co-author of The Social Logic of Space (Cambridge University Press, 1984, 1990) which presents a general theory of how people relate to space in built environments, Space is the Machine (CUP 1996), which reports a substantial body of research built on that theory, and a large number of articles concerned with different aspects of space and how it works. He has also written extensively on other aspects of the theory of architecture, lectures and teaches widely, and maintains an active interest in urban design consultancy projects.
Veronica Nyhan Jones is a Social Development Specialist at the International Finance Corporation, part of the World Bank Group. Working in the Oil, Gas and Mining Department, she advises private extractive clients operating in Africa, Asia, and Latin America on participatory processes and how to improve the local development impacts around their projects. She has also worked for the World Bank Institute building capacity for community driven development in Africa and supporting social cohesion in Eastern Europe. Prior to joining the World Bank in 1997, she worked for the International Youth Foundation and the US Government on crime prevention and health-care reform. She has a master's degree from Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government.
Ujwal Kayande is a Professor of Marketing at the Australian National University. He was previously on the faculty at Penn State University and the Australian Graduate School of Management, Sydney, and has been a visiting faculty at the Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania) and the Indian School of Business. He has a PhD from the University of Alberta, Canada. Ujwal's research interests are in the areas of marketing measurement and models, and marketing strategy. His research has been published in leading business journals, including Marketing Science, Information Systems Research, the Journal of Marketing Research, the International Journal of Research in Marketing, and the Journal of Retailing.
Jennifer Klafehn is a doctoral student in industrial and organizational psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests include cross-cultural organizational behavior, cultural intelligence, negotiation, and personality development. Her most recent publication is a chapter in the Handbook of Cultural Intelligence focusing on the psychological mechanisms contributing to the development of meta-cognitive cultural intelligence.
Monika Kukar-Kinney is an associate professor of marketing in the Robins School of Business, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA. She completed her PhD in marketing at the Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, in 2003. Her research focuses on compulsive buying, behavioral pricing, retailing, and electronic commerce. Her work has appeared in journals such as the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Retailing, and Journal of Business Research, among others. She has won an award for the best dissertation proposal in behavioral pricing from the Fordham University Pricing Center (2001), and the best paper award in the Pricing and Retailing Track (2006 Winter American Marketing Association Educators' Conference). Prior to academia, Dr. Kukar-Kinney conducted marketing research for a consulting firm in Slovenia.[Page xiv]
Edward O. Laumann is the George Herbert Mead Distinguished Service Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago. Professor Laumann directed the National Health and Social Life Survey, one of the largest US surveys of sexual attitudes and behaviors since the Kinsey Reports. He was the principal investigator of the 1995–97 Chicago Health and Social Life Survey, and a co-principal investigator of the National Survey of Chinese Sexual Practices. He is currently a co-principal investigator on the National Sexuality, Health, and Aging Project, sponsored by the National Institute of Aging. Professor Laumann is a member of numerous professional associations, including former Chair, Section K of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Sociological Association, the International Academy of Sex Research, and the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex. He has published extensively, authoring numerous scientific articles, books, and abstracts. Some of his book titles include: Chicago Lawyers: The Structure of the Bar, The Organizational State: Social Choice in National Policy Domains, The Hollow Core: Interest Representation in National Policymaking, The Social Organization of Sexuality, Sex Love and Health, and The Sexual Organization of the City.
Rachel A. Lotan is Director of the Stanford Teacher Education Program and Professor (Teaching) at Stanford University School of Education. Lotan received her PhD in Education (Concentration: Social Sciences in Education) from Stanford University. She also holds master's degrees in Sociology and in Education (Concentration: Second/Foreign Language Teaching and Learning) from Stanford. Her teaching and research focus on aspects of teaching and learning in academically and linguistically diverse classrooms, teacher education, and the sociology of the classroom. Previously, as co-director of the Program for Complex Instruction at Stanford University, she worked on the development, research, and world-wide dissemination of complex instruction, a pedagogical approach to creating equitable classrooms. Her recent publications include two chapters entitled ‘Developing language and content knowledge in heterogeneous classrooms' and ‘Managing groupwork’.
John J. (Jack) McArdle, PhD, is currently Senior Professor of Psychology at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, CAUSA. From 1984–2005 he was a faculty member at University of Virginia where he taught Quantitative Methods since 1984, and was director of the Jefferson Psychometric Laboratory. He teaches classes in topics in psychometrics, multivariate analysis, and structural equation modeling. McArdle is a visiting fellow at the Institute of Human Development at University of California at Berkeley, an adjunct faculty member at the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Hawaii. Since 1989, he has been the lead statistical consultant of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). McArdle's research has been focused on age-sensitive methods for psychological and educational measurement and longitudinal data analysis including publications in factor analysis, growth curve analysis, and dynamic modeling of adult cognitive abilities. McArdle is the director of the ongoing National Growth and Change Study (NGCS), a longitudinal study of cognitive changes over age in the entire USA. McArdle has won the Cattell Award for Distinguished Multivariate Research (1987), was elected President of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology (1993–94), was elected President of the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, and Cognitive Sciences (1996–99), and was elected as the Secretary of the Council of Scientific Society Presidents (CSSP, 2000–02). McArdle's current NIA research is titled, ‘Assessing and Improving Cognitive Measures in the HRS.’ [Page xv]The first phase of this work starts with basic factor analysis of the HRS cognitive measures and expands to dynamic growth curve analyses of the complete longitudinal set of HRS cognitive measures. The second phase is based on factor analysis and prediction modeling of Alzheimer's Disease in the newly available HRS-ADAMS data set. A third phase of this work is based on the creation of several new and improved cognitive measures for possible use in future HRS – these new measures are firmly grounded in contemporary psychometric cognitive tasks but can also be administered over the telephone. A fourth phase of this work is to examine the role various cognitive constructs have in the dynamics of health and economic decisions, including the choice of Medicare choices and prescription drug use.
Briana Mezuk, PhD, is a Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholar at the University of Michigan. She received training in psychiatric epidemiology, study design, biostatistics, and psychometrics from the Department of Mental Health at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. From 2002–07 she was the Project Coordinator for the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, a population-based longitudinal study of mental health in the community, where she assisted in the revision of study instruments to reflect the aging of the cohort and trained interviewers to administer the questionnaire.
Kent B. Monroe (DBA, 1968, Illinois; MBA, 1961, Indiana; B.A., Kalamazoo College) is J.M. Jones Distinguished Professor of Marketing Emeritus, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and is Distinguished Visiting Scholar at the University of Richmond, Richmond, VA. He has authored Pricing: Making Profitable Decisions, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2003. His research has been published in the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Management Science, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Journal of Retailing, and other journals. He was the editor of the Journal of Consumer Research, 1991–93, and of Pricing Practice and Strategy, 1993–2003. He is a Fellow of the Decision Sciences Institute, and also the Association for Consumer Research. He received the Pricer of the Year award from the Pricing Institute, April 1999, the Fordham University Pricing Center award for contributions to behavioral pricing research, October 2000, and the Marketing Pioneer Award for lifetime contributions to the development of pricing theory in marketing, Central Illinois Chapter of the American Marketing Association, April 2002. He was the recipient of the 2005 American Marketing Association-McGraw-Hill/Irwin Distinguished Marketing Educator Award and the P. D. Converse Award for contributions to the field of marketing, April 2008.
Sean Mulvenon is a Professor of Educational Statistics and Director of the National Office for Research on Measurement and Evaluation Systems (NORMES) at the University of Arkansas. He has published over 50 manuscripts, one book, and numerous technical reports in addition to having presented over 150 papers at national and international conferences. Since 1998, he has generated over $9 million in research funding as a principal investigator for NORMES studying educational data systems, measurement models associated with school reform, and conducting research on the impact No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Dr. Mulvenon recently completed a 31-month appointment as a senior adviser to the Deputy Secretary of Education, where he studied NCLB measurement models, [Page xvi]developed national data systems, and served on several internal review panels, including evaluation of growth models and policy legislation associated with NCLB.
Xiaoxia Newton is an assistant professor in the division of Policy, Organization, Measurement, and Evaluation (POME), Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley. She comes to POME from Stanford University, where she was a postdoc for the Teachers for a New Era (TNE) research project. She is interested in applying a variety of methodological techniques to address research and evaluation issues in urban school reform, K-12 mathematics education, and teacher learning and professional development, especially from cross-cultural and comparative perspectives.
Josephine Ocloo is Research Associate in Organisational Governance at the Patient Safety and Services Quality Centre (PSSQ) at Kings College, University of London, directed by Professor Naomi Fulop. She is also a UK National Patient Safety Champion for the World Health Organisation.
Remo Ostini is a Research Fellow at the Healthy Communities Research Centre at the University of Queensland in Ipswich, Australia. He taught psychological measurement and the psychology of morality in both Minnesota and Queensland to pay the bills while he pursued his first love – measuring morality. After a brief sojourn discovering the joys and value of pharmacoepidemiology, he now makes himself useful conducting research on participation in community-based chronic illness organizations, workplace health assessments, and health literacy.
David Phillips is Professor of Comparative Education and a Fellow of St. Edmund Hall, University of Oxford. He has written widely on issues in comparative education, with a focus on education in Germany and on educational policy borrowing. He served as Chair of the British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) from 1998 to 2000, on the board of directors of the (US) Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) from 2006 to 2009, and is an Academician of the British Social Sciences Academy and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. He was, for 20 years, editor of the Oxford Review of Education, is a member of the boards of various journals, and now chairs the editorial board of Comparative Education. He edits the on-line journal, Research in Comparative and International Education and is series editor of Oxford Studies in Comparative Education. His most recent book (with Michele Schweisfurth) is Comparative and International Education: An Introduction to Theory, Method, and Practice.
Sandy M. Philipose is a doctoral candidate in Curriculum and Teacher Education at Stanford University. Her research interests generally include teacher education and new teacher support and induction. More specifically, she is interested in understanding the role of preparation and school context in teacher development and practice. During her time at Stanford, Sandy has worked with the Teachers for a New Era project and interned as an Education Pioneer fellow with the research team at the New Teacher Center at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She is also interested in the preparation of language teaching professionals and teaches the world language methods courses in the Stanford Teacher [Page xvii]Education Program. Before coming to Stanford, Sandy worked as high school Spanish teacher in Texas.
Noah Raford is a specialist in evidence-based design of the built environment, with a focus on simulation, measurement, and visualization. His current research focus is on complexity science, resiliency, and decision making under uncertainty, with a special emphasis on climate change and long-term catastrophic risk preparedness. Noah also consults professionally on a range of sustainable urban development projects around the world, with a focus on strategy, forecasting, scenario planning, and policy. He has degrees from Brown University, University College London and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and is a researcher at the Complexity Programme, London School of Economics.
Nancy M. Ridgway is a professor at the University of Richmond. Prior to that, she worked at Louisiana State University, the University of Colorado at Boulder and as a visitor at the University of Texas at Austin. She got her BBA, MBA, and PhD degrees from the University of Texas at Austin. She has been published in the Journal of Consumer Research, the Journal of Marketing Research, the Journal of Retailing, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, and others. Her teaching expertise lies in consumer behavior and integrated marketing communications. She has also taught marketing management at the MBA level and the history of marketing thought at the PhD level. Her research interests are in the consumer behavior area. She studies such topics as compulsive buying, collecting, hoarding, and search behavior
Marc Riedel is a Professor of Sociology at Southeastern Louisiana University. He is also an Emeritus Professor at Southern Illinois University in both the Criminal Justice and Sociology Departments. He is the author/editor of 10 books, the most recent (with Wayne Welsh) being a second edition of Criminal Violence: Patterns, Causes, and Prevention. He is the author of numerous articles which have appeared in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and Temple Law Quarterly. Dr. Riedel received his PhD in Sociology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1972 specializing in Criminology. He holds two MA degrees, one in Sociology and the second in Psychology. Dr. Riedel's undergraduate major was in Biology and Psychology. His research on the death penalty has been cited in two US Supreme Court decisions, McCleskey v. Kemp 487 U.S. 279 (1987) and Pulley v. Harris 465 U.S. 37 (1984) as well as in Ross v. Kemp 756 F.2d 1483 (1985). In 1978, Dr. Riedel was elected to a three-year term on the Executive Counsel of the American Society of Criminology and in 1986 was elected Vice-President of that organization. In 1985, he received the Herbert Bloch Award from the American Society of Criminology for outstanding service to the American Society of Criminology and the Criminology profession.
Norbert Schwarz is Charles Horton Cooley Collegiate Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan, Professor of Marketing at the Ross School of Business, and Research Professor at the Institute for Social Research. He received a PhD in sociology from the University of Mannheim, Germany (1980) and a ‘Habilitation’ in [Page xviii]psychology from the University of Heidelberg, Germany (1986). Prior to joining the University of Michigan in 1993, he taught psychology at the University of Heidelberg (1981–92) and served as Scientific Director of ZUMA, an interdisciplinary social science research center in Mannheim (1987–92). His research interests focus on human judgment and cognition, including the interplay of feeling and thinking, the socially situated nature of cognition, and the implications of basic cognitive and communicative processes for public opinion, consumer behavior and social science research. For further information and recent publications see http://sitemaker.umich.edu/norbert.schwarz
Elena Soukakou, is an early learning specialist with recent research and clinical experience in working with young children with learning difficulties in various educational settings. Over the past 12 years, Dr. Soukakou has been studying the development of children with diverse educational and behavioral profiles and researching the quality of early education programs and classroom practices. Her first cycle of studies took place in her home country of Greece, where she completed a Bachelor's degree in Psychology at the school of Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology of the National University of Athens. Dr. Soukakou completed her master's program in Early Childhood Special Education at Columbia University, and worked in the field of preschool special education in New York for several years. Following her graduate training, Dr. Soukakou undertook her doctoral studies at Oxford University, UK, where she completed a doctoral degree (DPhil) in 2008. Her research focused on quality assessment of classroom practices that support the inclusion of children with disabilities in preschool settings. Her research interests include quality and effectiveness of classroom practices and interventions for preschool children with special education needs, as well as assessment of various aspects of classroom quality in early childhood and special education programs.
Eliza Spang, a Research Associate in Learning Innovations at WestEd, graduated from Stanford University School of Education with a PhD in Curriculum and Teacher Education. While at Stanford, she was a research assistant on several research projects including ‘How Does Teacher Education Make a Difference? An Exploration of the Relationship Between Teacher Education, Teacher Practices, and Student Learning’, a study sponsored by the Teachers for a New Era initiative. Her research interests are science teacher education, new teacher support/induction programs, and science curriculum development. She is a former high school science teacher and mentor teacher for several beginning teachers.
Kathy Sylva is Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Oxford, Department of Education. She has carried out many large-scale studies on Early Childhood and on early literacy. A dominant theme throughout her work has been then impact of education and care not only on ‘academic knowledge’ but on children's problem solving, social skills and dispositions to learn. A related theme in her research is the impact of early intervention on combating social disadvantage. She was specialist Adviser to the House of Commons Select Committee on Education in 2000–01 and again in 2005–09. She was awarded an OBE in 2008 for services to children and families.
Louis Tay is a PhD candidate in industrial/organizational psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His major research area is in psychological measurement, and [Page xix]has special research interests in item response theory, latent class modeling, and hierarchical linear modeling.
Ewart A.C. Thomas is a Professor of Psychology at Stanford University, USA. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in Statistics and Research Methods. His research interests include the development and application of mathematical and statistical models in many areas, such as, signal detection, motivation, inter-rater reliability, parent-infant interaction, equity, and law as a social science. Thomas has served as Chair of the Psychology Department and, from 1988 to 1993, he served as Dean of the University's School of Humanities and Sciences. In 1989 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of the West Indies, and in 2002 he received a Distinguished Teaching award from the Associated Students of Stanford University (ASSU). From January to June, 2008, he was the Ralph and Claire Landau Visiting Professor of Psychology at The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Mark Tomlinson is a Senior Research Officer in the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Oxford and an Associate of Green Templeton College. He specialises in multivariate social statistics and especially in the development of indicators in sociological and economic research. He is author (with Robert Walker) of Coping with Complexity: Child and adult poverty, (CPAG, 2009).
Eric Tucker is a Public Policy Research Fellow at Temple University's Institute for the Study of Race and Social Thought in Philadelphia. His research focuses on the development of measurement instruments across the social sciences and on evaluation and performance measurement within public policy and social enterprise. He serves as the Chief Academic Officer and Deputy Director of the National Association for Urban Debate Leagues (http://www.urbandebate.org), and is working on a comprehensive evaluation of the initiative in 10 cities over a 10-year horizon in collaboration with researchers at the University of Michigan. He is a guest instructor at Brown University in Providence for courses on urban school improvement and social entrepreneurship. Dr. Tucker completed his Doctorate at the University of Oxford with the support of a Marshall Scholarship. His doctoral thesis, which was entitled Towards a More Rigorous Scientific Approach to Social Measurement: An Empirical and Methodological Enquiry into the Development of Grounded Indicators of Social Capital Formation, has been published as scholarly articles and a book chapter. He also graduated with distinction from Oxford with a master's of Science in Education Research Methodology from the Department of Educational Studies. He co-authored Argumentation and Debate: An Educator's Activities Manual (2004). He also co-wrote How to Build a Debate Program: An Organizer's Manual (forthcoming). His next project is Towards Grounded Indicators: Minimizing Measurement Error Through Social Research (forthcoming). He holds honors degrees in Public Policy and Africana Studies from Brown University, where he received the Truman Scholarship, Royce Fellowship, and graduated Magna Cum Laude, and Phi Beta Kappa.
Will Tucker is a graduate of Brown University's Alfred A. Taubman Center for Public Policy, and author of The Effect of Victim Age and Gender on Prosecutors' Willingness to Prosecute Cases of Child Sexual Abuse. He is the former Assistant Director of Youth [Page xx]Programs at the Howard R. Swearer Center for Public Service at Brown University and member of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice. A Truman Scholar, he is currently a graduate student at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
Madhu Viswanathan has been on the faculty at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, since 1990. His research programs are in two areas; measurement and research methodology, and literacy, poverty, and subsistence marketplace behaviors. He has authored books in both areas: Measurement Error and Research Design (Sage, 2005), and Enabling Consumer and Entrepreneurial Literacy in Subsistence Marketplaces (Springer, 2008, in alliance with UNESCO). His research program with a methodological orientation on measurement and research design paralleled many years of teaching research at all levels. It culminated in a book directed at the social sciences that provides a most detailed conceptual dissection of measurement error. This work is a striking departure from the existing literature, which emphasizes a statistical orientation without sufficient elucidation of the conceptual meaning of measurement error. His research on subsistence marketplaces takes a micro-level approach to gain bottom-up understanding of life circumstances and buyer, seller, and marketplace behaviors. This perspective aims to enable subsistence marketplaces to move toward being ecologically, economically, and socially sustainable marketplaces. His research is synergized with innovative teaching and social initiatives. He teaches courses on research methods and on sustainable product and market development for subsistence. His research is applied through the Marketplace Literacy Project (http://www.marketplaceliteracy.org), a non-profit organization that he founded and directs.
Geoffrey Walford is Professor of Education Policy and a Fellow of Green Templeton College at the University of Oxford. He has academic degrees from Oxford, Kent, London, and the open universities, and is author of more than 150 academic articles and book chapters. His books include: Life in Public Schools (Methuen, 1986), Restructuring Universities: Politics and power in the management of change (Croom Helm, 1987), City Technology College (Open University Press, 1991, with Henry Miller), Doing Educational Research (Routledge, editor, 1991), Choice and Equity in Education (Cassell, 1994), Educational Politics: Pressure groups and faith-based schools (Avebury, 1995), Policy, Politics and Education – sponsored grant-maintained schools and religious diversity (Ashgate, 2000), Doing Qualitative Educational Research (Continuum, 2001), Private Schooling: Tradition and diversity (Continuum, 2005) and Markets and Equity in Education (Continuum, 2006). Within the Department of Education at the University of Oxford he teaches on the MSc in Educational Research Methodology, and supervises doctoral research students. He was Joint Editor of the British Journal of Educational Studies from 1999 to 2002, and is Editor the Oxford Review of Education. His research foci are the relationships between central government policy and local processes of implementation, private schools, choice of schools, religion based schools, and qualitative research methodology.
Robert Walker is Professor of Social Policy and Fellow of Green Templeton College, University of Oxford. He was formerly Professor of Social Policy at the University Nottingham and before that Professor of Social Policy Research, Loughborough University, [Page xxi]where he was Director of the Centre for Research in Social Policy. His 19 books include: Social Security and Welfare (2005); The Welfare We Want (with Michael Wiseman, 2003); The Dynamics of Modern Society (with Lutz Leisering, 1998); and Poverty Dynamics (with Karl Ashworth, 1995).
Brian Wansink (PhD Stanford 1990) holds the John S. Dyson Endowed Chair in the Applied Economics and Management Department at Cornell University, where he is Director of the Cornell Food and Brand Lab. Previously, he was a professor at Dartmouth College, the Vrije Universiteit (The Netherlands), the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, INSEAD (France), and he was a visiting scientist at the US Army Research Labs in Natick, MA. From 2007–09, Wansink was Executive Director of the USDA's Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, where he was responsible for the 2010 Dietary Guidelines and for promoting the Food Guide Pyramid. In addition to over 100 articles, he was written the books Mindless Eating and Marketing Nutrition and he co-authored Asking Questions, and Consumer Panels.
Glenn Williams is Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Nottingham Trent University. He was formerly at the School of Nursing, University of Nottingham as a Lecturer in Behavioural Science. He has also worked in the National Health Service for several years and has been involved with the education and training of health professionals, particularly in the use of quantitative research methods, evidence-based practice and statistics. He has co-authored An Introduction to Statistics for Nurses (with John Maltby and Liz Day, 2007) and has published widely in the areas of psychological well-being and health.
Peter W. Williamson is an Assistant Professor of Teacher Education in the Graduate School of Education at the University of San Francisco. Formerly the Director of Stanford's Teachers for a New Era project and an instructor in the Stanford Teacher Education Program, Peter completed his PhD at Stanford in Curriculum and Teacher Education. Before coming to Stanford, Peter taught middle and high school English and journalism in San Francisco Bay Area schools, and worked with advocacy agencies focusing on urban youth. His research interests include the teaching and learning of practice, teacher professional development, teacher effectiveness, urban education, and language acquisition.
Sang Eun Woo received her PhD in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2009. She is now an assistant professor at Purdue University. Her research areas include personality, culture, and psychological measurement. Her recent representative publications concern measurement of various psychological constructs including achievement motivation (Personality and Individual Differences), the cognitive and motivational nature of intellectual engagement (Personality and Individual Differences), and engagement in developmental assessment centers (Personnel Psychology).
Michael Woolcock is a Senior Social Scientist with the World Bank's Development Research Group. From 2007–09, he was Professor of Social Science and Development Policy, and Research Director of the Brooks World Poverty Institute, at the University of Manchester. His research draws on a range of disciplinary theories and methods to explore [Page xxii]the social dimensions of economic development, in particular the role that social networks play in the survival and mobility strategies of the poor, in managing local conflict, and in shaping the efficacy of legal and political institutions. An Australian national, he has an MA and PhD in sociology from Brown University; in 2002 he was the Von Hugel Visiting Fellow at St. Edmund's College, University of Cambridge, and from 2000–06 he was a (part-time) lecturer in Public Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government.