Encyclopedia of Public Relations


Edited by: Robert L. Heath

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • [0-9]
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z

      • Loading...
    • Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      Editorial Board


      Robert L. Heath

      University of Houston

      Advisory Editors

      Elizabeth L. Toth

      University of Maryland, College Park

      John Madsen

      Buena Vista University, Emeritus

      Dean Kruckeberg

      University of Northern Iowa

      Kirk Hallahan

      Colorado State University

      W. Timothy Coombs

      Eastern Illinois University

      Shannon A. Bowen

      University of Houston

      Betteke van Ruler

      University of Amsterdam

      Kathleen S. Kelly

      University of Florida

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      Illustrations and Tables

      Activism: Unidentified activists from the AIDS Coalition To Unleash Power (ACT UP) stage a demonstration on July 11, 2000, in Durban, South Africa, at the 13th International AIDS Conference. ACT UP called on the World Health Organization (WHO) to distribute antiretroviral treatments to poor countries.

      Asia, practice of public relations in: Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) journalists, British citizen Rodney Tasker (left) and United States citizen Shawn Crispin (right), attend a press conference at the Thai Immigration Bureau in Bangkok on February 27, 2002. Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra insisted that Thailand had the sovereign right to expel the two foreign journalists over an article they wrote that touched on the government's relations with the country's revered monarchy.

      Barnum, P. T.: A portrait of P. T. Barnum on a Barnum and Company circus poster that advertises an exhibit featuring “Great Jumbo's Skeleton.”

      Collaborative decision making: Table 1. Common Techniques for Collaborative Decision Making

      Committee on Public Information: Poster for “Under Four Flags,” one of a series of films by the Committee on Public Information promoting the United States' efforts in World War I. Such films were used both as propaganda and as fundraisers for the war effort.

      Communication management: Table 1. Six Domains of Communication Management

      Communication technologies: Table 1. Technological Considerations in Designing Messages and Selecting Media

      Community relations: Gray Panthers' founder Maggie Kuhn gestures and screams during her address to the Poletown Neighborhood Council in Hamtramck, Michigan, circa 1980.

      Consumer/customer relations: Figure 1. Ten phrases to attract return customers.

      Co-orientation theory: Figure 1. Co-orientation model.

      Crisis and crisis management: Joe Allbaugh, Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), briefs reporters on September 15, 2001, about the ongoing operations at the Pentagon in Washington, DC. Workers started to remove the collapsed portion of the Pentagon shortly after the briefing.

      Crisis communications and the Tylenol poisonings: James Burke, Johnson & Johnson executive, displays a new tamper-resistant Tylenol bottle on November 11, 1982. Nearly eight months earlier, six Chicago-area people died of cyanide poisoning from tainted Tylenol tablets.

      Environmental groups: Protesters at a 1990 Earth First! protest hold up a banner reading “Stop Redwood Slaughter.”

      Exxon and the Valdez crisis: Cleanup workers spray oiled rocks with high-pressure hoses after the Exxon Valdez ran aground on March 24, 1989, spilling more than 10 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound.

      Exxon and the Valdez crisis: An Exxon memo proclaims the rules of zero tolerance, posted after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.

      Federal Trade Commission: The former R.J. Reynolds cigarette advertising mascot, “Joe Camel,” plays pool and smokes cigarettes in an advertisement for Camel cigarettes that covers a billboard in a field. The FTC and antismoking advocates pressured R.J. Reynolds to eliminate the “Joe Camel” campaign in 1997, accusing the company of using a cartoon character to attract young smokers.

      Focus group: As a focus group in Needham, Massachusetts, watches an interview of Monica Lewinsky on televisions in 1999, members' reactions are displayed directly on screen in graph form.

      Four-Minute Men: A 1917 poster for one of the Four-Minute Men speeches. President Woodrow Wilson recruited 75,000 speakers called Four-Minute Men to give short talks on United States war aims to the public at theater intermissions and other venues.

      Industrial barons (of the 1870s–1920s): Industrial baron J. P. Morgan (1837–1913), founder of U.S. Steel, shakes his cane at a passerby on a city street. Although Morgan is alleged to have said, “I don't owe the public anything,” he called upon early public relations practitioner Theodore Newton Vail to help save the American Telephone & Telegraph Company in 1902.

      Integrated marketing communication: Table 1. Strengths of Alternative IMC Tactics

      Involvement: Figure 1. Motivation-ability-opportunity model for enhancing message processing.

      Labor Union Public Relations: Local 600 of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) electrical workers electrocuting an effigy of Hitler in a 1942 Labor Day parade. Public relations philosophy, strategies, and tactics have been used in struggles for organized labor and its goals.

      Lucky Strike Green Campaign: Lucky Strike Cigarettes used a variety of campaigns to sell products in the 1930s, from promoting green—the color of their cigarette packaging—as fashionable for women to featuring Santa Claus as a customer, as in this 1936 advertisement. “Luckies are easy on my throat,” Santa is quoted as saying. “There are no finer tobaccos than those used in Luckies, and Luckies' exclusive process is your throat protection against irritation … against cough.”

      Muckrakers (and the age of progressivism): American journalist and political philosopher Lincoln Steffens (1866–1936), who published many articles exposing urban political corruption. He was prominent among the writers Theodore Roosevelt called “muckrakers.”

      National Investor Relations Institute: Chairman of the Board of the General Electric Company, Ralph J. Cordiner (center), pounds the gavel here to open a meeting of share owners of the firm. Some 2,500 owners attended the 68th annual meeting of the firm. Flanking Cordiner are Robert Patton (left), President, and Ray H. Luebbe, Secretary. Cordiner established the first efforts at formalizing a company's communication program with shareholders in 1953.

      Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs): Members of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) wave fliers during a protest outside the conference room of the opening session of the World Trade Organization (WTO) conference in Doha on November 9, 2001.

      Page, Arthur W.: Arthur W. Page's book, The Bell Telephone System (1941), explained the company's the financial policy and how it affected the company's mission to serve, including the public relations function. Nearly 200,000 copies of the book were sold in hardcover and in paperback.

      Perjury: Senator Karl Mundt (R) of South Dakota, who was acting chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) when the first testimony on the Alger Hiss–Whitaker Chambers investigation was heard, is shown in his office scanning the headlines that tell him of the jury's January 21, 1950, verdict in Hiss's second perjury trial. Chambers, a senior editor from Time magazine and an admitted ex-communist, identified Hiss and several other federal officials to HUAC as having been members of a communist cell whose purpose had been to infiltrate the U.S. government. The conviction made Hiss liable to a maximum sentence of 10 years in prison and fines totaling $4,000.

      Plank, Betsy: Photo

      Political action committees (PACs): United States President Bill Clinton addresses the 54th annual meeting of the Association of Trial Lawyers of America (ATLA) while in Chicago, July 30, 2000. The ATLA is regularly one of the top-spending political action committees (PACs).

      Postcolonialism theory and public relations: An Indian protester uses a megaphone during a demonstration against the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy in New Delhi on August 27, 2003. Scholars have pointed to the Bhopal tragedy as an example of postcolonialism because most mainstream public relations literature continues to depict how the company dealt with the crisis and maintained its line of communication with its shareholders and investors, while the voice of the victims of the tragedy is rarely heard.

      Psychographics: Figure 1. Generational influences.

      Public Affairs Council: Table 1. The Public Affairs Council, in Profile

      Public Affairs Council: Table 2. Membership Composition

      Public Affairs Council: Table 3. Most Active Members

      Public Affairs Council: Table 4. The Components of Public Affairs: The Public Affairs Council's Fields of Expertise

      Public health campaign: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Outcomes is one of the major engines driving the prioritization of specific efforts in current health services and research.

      Public Relations Field Dynamics (PRFD): Figure 1. Field diagrams of the perceived relational landscape.

      Relationship management theory: Table 1. Dimensions, Types, and Models of Organization-Public Relationships

      Roberts, Rosalee A.: Photo

      Rules theory: Figure 1. Rules compliance continuum.

      Spin: Prince Charles on a walkabout in Sheffield in 1998, with his Deputy Private Secretary Mark Bolland behind him (holding files). Described by the British newspapers as the prince's “spin doctor,” Bolland left Charles's employ soon thereafter to set up his own public relations agency.

      Sweden, practice of public relations in: Table 1. Some Facts About the Swedish Public Relations Association

      Traverse-Healy, Tim: Photo

      Vail, Theodore Newton: Photo

      Warfare and public relations: President Woodrow Wilson (left) and George Creel, Committee on Public Information (more commonly known as the Creel Committee) leave the Royal Train at a station in the Alps on January 2, 1919, for exercise. Wilson formed the committee during World War I, made up of leading newspaper editors, advertising writers, and members of the public relations field as a means of spreading propaganda.

      Wire service: A United Press International (UPI) Unifax machine was an early type of fax machine that used early photocopier technology, enabling the sending of picture data over phone lines and turning UPI into a “wire service.”


      Rebecca G. Aguilar

      University of Houston

      Steve Aiello

      Senior Counsel, Public Affairs, Hill & Knowlton, New York

      Linda Aldoory

      University of Maryland

      Robert V. Andrews

      Retired Executive Director of Corporate Communications, Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ

      Cristina Proano Beazley

      Lafayette, LA

      William L. Benoit

      University of Missouri

      Günter Bentele

      University of Leipzig

      Pamela G. Bourland-Davis

      Georgia Southern University

      Shannon A. Bowen

      University of Houston

      Glen M. Broom

      San Diego State University

      Amy Broussard

      Communications Director, Louisiana Gulf Coast Oil Exposition (LAGCOE)

      Brigitta Brunner

      Auburn University

      Lisa C. Burns

      Lafayette, LA

      Ann R. Carden

      SUNY Fredonia

      Craig Carroll

      University of Southern California

      Nicole B. Cásarez

      University of St. Thomas

      Cindy T. Christen

      Colorado State University

      W. Timothy Coombs

      Eastern Illinois University

      Teresa Yancey Crane

      President, Issue Management Council, Leesburg, VA

      Terry M. Cunconan

      Central Missouri State University

      Tiffany Derville

      University of Maryland

      Barbara J. DeSanto

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Eric P. Eller

      Buena Vista University

      Lisa T. Fall

      University of Tennessee

      Kathleen Fearn-Banks

      University of Washington

      Jack Felton

      Institute of Public Relations, Gainesville, FL

      Yan Feng

      Lafayette, LA

      Kathryn L. Ferguson

      Duson, LA

      Sherry Devereaux Ferguson

      University of Ottawa

      John P. Férré

      University of Louisville

      Emilee V. Fontenot

      Houston, TX

      Nancy Engelhardt Furlow

      Elon University

      Sabra H. Gill

      Sabra H. Gill & Associates, Houston, TX

      Karla K. Gower

      University of Alabama

      Mark A. Gring

      Texas Tech University

      James E. Grunig

      University of Maryland

      Kirk Hallahan

      Colorado State University

      Tricia L. Hansen-Horn

      Central Missouri State University

      Henry Hardt

      Buena Vista University

      Rachel Martin Harlow

      Lubbock, TX

      William Forrest Harlow

      Texas Tech University

      Joy L. Hart

      University of Louisville

      Robert L. Heath

      University of Houston

      Keith Michael Hearit

      Western Michigan University

      Ray Eldon Hiebert

      Colton's Point, MD

      Catherine L. Hinrichsen

      C&C Communications, Seattle, WA

      Sherry J. Holladay

      Eastern Illinois University

      Tom Hoog

      Chairman, Hill & Knowlton/USA, Washington, DC

      Adam E. Horn

      University of Missouri, Warrensburg

      H. R. (Holly) Hutchins

      University of Houston, adjunct faculty, Retired Manager of External Relations, Shell Oil Company, Houston, TX

      Cassandra Imfeld

      SunTrust Bank, Atlanta, GA

      Jim C. Jennings

      CEO, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Washington, DC

      Peter Johansen

      Carleton University

      Garth S. Jowett

      University of Houston

      Dean Kazoleas

      Illinois State University

      Kathleen S. Kelly

      University of Florida

      Michael L. Kent

      Montclair State University

      Marilyn Kern-Foxworth

      The Ad∗tive, Silver Spring, MD

      Katherine N. Kinnick

      Kennesaw State University

      Diana L. Knott

      Ohio University

      Bonnie J. Knutson

      Michigan State University

      Dean Kruckeberg

      University of Northern Iowa

      Margot Opdyche Lamme

      University of Florida

      Barbara Langham

      Renaissance House International Public Relations, Houston, TX

      Jaesub Lee

      University of Houston

      Kathie A. Leeper

      Concordia College (MN)

      Roy V. Leeper

      Concordia College (MN)

      Phyllis Vance Larsen

      University of Nebraska—Lincoln

      John A. Ledingham

      Capital University

      Greg Leichty

      University of Louisville

      Shirley Leitch

      University of Waikato

      Maria E. Len-Rios

      University of Kansas

      Charles A. Lubbers

      Kansas State University

      Lisa Lyon

      Kennesaw State University

      Woodrow Madden

      Spring, TX, Past President of the Public Affairs Council, Retired, Public Affairs, Exxon Oil Corporation

      John Madsen

      Buena Vista University, retired

      Dick Martin

      Summit, NJ, Retired Executive Vice President of Public Relations, AT&T Corporation

      Katherine McComas

      Cornell University

      Becky McDonald

      Ball State University

      David McKie

      University of Waikato

      David B. McKinney

      Manager of Community Relations, Shell Chemical Company, Deer Park, TX

      D. Gayle McNutt

      Executive Director (retired), Executive Service Corps of Houston, Houston, TX

      Lisa K. Merkl

      University of Houston

      Maribeth S. Metzler

      Miami University (OH)

      Jerry Mills

      Overton Brooks Medical Center, Shreveport, LA

      Mary Anne Moffitt

      Illinois State University

      Daniel A. Moss

      Manchester Metropolitan, University Business School

      Judy Motion

      University of Waikato

      Debashish Munshi

      University of Waikato

      Michael Nagy

      University of Houston

      Bonita Dostal Neff

      Valparaiso University

      Amy O'Connor

      North Dakota State University

      Bolanle A. Olaniran

      Texas Tech University

      Nicki Orsborn

      Westerly, RI

      Michael J. Palenchar

      University of Tennessee

      Kelly M. Papinchak

      Director of Communications, Schipul – The Web Marketing Company, Houston, TX

      Kristine A. Parkes

      Krisp Communications, Eagleville, PA

      Wes Pedersen

      Director, Communications and Public Relations, Public Affairs Council, Washington, DC

      Emma Louise Daugherty Phillingame

      California State University, Long Beach

      Betsy Plank

      Betsy Plank Public Relations, Chicago, IL

      Retired from Edelman Public Relations and from Illinois Bell Telephone Company

      Founder of Public Relations Student Society of America

      Kenneth D. Plowman

      Brigham Young University

      Donnalyn Pompper

      Florida State University

      Ann Preston

      St. Ambrose University

      Robert S. Pritchard

      Captain, U.S. Navy (retired), Ball State University

      Jim L. Query, Jr.

      University of Houston

      Ashli A. Quesinberry

      University of Georgia

      Brad L. Rawlins

      Brigham Young University

      Bryan H. Reber

      University of Georgia

      Bonnie Parnell Riechert

      University of Tennessee

      Karen Miller Russell

      University of Georgia

      Michael Ryan

      University of Houston

      Lynne M. Sallot

      University of Georgia

      Charles T. Salmon

      Michigan State University

      DeNel Rehberg Sedo

      Mount Saint Vincent University

      Matthew W. Seeger

      Wayne State University

      Timothy L. Sellnow

      North Dakota State University

      Shirley Serini

      Morehead State University

      Melvin L. Sharpe

      Ball State University

      Jae-Hwa Shin

      University of Southern Mississippi

      Danny Shipka

      Gainesville, FL

      Margaretha A. Sjoberg

      Executive Director, Swedish Public Relations Association

      Jim Sloan

      Senior Vice President, Corporate Communications, Hill & Knowlton Chicago

      Michael F. Smith

      La Salle University

      Brian C. Sowa

      Eastern Illinois University

      Jeffrey K. Springston

      University of Georgia

      Krishnamurthy Sriramesh

      Nanyang Technological University

      Don W. Stacks

      University of Miami (FL)

      Benita Steyn

      University of Pretoria

      Kevin Stoker

      Brigham Young University

      Maureen Taylor

      Rutgers University

      William Thompson

      University of Louisville

      Tatyana S. Thweatt

      North Dakota State University

      Elizabeth L. Toth

      University of Maryland, College Park

      Tim Traverse-Healy

      Director, Centre for Public Affairs Study

      Richard H. Truitt

      Truitt & Kirkpatrick, New York

      Robert R. Ulmer

      University of Arkansas at Little Rock

      Betteke van Ruler

      University of Amsterdam

      Dejan Vercčicč

      Pristop Communications, Ljubljana, Slovenia

      Marina Vujnovic

      University of Northern Iowa

      Hsiang-Hui Claire Wang

      Syracuse University

      Ruthann Weaver Lariscy

      University of Georgia

      Aileen Webb

      Michigan State University

      Candace White

      University of Tennessee

      Jos Willems

      High School for Management and Public Relations, Ghent, Belgium

      David E. Williams

      Texas Tech University

      Brenda J. Wrigley

      Syracuse University

      Davis Young

      Senior Counselor, Edward Howard & Co., Solon, OH


      Some may wonder why public relations is a deserving topic for the extensive analysis it receives in this encyclopedia. After all, many might think, it is “just PR.” In the view of some or even many, public relations is the art of sham, spin, buzz, sandbagging, and “being nice.” Others fear it as deep-pockets lobbying that gives privilege to powerful companies and special interests. Having said that, some critics and many in the general public might be satisfied. They may take a dismissive attitude. That attitude, however, can be counterproductive. Public relations does not slink into the corner because it is dismissed. It is there to be seen and to exert influence. Thus, engaged and thoughtful analysis of the profession may be required before a final opinion is formed on the ethics and societal role of the practice. Otherwise, critics and students of public relations may make a couple of serious mistakes.

      First, a dismissive attitude toward public relations often is based on a narrow and considerably naïve sense of what public relations is and what practitioners do. This sort of flippant dismissal can lead one to miss the darker side of the practice, which indeed adds evidence to support many of those claims. However, such dismissal causes one to avoid considering the reality that when mispracticed, public relations can divert attention from the real issue, giving a false sense of how popular and favorable a product might actually be. Endless public relations efforts exist, some heavily masked or even dismissed by the half-sibling of public relations, marketing. Thus, when we watch the Super Bowl or the Academy Awards (or any of the endless list of similarly high-profile events), we may fail to recognize the hand of public relations being played. Publicity and promotion are the often silent tools of public relations; some will argue that the best public relations is that which is not recognized as such.

      The second mistake is failure to understand that public relations also plays a large role in public policy issue debates. In fact, during the 1970s, when the term issues management was coined, that aspect of the practice was started in large part by advertisers who believed that issue advertising could combat the critics of large business activities. This was not a new era in public policy debates. Many senior practitioners had a long reputation of working in the public policy arena. Many believe that the enormous, society-defining debates in the last decades of the 19th century spawned much of the practice as we know it today. But practitioners quickly realized that issue advertising had limited likelihood of appeal and impact as a means of narrowing the chasm between corporate performance and public expectations. In such debates, members of various segments of the general public and opinion leaders may be more interested in the arguments made in a well-crafted editorial or book by an expert—or a feature article—than an advertisement. Thus, the work of the public relations practitioner came to the fore—once again.

      Society could exist without public relations, but it won't. This means that public relations, for better or for worse, is here to stay. What we think of as public relations may not be in dispute, but what practitioners do and the good or bad they accomplish will be the subject of debate. The challenge facing the profession of public relations, and the men and women who serve as practitioners, is to earn the trust and respect of critics and the general public. Senior practitioners and academics do not take this challenge lightly.

      Public relations gained professional and academic status during the 20th century in the United States and from there it spread to much of the rest of the world. That is the good news. In that regard, public relations in the minds of many people and academics came to be viewed as a positive way for organizations to get their message before markets, audiences, and strategic publics, the critics and supporters of such organizations. In a positive sense, then, public relations helped organizations build mutually beneficial relationships with customers, critics, and other stakeholders. This effort will continue. However, because of its contemporary origins, it has often been associated with propaganda—a label that senior practitioners tend to avoid and reject.

      The bad news is that public relations, in the minds of some or many, is the dark art of manipulation and confusion. For some, it is a shifty business. It occurs in the White House as well as board rooms of businesses, nonprofits, and governmental agencies. It has been characterized as “a stealth bomber” that can deliver persuasive messages in ways that get through people's defenses. Seen in this way, public relations can be viewed as a tool that large organizations have and will continue to use to engineer consent. That means that people should not trust public relations or its practitioners if they are sneaky, manipulative, deceptive, and dishonest—if they do not tell the truth, if they engage in spin, or if they are expert sandbaggers and flacks.

      The Encyclopedia of Public Relations is a vehicle that may help the field to reach a wide array of readers who can serve as opinion leaders for improving the image and ethics of the practice. This work intends to provide an honest but positively biased treatment of public relations. It strives to give a sound, insightful, and appreciative view of what public relations is and does as well as the ethical challenges it must meet to be seen as a positive force in society. From its launch, this project has been a substantial, even daunting, undertaking. Like all edited projects, this one has been a difficult and exciting journey. The most fascinating part has been wrestling with the list of practitioners who should be featured with their own biographical entries. Talk to 20 senior practitioners and academics, and you will get a list of names they believe deserve recognition in a work such as this. Some people will be on all lists. Some lists will be substantially different. Some people will argue that certain people should not be featured, although others will insist that such a work would be inadequate without them.

      Consequently, we created a list of names of extraordinary practitioners who have helped define the profession by what they have said and done. The next problem was getting authors. Many of the people who were qualified to write certain biographical entries deserved entries themselves. So we did some trading. Some potential authors of various entries were not in a mental or physical state to contribute. We even had some people pass beyond this physical existence during the process. Often the “only person” who could write an entry was unable to do so, but never unwilling. For the subjects of some entries, documents and others source materials simply were not available or were in storage somewhere unknown to the authors. In some crucial instances, the person featured in the entry was mentally or physically unable to provide additional information.

      Out of these difficulties, however, we did find worthy entries and came to see this document as the most authoritative reference source on many of the persons who crafted the profession in the 19th and 20th centuries. In finding subjects and authors, we were even able to reach beyond the boundaries of the United States and feature key players in other countries, such as Great Britain and Germany. Public relations neither started in the United States nor does it reside exclusively there. So we were fortunate to give voice to the presence of the practice and key practitioners in other countries.

      Still, there are omissions. Some will never be recovered. Facts get lost in time. We were fortunate, if for no other reason than this, to undertake this project when we did. The lives and careers of these pioneers are fleeting. And most of the people who made the profession what it is today lived and worked in the 20th century.

      Public Relations: What's in a Term?

      Other than the people who made their livings from public relations, what is this book about? One of the longest entries is devoted to a terribly inadequate definition of the profession. People in public relations can't universally agree on what the practice constitutes or what the term means. For this reason, the definition of public relations is offered as a dialogue on public relations to help students, practitioners, academics, and people in general appreciate the scope and purpose of the term. If the book helps readers to think about the meaning of the term and consider its many facets, then those of us who contributed to the definition will feel satisfied. We simply don't like the term to be treated as a stereotype. And for the most part, practitioners and academics prefer the term public relations to PR because the latter is invariably associated with the dark side of the profession.

      As long ago as the 1970s, attempts were made to sort out definitions. Senior practitioners such as Edward L. Bernays and John W. Hill had by then published books in which they offered their definitions. By the early 1970s, the term had been defined by the Public Relations Society of America. Several textbook authors had tried their hand at defining the term. Endless efforts at definition have occurred in journal articles and critical comments by journalists.

      As is true of many crucial words for professions in society, this one passes through history, professional practice, academic classes, media commentary, and everyday conversations. The passing flows as easily and unstoppably as water through cupped hands. It just won't stay put. But just as medicine once was generally referred to as quackery, public relations practitioners in some circles are known as flacks and journalists are called hacks—a term that was used in that context long before it was made popular in reference to cyber-intruders.

      Some practitioners and academics have tracked the various definitions of this wily beast as hunters pursue their prey. Writing in 1977, Dr. Rex Harlow observed, using the start of the 20th century as his benchmark,

      A review of the history of the definition of public relations shows that the definition has changed considerably over the past 70 years. This historical review reveals how inextricably the development of the definition has been and is bound to the movement of thought and action of the society in which the public relations practitioner does his [or her] work. It shows the present form, content and status of the public relations definition, but even more the effect of environmental factors and change upon its development during the past quarter of a century. (p. 49)

      Without a doubt, then, a discussion of public relations is necessarily a discussion of the society or societies in which it is practiced. We can't discuss this topic without considering the human drama of change, markets, public policies, and the public policy “fistfights” that go along with all of that. We added the word her to Harlow's comment because today the public relations professional is more likely to be a woman than a man.

      Elements of the Practice and Study: What Makes up the Practice?

      One of the goals of this book is to make the practice of public relations more adequately understood by an array of readers, including the general public. For better or worse, public relations plays a vital role in commerce, nonprofit activities, and the processes of government. Movies such as Wag the Dog give people a shocking view of how people might be able to manipulate the media by manufacturing news that shapes policy—thereby manipulating what people know, think about, and end up doing. That's a lot of power. It must be guided by a strong sense of professionalism and sound ethical principles. In the conduct of their business, practitioners have a lot of “tools” in their kits. Each day, they get more. What's in the tool kit?


      Organizations craft mission and vision statements to help them know where they are going and to chart their plans to achieve those outcomes. Pubic relations is a useful tool to help frame missions as well as to accomplish those ends. Also, persons who practice public relations operate out of stated and unstated mission and vision statements. Organizations such as the Public Relations Society of America and the International Association of Business Communicators voice their own mission and vision statements to serve as broad guides for the practice of professional communicators.


      Perhaps the broadest tools in the kit are strategies. It is here that public relations' reputation for manipulation is often deserved. One of the strategies available to practitioners is manipulation. Practitioners have made the small seem large, and the large seem small. They create buzz to compete with disinterest. At their worst, they can be masters and mistresses of attracting attention and framing statements—manufacturing reputations and crafting images that may be far from reality. They have created pseudo-events. Many of the entries in this book look at the strategies of public relations.

      In a broad sense, some of the strategies include publicizing, promoting, engaging in issue debates, informing, persuading, and working to create mutually beneficial relationships. They can entail negotiation, collaboration, and cooperation.

      On the down side, just as practitioners know how to open the flow of information, they also may stop that flow through spin, sandbagging, and diversion. Practitioners may cover up as well as uncover.


      The functions of public relations often are part of the list of services announced by agencies. They may be job descriptions and divisions in large corporate public relations departments.

      Functions are used to accomplish or implement strategies. Thus, for instance, if publicly traded companies are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission to communicate with share-holders, they have an investor relations function.

      Nonprofits engage in fundraising or development, a function. All organizations engage in media relations, another function. They may have a customer relations or employee relations function. They may engage in issues management. Universities and colleges have sports information functions, marketing functions, development functions, student relations functions, and so on.

      Counseling is a vital function. Counseling is the stock and trade of the senior practitioner. Such persons work to position organizations to help them earn respect and support and to avoid collisions with opinions and competing interests. Acting wisely and ethically, the counselor can help the organization to operate in ways that do not offend the sentiments and expectations of key publics. Engaged in as manipulation, counseling can help an organization to appear to be something quite different from what it is and thereby enable it to earn falsely deserved rewards. In the worst sense, perhaps, such counseling can keep a politician from being found wanting or help a business to seem to be worth much more than shareholders would otherwise suspect.

      A function is a broad category of tools to achieve specific strategies for a particular purpose in working with some definable audience, market, or public.

      Perhaps the ultimate function of public relations is the creation of meaning. Here also, practitioners and academics confront thorny ethical issues. What meaning needs to be created to help build and maintain mutually beneficial relationships? How can practitioners help shape the meaning that strengthens community through diverse voices and alternative opinions?

      Academics tend to look at process more than meaning. Practitioners never forget the importance of meaning. The meaning may center on the favorable attributes of a product or service. Meaning may seek to foster a favorable image of an organization. Employee relationships depend on meaning. So do donor relationships. The list is long. The challenge is great.

      Serious, ethical, and responsible practitioners know they cannot manipulate meaning. Meaning must be based on sound judgment, high ethical principles, and a mutuality of interests.

      We may add ethical decision making to the list of functions. That notion may baffle critics. Practitioners, however, are in an excellent position to hold and apply sound, ethical principles to guide the organizations they serve.

      Tools and Tactics

      How a function works to implement strategies depends on and defines the tools or tactics that are specialized to that function. Thus, for investor relations, one of the tools is the annual financial report. Another tool, used especially by companies that manufacture chemicals, is the health, safety, and environment report.

      The media release—what used to be called the press release—is a standard tool practitioners use to feature newsworthy facts and opinions for the use of reporters and editorialists.

      Events, or what some call pseudo-events, are vital tools. Many newspapers carry regular features giving the details of some fundraiser. A charity for children might hold a gala to raise funds and honor those who work hard to raise those funds. The practitioner makes sure that a photojournalist gets the obligatory shot of three or four—never more—of the persons who help publicize the event. From the most ancient times, manufactured events have been a vital part of society—business and government administration. That trajectory is unlikely to change soon—if ever.

      Press conferences are a counterpart of media releases, as are backgrounders. Practitioners create media kits and groom Web sites. They create 1-800 hotlines and FAQs for Web site home pages.

      Practitioners engage in crisis prevention, planning, and response. During a crisis, we like to have practitioners and others help us understand what happened, why it happened, and what we should do. During a hurricane or a chemical release, we like to have emergency plans to execute to know how to be safe. Practitioners help us in these ways.

      We may appreciate learning about cures and treatments, as well as the symptoms of ailments. Medical researchers discover medical facts and offer treatments, which professional communicators may publicize and promote.

      Onward into the Fog—But Perhaps with a Lantern to Lead

      Public relations as demonstrated in this encyclopedia is timeless. And it is here to stay. Some see it as the essence of a democratic society, where all sides of an issue can be contested, examined, and weighed. But it is also a tool usable by the worst despot to manufacture his or her image and craft support for his or her regime.

      Ethics and social responsibility are key concerns of our day and age. That is not new, but corporate scandals and attempts by government officials to manipulate public opinion have emerged as deep concerns. Some observers watch for missteps and call for remedies. But a cynical culture that convinces itself that no one tells the truth and that believes in no one can be even more of a threat to civil society.

      As much as it features the positive service and contributions of practitioners, this work also attempts to display the theoretical and ethical concerns that consume academic and professional attention and consideration. Because of the role practitioners have in society, they must be attentive to such concerns. So must the academics who work to shape and guide the profession—as well as educate the next generation of practitioners.

      In that vein, the Encyclopedia of Public Relations may serve some as a primer. Others may find refreshing or even disappointing comments and concerns. However, we hope the book advances the dialogue that can make the profession ever more healthy. It is here to stay. It serves society best by asking more and more of itself.

      Robert L.Heath
      Harlow, R. F.Public relations definitions through the years. Public Relations Review3 (1) 49–631977http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111%2877%2980018-0


      At various times during the creation of this encyclopedia, I reflected on its progress—slow, steady, tedious, and painful at times. In my reflection, one of my favorite popular movies seemed to capture the essence of the project. It is Witness, which stars Harrison Ford who for a while tries to blend into an Amish community. In one scene, the members of the community in a symphony of workmanship assemble and erect a barn. In its construction, each barn builder knows the job and does it with skill. There is little oversight. Micromanagement is not part of the scene. While some workers toiled on the construction, others performed their own symphony of preparing simple, wholesome, and beautiful food. It is abundant and prepared with love. At the end of the day, the sun sets on work well done. Congratulations were not as important as self-satisfaction. The effort of each contributed to the collective good of the community.

      So, too, was the creation of this book—a work of skill with very little coordination. It was a symphony of preparation: simple, wholesome, and beautiful. It is abundant in its provision and prepared with love. It grew one entry at a time. I am indebted to many people, starting with the Advisory Board and including a host of friends and colleagues who volunteered for entries. They offered entries that I and the Advisory Board had not thought to include. Key members of the Advisory Board not only wrote an abundant number of entries, but they also worked to help find the best authors for other entries. For their efforts above and beyond, I tip my hat twice to the following members of the Board: Shannon Bowen (who helped with ethics, systems, and collaborative decision making), Tim Coombs (who helped sort out the research topics), Kirk Hallahan (who advised sagely and wrote proficiently), Kathy Kelly (who helped with biographies), John Madsen (who helped find authors for business related topics), Elizabeth Toth (who brought the biographies of women practitioners to fruition), and Betteke van Ruler (who helped sort out the nuances of Europe). Thanks to my other friends and colleagues who wrote well and in a tight time frame.

      Two practitioners were invaluable. Thanks to a handoff by George Hammond, Richard Truitt bailed me out when I lost an author for the Carl Byoir entry. Then he offered lists of names to contact, contact information, and biography suggestions. Betsy Plank was steady in her influence. She offered valuable advice on biographies and authors. She was endless in her praise for the value of the project. She truly is a grand lady of public relations.

      The timing of this project was just right—almost too late. For some, it might have been too late. We know that some biographies might have been developed had we not lost contributors or subjects of their own biographies. I had many conversations with contributors who tried to help me find authors for some public relations legends who were not included. Their omission was not because of a lack of commitment to them, but a failure of the system to provide sufficient information or a willing and capable author to choose the words to capture their contribution. Many of us recognized that a generation of legends was nearing its end before our very eyes. We were reminded of how fragile the telling of history can be. We did the best we could and hope to catalyze others to plow the fields, cultivate, and harvest more biographies to honor as well as evaluate the contributions of the men and women who crafted public relations into a honed profession during the 20th century.

      Along this journey we lost travelers: W. Howard Chase and George Hammond—two legends. At the beginning of the project, Bill Adams played a vital role in recommending entries, especially biographies, and was quick to take on the writing of entries. His career was a valued blend of academic and practitioner.

      Many of the people who helped create this “barn” were only known to me by phone and Internet. I know a lot of the contributors and thank them profusely for their help. Others took me on “spec.” They only met me by e-mail or phone. They must have asked themselves, “Who is this nut?” Thanks to all of you who trusted me. I believe the proof is in the pudding.

      Thanks to the many folks at Sage Publications. Margaret Seawell dreamed up the project and thought I could pull it off. Paul Reis stepped into the project as a developmental editor and picked up the slack at a crucial moment. He dealt with an endless array of niggling details, especially the entry contracts. He was cheery and efficient. Because of his work ethic and responsiveness, I logged endless responses and encouragement from him in the “in” and “out” boxes of the Internet. He helped in the final harvest of entries. Paul was inspired and aggressive in finding pictures and ancillary documents that help tell the story of public relations and demonstrate the abundance of material relevant to the field. And lastly, I thank Diane Foster for guiding the project through the production process.

      Some critics may fault the work that follows. They will say that the encyclopedia paints a rosy picture of a profession dedicated to manipulation, spin, deceit, and flack. The persons who contributed to this work know those criticisms and recognize the challenge to make this influential practice worthy of praise and respect. This challenge is best met by moving standards up rather than wallowing in despair, denial, disgust, or doubt. Practitioners and academics have met and will continue to meet the challenge.

      About the Editor

      Robert L. Heath (Ph.D., University of Illinois) is Professor of Communication at the University of Houston, Director of the Institute for the Study of Issues Management, and former Advisory Director of Research for Bates Churchill Southwest. His Handbook of Public Relations won the 2001 PRIDE Award for best publication. With co-editor Elizabeth Toth, he won the PRIDE Award in 1992 for Rhetorical and Critical Approaches to Public Relations. He won the Pathfinder Award in 1992 and the Jackson, Jackson, and Wagner Award in 1998.

      His other books are Management of Corporate Communication: From Interpersonal Contacts to External Affairs (1994); Human Communication Theories and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges (1992, with Jennings Bryant); Strategic Issues Management(1988); Realism and Relativism: A Perspective on Kenneth Burke (1986); Issues Management: Corporate Public Policymaking in an Information Society (1986, with Richard Alan Nelson); and Strategic Issues Management (1997), which also won a PRIDE Award.

    • Appendix 1: The Public Relations Society of America Code of Ethics

      The primary obligation of membership in the Public Relations Society of America is the ethical practice of Public Relations.

      The PRSA Member Code of Ethics is the way each member of our Society can daily reaffirm a commitment to ethical professional activities and decisions.

      • The Code sets forth the principles and standards that guide our decisions and actions.
      • The Code solidly connects our values and our ideals to the work each of us does every day.
      • The Code is about what we should do, and why we should do it.

      The Code is also meant to be a living, growing body of knowledge, precedent, and experience. It should stimulate our thinking and encourage us to seek guidance and clarification when we have questions about principles, practices, and standards of conduct.

      Every member's involvement in preserving and enhancing ethical standards is essential to building and maintaining the respect and credibility of our profession. Using our values, principles, standards of conduct, and commitment as a foundation, and continuing to work together on ethical issues, we ensure that the Public Relations Society of America fulfills its obligation to build and maintain the framework for public dialogue that deserves the public's trust and support.

        The Members of the 2000 Board of Ethics and Professional Standards
      • Robert D. Frause, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Chairman BEPS
      • Seattle, Washington
      • James R. Frankowiak, APR
      • Tampa, Florida
      • Jeffrey P. Julin, APR
      • Denver, Colorado
      • James E. Lukaszewski, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • White Plains, New York
      • Kathy R. Fitzpatrick, APR
      • Gainesville, Florida
        PRSA Member Code of Ethics 2000
      • Linda Welter Cohen, APR
      • Tucson, Arizona
      • Patricia Grey, APR
      • Columbus, Ohio
      • Ralph Thomas Kam, APR
      • Kaneohe, Hawaii
      • Roger D. Buehrer, APR
      • Fellow PRSA
      • Las Vegas, Nevada
      • W. Thomas Duke, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Greenville, South Carolina
      PRSA Member Statement of Professional Values

      This statement presents the core values of PRSA members and, more broadly, of the public relations profession. These values provide the foundation for the Member Code of Ethics and set the industry standard for the professional practice of public relations. These values are the fundamental beliefs that guide our behaviors and decision-making process. We believe our professional values are vital to the integrity of the profession as a whole.

      • We serve the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for those we represent.
      • We provide a voice in the marketplace of ideas, facts, and viewpoints to aid informed public debate.
      • We adhere to the highest standards of accuracy and truth in advancing the interests of those we represent and in communicating with the public.
      • We acquire and responsibly use specialized knowledge and experience.
      • We advance the profession through continued professional development, research, and education.
      • We build mutual understanding, credibility, and relationships among a wide array of institutions and audiences.
      • We provide objective counsel to those we represent.
      • We are accountable for our actions.
      • We are faithful to those we represent, while honoring our obligation to serve the public interest.
      • We deal fairly with clients, employers, competitors, peers, vendors, the media, and the general public.
      • We respect all opinions and support the right of free expression.
      Prsa Code Provisions
      Free Flow of Information
      Core Principle

      Protecting and advancing the free flow of accurate and truthful information is essential to serving the public interest and contributing to informed decision making in a democratic society.

      • To maintain the integrity of relationships with the media, government officials, and the public.
      • To aid informed decision making.

      A member shall:

      • Preserve the integrity of the process of communication.
      • Be honest and accurate in all communications.
      • Act promptly to correct erroneous communications for which the practitioner is responsible.
      • Preserve the free flow of unprejudiced information when giving or receiving gifts by ensuring that gifts are nominal, legal, and infrequent.
      Examples of Improper Conduct under this Provision:
      • A member representing a ski manufacturer gives a pair of expensive racing skis to a sports magazine columnist, to influence the columnist to write favorable articles about the product.
      • A member entertains a government official beyond legal limits and/or in violation of government reporting requirements.
      Core Principle

      Promoting healthy and fair competition among professionals preserves an ethical climate while fostering a robust business environment.

      • To promote respect and fair competition among public relations professionals.
      • To serve the public interest by providing the widest choice of practitioner options.

      A member shall:

      • Follow ethical hiring practices designed to respect free and open competition without deliberately undermining a competitor.
      • Preserve intellectual property rights in the marketplace.
      Examples of Improper Conduct under This Provision
      • A member employed by a client organization shares helpful information with a counseling firm that is competing with others for the organization's business.
      • A member spreads malicious and unfounded rumors about a competitor in order to alienate the competitor's clients and employees in a ploy to recruit people and business.
      Disclosure of Information
      Core Principle

      Open communication fosters informed decision making in a democratic society.

      • To build trust with the public by revealing all information needed for responsible decision making.

      A member shall:

      • Be honest and accurate in all communications.
      • Act promptly to correct erroneous communications for which the member is responsible.
      • Investigate the truthfulness and accuracy of information released on behalf of those represented.
      • Reveal the sponsors for causes and interests represented.
      • Disclose financial interest (such as stock ownership) in a client's organization.
      • Avoid deceptive practices.
      Examples of Improper Conduct under this Provision
      • Front groups: A member implements “grass roots” campaigns or letter-writing campaigns to legislators on behalf of undisclosed interest groups.
      • Lying by omission: A practitioner for a corporation knowingly fails to release financial information, giving a misleading impression of the corporation's performance.
      • A member discovers inaccurate information disseminated via a web site or media kit and does not correct the information.
      • A member deceives the public by employing people to pose as volunteers to speak at public hearings and participate in “grass roots” campaigns.
      Safeguarding Confidences
      Core Principle

      Client trust requires appropriate protection of confidential and private information.

      • To protect the privacy rights of clients, organizations, and individuals by safeguarding confidential information.

      A member shall:

      • Safeguard the confidences and privacy rights of present, former, and prospective clients and employees.
      • Protect privileged, confidential, or insider information gained from a client or organization.
      • Immediately advise an appropriate authority if a member discovers that confidential information is being divulged by an employee of a client company or organization.
      Examples of Improper Conduct under This Provision
      • A member changes jobs, takes confidential information, and uses that information in the new position to the detriment of the former employer.
      • A member intentionally leaks proprietary information to the detriment of some other party.
      Conflicts of Interest
      Core Principle

      Avoiding real, potential, or perceived conflicts of interest builds the trust of clients, employers, and the publics.

      • To earn trust and mutual respect with clients or employers.
      • To build trust with the public by avoiding or ending situations that put one's personal or professional interests in conflict with society's interests.

      A member shall:

      • Act in the best interests of the client or employer, even subordinating the member's personal interests.
      • Avoid actions and circumstances that may appear to compromise good business judgment or create a conflict between personal and professional interests.
      • Disclose promptly any existing or potential conflict of interest to affected clients or organizations.
      • Encourage clients and customers to determine if a conflict exists after notifying all affected parties.
      Examples of Improper Conduct under This Provision
      • The member fails to disclose that he or she has a strong financial interest in a client's chief competitor.
      • The member represents a “competitor company” or a “conflicting interest” without informing a prospective client.
      Enhancing the Profession
      Core Principle

      Public relations professionals work constantly to strengthen the public's trust in the profession.

      • To build respect and credibility with the public for the profession of public relations.
      • To improve, adapt, and expand professional practices.

      A member shall:

      • Acknowledge that there is an obligation to protect and enhance the profession.
      • Keep informed and educated about practices in the profession to ensure ethical conduct.
      • Actively pursue personal professional development.
      • Decline representation of clients or organizations that urge or require actions contrary to this Code.
      • Accurately define what public relations activities can accomplish.
      • Counsel subordinates in proper ethical decision making.
      • Require that subordinates adhere to the ethical requirements of the Code.
      • Report ethical violations, whether committed by PRSA members or not, to the appropriate authority.
      Examples of Improper Conduct under This Provision
      • A PRSA member declares publicly that a product the client sells is safe, without disclosing evidence to the contrary.
      • A member initially assigns some questionable client work to a non-member practitioner to avoid the ethical obligation of PRSA membership.
      Rules and Guidelines

      The following PRSA documents, available online at http://www.prsa.org provide detailed rules and guidelines to help guide your professional behavior. If, after reviewing them, you still have a question or issue, contact PRSA headquarters as noted below.

      • PRSA Bylaws
      • PRSA Administrative Rules
      • Member Code of Ethics

      The PRSA is here to help. Whether you have a serious concern or simply need clarification, you can contact us confidentially at:


      Board of Ethics and Professional Standards

      Public Relations Society of America

      33 Irving Place, Floor 3

      New York, NY 10003


      212-995-0757 Fax



      Prsa Member Code of Ethics Pledge

      I pledge:

      To conduct myself professionally, with truth, accuracy, fairness, and responsibility to the public;

      To improve my individual competence and advance the knowledge and proficiency of the profession through continuing research and education;

      And to adhere to the articles of the Member Code of Ethics 2000 for the practice of public relations as adopted by the governing Assembly of the Public Relations Society of America.

      I understand and accept that there is a consequence for misconduct, up to and including membership revocation.

      And, I understand that those who have been or are sanctioned by a government agency or convicted in a court of law of an action that is in violation of this Code may be barred from membership or expelled from the Society.

      © 2000 Public Relations Society of America. Reprinted with permission.

      Appendix 2: International Association of Business Communicators Code of Ethics


      Because hundreds of thousands of business communicators worldwide engage in activities that affect the lives of millions of people, and because this power carries with it significant social responsibilities, the International Association of Business Communicators developed the Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators.

      The Code is based on three different yet interrelated principles of professional communication that apply throughout the world.

      These principles assume that just societies are governed by a profound respect for human rights and the rule of law; that ethics, the criteria for determining what is right and wrong, can be agreed upon by members of an organization; and, that understanding matters of taste requires sensitivity to cultural norms.

      These principles are essential:

      • Professional communication is legal.
      • Professional communication is ethical.
      • Professional communication is in good taste.

      Recognizing these principles, members of IABC will:

      • engage in communication that is not only legal but also ethical and sensitive to cultural values and beliefs;
      • engage in truthful, accurate and fair communication that facilitates respect and mutual understanding; and,
      • adhere to the following articles of the IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators.

      Because conditions in the world are constantly changing, members of IABC will work to improve their individual competence and to increase the body of knowledge in the field with research and education.

      • Professional communicators uphold the credibility and dignity of their profession by practicing honest, candid and timely communication and by fostering the free flow of essential information in accord with the public interest.
      • Professional communicators disseminate accurate information and promptly correct any erroneous communication for which they may be responsible.
      • Professional communicators understand and support the principles of free speech, freedom of assembly, and access to an open marketplace of ideas; and, act accordingly.
      • Professional communicators are sensitive to cultural values and beliefs and engage in fair and balanced communication activities that foster and encourage mutual understanding.
      • Professional communicators refrain from taking part in any undertaking which the communicator considers to be unethical.
      • Professional communicators obey laws and public policies governing their professional activities and are sensitive to the spirit of all laws and regulations and, should any law or public policy be violated, for whatever reason, act promptly to correct the situation.
      • Professional communicators give credit for unique expressions borrowed from others and identify the sources and purposes of all information disseminated to the public.
      • Professional communicators protect confidential information and, at the same time, comply with all legal requirements for the disclosure of information affecting the welfare of others.
      • Professional communicators do not use confidential information gained as a result of professional activities for personal benefit and do not represent conflicting or competing interests without written consent of those involved.
      • Professional communicators do not accept undisclosed gifts or payments for professional services from anyone other than a client or employer.
      • Professional communicators do not guarantee results that are beyond the power of the practitioner to deliver.
      • Professional communicators are honest not only with others but also, and most importantly, with themselves as individuals; for a professional communicator seeks the truth and speaks that truth first to the self.
      Enforcement and Communication of the IABC Code for Professional Communicators

      IABC fosters compliance with its Code by engaging in global communication campaigns rather than through negative sanctions. However, in keeping with the sixth article of the IABC Code, members of IABC who are found guilty by an appropriate governmental agency or judicial body of violating laws and public policies governing their professional activities may have their membership terminated by the IABC executive board following procedures set forth in the association's bylaws.

      IABC encourages the widest possible communication about its Code.

      The IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators is published in several languages and is freely available to all: Permission is hereby granted to any individual or organization wishing to copy and incorporate all or part of the IABC Code into personal and corporate codes, with the understanding that appropriate credit be given to IABC in any publication of such codes.

      The IABC Code is published in the association's annual directory, The World Book of IABC Communicators. The association's monthly magazine, Communication World, publishes periodic articles dealing with ethical issues. At least one session at the association's annual conference is devoted to ethics. The international headquarters of IABC, through its professional development activities, encourages and supports efforts by IABC student chapters, professional chapters, and districts/regions to conduct meetings and workshops devoted to the topic of ethics and the IABC Code. New and renewing members of IABC sign the following statement as part of their application: “I have reviewed and understand the IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators.”

      As a service to communicators worldwide, inquiries about ethics and questions or comments about the IABC Code may be addressed to members of the IABC Ethics Committee. The IABC Ethics Committee is composed of at least three accredited members of IABC who serve staggered three-year terms. Other IABC members may serve on the committee with the approval of the IABC executive committee. The functions of the Ethics Committee are to assist with professional development activities dealing with ethics and to offer advice and assistance to individual communicators regarding specific ethical situations.

      While discretion will be used in handling all inquiries about ethics, absolute confidentiality cannot be guaranteed. Those wishing more information about the IABC Code or specific advice about ethics are encouraged to contact IABC World Headquarters (One Hallidie Plaza, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94102 USA; phone, 415-544-4700; fax, 415-544-4747).

      Appendix 3: Milestones in the History of Public Relations

      Milestones in the History of Public Relations (Timeline)

      Because public relations did not just begin at any point in history, scholars and practitioners have chronicled some of the most important and identifiable moments in the history that led up to the start of public relations by that name. As indicated in the entry entitled “Antecedents of modern public relations,” the practice as we know it today is part of a living legacy. The key moments indicate those communicative events that preceded and fostered today's public relations. This history indicates the enduring efforts of some person or organization to communicate with others. At times, the efforts of public relations are geared to serve the larger interest of the community. At other times they are narrowly applied to serve the interest of some leader or organization. The following list is illustrative. No one should think that it is exhaustive. Nevertheless, it demonstrates how public relations, for better or worse, is a vital part of the enduring fabric of human society in its many facets.

      Many of the moments mentioned in the timeline below are either featured entries in this encyclopedia or important parts of such entries. This timeline should encourage the reader to learn more about these moments and think of them as stepping-stones in the stream that is the history of public relations.

      1800 B.C.—In Sumeria, a farm bulletin telling farmers how to grow crops is one of the earliest examples of mass distribution of educational materials.
      100 B.c.—A signal of the rise in importance of pubic opinion, the Romans coin the phrase Vox populi; vox Dei, “the voice of the people is the voice of God.”
      52 B.C.—Julius Caesar sends reports, including “Caesar's Gallic Wars,” to the Romans in preparation for his crossing the Rubicon River to invade Italy in 49 B.C.
      A.D. 1215—Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, mobilizes a disgruntled group of barons who confront King John with ultimatums that eventually mature into the Magna Carta.
      A.D. 1315—John Wycliffe calls for reforms by the Catholic Church, including the publication of the Bible into the vernacular.
      1500s—In the wake of the invention of printing with movable type by Johann Gutenberg in 1446, handbills and broadsides are used to promote various causes.
      1517—Martin Luther starts the Reformation when he nails 95 theses proclaiming wrongdoings of the Roman Catholic Church to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Germany.
      1622—Pope Gregory XV creates the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (College for Propagating the Faith), an effort by the Roman Catholic Church to retain followers and solicit converts in the aftermath of the Reformation. This was the origin of the term propaganda.
      1641—Harvard College launches first systematic fundraising effort in the United States, sending students door-to-door to raise money.
      1748—The first news release to solicit press coverage is sent by King's College (now Columbia University) in New York.
      1773—Sixty colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians demonstrate rising dissatisfaction with British tax policies by staging the Boston Tea Party, dumping 342 chests of tea valued at 10,000 pounds into Boston Harbor.
      1787—The Federalist Papers, a series of 85 pamphlets that were also reprinted as articles in newspapers, were produced to generate support for the formal creation of the United States and passage of its Constitution.
      1807—Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, combined public with relations in a statement about the obligation of government to the governed.
      1829—Amos Kendall serves as the first presidential press secretary as a member of Andrew Jackson's “kitchen cabinet.” In 1829 he was appointed fourth auditor of the Treasury, in addition to writing speeches, state papers, and news releases, conducting opinion polls, and developing the administration's own newspaper.
      1840s—P. T. Barnum becomes the first press agent, promoting local appearances by his touring circus.
      1850s—American railroads use publicity, advertising, and printed materials to attract tourists and settlers to the American West.
      1882—Attorney Dorman Eaton first uses the term public relations, referring to an organization's role in service to the public welfare, in an address to Yale Law School graduates on “The Public Relations and Duties of the Legal Profession.”
      1888—Mutual Life Insurance Company creates a “species of literary bureau” to coordinate advertising and publicity.
      1889—The first corporate public relations department is established by Westinghouse. Westinghouse ultimately prevailed in the ensuing “battle of the currents” to promote the benefits of alternating current (AC) versus the direct current (DC) invented earlier by Thomas Edison and the General Electric Company.
      1895—Ford Motor Company pioneers press product previews for product promotion.
      1896—The use of modern publicity in political campaigns begins with the presidential election between William McKinley and William Jennings Bryan when both candidates establish campaign headquarters in Chicago.
      1897—General Electric creates a publicity department.
      1900—The first public relations firm, Publicity Bureau of Boston, is established by George Michaelis, Herbert Small, and Thomas O. Marvin.
      1902—H. S. Adams's article, “What Is Publicity?” is published in the American Review. It is believed to be the first magazine article about public relations.
      1903—Ford Motor Company uses auto races for product promotion; Chicago Edison, under the direction of President Samuel Insull, does the same via an external magazine.
      1906—Ivy Ledbetter Lee is hired to represent the coal industry in the anthracite coal miners' strike. Lee issues his “Declaration of Principles,” considered the birth of modern public relations counseling.
      1909—Chicago Edison uses films for product promotion; Pendleton Dudley opens his public relations agency on Wall Street, a firm (Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy) that was sold to Ogilvy & Mather in 1983.
      1912—Chicago Edison uses stuffers inserted in customer bills for promotional purposes.
      1914—The “Ludlow (Colorado) Massacre.” State militia kill 20 people—striking Colorado Fuel and Iron Company miners, along with their wives and children—a tragedy that helped establish the value of corporate public relations. Ivy Lee represented Colorado Fuel and Iron owner J. D. Rockefeller's interests. No perpetrators are convicted, but many miners and union leaders are fired and blackballed.
      1917—The Committee on Public Information, a government agency headed by George Creel (and also know as the Creel Committee), promotes public support of American involvement in World War I; Former Atlanta journalist Edward Clarke and ex-madam Bessie Tyler form the Southern Publicity Association to promote World War I fund drives. After the war, they built up membership in the Ku Klux Klan by offering a $10 induction fee to Klansmen for every new member they signed up.
      1923—Edward L. Bernays publishes Crystallizing Public Opinion, the first book on professional public relations, and teaches the first public relations course at New York University.
      1927—Arthur W. Page is named vice president of public relations at AT&T, accepting the job on the condition that he be allowed to be involved in policy making. Page would distinguish himself as the leading corporate practitioner of the century by emphasizing the importance of cooperation with the public and of disclosure about corporate activities; John W. Hill founds Hill & Knowlton.
      1929—Edward Bernays stages two major public relations events as marches: the “Torches of Freedom” March in New York to promote smoking for women, and the “Golden Jubilee of Light” in Dearborn, Michigan, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the invention of the electric light bulb.
      1931—Paul Garrett becomes the first public relations director at General Motors, inspiring other large corporations to make similar appointments.
      1933—Campaigns, Inc., the first political campaign firm, is founded by husband and wife Clem Whitaker and Leone Baxter in California; President Franklin Delano Roosevelt uses his famous “fireside chats” to instill confidence in the American people; Edward Bernays develops the “Green Ball” campaign for Lucky Strike cigarettes, urging women to (1) wear green clothing as a fashion statement and (2) smoke Lucky Strikes, as the green packaging would mesh with their outfit.
      1936—The first widespread use of public opinion polling, with companies conducting selected consumer interviews. Small-sample Crossley, Gallup, and Elmo Roper polls predict Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidential victory over Alf Landon, while the 2 million–ballot Literary Digest poll predicts a Landon victory, proving that proper sampling is more important than sample size.
      1939—Rex Harlow of Stanford University becomes the first full-time public relations educator.
      1941—The first noncommercial opinion research agency, The National Opinion Research Center, is established.
      1942—The Office of War Information, headed by Elmer Davis, promotes public support of and involvement in World War II.
      1945—The Advertising Council (formerly the War Advertising Council) is reorganized to create information campaigns on behalf of various social causes; the United States government announces via press release that an American plane dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
      1948—The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) is founded.
      1950—The PRSA Code of Professional Standards is adopted.
      1953—The United States Information Agency (USIA) is created by President Dwight Eisenhower to disseminate news and cultural information abroad.
      1955—The International Public Relations Association (IPRA) is founded.
      1957—Anne Williams Wheaton is appointed associate press secretary to President Eisenhower, the first time a woman has held that position.
      1960—In opposition to his earlier pro-smoking campaigns, Edward Bernays leads an effort to inform the public about the dangers of smoking.
      1963—John Marston's four-step management process for public relations, RACE—research, action, communication, evaluation—is published in his book The Nature of Public Relations.
      1965—PRSA accreditation is established.
      1970—The International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) is founded.
      1973—Carl Byoir and Associates becomes the first of several large public relations firms to become a subsidiary of an advertising company (Hill & Knowlton).
      1980—Inez Kaiser becomes the first African American female to open a national public relations firm, Inez Kaiser & Associates.
      1982—Six people in a Chicago suburb die of cyanide poisoning from Tylenol capsules they ingested, causing a public relations crisis for McNeil Laboratories and Johnson & Johnson
      1989—The Exxon Valdez grounds at Bligh Reef, rupturing 8 of its 11 cargo tanks and spewing some 10.8 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound. Although the spill is ranked 34th on a list of the world's largest oil spills over the previous two decades, the environmental damage makes the accident one of the largest public relations crises in United States history.
      1993—A Seattle television station reports that a local couple found a syringe in a can of Diet Pepsi, inspiring a host of similar reports across the United States. Pepsi responds by working closely with the Food and Drug Administration to rule out product tampering as the cause. Throwing open their doors to the press, they demonstrate the impossibility of placing an object in a can, and the nationwide “scare” is determined to be a hoax.
      1998—The Council of Public Relations Firms is founded.
      1999—Anheuser-Busch unveils a public-service campaign against driving under the influence of alcohol.
      2000—The PRSA Code of Ethics is revised as a list of “inspirational guidelines.”
      2002—The PRSA promulgates Universal Accreditation as the standard for practice.

      Appendix 4: Public Relations Education for the 21st Century: A Port of Entry

      Why a “Port of Entry” Report?

      Public relations has come of age, and with that has come a critical need for broadly-based education that is relevant and connected to the practice.

      The changes in public relations practice since the 1987 Commission on Public Relations Education Report are numerous and profound. At root, these changes reflect nothing less than the way the world has changed and continues to change, seemingly spinning ever faster and veering in new directions. But, happily, the changes also reflect a broad acceptance of the validity of modern public relations practice to a global society that is increasingly interdependent, increasingly interconnected.

      By any measure, the growth of the public relations profession over the past decade has been astonishing. Public relations firms not only proliferate but also reach a size and scope undreamed of in the 1980s. Membership in established and new professional societies and trade associations spirals upward. And, most important, virtually every kind of institution, for-profit and not-for-profit alike, recognizes the need for dialogue with the groups of people who can and will influence its future.

      This growth, evolution and maturation of public relations is sure to continue. Elements are in place for impressive incremental growth and change in the next century: the spread of democratic institutions around the world; the growing importance of communicating with internal as well as external publics; the veritable explosion of one-to-one communication and the technology to implement it; and the steady advance of the public relations body of knowledge, especially analysis of public awareness and change in attitudes and behavior.

      Public Relations' Next Crisis?

      The future is indeed bright for the field of public relations. But there is one major qualification—having enough trained people to meet the expanding demand for public relations services and counsel. In fact, one expert observer of the field has called this “public relations' next crisis.”

      EDITOR'S NOTE: Public Relations Education for the 21st Century: A Port of Entry is the work product of the 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education, 47 educators and practitioners for use by “academic programs and faculty to evaluate and develop their curricula; by practitioners who hire graduates of public relations programs; and by academic and professional associations which set standards for academic program certification and accreditation and for the chartering of student public relations organizations.” The final report, below, was introduced at the October, 1999 International Conference of the Public Relations Society of America in Anaheim, CA.

      Hyperbole aside, there is no doubt that providing qualified practitioners will be a serious problem. Law and medicine have methods, admittedly long-term, to deal with the supply and demand for their professionals. Public relations doesn't. In fact, public relations is a long way from what Dr. Clark Kerr, former chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley, has articulated as a model for such a flow: “Some new professions are being born; others are becoming more professional, for example, business administration and social work. The university becomes the chief port of entry for these professions. In fact, a profession gains its identity by making the university the port of entry.” (Clark Kerr, The Uses of the University, 4th edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA/London, 1995.)

      It is not the Commission's purpose here to rekindle the ever-smoldering embers of the debate as to whether public relations is a profession. The Commission cites Dr. Kerr only to identify the “use of the university” as one important potential solution to the problem of having enough trained public relations practitioners in the next century.

      Other sources of public relations talent, mined successfully for some time, are, indeed, still productive. Former journalists, once a primary candidate cohort, offer valuable skills but, perhaps, limited conceptual understanding of the scope of public relations. Professionals from law, medicine, government, management consulting and other parallel fields often offer relevant attributes but are frequently most valuable in narrowly focused areas of public relations practice.

      And therein lies the opportunity, at the entry level and higher, for well-prepared graduates of the public relations academy. Grounded in the liberal arts and sciences. Well-prepared in public relations theory and practice. Tested not only in the classroom but in the field. Understanding the inherent connection between public relations and management, sociology and the many other pillars of modern society. But also with the necessary skills—writing, analyzing, thinking—sharpened and ready for use.

      This is the kind of public relations education the Commission has attempted to design. Its recommendations have their roots in earlier Commission reports and in the public relations curricula that in recent years have been producing an increasing number of successful practitioners. But the Commission has gone beyond the present to suggest what public relations education in the future can and must look like if it is to meet the needs of the profession as the new century begins.

      The Commission hopes its report will be used by academic programs and faculty to evaluate and develop their curricula; by practitioners who hire graduates of public relations programs; and by academic and professional associations which set standards for academic program certification and accreditation and for the chartering of student public relations organizations.

      A final word: this “Port of Entry” report embraces not only the education appropriate for that literal first entry into public relations but, by extension, reentry or continued service in public relations through graduate study or continuing education.

      In short, the public relations education of the next century envisioned by the Commission, like public relations itself, is a matter of continuous professional growth and development. The Commission invites students and potential students, faculty and other academic leaders, certification and accreditation bodies and public relations practitioners to buy into and profit from the greatly improved “Port of Entry” education this report describes.

      1. Summary of the Report—Purpose and Goals of the 1999 Commission

      The Commission saw its purpose as determining curricular guidelines and recommendations that, if followed, will prepare public relations students of all ages and levels of ability for the professional challenges of the 21st century as public relations practitioners carry out their fundamental responsibility of building understanding, credibility and trust between organizations and their publics.

      The Commission's goals were to determine the knowledge and skills needed by practitioners in a technological, multicultural and global society, and then to recommend learning outcomes—what students should know and be able to do—for undergraduate, graduate and continuing education. The Commission also sought to address appropriate teaching methods, faculty credentials and resources to deliver these learning outcomes. Finally, the Commission sought to suggest methods appropriate for evaluating both student learning and the quality of the academic programs in which public relations is taught.

      The Commission based its deliberations and recommendations in large part upon what it learned from an omnibus survey of public relations practitioners and educators co-sponsored by the National Communication Association in connection with its 1998 “Summer Conference on Public Relations Education.”

      Recommendations for Undergraduate Education

      The Commission recommends that students graduating with undergraduate degrees possess both knowledge (what graduates should know and understand) and skills (areas of competence necessary to enter the profession).

      Necessary knowledge includes:

      • communication and persuasion concepts and strategies
      • communication and public relations theories
      • relationships and relationship building
      • societal trends
      • ethical issues
      • legal requirements and issues
      • marketing and finance
      • public relations history
      • uses of research and forecasting
      • multicultural and global issues
      • organizational change and development
      • management concepts and theories

      Necessary skills include:

      • Research Methods and Analysis
      • Management of Information
      • Mastery of Language in Written and Oral Communication
      • Problem Solving and Negotiation
      • Management of Communication
      • Strategic Planning
      • Issues Management
      • Audience Segmentation
      • Informative and Persuasive Writing
      • Community Relations, Consumer Relations, Employee Relations, other Practice Areas
      • Technological and Visual Literacy
      • Managing People, Programs and Resources
      • Sensitive Interpersonal Communication
      • Fluency in a Foreign Language
      • Ethical Decision-Making
      • Participation in the Professional Public Relations Community
      • Message Production
      • Working with a Current Issue
      • Public Speaking and Presentation
      • Applying Cross-Cultural and Cross-Gender Sensitivity

      The Commission recommends that the undergraduate public relations curriculum be grounded in a strong traditional liberal arts and social science education. A minimum of five courses should be required in the major. Coursework in public relations should comprise 25 to 40 percent of all credit hours, with at least half of these courses clearly identified as public relations courses—the remaining 60 to 75 percent in liberal arts, social sciences, business and language courses.

      The Commission strongly encourages a minor or double major in the liberal arts, social sciences or business.

      The ideal undergraduate major in public relations would include these courses:

      • Introduction to Public Relations
      • Case Studies in Public Relations
      • Public Relations Research, Measurement and Evaluation
      • Public Relations Writing and Production
      • Public Relations Planning and Management
      • Public Relations Campaigns
      • Supervised Work Experience in Public Relations (internship)
      • Directed electives

      Realizing that many if not most academic programs would find it difficult to offer seven courses devoted entirely to public relations, the Commission concludes that the topics of the courses listed above are the essence of a quality public relations education. The Commission acknowledges that two or more of these topics might be combined into one course or that they might be taught in courses that also address other topics.

      If public relations is offered as an undergraduate emphasis or focus rather than as a full major, the Commission recommends these courses:

      • Introduction to Public Relations
      • Public Relations Research, Measurement and Evaluation
      • Public Relations Writing and Production
      • Supervised Work Experience in Public Relations (internship)
      Recommendations for Graduate Education

      The Commission recommends that students studying for master's degrees in public relations learn and appreciate the role of public relations as part of the management team, and learn relevant management and communications competencies and the skills needed to build effective relationships between organizations and their publics. Master's degree students should, says the Commission, gain advanced knowledge and understanding of the body of knowledge in public relations as well as theory, research, communication processes, planning, production and advanced communications management abilities.

      The Commission recommends that the curriculum for a master's degree in public relations be a program of 30 to 36 credit hours. Students should master these content areas at a level beyond that expected of undergraduates:

      • Public Relations Theory
      • Public Relations Law
      • Public Relations Research Methods
      • Public Relations Management
      • Public Relations Programming and Production
      • Communication Processes
      • Management Sciences
      • Behavioral Sciences
      • Public Relations Ethics
      • A Public Relations Specialty
      • An Internship or Practicum Experience and/or Comprehensive Examinations
      • A Thesis with Comprehensive Examination and/or a Capstone Project

      The Commission suggests these content areas in one sample 36-hour master's program:

      • Public Relations Theory
      • Public Relations Research
      • Public Relations Management
      • Public Relations Law
      • Integrated Communications
      • Accounting
      • Finance
      • Marketing
      • Strategic Planning

      The Commission suggests these content areas in a second sample 30-hour program:

      • Research Methods in Communication
      • Research Design in Public Relations
      • Theories of Mass Communication
      • Seminar on Public Relations Management
      • Seminar on Public Relations Publics
      • Seminar on Ethics and Philosophy in Public Relations
      • Two electives
      • A thesis

      The Commission, noting that a doctoral degree is a theory and research degree, concludes that doctoral education should foster an awareness of not only the body of knowledge in public relations, but also the relationship of that body of knowledge to those of other communication-related bodies of knowledge. Doctoral students also should be expected to demonstrate awareness of the breadth and depth of disciplines that influence, and are influenced by, public relations and to be able to integrate that in their teaching and research. Finally, doctoral students should be prepared to develop and contribute to the public relations body of knowledge through formal quantitative and qualitative research, and to foster the development of competing paradigms of public relations based on differing theoretical and philosophical foundations.

      The Commission recommends that the core curriculum of a doctoral program, either one focusing exclusively on public relations or the more common variant that includes public relations as part of a broader mass communication or communication doctorate, include courses in:

      • Communication Theory
      • Philosophy of Science
      • Research Methods
      • Statistical and Qualitative Research Tools
      • Specialized Seminars in Public Relations
      • Specialized Seminars in Related Social, Behavioral and Business Sciences
      • Dissertation Research

      The Commission also recommends that doctoral programs prepare their students to teach by involving them in the classroom and developing their teaching skills.

      Recommendations for Continuing Education

      Acknowledging that many professional organizations and private vendors offer workshops and seminars that are legitimate continuing education opportunities, the Commission focused its discussion of continuing education, however, on continuing education offered for academic credit or as part of a certificate program.

      Continuing education courses pegged to students at a level of ability similar to that of an undergraduate (such as an individual with little or no public relations training or experience) might do well to follow its recommendations for undergraduate education, the Commission suggests. Similarly, graduate-level continuing education might adopt the Commission's recommendations for graduate education.

      Continuing education lends itself especially well to distance education (any instruction that takes place with the instructor and student physically separated from each other). For that reason, the Commission notes that a greater variety of teaching methods and technologies may be appropriate in continuing education courses. The resources needed to offer distance education and the special training and preparation demanded of instructors also are special considerations for those offering continuing education courses.

      Recommendations for Teaching Methods

      The Commission enumerates more than a dozen different ways in which instructors can deliver instruction to students, ranging from traditional lectures to simulations, games and the use of small-group projects.

      The Commission also identifies a number of instructional media, assignments and in-class activities that can create a bridge between theory and practice.

      Recommendations for Evaluation

      The Commission identifies normative, formative and summative assessment tools and techniques that can be used to determine whether students have learned what their academic program intended. Techniques range from required entrance or exit examinations to internship performance to capstone courses to portfolio review.

      The Commission notes that all academic programs should practice self-assessment of their effectiveness by means such as examining student evaluations, faculty-student ratios, placement and graduate school admission rates, alumni and employer satisfaction and input of advisory boards.

      In addition, the Commission recommends that public relations programs seek external review from one of three available sources: the certification program of the Public Relations Society of America (available to all public relations programs), the National Communication Association (available to public relations programs in communications colleges, schools or departments) and the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (available to public relations programs in journalism and mass communications colleges, schools or departments).

      Recommendations for Faculty Qualifications

      The Commission suggests that both academic and professional credentials and experience are important qualifications for public relations faculty. While the ideal full-time faculty member is an individual with both the academic credential of a terminal degree (usually a Ph.D.) and the professional credential of significant work experience in public relations, the Commission concludes that it is more realistic for programs to have among their full-time public relations faculty a balance of those with terminal degrees and those without terminal degrees whose professional experience is significant and substantial.

      Adjunct faculty should have at least an undergraduate degree and professional public relations experience, the Commission notes, and suggests that accreditation or certification of adjuncts is highly desirable.

      The Commission recommends that both full-time and part-time faculty be active participants in professional and/or academic associations and that both be contributing to the public relations body of knowledge through scholarship and professional or creative activity.

      The Commission repeats a recommendation from the 1987 Commission report: “Public relations courses should not be taught by people who have little or no experience and interest in the field and have no academic preparation in public relations.”

      Recommendations for Resources to Support Public Relations Programs

      The Commission urged that public relations students have the same access to both faculty and resources as students in other academic programs in the academic unit where public relations is taught.

      Workloads of public relations faculty, the Commission recommends, should reflect the full range of responsibilities assigned to them: teaching, advising, research, service, administrative assignments and the supervision or advising of students organizations such as the Public Relations Student Society of America.

      The Commission notes specifically that public relations education requires these administrative and financial resources:

      • personnel: faculty, both full-time and part-time, paid commensurably
      • staff support
      • equipment and facilities in classrooms, labs and faculty offices
      • travel and professional development funding
      • operating support, such as telephone, FAX and photocopying capability
      • library materials to inform both teaching and research
      Identification of Global Implications

      The Commission identifies seven factors that, regardless of nation or culture, can be considered to have an impact on public relations education. The impact will, of course, differ from culture to culture. The factors are:

      • cultural values and beliefs
      • laws and public policies
      • external groups, organizations and associations •organizational factors
      • small group factors within an institution
      • interpersonal factors within an institution
      • intrapersonal factors within individuals
      The Commission's Call to Action

      The Commission concludes with a series of seven recommendations for interaction between public relations education and the professional practice of public relations:

      • Public relations practitioners should take a new look at the “products” of today's public relations education, for they are likely to be impressed with the breadth and depth of knowledge and skill students bring to internships and entry-level employment.
      • There is a great need for significantly increased support from practitioners for accreditation/certification of public relations programs, particularly through attaining additional representation of public relations organizations on the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications.
      • The practice should establish additional endowed chairs in public relations at academic institutions with outstanding public relations programs.
      • Successful individual public relations professionals should consider making significant contribtions to public relations programs.
      • Public relations educators and professionals can advance the appreciation of the field among influentials and the general public by jointly developing and participating in projects of topical and long-term social significance.
      • Joint research projects, administered by educators and funded by the practice, can not only advance the educator-practitioner relationship but also expand the public relations body of knowledge.
      • “Traditional” support programs for public relations educators, their students and their programs—schol-arships, paid internships, support of PRSSA and faculty enrichment programs—must be redoubled.
      2. Background
      The Practice

      While its roots can be traced to ancient civilizations, the emergence of public relations as a profession is essentially a twentieth century phenomenon. Immediately following World War II, pent-up demand for consumer goods and services exploded in the United States, triggering a parallel demand for public relations, primarily in the form of publicity support for sales and marketing efforts.

      Few practitioners in the late ‘40s and ‘50s had studied this evolving practice. Since only a handful of colleges and universities offered formal courses in public relations, the industry reached out to men and women experienced in writing for newspapers and magazines, most having studied journalism. These professionals turned their skills toward a kind of “in-house journalism” for corporations or toward roles as publicists and promoters for clients. By 1950, an estimated 17,000 men and 2,000 women were employed in these endeavors.

      Responding to the needs of their employers and clients, public relations practitioners began to expand their activity into such areas as financial relations (annual reports, shareholder meetings and presentations to the financial community) and internal communications (publications, special events and awards programs) to support efforts to enhance employee productivity and commitment.

      During the 1960s, social issues and problems forced government, business, labor and other powerful organizations to act and react, creating new public relations emphases on community relations, consumer relations, social responsibility programs and research and analysis to identify issues which could affect the progress and survival of an organization. In this changing, confrontational and contentious era, public relations practitioners were expected to plan for, and manage, crises. Public relations communication itself evolved from one-way message delivery into a two-way exchange involving listening to publics; assessing their needs, expectations and demands; resolving conflicts between groups, and affecting public opinion and behavior.

      In recent years, public relations professionals have moved toward an emphasis on building and maintaining relationships and on becoming skilled, active counselors at management's decision-making table. Driving this latest evolutionary movement are influential societal trends: global business operations; mergers, acquisitions and consolidations; the empowerment of public opinion within the global village; segmented, fragmented audiences; the information explosion that has led to uncontrolled, gateless dissemination of messages; increasing government regulation and oversight; issues of diversity and multiculturalism in the workplace, marketplace and town hall, and the introduction of technology, including automation and computerization.

      The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that public relations is one of the fastest growing professional fields in the country, and that growth trend is mirrored in other countries as well.

      Formal Study in Public Relations

      Recognizing a lively and promising career market for their students, colleges and universities began to offer formal education for public relations. In the early 1950s, about a dozen schools offered public relations programs. In 1969 the Public Relations Society of America began to charter student chapters at colleges and universities; initially there were 14, all agreeing to offer at least two courses in public relations.

      In 1975, the first Commission on Public Relations Education, comprised of eight educators and practitioners, was formed by PRSA to develop guidelines for public relations education. One of the Commission's primary recommendations was that programs offer at least 12 semester hours, the equivalent of four courses, in public relations at the undergraduate level. Thus, four courses became the new requirement for chartering chapters of the burgeoning Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA).

      The 1987 Commission on Undergraduate Public Relations Education deliberated three years before issuing updated guidelines. Its 25 members represented such communications organizations as PRSA and its Educators Section (now the Educators Academy); the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC); the American Management Association; the American Marketing Association; the Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education (now the Institute for Public Relations); the International Communication Association (ICA); the Speech Communication Association (now the National Communication Association, NCA), and the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC).

      One of the primary recommendations of this 1987 Commission was a sequence of 15 semester hours, the equivalent of five courses, in formal public relations study for undergraduates. This also became the requirement for PRSSA chapters. Today there are 214 PRSSA chapters at colleges and universities.

      Graduate curricula recommendations were addressed by PRSA commissions in 1990 and 1995 as more schools added advanced programs to their offerings. Today approximately 70 schools offer master's degrees or a graduate emphasis in public relations. Four universities offer doctoral programs specifically in public relations, with the majority of their graduates seeking careers in teaching and academic research.

      The 1999 Commission and Its Process

      The 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education was comprised of 47 educators and practitioners representing a consortium of eight allied communications organizations: PRSA and its Educators Academy; the Institute for Public Relations; NCA; AEJMC; the Association for Women in Communication (formerly Women in Communication, Inc.); IABC; the International Communications Association; and the International Public Relations Association (IPRA). PRSA served as the coordinating organization and a staff member served as an ex officio member of the Commission. (Members are listed in Appendix A.)

      While many academic programs in public relations are housed in departments or schools of journalism and mass communication, an increasing number—almost half—are now in departments or schools of communication, a discipline which has its roots in rhetoric, interpersonal communication and persuasion. As a result, NCA, the leading U.S. academic society in communication, played a pivotal role in the Commission's work. In 1998, NCA sponsored a summer conference on public relations education, which drew, in part, on an extensive, jointly-spon-sored survey of educators and practitioners seeking their views on public relations education. Deliberations and discussions at that NCA conference helped guide the final recommendations of the Commission.

      The Commission conducted its work through called meetings, through conferences such as this NCA event; through open discussion sessions during annual meetings of its allied groups and through correspondence, conference calls and exchange of information over the Internet.

      The Commission's final report was introduced at the October 1999 International Conference of PRSA in Anaheim, CA. The report also has been presented to all other organizations represented on the Commission and is being widely distributed to schools, educators and practitioners in the United States and around the world.

      3. Vision and Purpose

      In the future, public relations professionals will not only be skilled communicators but leaders who will help their organizations build and maintain relationships with strategic publics. They will fulfill dual roles of managing communication and counseling top management. Excellent public relations education will be the foundation for preparing new professionals for this dual responsibility.

      Therefore, it is important that public relations education grow in sophistication throughout the 21st Century. Public relations as an academic discipline should be equal in status to professionally-oriented academic programs in journalism, marketing, advertising, law and medicine. Academic programs at the graduate level may become comparable in length, complexity and intensity as MBA programs. Faculties for public relations programs may be increasingly interdisciplinary, representing not only a diversity of communications backgrounds but also diversity in academic degrees. Public relations programs may require greater structural and decision-making autonomy.

      From the outset, the 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education saw its purpose as determining curricular guidelines and recommendations that will prepare students at all levels of education—under-graduate, graduate and continuing—for the professional challenges of the 21st century. Throughout its two years of study and planning, the Commission diligently sought to fulfill that purpose. Its work reflected the commitment of both educators and practitioners alike to the fundamental responsibility of public relations to build understanding, credibility and trust between organizations and their publics in democratic societies that now are linked globally.

      4. Mission and Goals

      The mission of the 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education was to provide guidelines, recommendations and standards for public relations education—undergraduate, graduate and continuing—for the early 21st century. Specific concerns of the Commission were desired student outcomes (what students should know or be able to do as a result of their public relations education), curriculum, pedagogy (teaching methods) and assessment of both student learning and academic programs in public relations.

      The Commission set six goals.

      • Goal 1 Determine needs for public relations education in a technological, multicultural and global society.
      • Goal 2 Recommend outcomes for public relations education at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
      • Goal 3 Recommend curricula for undergraduate and graduate education.
      • Goal 4 Recommend characteristics of appropriate academic “homes” for public relations education.
      • Goal 5 Recommend required faculty credentials for public relations educators at the pre-professional level and in continuing education, and provide criteria for evaluating faculty.
      • Goal 6 Identify minimal and desired resources for public relations education, and provide criteria for evaluating resources.
      5. The Commission's Assumptions

      The 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education was guided by 12 assumptions on which its members reached consensus.

      • The ethical practice of public relations is the context in which and for which education must occur.
      • Public relations helps organizations and publics adapt to each other.
      • Public relations education requires an interdisciplinary foundation that includes liberal arts, languages, social sciences and management.
      • Public relations communication is a two-way process influencing attitudes, behavior and relationships.
      • Graduates of public relations programs should be passionate about the profession, responsible self-managers, flexible in attitude, team participants and ethical leaders appreciative of cultural diversity and the global society.
      • Students must be prepared to operate in a multicultural environment.
      • Public relations education is a continuum that goes beyond undergraduate education to include graduate studies, professional development and continuing education.
      • Public relations educators have an obligation to seek professional refresher experience, and practitioners have a responsibility to support and provide opportunities for educators to retool.
      • Practitioners have a significant responsibility to support and participate in undergraduate and graduate public relations education.
      • In the coming years, the teaching of public relations will be significantly affected by new technologies and methods such as “distance learning.”
      • Effective preparation of public relations practitioners will not be accomplished by curriculum content alone, but only when content is provided by competent instructors, when it is supplemented by hands-on experience and when it is subject to evaluation.
      • Public relations practitioners and educators should be leaders in building understanding that public relations has a fundamental responsibility to society and adds value to society.
      6. Research Conducted by the Commission

      The 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education relied heavily on the findings of the largest and most comprehensive survey ever undertaken on public relations education. The study was co-sponsored by the Commission and the National Communication Association as part of NCA's 1998 “Summer Conference on Public Relations Education.” Funding was contributed by PRSA and the University of Miami's School of Communication.

      The three goals of the study were to: a) report what skills, knowledge and concepts practitioners and educators think are currently being taught in public relations curricula; b) compare these with what educators and practitioners think should be taught; and c) document the level of agreement between practitioners and academics as to what is taught and what should be taught. More than 100 academics and practitioners used the results of this study in the four-day NCA conference as the basis for making recommendations for public relations curricula in four types of academic programs: a) undergraduate programs based in journalism/mass communication units, b) undergraduate programs based in communication/rhetoric units, c) professional master's programs, and d) theory-based mas-ter's and doctoral programs. Those recommendations weighed heavily in the Commission's work.

      Questionnaires were mailed to a stratified random sample of 564 educators and 748 practitioners, yielding a sample of 1312. Questions addressed both existing and desired student outcomes (skills and knowledge of graduates), curriculum (course content), pedagogy (teaching methods), and assessment (measuring what has been learned). The response rate ranged from 30 percent for academics to 12 percent for practitioners. While low, the overall response rate of 20 percent is within expected parameters for a questionnaire of this type and length when using a national random sample composed largely of practitioners.

      The most significant conclusions of the study were:


      Practitioners and educators strongly agree that current public relations education is on track. Students are learning what they should and what they need.

      Consistent with those generally positive feelings about public relations education, only 19.8 percent of educators and 14.4 percent of practitioners disagree or strongly disagree that “PR education is keeping up with currents trends in the profession.”

      Practitioners also value public relations graduates, with only 18.1 percent disagreeing or strongly disagreeing that “Most PR practitioners have very positive attitudes toward PR college graduates.” One in five educators (20.8 percent) disagreed with the statement.

      Practitioners and academics generally agreed on 24 desirable skills/attitudes for entry level employees. The most highly desired skill was writing news releases (practitioner mean =6.47, educator mean =6.77, with 7 being “highly desired.”) Second most desired skill was being a self starter (practitioner M =6.33, educator M =6.60), and the third most desired skill was critical thinking and problem solving (practitioner M =6.49, educator M =6.63).

      It is significant that educators saw 18 of the desirable 24 skills/attitudes with a rating of 6 or greater as even more desirable than did practitioners.

      On the whole, practitioners and academics also agree that they are not satisfied that desirable skills/knowledge are actually found in graduates, with only three—good attitude, word processing/E-mail, and typing skill—scoring above 5 on the 7-point scale. Although the data is by no means definitive, survey results indicate public relations educators may be focusing too much on mechanical skills (e.g., typing and word processing) and not enough on the half dozen entry level skills that are more important in the eyes of practitioners: being a self starter (M =6.61), writing news releases (M =6.53), critical thinking and problem solving skills (M =6.49), and flexibility (M =6.44).

      The six most highly valued content areas that can be taught in a public relations curriculum, with their overall mean score on the 7 point scale, were: planning, writing, producing and delivering print communication to audiences (M = 6.51), setting goals/objectives/strategic planning (M =6.49), ethical and legal credibility (M = 6.42), audience segmentation (M = 6.37), publicity and media relations (M = 6.35), and problem/opportunity analysis (M = 6.33).

      Practitioners and educators were in noticeably close agreement on conceptual content of public relations education, with no differences exceeding one-half point on the 1–7 scale. Only one item of the 89 communication theory/concepts/models items had a difference of 0.50 or more between practitioners (M =5.62) and educators (M = 6.12), with both valuing the area, but educators valuing it more. Another nine items had a difference of 0.40 between practitioners and educators, with the three most valued—audience segmentation, public opinion polls and surveys, and research design/process/techniques—being valued by both, with educators again valuing them more.

      Practitioners and educators share far more working experience than most think. Practitioner respondents averaged 17.42 years of experience, while those teaching public relations averaged 10.35 years of professional experience and 7.79 years in their present teaching position.

      PRSA's accreditation program is accepted and credible among educators more so than among practitioners; only 27.7 percent of practitioner respondents held the APR, while 36 percent of educator respondents are APR.


      Both educators and practitioners were in general agreement that assessment of student learning was important, that it should be done systematically and that it should include measures other than classroom forms of assessment. Educators placed more emphasis on systematic evaluation, informal assessment techniques and specific outcome assessment than did practitioners; practitioners placed more emphasis on portfolio assessment, inclusion of area professionals in the process and annual student assessment.

      Only internships as an assessment technique were rated 6.00 or higher among the 19 assessment techniques listed.

      Educators were asked to report on their program assessment plans; fewer than half reported having assessment plans in place for their programs and even fewer (30 percent) reported having student assessment programs in place.

      While more than three-quarters of the practitioners reported they participated in hiring decisions, fewer than a quarter had actually been asked to participate in the assessment of undergraduate or graduate public relations programs or students.


      Educators and practitioners were in general agreement with how the public relations curriculum should look. Respondents organized the public relations curriculum around these areas: evaluation/measurement, specialty areas, photography/film-making, persuasion and propaganda, departments/firms/careers, research, political public relations, ethics, general social sciences, publicity, information technology, mass communication, special events, and principles of public relations.

      Educators and practitioners differed on only 5 of 90 items, with practitioners seeing courses in journalism, radio/TV/film, and filmmaking as more essential than educators and educators seeing courses in communication theory/models and graphic design more essential than practitioners.

      When asked what the purpose of an undergraduate major and minor in public relations should be, the majority of respondents said the major prepared the student for an entry-level job in public relations; the minor laid a foundation of public relations skills for students in other majors who might work in the field. The master's degree was seen in two ways, first as a way for practitioners to move into management and second as a way to better understand theory and research as applied to the profession. The doctorate in public relations was seen basically as providing entry to teaching public relations and as a means of advancing the theoretical base of the profession.

      Teaching and Pedagogy

      Respondents who taught either full or part time reported access to most teaching resources, with the exception of on-line research services (e.g., Lexis/Nexis), satellite links, access time to cable TV and specialized tutors (e.g., research, statistics, writing).

      Two-thirds of the respondents reported using the Web or Internet for class use, primarily as supplemental resource links or for class assignments. Nevertheless, data suggested that public relations educators, while having access to both rudimentary and advanced media, still rely primarily on rudimentary media: videotapes, handouts and use of whiteboards or chalkboards.

      Almost half of the respondents reported teaching “introduction to public relations,” followed closely by writing/techniques classes (14.6 percent) and campaigns classes (12.8 percent). Most often classes were small (20–25 students).

      When specific instructional techniques were compared between educators and practitioners who taught part time, only five differences emerged: practitioners reported greater use of lectures, guest lecturers, individual presentations/speeches, case studies and running complete campaigns than full-time educators.


      The sample was balanced by sex (Males =51.4 percent; Female =48.1 percent). Respondents' average age was 48.04 (median =48; mode =50). The vast majority were Caucasian (84.5 percent) and held graduate degrees (77.4 percent, a function of the educator subsample). Most had majored in a communication-related major; only 3.3 percent were business majors.

      In terms of current position, half of the educators were assistant, associate or full professors, the other half lecturers or instructors. Practitioners reported being senior management (CEO, owner, partner, 19.4 percent), directors/managers (middle-level management, 19.4 percent), and “other” (technicians, account executives, etc., 61.2 percent).

      Most of the practitioners reported never having taught part time. Almost two-thirds, however, reported lecturing to a public relations class. Over half reported supervising an intern over the last five years.

      The full study is available on the National Communication Association's home page (http://www.natcom.org) and a condensed version was printed in the Spring 1999 issue of Public Relations Review.

      7. Recommendations for Undergraduate Education
      Purpose of an Undergraduate Degree

      The purpose of an undergraduate degree in public relations is to prepare students for an entry-level position in public relations and to assume a leadership role over the course of their careers in advancing the profession and professionally representing their employers. Students must be educated broadly in the liberal arts and sciences, and specifically in public relations, so that they are fully employable upon graduation.

      Desired Outcomes

      Specific educational outcomes are categorized as knowledge and skills. Knowledge outcomes identify what graduates should know and understand; skill outcomes address the areas of skill and competence necessary to enter the profession.

      Like any other advanced professional field, public relations needs as its practitioners individuals with high ethical standards and a passion for their profession. Graduates should be responsible, flexible and professionally oriented self-managers. They should be curious, conceptual thinkers and appreciative of cultural and gender diversity and of global cultures. They must be trustworthy team participants and leaders, and good communicators.

      Because of the interdisciplinary nature of public relations and the realities of its practice in society, it is important for graduates to be grounded in disciplines beyond journalism, communications and public relations. For that reason, the best preparation for the profession would include a minor or double major in a related area. It is expected that graduating students would be able to integrate the preceding professional attributes and demonstrate familiarity and comfort with the knowledge and skills that follow.


      Undergraduate majors should master the following knowledge:

      • Communication and persuasion concepts and strategies including mass media, organizational, small group and interpersonal channels of communication
      • Communication and public relations theory, including public relations' role in society and in an organization
      • Relationships and relationship building
      • Societal trends
      • Ethical issues
      • Legal requirements and issues
      • Marketing and finance
      • Public relations history
      • Uses of research and forecasting
      • Multicultural and global issues
      • Organizational change and development
      • Management concepts and theories

      Undergraduates should be competent in the following skills:

      • Research, including methods, analysis, recommendations, reporting, environmental and social assessment and statistics
      • Management of information including its role in the public relations process and assessment of message credibility
      • Mastery of language in written and oral communication
      • Problem solving and negotiation
      • Management of communication
      • Strategic planning
      • Issues management, including environmental scanning, issue anticipation, risk analysis and change methodology
      • Audience segmentation
      • Informative and persuasive writing for various audiences
      • Area emphases such as community relations, consumer relations, investor relations, employee relations, government relations, and media relations
      • Technology and visual literacy (including the Internet and desktop publishing), and development of new media/message strategies and the design and layout of messages
      • Managing people, programs and resources
      • Sensitive interpersonal communication
      • Fluency in a second language
      • Ethical decision-making
      • Participation in the professional public relations community
      • Writing and production of specific communication messages
      • Working within a current issue environment
      • Public speaking and presentation
      • Applying cross-cultural and cross-gender sensitivity

      Because educational institutions are so diverse in their structures and organization, the Commission felt it more appropriate to address the content of curriculum rather than to prescribe specific courses. The content may be contained in various courses both internal and external to public relations programs and their curricula.

      Sample curriculum configurations, to be used as guidelines only, follow these content recommendations.

      In any case, a strong traditional liberal arts and social science education is a necessary foundation for public relations education. It also is requisite that a multicultural and global perspective pervades the curriculum, and that public relations be taught within the framework of ethical issues and behavior.

      Coursework in a public relations major should comprise 25 to 40 percent of all undergraduate credit hours. Of those, at least half should be clearly identified as public relations courses.

      Five clearly identifiable public relations courses should be the minimum, and programs should move to include more than five if at all possible.

      A student's program of study should be comprised 60 to 75 percent of liberal arts, social science, business and language courses.

      The student's program of study should include a minor or double major in another discipline. Especially suggested are business and the behavioral sciences.


      The following topics are all deemed essential to a strong undergraduate education in public relations, regardless of the course(s) in which they may be taught:

      • Theory, Origin, Principles and Professional Practice of Public Relations: Content in this area specifically pertains to the nature and role of public relations, the history of public relations, the societal forces affecting the profession and its practice and theories of public relations. Also included are practitioner qualifications (including education and training), responsibilities and duties, functioning of public relations departments and counseling firms, and career-long professional development. Addressed here as well are specializations in public relations such as community relations, employee relations, consumer relations, financial and investor relations, governmental relations, public affairs and lobbying, fund raising and membership development, international public relations, and publicity and media relations.
      • Public Relations Ethics and Law: Content here includes codes of ethics and practice in public relations and in other professions; specific legal issues such as privacy, defamation, copyright, product liability, and financial disclosure; legal and regulatory compliance, and credibility.
      • Public Relations Research, Measurement and Performance Evaluation: Content should address both quantitative and qualitative research designs, processes and techniques including public opinion polling and survey research; experimental design and research; fact-finding and applied research; observation and performance measurement; social, communication and employee audits; issue tracking; focus groups and interviews; use of external research services and consultants; media and clipping analysis, and historical research. It should also focus on results-based decision making, measuring program effectiveness, measuring staff and counselor performance, developing criteria for performance, tools and methods for measurement and evaluation and reporting on results of public relations efforts.
      • Public Relations Planning and Management: Content of the curriculum in planning and management should be theory, techniques and models related to setting long- and short-term goals and objectives, designing strategies and tactics, segmenting audiences, analyzing problems and opportunities, communicating with top management, developing budgets, contingency planning for crises and disasters, managing issues, developing timetables and calendars and assigning authority and responsibility. This content area also requires inclusion of the philosophy and culture of organizations, and knowledge of business or corporate culture including finance, theory, practice and terminology.
      • Public Relations Writing and Production: Public relations writing is an essential, discrete skill not addressed in journalistic writing, composition or creative writing. Content here should address communication theory; concepts and models for both mass, interpersonal, employee and internal communication; organizational communication and dynamics; persuasion and propaganda; controlled versus uncontrolled communication, and feedback systems. It must include development of competency in such skills as layout and graphics, speech-writing and delivery, spokesperson training, speakers bureaus, corporate identity, photography, filmmaking and working with outside suppliers. It requires a solid understanding of media, media channels and the societal role of media. It includes message strategy and delivery (i.e., planning, writing, producing and delivering print communication to audiences; and planning, writing, producing and delivering audiovisual, electronic, videotape and multimedia communication to audiences). It also is essential that content address new public relations tools and techniques, especially current and emerging technology and its application in the practice of public relations.
      • Public Relations Action and Implementation: This area of content includes actual implementation of campaigns; continuing programs (product publicity, safety, etc.); crises and isolated incidents; individual activities of practitioners and firms, clients or employers; meetings and workshops, and special events.
      • Supervised Work Experience in Public Relations: It is imperative that public relations students have the opportunity to apply the skills and principles they learn to the professional arena. These practical experiences must be supervised by faculty and practitioners who cooperate to provide professional experience directed by learning objectives and assessed throughout to assure a quality practical educational experience.
      • Disciplines Related to Public Relations: Supporting disciplines appropriate to public relations programs include political communication, organizational communication, interpersonal communication, rhetorical communication, small group communication, psychology, sociology, marketing, management and organizational behavior, finance, journalism, radio and television production, advertising, mass communication law, photography, filmmaking, art, design and graphics, information technology, hypertext and Web design.
      • Directed Electives: Certain content in other disciplines should be considered essential for the development and preparation of public relations professionals. It is recommended that such content be recommended or directed as elective courses to supplement the core public relations and communication courses. Recommended directed electives include: business management and marketing, accounting, finance, economics, consumer behavior, political science and the political system, public administration, social psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology, English and English writing, political science, including government and political campaigns, and international business and communication.
      Sample Content Configuration

      As the practice of public relations becomes increasingly sophisticated, more institutions of higher learning will begin to define majors, rather than just sequences or emphases of study, in public relations. Given this projection, the Commission identified a sample curriculum following the above content recommendations for a bachelor's degree in public relations. Following is a recommendation for a minimum acceptable array of courses for a major in public relations with supplementary courses within the broader major and minor.

      Ideally, an undergraduate degree in public relations would include these courses:

      • Introduction to Public Relations (including theory, origin and principles)
      • Case Studies in Public Relations that review the professional practice
      • Public Relations Research, Measurement and Evaluation
      • Public Relations Law and Ethics
      • Public Relations Writing and Production
      • Public Relations Planning and Management
      • Public Relations Campaigns
      • Supervised Work Experience in Public Relations
      • Directed Electives

      In a program where public relations is an emphasis or focus, integrated with related disciplines such as communication or journalism to form a major, some of this content may be included in courses with content that is broader than public relations alone. In these instances, the Commission recommends, as a minimum, that the public relations emphasis or focus include these courses:

      • Introduction to Public Relations (including theory, origin and principles
      • Public Relations Research, Measurement and Evaluation
      • Public Relations Writing and Production
      • Supervised Work Experience in Public Relations
      • At least one additional public relations course in law and ethics, public relations planning and management case studies or campaigns

      Programs that offer minors should make it clear that a minor in public relations is not sufficient to prepare a student for the professional practice of public relations. However, programs may offer minors in public relations to enhance the understanding of students majoring in professional disciplines that use or cooperate with public relations. A minor in public relations should specifically address the knowledge outcomes previously stated rather than just the skill outcomes.

      8. Recommendations for Graduate Education
      Purpose of a Master's Degree

      The purpose of a master's degree is to enable students to acquire advanced skills and knowledge in research, management, problem solving and issues, and to obtain management level expertise.

      For some students, the master's degree also is preparation for doctoral level education.

      The master's degree program thus prepares individuals for public relations management leadership, career development and on-going contributions to the profession and to society in a global context. It guides the individual in knowing and appreciating the role of public relations as part of the management team, in gaining relevant management and communications competencies and in building effective relationships between organizations and their publics.

      Desired Outcomes of a Master's Degree

      Master's students should gain advanced knowledge and understanding of the body of knowledge in public relations, including theory, research, communication processes, planning, production and advanced communications management abilities.

      Students should be taught within an environment in which they learn to provide leadership through use of communication, social and behavioral science theory and research techniques to help organizations analyze and solve problems and take advantage of opportunities that have public relations consequences.

      To enter a master's degree program, individuals should hold an undergraduate degree in public relations or its equivalent: i.e., a combination of an undergraduate communications degree and public relations experience. Individuals with undergraduate degrees in other fields without public relations knowledge and competencies should be required to demonstrate proficiencies such as those listed in the undergraduate section of this report. Options could be provided to prepare new students for advanced study and/or to build upon their current competencies to the point they are ready for graduate-level study of public relations.

      The Master's Degree Curriculum

      The curriculum for the master's level graduate student must have a great deal of flexibility. It should be tailored to graduate student career objectives and personal interests. While many students will choose a master's degree as their final degree, the master's curriculum should be able to prepare students who so desire to enter doctoral programs (e.g., by choosing a specific set of courses and/or completing a thesis).

      The basic curriculum of the master's degree in public relations should be a program of study requiring between 30 to 36 credit hours of graduate coursework.

      The Curriculum Composition

      The following content areas should provide advanced, intensive focus upon the primary area of interest: public relations. All that has come before, through general education and public relations studies, will be here. The expectation is that students will develop further abilities to critically analyze and synthesize the body of knowledge in public relations management by producing critical essays and original research projects, and will enhance their professional performance through the application of theory and research.

      The student should master the following content areas beyond the undergraduate competencies.

      • Public Relations Theory: This area should familiarize students with the leading theories of public relations scholarship, including social science, rhetorical and communication theories (i.e., models of public relations, public relations roles theories, theories of publics, theories of public relationships), public relations history, and public relations issues (encroachment, feminization of the field, paradigm struggle, impact of social, political, and economic environments).
      • Public Relations Law: This area should address regulatory, constitutional and statutory laws of public relations, risks of free expression and communications law related to public relations.
      • Public Relations Research Methods: This area should include the application of social science research methods to the planning, implementation and evaluation issues of public relations practice. Quantitative and qualitative methods, an understanding of experimental design, sampling, use of standard statistical packages, report writing and research ethics should be taught.
      • Public Relations Management: This area should include public relations strategic management principles and issues (e.g., planning, organizing, evaluating, staffing, counseling, leadership, budgeting principles and such advanced subjects as reputation management), concepts of organizational effectiveness (strategy, size, technology, environment and the dominant coalition), public relations as a political process and how it is related to other functions such as integrated communications and to the mission of the organization, rhetor-ical-critical approaches; culture and globalization; building relationships with internal and external audiences; issues and crisis management; activism, mediation, negotiation, and conflict resolution.
      • Public Relations Programming and Production: This area should include advanced programming and production principles, particularly related to new technology, the Internet and telecommunications as well as the practices and theories of message preparation, visual communications principles, and other communications techniques. Students should apply research and evaluation models to this practical side of public relations.
      • Communication Processes: Here students should learn theories and practices of communication (organization, interpersonal, small group, mass, persuasion, rhetorical, conflict resolution).
      • Management Sciences: This area should include accounting, finance, marketing and integrated mar-keting/advertising communication applicable to both for-profit and non-profit organizations.
      • Behavioral Sciences: This area should acquaint students with social psychology, cultural anthropology, sociology and political science. It should also include courses that build an understanding of group behavior, global trends, evolving global codes of conduct, organizational culture, behavioral change and knowledge of local, state, national and international political systems.
      • Public Relations Ethics: Some of the ethical issues that merit attention are philosophical principles, international ethical issues, concealment vs. disclosure, divided loyalties, social responsibility, accountability, professionalism, codes of ethics, whistle-blowing, confidentiality, ethical dealing with the media, solicitation of new business, ethics of research, logical arguments and multicultural and gender diversity.
      • Public Relations Specialty Options
      • Internship or Practicum Experience and/or Comprehensive Examination
      • Thesis and/or Comprehensive Exam and/or Capstone Project

      The graduate student should be required to conduct some original research in her/his particular area of interest, resulting in a thesis or graduate capstone project of acceptable quality. If a thesis is optional, the student should be required to take a comprehensive examination. It is recommended that no credit hours be awarded for comprehensive examinations.

      One Sample Master's Program Content Outline (36 credit hours)

      Public Relations Content:

      • Public Relations Theory
      • Public Relations Research
      • Public Relations Management
      • Public Relations Law
      • Integrated Communications

      Management Science Area Content:

      • Accounting
      • Finance
      • Marketing
      • Strategic Planning

      When the Master's Degree is Terminal:

      • Leadership Studies (New Technologies, Conflict Resolution, International Relations)
      • Capstone Project

      When the Master's Degree is Preparation for the Doctorate:

      • Thesis
      An Alternative Sample Master's Program Content Outline (30 credit hours)
      • Research Methods in Communication
      • Research Design in Public Relations
      • Theories of Mass Communication
      • Seminar on Public Relations Management
      • Seminar on Public Relations Publics
      • Seminar on Ethics and Philosophy in Public Relations
      • Seminar on Global Public Relations
      • Two Electives
      • Master's Thesis (6 credits)
      The Purpose of a Doctoral Degree

      A doctoral degree in public relations is a theory and research degree. The purpose of the Ph.D. program is to help students develop the theoretical and research skills they will need to add to the body of public relations knowledge.

      A doctoral degree should prepare graduates for academic positions in universities and for advanced management and applied research positions in major public relations departments, opinion research companies and other organizations.

      Historically, the doctoral curriculum in public relations has been a specialized option within a broader Ph.D. program, usually titled “mass communication” or “communication.”

      But communications Ph.D. programs have not produced a sufficient supply of graduates with a public relations specialty, primarily because few educators with an interest in researching public relations problems have been involved in those Ph.D. programs. The result has been a shortage of public relations researchers. The addition of public relations researchers to university faculties would render the existing framework of most Ph.D. programs adequate for a public relations specialty.

      Desired Outcomes of a Doctoral Degree

      Students completing a doctoral program should be:

      • prepared for roles as senior managers and as future college faculty who can deliver course content and evaluate student work effectively.
      • aware of not only the body of knowledge in public relations, but the relationship of that body of knowledge to those of other communication-related (e.g., interpersonal, rhetorical, organizational and small group) bodies of knowledge as well. In addition, students should demonstrate awareness of the breadth and depth of disciplines that influence, or are influenced by, public relations and ability to integrate that knowledge in their teaching and research.
      • prepared to develop and contribute to the body of knowledge through formal quantitative and qualitative research and to develop the ability to disseminate that information to the academic and practitioner communities in a clear, usable fashion through conferences and professional publications.
      • prepared to develop competing paradigms of public relations based on differing metatheoretical and philosophical foundations in response to the maturation of the field.

      Because doctoral programs are generally an array of courses tailored to the academic and professional backgrounds of individual students, it is expeted that appropriate attention will be given in these individualized programs to ensuring a foundation in public relations concepts, theories and professional practices.


      The core curriculum of most Ph.D. programs in communication or mass communication stresses research and theory building through courses in communication theory, philosophy of science, research methods and statistical and qualitative research tools.

      A public relations Ph.D. candidate should also take the bulk of his or her coursework in these core areas of research skills. It is essential that the instructors of these core courses understand public relations, encourage new research on public relations problems and encourage the building of public relations theories. This has seldom been the case in current Ph.D. programs.

      In addition, the Ph.D. program should offer several specialized seminars in public relations on topics such as public relations management and its appropriate place in the organizational structure; behavior of publics; public relations roles, law, history and operations; and global perspectives on public relations.

      Public relations Ph.D. students should be encouraged to take research seminars in related social, behavioral and business sciences that are particularly relevant to public relations in order to learn the theories and methods of those related disciplines. These courses, for example, could include the sociology of organization, organizational communication, operations research and management science, political behavior, sociology of collective behavior, public opinion, language usage and communication and social psychology.

      Finally, the public relations Ph.D. candidate should conduct dissertation research in which he or she studies theory applicable to the solution of important public relations problems and in specific topic areas in public relations such as investor relations, crisis management, issues management, social responsibility, marketing public relations and integrated communications.

      However, a doctoral program also has the obligation to prepare students to teach by involving students in the classroom and developing their teaching skills because many, if not most, graduates will accept positions as public relations faculty.

      9. Recommendations for Continuing Education
      Purpose of Continuing Education

      Continuing education has been an important aspect of professional education throughout the evolution of public relations in the 20th century. In the historical sense, continuing education has meant education for the adult learner outside the traditional degree programs of a college or universities. Continuing education in public relations might well be identified as “lifelong learning” because it seeks to add to or refresh the knowledge or skills of those familiar with and/or already working in the practice of public relations. The purpose of this instruction should be to provide for the ongoing professional development and advancement of public relations professionals, from entry-level beginners through senior executives. It is important that continuing education courses, faculty and resources be of comparable quality with those of degree-granting public relations programs, as described elsewhere in this report.

      Desired Outcomes of Continuing Education

      Sometimes continuing education is provided on a college or university campus, although often it is not. Sometimes it is provided by traditional modes of instruction, although increasingly it is being provided by “distance education” or “distance learning” that the Commission defines as any instruction that takes place with the instructor and student physically separated from each other. Sometimes it is a one-hour workshop or a half-day seminar, sometimes carrying CEUs (continuing education units).

      Increasingly important in continuing education is the growing number of certificate programs; while not degree programs per se, they group a number of courses together into a logical program of study. The Commission suggests that academic criteria in certificate programs should be no different from those in degree programs, especially when the courses used in certificate programs are the same courses that traditional students might use to meet undergraduate or graduate degree requirements.

      The 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education focused solely on continuing education offered as for-credit instruction, acknowledging that many professional associations and private vendors also offer workshops and seminars not linked to academic credit that are legitimate continuing education opportunities.

      As a result of their participation in for-credit continuing education courses or programs, public relations practitioners should add to their knowledge of the concepts, theories and practices of the profession.


      In continuing education, just as in traditional degree programs, curriculum models differ from institution to institution. No one model can serve all.

      For undergraduate-level continuing education offerings, the guidelines presented by the Commission certainly are appropriate. Likewise, when the continuing education offerings are at an advanced level and offered to practitioners who already have undergraduate degrees, the master's degree guidelines suggested by the Commission are relevant.

      Continuing education is offered using perhaps a greater variety of teaching methods than traditional undergraduate or graduate courses. Typically, continuing education has led the way in pioneering new teaching methodologies, particularly distance education methods. Active learning often is enhanced through student involvement with new technologies such as the Web.

      In addition to traditional teaching techniques, continuing education often utilizes Internet transmission of course material by either asynchronous or synchronous course delivery; video-assisted instruction; a combination of Web and television instruction; satellite or broadcast instruction; delivery by compressed video, or other technology-based modes of delivery. Often traditional and distance education modes are combined in one course: a week-long face-to-face introduction to the course might be followed with additional meetings on-line or through E-mail interaction.

      Continuing education courses in public relations often have been provided by public relations faculty who teach them on an overload basis, as “extra” assignments for which they receive extra compensation. An exception has been at some land-grant institutions whose mission is heavily outreach-oriented; some of these schools have made continuing education instruction part or all of a full-time faculty member's regular responsibilities.

      When continuing education is offered by distance education technologies, the model of faculty overload doesn't always work well. It takes considerable effort to teach Web-based or television-deliv-ered courses, and incentives beyond a bit more salary need to be developed to encourage faculty to develop and teach these courses.

      Because continuing education is likely to be offered increasingly through new technologies, state-of-the-art hardware and software are essential for those institutions offering continuing education courses and for those students enrolling in them.

      Professional societies and associations, such as PRSA and IABC, would do well to partner with colleges and universities to ensure that appropriate continuing education modules are developed and offered. These associations and public relations foundations, notably the Institute for Public Relations and the PRSA Foundation, are encouraged to provide seed money for the development of continuing education courses and certificate programs to ensure that public relations learning is, indeed, lifelong.

      10. Teaching Methods

      The teaching of public relations at all levels should emphasize active learning. Given the fact that much public relations work is done by teams of practitioners, team-based and service learning also should be encouraged.

      Teaching involves the delivery of instruction; the creation of student assignments and learning activities; and the application of instructional media to the classroom, laboratory and distance learning environment.

      The 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education presents these recommendations on teaching methods because it believes it is not only important to address curriculum content but also to address how that content can best be transmitted.

      Delivery of Instruction

      Lectures are a delivery technique familiar to students, especially helpful in introducing and examining a broad range of material, particularly abstract concepts. The best lecturers will incorporate a lively and informative style, and encourage interactivity with students through discussion, dialogue and questioning.

      Guest lecturers and speakers add fresh voices to the classroom, which increases student interest. Practitioners can bring the practice of public relations into the classroom and provide a bridge between student and professional associations. The pool of available guest lecturers for most programs is typically large, and professionals usually are enthusiastic about assisting in this way.

      Simulations and role-playing also are very effective teaching methods for selected topics. Both encourage student involvement (affective learning) and aid in student retention of material. The teacher can control the simulation in ways he or she could not if students were working with an actual client or situation.

      Games are useful ways to simplify abstract concepts and are particularly useful for teaching remedial skills and history or for review sessions, such as those that might be held to help students prepare for an examination.

      Small group discussion and in-class exercises provide essential learning opportunities in the area of team building and group dynamics. This teaching method also helps develop brainstorming and analytical skills as students learn to give and receive critiques.

      Having students make oral presentations in class provides them with practice in a skill that will be vital to them as practitioners, making client presentations and defending their ideas in meetings. Oral presentations offer a good opportunity for peer or practitioner evaluation of student work, and also for interaction and networking with both peers and practitioners. They also can be useful in helping students learn to create and use computer-aided presentations and visual aids.

      Teaching writing and design or production skills in a computer classroom or lab gives students an opportunity to build their skills and their computer literacy.

      The use of field trips is another teaching method that provides an opportunity for interactive learning as students see the practice of public relations in process and interact with practitioners.

      Instruction is increasingly being delivered through distance education, as described in Part 9 of this report, using a variety of techniques: on-line Internet delivery of lectures and readings, chat rooms and E-mail interaction between student and professor, combinations of video-Web-television instruction and delivery of entire courses by broadcast media or satellite.

      Assignments and Activities

      Case studies, an excellent bridge between theory and application, can be used at all class levels to promote learning. Regardless of the model, case studies teach analytical and critical thinking skills.

      Incorporating the planning (and sometimes even the implementation) of campaigns into public relations courses adds depth and detail, and provides opportunities for students to translate theory into practice. Carrying a plan through to implementation adds the dimension of learning about client relationships and, when the client is “real,” provides another opportunity for professional networking.

      Instructional Media

      Audio and video recordings are useful not only because they present important material in an interesting way, but because by listening or viewing, students also learn to recognize production quality.

      The Internet (and when available an intranet) has many applications in public relations teaching: as the source of case studies and research data, as a means of contact with practitioners and as an interactive communication channel between faculty and students. Its potential for interactivity makes it especially appealing in distance education settings.

      11. Evaluation

      Both academic programs and the students enrolled in them should be evaluated. In the case of students, the objective is to ascertain whether students learned what the curriculum and their faculty intended. In the case of programs, the objective of the evaluation is to ascertain and ensure quality of the curriculum, how it is taught, the quality of that instruction and the resources provided to support the educational effort.

      Evaluation of Students

      Student evaluation may be normative, formative and/or summative.

      Normative assessment is usually undertaken to determine which students are eligible to enter or to advance within the public relations program. Normative assessment tools might include:

      • required entrance exams
      • assessment of the extent to which the student possesses the attitudes and behaviors of professionals
      • screening through standardized test scores and placement tests in subjects such as English, spelling and math
      • high school and projected college GPA
      • performance in pre-requisite classes
      • writing and speaking apprehension
      • internship performance as a screen for subsequent internships
      • Formative assessment is evaluation that provides continuing feedback throughout a student's degree program. Formative assessment tools might include: faculty evaluation and grading of assignments
      • tests that screen for skill proficiency
      • capstone courses to measure ability to conceptualize and apply knowledge
      • case study analysis to measure critical thinking
      • oral and computer-aided presentations to measure presentation skills
      • evaluation of internships by both faculty and site supervisors
      • review of a portfolio of student work
      • examination of career objectives, expectations, knowledge, preparation and future plans
      • measurement of sensitivity to multicultural environments and diversity, perhaps using a standardized test such as that used by the U.S. Navy to test for multicultural sensitivity
      • Summative assessment is conducted at the time a student completes a degree program. Appropriate tools might include review of a portfolio of student work to assess writing and presentation skills, research skills, analytical ability and ability to complete projects or campaigns
      • faculty assessment of strengths and weaknesses, either in writing or as an exit interview
      • administration of an organizational simulation of a public relations work environment
      • review of professional experience gained through course assignments, internships or other work experience
      Evaluation of Programs

      Program evaluation can be accomplished through self-assessment and external review.

      1. Self-Assessment

      Public relations programs should continually measure their effectiveness in delivering instruction in both degree-oriented and continuing education courses by utilizing the following self-assessment tools:

      • Teacher-course evaluations by students, peers and administrators
      • Faculty-student ratios
      • Job placement rates
      • Percent of public relations graduates working in the field
      • Graduate school admissions
      • Exit interviews and surveys
      • Alumni satisfaction surveys
      • Employer satisfaction surveys
      • Professional accreditation of alumni
      • Input of advisory boards

      Programs also are advised to monitor such quality indicators as instructional innovations, particularly integration of new technologies; student access to courses in related disciplines (e.g., business); vitality of student organizations; involvement of professionals; and equitable distribution of resources. Finally, programs should periodically compare the content of the courses they offer to the Commission's recommendations.

      2. External Review

      Three organizations currently provide external review of academic programs in public relations education: PRSA, NCA and the Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC). PRSA's Certification of Education in Public Relations (CEPR) provides professional association certification for programs housed in any academic discipline, including communication, journalism and business. NCA's Program Review, on the other hand, provides educator assessment for programs housed in communication colleges, schools or departments. Similarly, ACEJMC examines programs housed in journalism and mass communication units. ACEJMC is the only one of the three authorized by the U.S. Department of Education to grant professional accreditation. Review by any of the three organizations is at the invitation of the program unit.

      PRSA's certification process is coordinated by its Educational Affairs Committee, which consists of both educators and practitioners. After receipt of a required self-study, the committee assigns a visiting team of two or three members who examine the public relations program on site over three to four days. Criteria for evaluation are based on the most recent guidelines of the Commission on Public Relations Education. Among program elements reviewed are curriculum, faculty/student ratio, resources, internships, student counseling, job placement and involvement and support of professionals. Team members visit classes, check records and interview faculty, administrators, students, alumni and practitioners. At the conclusion of the on-site review, the team makes a preliminary report of its findings, including strengths and weaknesses of the program, to the program's coordinator. A written report with the team's recommendation is submitted to the Educational Affairs Committee, which decides whether or not to grant certification. The committee's decision is then forwarded to PRSA's Board of Directors for approval.

      In ACEJMC accreditation, the entire academic unit—college, school or department—is evaluated through a review of all programs in the unit, which might include advertising, broadcasting, newspaper journalism, magazine journalism and public relations. The process begins with a self-study based on 12 standards. A three-day site visit is conducted by a team of three to six educators and practitioners who represent the unit's various disciplines. When the unit has a public relations component, an effort is made to include a public relations educator or practitioner on the team.

      During its campus visit, the ACEJMC team examines the unit's compliance with the 12 standards, which deal with governance/administration, budget, curriculum, student records/advising, instruction/evaluation, faculty credentials and qualifications, internships and work experience, faculty scholar-ship/research/professional activities, public service, graduates/alumni, and minority and female representation, respectively. As in the PRSA process, team members monitor classes, check records and interview faculty, students and representatives of other relevant groups. The team prepares a written draft report of its findings before leaving campus and presents copies of the report to the unit administrator and the institution's president. Responses from the unit and institution are considered before the report is finalized and submitted to ACEJMC's Accrediting Committee, which recommends full accreditation, provisional accreditation (meaning the unit must correct specified deficiencies in one year) or denial of accreditation. The committee then forwards its recommendation to ACEJMC's Accrediting Council for a final decision. Institutional representatives are invited to the meetings of both groups. Units must be reaccredited every six years.

      Of the 24 professional, practitioner organizations which are dues-paying members of ACEJMC, only one—PRSA—represents the profession of public relations. Thus the profession has only one voice and one vote on decisions made by ACEJMC's Accrediting Council. In contrast, other disciplines are represented by multiple professional organizations, each with one or more votes. For example, advertising is represented by two organizations (American Academy of Advertising and American Advertising Federation), broadcasting by four (Broadcast Education Association, National Association of Broadcasters, National Association of TV Program Executives and Radio-Television News Directors Association) and newspaper journalism by eight (American Society of Newspaper Editors, Associated Press Managing Editors, National Conference of Editorial Writers, National Newspaper Foundation, Newspaper Association of America, Society of Professional Journalists, Southern Newspaper Publishers Association and the Inland Press Association).

      Only a minority of academic programs in public relations are certified by PRSA or accredited by ACEJMC. As noted earlier in this report, approximately one half of all public relations programs are housed in communication units, which are not eligible for ACEJMC accreditation. Such programs are eligible for PRSA certification; however, relatively few programs have sought CEPR status to date. Furthermore, of the hundreds of journalism and mass communication units that teach public relations, only 109 currently are accredited by ACEJMC.

      The NCA process bridges the gap between self-assessment and external review. The association provides the Communication Programs Rationale and Review Kit (1997), which presents questions to guide self-assessment (for example, “Has our department kept pace with the discipline?”), lists NCA resources and services to aid evaluation (for example, contact information for nationally recognized communication specialists in teaching, research and service), and offers the association's Program Review Service. More collegial than the processes of PRSA and ACEJMC, NCA's on-site Program Review brings “consultants” to campus rather than “evaluators.” The service allows the host unit to determine the number of consultants, choose their specialization and geographic location, and even select named individuals (NCA also will recommend team members if a host unit desires). The consultants' report goes to the unit requesting the review, not to NCA.

      All of these program evaluation processes would be more valuable if:

      • More public relations programs sought accreditation and/or certification.
      • Additional public relations organizations, such as the Arthur W. Page Society, IABC, Council of Public Relations Firms, Institute for Public Relations, PRSA Foundation, and International Public Relations Association (IPRA), obtained membership in ACEJMC. Representation should also be solicited from educator associations with large public relations memberships, such as NCA and ICA.
      • ACEJMC teams better reflected the composition of the student body of the unit reviewed, particularly those in which public relations is a major component.
      12. Faculty Qualifications

      Both academic and professional credentials and experience are important qualifications for public relations faculty. It also is critical that public relations faculty share the understanding that public relations is practiced in an interdisciplinary, multicultural and global context.

      Programs may use both full-time and part-time faculty to teach public relations courses. It is important, however, that the majority of public relations instruction be provided by full-time faculty.

      Perhaps the ideal full-time faculty member is an individual with both the academic credential of a terminal degree, usually the Ph.D., and the professional credential of significant work experience in the field of public relations. And to the extent that they exist—they do, but in relatively small number—academic programs would do well to hire individuals with both sets of credentials.

      What is perhaps more realistic is for academic programs to have among their full-time public relations faculty a balance of those with terminal degrees and those who may not have terminal degrees but whose professional experience is significant and substantial. Particularly in programs that offer graduate degrees, it is critical that there be full-time faculty with Ph.Ds capable of teaching public relations theory and research and qualified to direct graduate thesis and dissertations in public relations. When no graduate faculty who specialize in public relations research are available to guide and mentor graduate students, they may be diverted into a thesis or dissertation that does not encourage an interest in public relations.

      Adjunct (part-time) and temporary full-time faculty should, in every case, have at least an undergraduate degree and relevant professional public relations experience. It is highly desirable that they be personally accredited or certified by a professional public relations organization, especially when their college degree is in a field other than public relations.

      Most adjunct faculty will be drawn from the ranks of those currently working in public relations, so their professional expertise is being updated and refined on a daily basis. Because they are often not experienced teachers, it is essential that adjuncts be provided with appropriate training for the classroom.

      Full-time faculty must create their own opportuni-ties—one would hope with the enthusiastic leadership of practitioners and professional organizations—to keep up with current public relations practices through “professor in residence” programs, faculty-professional exchanges, participation in professional development programs and sabbaticals.

      All faculty, both full-time and adjunct, should be members of and participate in professional and/or academic associations and conferences.

      And all faculty, both full-time and adjunct, should be contributing to the public relations body of knowledge through scholarship and professional or creative activity. The form that contribution may take will, of course, vary depending on whether the faculty member has primarily academic or professional credentials.

      The Commission repeats a recommendation from the 1987 Commission report: “Public relations courses should not be taught by people who have little or no experience and interest in the field and have no academic preparation in public relations.”

      13. Resources Needed for Public Relations Programs

      Public relations faculty and students should have resources comparable to those available to faculty and students in other academic programs in the academic unit where public relations is taught.

      It also is important that faculty in public relations programs have responsibility for those matters and decisions that directly affect public relations faculty, students and the units of which they are a part.

      Workloads of public relations faculty should reflect the full range of responsibilities assigned to them: teaching, advising, research, service, administrative assignments and the supervision or advising of student organizations such as PRSSA or student public relations agencies.

      Administrative and financial resources necessary to support public relations education include:

      • personnel: faculty, both full-time and part-time, who are paid commensurate with faculty in other programs in the academic unit
      • staff support: secretarial and technical support personnel
      • equipment and facilities in classrooms, labs and faculty offices: computer hardware, software and peripherals; classrooms specially equipped for presentations; research facilities, particularly a telephone bank for surveys and space suitable for simulating or conducting focus groups, and space for student organizations
      • travel and professional development support; funding for travel to academic and professional conferences, for payment of professional association dues, for participation in workshops or other professional development programs
      • operating support: telephone, books and other materials used in teaching, postage, photocopying, faxes
      • library: materials to inform both teaching and research

      Faculty-student ratios should conform to those recommended by national accrediting bodies (such as the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications) and those that certify programs (such as Public Relations Society of America). There should be qualified full-time faculty members teaching public relations when it is offered as a major, emphasis or focus, the number of those faculty dependent on student enrollment. Full-time public relations faculty should teach the majority of required courses.

      Scholarships and financial aid should be available to students. This is particularly critical in graduate programs where funding is perhaps the deciding factor as programs compete for the best students for assistantship and fellowship awards.

      While most administrative and operating expenses are the responsibility of academic units, there are other resources that must be provided by the profession. Among these are providing internship and professional residency programs for students and faculty, supporting and serving on advisory boards, endowing chairs and faculty positions in public relations and providing examples and samples of public relations work, especially audio-visual materials, for classroom use.

      14. Global Implications of the Commission's Recommendations

      A major assumption of the Commission was that its report would focus primarily on higher education in the United States. The Commission's members were principally associated with USA-based institutions, and, given the range of factors that can affect higher education in public relations, the Commission did not want to presume to make recommendations for other nations and cultures.

      However, the Commission did want to enable educators and practitioners in other countries to adapt or adopt its recommendations if they so choose. To that end, the Commission identified the following factors that affect public relations higher education, to a greater or lesser extent, in all societies and cultures.

      The following list is not exhaustive. The factors are presented in the hopes that others may find them helpful in explaining and guiding public relations higher education not only in the USA but also elsewhere in the world.

      Cultural Values and Beliefs
      • Importance within society of truth-telling, fairness, justice and the concept of doing no harm to the innocent.
      • Degree of comfort with uncertainty within society as seen in the collective attitudes toward centralized or decentralized control.
      • Attitudes toward men and women.
      • Degree of acceptance (or not) of class differences and assumptions about an individual's duties and responsibilities to others in society.
      Laws and Public Policies
      • Structure of and support for higher education, including the degree of politicization of higher education within society.
      • Public support for technological infrastructure within the economy.
      • Freedom of press and individual rights to free speech and related issues.
      • Policies regarding free markets and “transparent” economic exchanges, especially in the areas of corporate disclosure.
      External Groups, Organizations and Associations
      • Employer demand for university graduates who have majored or specialized in public relations.
      • Number of professional associations in the field and their support for higher education.
      • Number of organizations in region, including activist publics, that emphasize and appreciate public information, public relations, and public affairs.
      • Number of competing institutions of higher education.
      Organizational Factors
      • Size, complexity and sources of resources for the institution, be it a university or college.
      • The historic, legal mandate or stated function of the institution.
      • Technological infrastructure of the institution.
      Small Group Factors within Institutions
      • Qualifications of the faculty and how they relate to students—for example, the degree of power differentiation or egalitarianism experienced in the classroom.
      • Qualifications of faculty and staff and how they relate to each other—for example, the “natural tension” often experienced between journalism and public relations faculty.
      • Worldview of the institution's dominant coalition: do senior administrators at the university encourage change and innovation, or not.
      Interpersonal Factors within Institutions
      • Role expectations between individual administrators and faculty members.
      • Role expectations between an individual faculty member and a student.
      • Role expectations outside the university between clients and practitioners—for example, is the practitioner expected by the client to be a technician or a problem solver?
      Intrapersonal Factors and Traits within Individuals
      • Intelligence of the students, faculty members, practitioners.
      • Sex/gender—physical traits and internalized sex roles.
      • Maturity (not the same as age).
      • Eagerness and willingness to learn.

      In sum, public relations both as a professional practice and as an academic discipline may be considered protean—readily assuming various roles and structures depending on its internal and external environments. The wide variety of social environments and public relations practices around the world means that inevitably there are, and will continue to be, a variety of models of public relations higher education.

      15. A Call to Action: Public Relations Education and the Practice

      Symbiosis is not too strong a descriptor of the relationship between public relations education and the professional practice of public relations. Yet there is much to do to realize the full potential of this mutually-beneficial relationship.

      The key to progress here, the Commission suggests, is to base future cooperative efforts on a simple, practical statement of respective needs: Public relations educators need additional resources and recognition; the practice needs a steady flow of graduates who are prepared to enter, or re-enter, the profession and, as the saying goes, “hit the ground running.”

      So what is to be done?

      The 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education recommends a seven-point interactive program:

      • Public relations practitioners should take a new look at the “products” of today's public relations education. Those who have, are impressed with the breadth and depth of knowledge and skill students bring to internships and entry-level employment. Those who haven't, are missing what is quite often a good hiring “bet.”
      • There is a great need for significantly increased support from practitioners for accreditation/certification of public relations programs. In the year 2000, three to five additional public relations seats on The Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) should be sponsored by the practice. This will generate added practitioner participation on campus accreditation site visit teams as well as in the final decisions on which programs are to be accredited.
      • The practice should establish additional endowed chairs in public relations at academic institutions with outstanding public relations programs. A chair is costly and may require the pooling of financial assistance from several organizations and their clients, but chairs represent prestige externally and clout internally.
      • Successful individual public relations professionals, especially those who have benefited handsomely from public relations practice, should consider making significant contributions to the public relations programs of their choice. Such philanthropy, common in other professional fields, would mark public relations as a field in which one generation of practitioners is tied to succeeding generations by commitment to the development of the profession.
      • Public relations educators and professionals can advance the appreciation of the field among influentials and the general public by jointly developing and participating in projects of topical and long-term social significance. Educators bring intellectual legitimacy and credibility to such projects; practitioners—individually and through organizations such as PRSA, The Arthur Page Society, the newly formed Council of Public Relations Firms and the various public relations institutes and foundations—can add strategic input and needed resources. The “outside world” must be engaged on hot macro issues: for example, ethical communications conduct in the age of global interdependence. Structures for such activities already exist. They include the PRSA/CPRF Socratic Dialogues (in April, 1999 such a dialogue was held at The Annenberg School). Partnering organizations have included the Ethics Officers Association and several national trade associations.
      • Joint research projects, administered by educators and funded by the practice, can not only advance the edu-cator-practitioner relationship but also expand the public relations body of knowledge. Moreover, when the research subjects are of topical interests—say, on employee behavioral response to key messages—they provide an opportunity for positive exposure of the true gravitas of the profession. And if adequately funded ($50,000–$500,000 or more), the research can impress academic influentials.
      • Finally, “traditional” support programs for public relations educators, their students and their programs must be re-doubled. This means more practitioner-funded scholarships, more paid internships, more support of PRSSA to benefit students, and more faculty enrichment programs including inter-term employment and other imaginative cooperative efforts.

      Other kinds of such professional support also must be considered, such as the valuable expenditure of professionals' time on campus to strengthen public relations programs. Both individual practitioners and professional associations can be invaluable in providing advice and feedback to programs and their faculties. Advisory boards also can provide financial and other resources that enhance program quality.

      These programs, and others like them, will further enhance the likelihood that public relations education, through its own growth and development, will produce more successful public relations practitioners and leaders and advance the profession's contribution to society.

      Appendix A: The 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education
      • Dean Kruckeberg, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • University of Northern Iowa
      • Co-Chair of the Commission
      • Represented PRSA
      • John L. Paluszek, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Ketchum Public Affairs
      • Co-Chair of the Commission
      • Represented PRSA
      • Bill C. Adams, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Florida International University
      • Represented PRSA
      • David K. Allred, APR
      • Utah Jazz Basketball Club
      • Represented PRSA
      • Gail Baker, Ph.D., APR
      • University of Florida
      • Represented PRSA
      • John R. Beardsley, APR
      • Padilla Speer Beardsley Inc.
      • Represented PRSA
      • Sue Bohle, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • The Bohle Company
      • Represented PRSA
      • Carl Botan, Ph.D.
      • Purdue University
      • Represented ICA
      • Joan L. Capelin, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Capelin Communications, Inc.
      • Represented PRSA
      • Clarke L. Caywood, Ph.D.
      • Chair, Integrated Marketing Dept.
      • Represented PRSA
      • Timothy W. Coombs, Ph.D.
      • Illinois State University
      • Represented NCA
      • William J. Corbett, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Corbett Associates, Inc.
      • Represented PRSA
      • H. J. (Jerry) Dalton, Jr., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Optima Strategies Division
      • Represented PRSA
      • Kathleen Fearn-Banks, Ph.D.
      • University of Washington
      • Represented PRSA
      • John W. Felton, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Institute for PR Research & Education
      • Represented Institute for Public Relations
      • James E. Grunig, Ph.D.
      • University of Maryland
      • Represented PRSA
      • Larissa A. Grunig, Ph.D.
      • University of Maryland
      • Represented AEJMC
      • Barbara A. Hines, Ph.D.
      • Howard University
      • Represented PRSA
      • Stanton H. Hudson, Jr., APR
      • Hudson & Associates
      • Represented PRSA
      • Kathleen S. Kelly, Ph.D., CFRE, APR,
      • Fellow PRSA
      • University of Southwestern Louisiana
      • Represented PRSA
      • Dan L. Lattimore, Ph.D., APR
      • University of Memphis
      • Represented PRSA
      • Wilma Mathews, ABC
      • Arizona State University
      • Represented IABC
      • Mark P. McElreath, Ph.D., APR
      • Towson University
      • Represented IABC
      • Arthur P. Merrick, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • The Rockey Company
      • Represented PRSA
      • Dan Pyle Millar, Ph.D., APR
      • Indiana State University
      • Represented NCA
      • Debra A. Miller, Ed.D., APR
      • University of Portland
      • Represented PRSA
      • Bonita Dostal Neff, Ph.D.
      • Valparaiso University
      • Represented WICI
      • Douglas Ann Newsom, Ph.D., APR,
      • Fellow PRSA
      • Texas Christian University
      • Represented PRSA
      • Coral M. Ohl, Ph.D., APR
      • California State University, Fullerton
      • Represented PRSA
      • Isobel Parke, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Jackson, Jackson & Wagner
      • Represented PRSA
      • Judith Turner Phair, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • University of Maryland/Biotechnology Institute
      • Represented PRSA
      • Betsy Plank, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Betsy Plank Public Relations
      • Represented PRSA
      • Cheryl I. Procter, APR
      • Home Box Office
      • Represented PRSA
      • Shirley A. Ramsey, Ph.D., APR
      • University of Oklahoma
      • Represented PRSA
      • Maria P. Russell, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Syracuse University
      • Represented PRSA
      • Kenneth Seeney
      • EIERA
      • Represented PRSA
      • Melvin L. Sharpe, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Ball State University
      • Represented IPRA
      • Don W. Stacks, Ph.D.
      • University of Miami
      • Represented PRSA
      • Elizabeth Lance Toth, Ph.D., APR
      • Syracuse University
      • Represented ICA
      • Joseph V. Trahan III, Ph.D., APR
      • Defense Information School
      • Represented PRSA
      • Judy Van Slyke Turk, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • University of South Carolina
      • Represented AEJMC
      • James K. Van Leuven, Ph.D., APR
      • Colorado State University
      • Represented PRSA
      • Dennis L. Wilcox, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • San Jose State University
      • Represented PRSA
      • Laurie J. Wilson, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Brigham Young University
      • Represented PRSA
      • Nancy B. Wolfe, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Elon College.
      • Represented PRSA
      • Donald K. Wright, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • University of South Alabama
      • Represented PRSA
      • Frank W. Wylie, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • California State University, Long Beach
      • Represented IPRA
      • Elaine Averick
      • Commission Staff Liaison
      • PRSA
      Appendix B: Research and Reports Used by the 1999 Commission
      Research and Reports
      International Public Relations Association(Sept., 1990). Public relations education—Recommendations and standards. Gold Paper No. 7.
      Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education(April, 1985)Advancing public relations: Recommended curriculum for graduate public relations education. New York: Author.
      Public Relations Society of America (1987). Design for undergraduate public relations education: 1987 report of the Commission on Undergraduate Public Relations Education. New York: Author.
      Special Issue of Public Relations Review24(1) (1999)
      Schwartz, D., Yarbrough, J. P., and Shakra, M. T.Does public relations education make the grade?Public Relations Journal48(9)18–2024–26. (1992)
      Stacks, D. W.(1998, July). Perceptions of public relations education: A survey of public relations curriculum, outcomes, assessment, and pedagogy. Paper presented to the 1998 PR Summer Conference, Arlington, VA.
      Other Suggested Resources for Public Relations Educators and Administrators
      Berth, K. & Sjoberg, G. (1997). Quality in public relations. Quality Public Relations Series No. 1. Copenhagen, Denmark: The International Institute for Quality in Public Relations.
      Bianco-Mathis, V. & Chalofsky, N. (ed.) (1996). The adjunct faculty handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204741.
      Public Relations Society of America (1987). Demonstrating public relations professionalism: A report of the PRSA Task Force on demonstrating professionalismNew York: Author.
      Haworth, J. G., & Conrad, C. F. (1997). Emblems of quality in higher education: Developing and sustaining high-quality programs. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
      Conrad, C. F. & Wilson, R. W. (1985). Academic program reviews: Institutional approaches, expectations and controversies. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Rep. No. 5. Washington, DC: Clearinghouse on Higher Education, The George Washington University.
      Cox, B. (1994). Practical pointers for university teachers. London: Kogan Page.
      Glazer, Judith. (1986). The master's degree: Tradition, diversity, innovation. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Rep. No. 6. Washington, DC: Clearinghouse on Higher Education, The George Washington University.
      McArthur, D. J., & Lewis, M. D.Untangling the Web: Applications of the Internet and other information technologies to higher learning. Available on the World Wide Web at: http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR975/
      Meagher, L. D., & Devine, T. J. (1993). Handbook on college teaching. Durango, Colorado: Hollowbrook Publishing.
      Menges, R. J., & Weimer, M. (1996). Teaching11. Evaluation.
      International Public Relations Association. (1982). A model for public relations education for professional practice. Gold Paper No. 2.
      Oeckl, A. (1976). Public relations education worldwide. Gold Paper No. 2. International Public Relations Association.
      Porter, Lynette R. (1997). Creating the virtual classroom: Distance learning with the Internet. New York: Wiley Computer Publishing.
      Sallot, L. M. (ed.). (1998). Learning to teach: What you need to know to develop a successful career as a public relations educator (
      2nd ed.
      ). New York: Public Relations Society of America.
      Sharp, M. L.Public relations education: its needs and advancement. IPRA Review9(1)4–7(1985, Feb.)
      Glossary of Organizations Cited in the Report
      • Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC)
      • American Management Association
      • American Marketing Association
      • Arthur Page Society
      • Council of Public Relations Firms (CPRF)
      • Institute for Public Relations (formerly the Institute for Public Relations Research and Education)
      • International Association of Business Communicators (IABC)
      • International Communication Association (ICA)
      • International Public Relations Association (IPRA)
      • National Communication Association (NCA)
      • Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)
      • Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA)

      The Commission on Public Relations Education gratefully acknowledges the following organizations, which provided valuable support for the Commi-ssion's work:

      • Hilton Hotels Corporation
      • Northwest Airlines
      • Southwest Airlines
      • National Communication Association
      • Public Relations Society of America
      • University of Miami
      • Institute for Public Relations (formerly the Institute for Public Relations Research and Education)
      Public Relations Society of America. Reprinted with permission.
      Appendix 5: The Corporate Annual Report: An Evolution
      The Corporate Annual Report: An Evolution

      At its essence, the corporate annual report is the financial statement issued yearly by a publicly owned corporation, showing assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and earnings.

      Over time, the annual report has emerged as an art form, a visual, colorful expression of a public company's fiscal year, its products and its workers. On the pages that follow, the evolution of the corporate annual report is shown through the juxtaposition of the entire 11-page 1881 American Bell Telephone Company Annual Report and excerpts from the 92-page 2002 AT&T Annual Report.

      Property of AT&T Archives. Reprinted with permission of AT&T.

      Appendix 6: Public Relations Society of America Local Chapters
      Local Chapters: Public Relations Society of America

      For updated contact information, consult the Public Relations Society of America's Web site, http://www.prsa.org


      Base: Birmingham

      HOME PAGE: http://www.alabamaprsa.org


      Base: Anchorage

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaalaska.org

      Southern Arizona

      Base: Tucson

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsatucson.com


      HOME PAGE: http://www.phxprsa.org

      HOTLINE: 602–258–7772


      Base: Little Rock

      HOME PAGE: http://www.arkprsa.org

      Northwest Arkansas

      Base: Fayetteville

      HOME PAGE: http://www.nwaprsa.org

      California Capital

      Base: Sacramento

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-sacramento.org

      FAX-ON-DEMAND: 800–776–3290

      California Inland Empire

      Base: Riverside

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsainlandempire.org

      Central California

      Base: Fresno Valley

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsacentralcal.org

      Los Angeles

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-la.org

      Oakland-East Bay

      Base: Oakland

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaeastbay.org

      Orange County

      Base: Santa Ana

      HOME PAGE: http://www.ocprsa.org

      San Diego County

      Base: San Diego

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsasandiego.org

      HOTLINE: 619–680–3990

      FAX-ON-DEMAND: 800–776–3290

      San Francisco

      Base: San Francisco

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsasf.org

      FAX-ON-DEMAND: 800–776–3290

      Silicon Valley

      HOME PAGE: http://www.siliconprsa.org

      Pikes Peak

      Base: Colorado Springs HOME PAGE: http://www.prsacoloradosprings.org


      Base: New Haven

      HOME PAGE: None

      Connecticut Valley

      Base: Hartford

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-cvc.org


      Base: Westchester/Fairfield

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-wf.org


      Base: Wilmington

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsadelaware.org


      Base: Naples

      HOME PAGE: None


      PO Box 677

      Fort Lauderdale, FL 33302

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsagulfstream.org

      North Florida

      Base: Jacksonville

      HOME PAGE: http://www.jax-prsa.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsamiami.org

      Orlando Regional

      PO Box 1212

      Orlando, FL 32802–1212

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaorlando.org

      Palm Beach

      PO Box 1212

      Orlando, FL 32802–1212

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsapalmbeach.org

      Tampa Bay

      HOME PAGE: http://www.tampa.prsa.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsageorgia.org

      South Georgia

      Base: Savannah

      HOME PAGE: None


      Base: Honolulu

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsahawaii.org

      Central Illinois

      Base: Bloomington

      HOME PAGE: http://www.geocities.com/prsa_ci

      Chicago HOME PAGE: http://www.prsachicago.com

      Suburban Chicago

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsasuburbanchicagoland.org


      Base: Indianapolis

      HOME PAGE: http://www.hoosierprsa.org

      HOTLINE: 317–265–4887

      Cedar Valley

      Base: Cedar Rapids/Waterloo

      HOME PAGE: http://www.cvprsa.org

      Central Iowa

      Base: Des Moines

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaciowa.org

      Greater Dubuque

      HOME PAGE: None

      Quad Cities

      Base: Eastern IA/Western IL

      HOME PAGE: None


      Base: Wichita

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsakansas.org

      Kentucky Bluegrass

      Base: Louisville

      HOME PAGE: http://www.bluegrassprsa.org


      Base: Lexington

      HOME PAGE: http://www.kyprsa.com

      Baton Rouge

      HOME PAGE: None

      New Orleans

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaneworleans.org

      INFOLINE: 504–558–0034

      North Louisiana

      Base: Shreveport

      HOME PAGE: None


      Base: Concord, NH

      HOME PAGE: http://www.yankeeprsa.org

      Annapolis/Anne Arundel

      Base: Annapolis/St. Mary's

      HOME PAGE: http://www.annapolisprsa.org

      Chesapeake Bay

      HOME PAGE: None


      Base: Baltimore

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsamd.org

      MD residents only: 800–929–7680

      National Capital

      Base: Washington, D.C.

      HOME PAGE: http://www.PRSA-ncc.org/


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaboston.org

      Central Michigan

      Base: Lansing

      HOME PAGE: http://www.cmprsa.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsadetroit.org

      West Michigan

      Base: Grand Rapids

      HOME PAGE: http://www.wmprsa.org

      White Pine

      Base: Bay City/Saginaw

      HOME PAGE: http://www.ecd.prsa.org


      Base: Minneapolis

      HOME PAGE: http://www.mnprsa.com

      Greater Kansas City

      Base: Kansas City

      HOME PAGE: http://www.kansascity-prsa.org


      Base: Columbia/Jefferson City

      HOME PAGE: http://www.midmoprsa.org

      St. Louis

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsastlouis.org


      Base: Statewide

      HOME PAGE: http://www.montanaprsa.org


      Base: Omaha

      HOME PAGE: http://www.nebraskaprsa.org


      HOME PAGE: None

      Las Vegas Valley

      Base: Las Vegas

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsalasvegas.com

      Sierra Nevada

      Base: Reno

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsareno.org

      New Hampshire

      Base: Concord, NH

      HOME PAGE: http://www.yankeeprsa.org

      New Jersey

      Base: Statewide

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsanj.org

      New Mexico

      Base: Albuquerque

      HOME PAGE: http://www.nmprsa.com

      New York

      Base: Buffalo

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsabuffaloniagara.org

      Capital Region

      Base: Albany

      HOME PAGE: http://www.timesunion.com/communities/prsa

      Central New York

      Base: Syracuse

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-cny.org

      Finger Lakes

      Base: Corning/Elmira

      HOME PAGE: None

      New York

      Base: New York City

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsany.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsarochester.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-wf.org

      North Carolina

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsacharlotte.org

      HOTLINE: 704–3351–8874

      North Carolina

      Base: Raleigh-Durham

      HOME PAGE: http://www.northcarolina.prsa.org

      Tar Heel

      Base: Greensboro

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsatarheel.org

      Akron Area

      Base: Akron

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaaa.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.cincinnatiprsa.org

      Central Ohio

      Base: Columbus

      HOME PAGE: http://www.centralohioprsa.org

      HOTLINE: 614–470–2875

      Dayton/Miami Valley

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsadayton.org

      Greater Cleveland

      Base: Cleveland

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsacleveland.org

      Northwest Ohio

      Base: Bowling Green/Toledo

      HOME PAGE: http://www.ecd.prsa.org

      Oklahoma City

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsaokc.com


      HOME PAGE: None

      Greater Oregon

      Base: Eugene

      HOME PAGE: None

      Oregon Capital

      Base: Salem

      HOME PAGE: http://www.oregoncapitalprsa.org

      Portland Metro

      Base: Portland

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-portland.org

      HOTLINE: 503–221–6202

      Central Pennsylvania

      Base: Hershey/Harrisburg

      HOME PAGE: http://cpaprsa.tripod.com


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa.philly.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-pgh.org

      Rhode Island
      Southeastern New England

      Base: Providence, RI

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsasene.org

      HOTLINE: (401) 737–7772

      South Carolina

      Base: Columbia

      HOME PAGE: http://www.scprsa.org

      South Dakota

      HOME PAGE: None


      Base: Memphis

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsamemphis.org


      Base: Chattanooga

      HOME PAGE: http://www.lookoutprsa.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsanashville.com

      RESERVATION LINE: 615–963–1335


      Base: Tri-Cities TN/VA

      HOME PAGE: None


      Base: Knoxville

      HOME PAGE: http://www.volunteerprsa.org


      Chapter Address

      P.O. Box 684036

      Austin, TX 78768

      HOME PAGE: http://prsa.austin.org

      Greater Fort Worth

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa.austin.org

      Central Texas

      Base: Waco

      HOME PAGE: None


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsahouston.org


      Base: Laredo

      HOME PAGE: None


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsadallas.org

      Rio Grande

      Base: El Paso

      HOME PAGE: None

      San Antonio

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsanantonio.com

      HOTLINE: 210–302–1000

      Greater Salt Lake

      Base: Salt Lake City

      HOME PAGE: http://www.slcprsa.org

      Utah Valley

      Base: Provo

      HOME PAGE: None


      Base: Concord, NH

      HOME PAGE: http://www.yankeeprsa.org

      Blue Ridge

      Base: Roanoke

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsa-blueridge.org/

      Hampton Roads

      Base: Hampton/Norfolk

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsahr.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsarichmond.org

      Greater Spokane

      Base: Spokane

      HOME PAGE: http://www.spokanepr.org

      Puget Sound

      Base: Seattle

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsapugetsound.org

      FAX-ON-DEMAND: 800–776–3290

      West Virginia

      Base: Statewide

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsawv.org


      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsamadison.org

      Northeast Wisconsin

      Base: Neenah/Oshkosh

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsanewis.org

      Southeastern Wisconsin

      Base: Milwaukee

      HOME PAGE: http://www.prsawis.org

      Public Relations Society of America. Reprinted with permission.
      Appendix 7: Public Relations Online Resources
      American Society of Association Executives

      World's leading membership organization for the association management profession.


      Canadian Public Relations Society

      Professional organization with 1,700 members across Canada.


      Communications Roundtable

      Association of public relations, marketing, graphics, advertising, training, information technology, and other communications organizations.


      Council of Public Relations Firms

      Information source for members regarding the public relations industry.


      Holmes Report

      Source of news, knowledge, and career information for public relations professionals.


      The Institute for PR

      Promotes and encourages academic and professional excellence.


      The Institute of Public Relations

      The largest public relations professional membership association in Europe.


      International Association of Business Communicators

      Products, services, activities, and networking opportunities to help people and organizations achieve excellence in public relations, employee communication, marketing communication, public affairs, and other forms of communication.


      International Public Relations Association

      Provides professional development and personal networking opportunities for worldwide membership.


      I-PR Discussion List

      An online community of public relations professionals.


      National Investor Relations Institute

      Advances the practice of investor relations and the professional competency and stature of its members.


      The PR Academy

      An online course for prospective public relations practitioners.


      PR Bytes

      A moderated forum for public relations professionals to discuss public relations/communications issues as they relate to the Internet.


      PR Week

      The first weekly magazine to offer worldwide coverage of the public relations business.


      Public Relations Consultants Association

      Information about public relations consultants in the United Kingdom.


      Public Relations Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication

      Web site for association of public relations educators in the United States and abroad.


      Public Relations Institute of New Zealand

      The national organization created to promote public relations in New Zealand and serve the best interests of the people who practice it.


      Public Relations Links

      Links compiled by Kirk Hallahan, Fellow PRSA, at Colorado State University.


      Public Relations Society of America

      The world's largest professional organization for public relations practitioners.


      Public Relations Student Society of America

      Cultivates mutually advantageous relationships between students and professional public relations practitioners.


      Technology Events Information

      List of important and influential technology-related gatherings worldwide.


      Young PR Pros

      An online forum for those new to the public relations field.


      Job site for jobs in Arizona, California, and the Pacific Northwest.


      Recruiting and career site specifically for the public relations industry, offering credible industry research, career resources, and public relations tools.


      Writing That Works

      Monthly how-to newsletter exclusively on practical business writing, editing, and communications.


      Experts and sources on thousands of topics.


      Appendix 8: Where to Study Public Relations

      The following 245 colleges and universities offer substantial programs of public relations at the undergraduate level. Each has met the criteria established by the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) for chartering a chapter of the Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA). The purpose of PRSSA is to cultivate a mutually advantageous relationship between students and the professional practice. Named here are the PRSSA Faculty Advisors who can provide further information about public relations study at their respective schools. Please contact Liesel Enke at liesel.enke@prsa.org or by phone at 212/460-1474 if you have any questions or updates regarding this list. The schools listed here are chartered by PRSA for PRSSA chapters as of February 2004.

        Alabama (3)
      • University of Alabama
      • Dept. of Communication Studies
      • Birmingham, AL 35294
      • Dr. John Wittig, APR
      • Phone: (205) 934-8917
      • wittig1939@hotmail.com
      • University of Alabama
      • Dept. of Advertising/PR
      • Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
      • Prof. Karla K. Gower
      • Phone: (205) 348-0132
      • gower@apr.ua.edu
      • Samford University
      • Dept. of Journalism & Mass Comm.
      • Birmingham, Alabama 35229
      • Dr. David Shipley, APR
      • Phone: (205) 726-2586
      • dsshiple@samford.edu
        Alaska (1)
      • University of Alaska
      • Dept. of Journalism/Public Comm.
      • Anchorage, AK 99508
      • Prof. Vivian Hamilton
      • Phone: (907) 694-0400
      • hamiltonpr@gci.net
        Arkansas (4)
      • University of Arkansas
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Fayetteville, AR 72701
      • Dr. Phyllis Miller
      • Phone: (479) 575-5213
      • pmiller@comp.uark.edu
      • University of Arkansas
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Little Rock, AR 72204
      • Prof. Jamie Byrne
      • Phone: (501) 569-3392
      • Arkansas State University
      • College of Communications
      • State University, AR 72467
      • Prof. Lisa Moskal
      • Phone: (870) 972-3075
      • lmoskal@astate.edu
      • Harding University
      • Communication Department
      • Searcy, AR 72149
      • Prof. Jack Shock
      • Phone: (501) 279-4196
      • communication@harding.edu
        Arizona (2)
      • Arizona State University
      • School of Journalism
      • Tempe, AZ 85282-1305
      • Prof. Renea D. Nichols
      • Phone: (480) 965-8799
      • reneanichols@asu.edu
      • Northern Arizona University
      • Dept. of Journalism,
      • Box 5619
      • Flagstaff, AZ 86011
      • Dr. Manny Romero
      • Phone: (520) 523-2507
      • manny.romero@nau.edu
        California (17)
      • Biola University
      • Department of Communications
      • 13800 Biola Ave.
      • La Mirada, CA 90639
      • Todd V. Lewis
      • Phone: (562) 944-0351
      • todd_lewis@peter.biola.edu
      • California Polytechnic University
      • Dept. of Communication Arts
      • Pomona, CA 91768
      • Prof. John Kaufman
      • Phone: (909) 869-3534
      • jakaufman@csupomona.edu
      • California Polytechnic University
      • Journalism Department
      • Cal Poly
      • San Luis Obispo, CA 93407
      • Mark Hucklebridge
      • Phone: (805) 756-1196
      • mhuckleb@calpoly.edu
      • California State University, Bakersfield
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Bakersfield, CA 93311-1099
      • Dr. Andy O. Alali
      • Phone: (805) 664-2152
      • aalai@csub.edu
      • California State University, Dominguez Hills
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Carson, CA 90747
      • Prof. Donn E. Silvis
      • Phone: (310) 243-3682
      • dsilvis@csudh.edu
      • California State University, Fresno
      • Dept. of Mass Communications
      • Fresno, CA 93740-8029
      • Betsy Martinusen
      • Phone: (559) 278-6154
      • betsy_martinusen@csufresno.edu
      • California State University, Fullerton
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Fullerton, CA 92634
      • Joseph Massey
      • Phone: (714) 278-4609
      • jmassey@fullerton.edu
      • California State University, Hayward
      • 25800 Carlos Bee Boulevard
      • Hayward, CA 94542
      • Dr. Valer Sue
      • Phone: (510) 885-3292
      • California State University, Long Beach
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Long Beach, CA 90840
      • Prof. Mathew Cabot
      • Phone: (562) 985-7939
      • mcabot@csulb.edu
      • California State University, Northridge
      • Journalism Department
      • Northridge, CA 91330-8311
      • Prof. Scott Berman
      • Phone: (818) 677-3135
      • scott.j.berman@csun.edu
      • California State University, San Bernardino
      • 5500 University Parkway
      • San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397
      • Donna Eileen Simmons
      • Phone: (909) 880-7379
      • dsimmons@csub.edu
      • Chapman University
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Orange, CA 92866
      • Prof. Janell Shearer, APR
      • Phone: (714) 997-6647
      • shearer@chapman.edu
      • University of the Pacific
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Stockton, CA 95211
      • Dr. Carol Ann Hackley, APR
      • Phone: (209) 946-2505
      • tchackley@aol.com
      • Pepperdine University
      • Communication Division
      • Malibu, CA 90265
      • Dr. Louella Benson-Garcia
      • Phone: (310) 506-4593
      • louella.benson@pepperdine.edu
      • San Diego State University
      • College of Prof. Studies
      • San Diego, CA 92182-0116
      • Kenn Ulrich, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (619) 397-5471
      • tcuex@hotmail.com
      • San Jose State University
      • School of Applied Arts & Sciences
      • San Jose, CA 95192-0055
      • Prof. Kathleen Martinelli
      • Phone: (408) 924-3285
      • martinelli@jmc.sjsu.edu
      • University of Southern California
      • School of Journalism
      • Los Angeles, CA 90089-1695
      • Jennifer Floto
      • Phone: (310) 578-2642
      • floto@usc.edu
        Colorado (1)
      • Colorado State University
      • Dept. of Technical Journalism
      • Fort Collins, CO 80523
      • Dr. Kirk Hallahan, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (970) 491-3963
      • Kirk.hallahan@colostate.edu
        Connecticut (2)
      • University of Hartford
      • School of Communication
      • West Hartford, CT 06117
      • Susan Grantham
      • Phone: (860) 768-4016
      • grantham@hartford.edu
      • Quinnipiac University
      • School of Communication
      • Hamden, CT 06518
      • Russell Barclay, Ph.D.
      • Phone: (203) 582-3210
      • russel.barclay@quinnipiac.edu
        Delaware (2)
      • Delaware State University
      • Mass Communications Dept.
      • Dover, DE 19901
      • Prof. Marcia Taylor
      • Phone: (302) 857-6570
      • dsumtaylor@yahoo.com
      • University of Delaware
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Newark, DE 19711
      • Prof. Phil Wescott
      • Attn: PRSSA
      • Phone: (610) 338-2560
        District of Columbia (2)
      • American University
      • School of Communication
      • Washington, DC 20016
      • Prof. b j Altschul, APR
      • Phone: (202) 885-2103
      • bja@american.edu
      • Howard University
      • School of Communication
      • Washington, DC 20059
      • Dr. Rochelle Ford
      • Phone: (202) 806-5124
      • r_tillery_larkin@hotmail.com
        Florida (7)
      • University of Florida
      • College of Journalism and Communications
      • Weimer Hall, P.O. Box 11840
      • Gainesville, FL 32611
      • Margarete R. Hall
      • Phone: (352) 392-1686
      • mhall@jou.ufl.edu
      • Florida A&M University
      • School of Journalism
      • Tallahassee, FL 32307
      • Dr. LaRae M. Donnellan, APR
      • Phone: (850) 561-2765
      • larae9411@hotmail.com
      • Florida International University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • North Miami, FL 33181
      • Prof. Catherine Ahles, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (305) 919-5629
      • ahlesc@fiu-edu
      • Florida Southern College
      • Communication Department
      • 111 Lake Hollingsworth Dr.
      • Lakeland, FL 33801
      • Kimberly Grady-Brock
      • Phone: (863) 680-4133
      • kimgradybrock@aol.com
      • University of Miami
      • School of Communications
      • Coral Gables, FL 33124
      • Dr. Donn Tilson, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (305) 284-3153
      • dtilson@miami.edu
      • University of North Florida
      • College of Arts & Sciences
      • Jacksonville, FL 32224-2660
      • Prof. Roberta Reid-Doggett, APR
      • Phone: (904) 620-2624
      • rdoggett@unf.edu
      • University of South Florida
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • 4202 East Fowler Ave. CIS1040
      • Tampa, FL 33620
      • Prof. Kelly G. Page
      • Phone: (813) 974-6790
      • kgpage@chumal.cas.usf.edu
        Georgia (5)
      • Clark Atlanta University
      • Communications Department
      • Atlanta, GA 98926
      • Prof. Brenda Wright
      • Phone: (404) 880-8304
      • bwright@cau.edu
      • University of Georgia
      • School of Journalism
      • Athens, GA 30602
      • Betty Jones
      • Phone: (706) 542-1704
      • betjones@arches.uga.edu
      • Georgia Southern University
      • Communication Arts Dept.
      • PO Box 8091
      • Statesboro, GA 30458
      • Demare Gross
      • Phone: (912) 681-0126
      • ddemare@gasou.edu
      • Georgia State University
      • Communications Dept.
      • Atlanta, GA 30303-3098
      • Prof. Jennifer Jiles
      • Phone: (404) 651-5678
      • joujdj@langate.gsu.edu
      • Valdosta State University
      • Dept. of Communication Arts
      • Valdosta, GA 31601
      • Prof. David Blakeman, APR
      • Phone: (229) 333-5820
      • dblkaema@valdosta.edu
        Hawaii (2)
      • Hawaii Pacific University
      • College of Communication
      • FHT 504-4
      • James Daniel Whitfield
      • Phone: (808) 256-5230
      • jwhitfie@campus.hpu.edu
      • University of Hawaii
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Honolulu, HI 96822
      • Prof. Tom Kelleher, Ph.D.
      • Phone: (808) 956-8881
      • tkell@hawaii.edu
        Idaho (1)
      • Brigham Young University
      • 258 Rigby Hall
      • Rexburg, ID 83460
      • Michael Cannon
      • Phone: (208) 496-1897
      • cannonm@byui.edu
        Illinois (9)
      • Bradley University
      • Dept. of Communication & Fine Arts
      • Peoria, IL 61625
      • Prof. Michael Thurwanger
      • Phone: (309) 677-2366
      • twanger@bradley.edu
      • Columbia College
      • Marketing/Communications
      • Chicago, IL 60605
      • Prof. Morton H. Kaplan
      • Phone: (312) 663-1600
      • mkaplan@pupmail.colum.edu
      • DePaul University
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Chicago, IL 60614
      • Kurt Wise, Ph.D., APR
      • Phone: (773) 325-2969
      • kwise1@depaul.edu
      • Eastern Illinois University
      • Journalism Department
      • Charleston, IL 61920
      • Brian Sowa
      • Phone: (217) 581-6943
      • Fax: (217) 581-5718
      • bcsowa@eiu.edu
      • Illinois State University
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Normal, IL 61761
      • Dr. Dean Kazoleas, APR
      • Phone: (309) 438-8953
      • drdeank@hotamil.com
      • Northern Illinois University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • DeKalb, IL 60115
      • Dr. Walter Atkinson
      • Phone: (815) 753-7009
      • tm0wla1@wpo.cso.niu.edu
      • Southern Illinois University
      • Dept. of Speech Communication
      • Mail code 6605
      • Carbondale, IL 62901-6605
      • Dr. Nilanjana Bardhan
      • Phone: (618) 453-1891
      • bardhan@siu.edu
      • Southern Illinois University
      • Dept. of Speech Communication
      • Edwardsville, IL 62025
      • Prof. Judith Meyer
      • Phone: (618) 650-5016
      • jkmeyer@plantnet.com
      • Western Illinois University
      • Dept. of English & Journalism
      • Macomb, IL 61455
      • Dr. Mohammed Siddiqi
      • Phone: (309) 298-1326
      • m-siddiqi@wiu.edu
        Indiana (6)
      • Ball State University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Muncie, IN 47306
      • Bob Pritchard
      • Phone: (765) 285-9104
      • rpritchardl@bsu.edu
      • Butler University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Indianapolis, IN 46208
      • Prof. Rose Campbell
      • Phone: (317) 940-8000
      • rcampbel@thomas.butler.edu
      • Indiana State University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Terre Haute, IN 47809
      • Dr. Debra Worley, APR
      • Phone: (812) 237-8882
      • cmdebra@isugw.indstate.edu
      • Purdue University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • West Lafayette, IN 47907
      • Prof. Josh Boyd
      • Phone: (317) 494-3333
      • boyd@purdue.edu
      • University of Southern Indiana
      • Dept. of Communications
      • 8600 University Blvd.
      • Evansville, IN 47711
      • Tamara L. Wandel, Ph.D.
      • Phone: (812) 464-8600
      • twandel@usi.edu
      • Valparaiso University
      • Communication Department
      • Valparaiso, IN 46383
      • Dr. Bonita Dostal Neff
      • Phone: (219) 464-6827
      • bonita.neff@valpo.edu
        Iowa (6)
      • Drake University
      • School of Journalism & Mass Communications
      • Des Moines, IA 50311
      • Prof. Ronda Menke, APR
      • Phone: (515) 271-3167
      • ronda.menke@drake.edu
      • University of Iowa
      • School of Journalism
      • Iowa City, IA 52242
      • Ann Haugland
      • Phone: (319) 335-9195
      • Ann-haugland@uiowa.edu
      • Iowa State University
      • 123B Hamilton Hall
      • Ames, IA 50011-1180
      • Erin Wilgenbusch, APR
      • Phone: (515) 294-0483
      • eew@iastate.edu
      • Mount Mercy College
      • PR Department
      • Cedar Rapids, IA 52402
      • Dave Klope
      • Phone: (319) 363-1323
      • dklope@mmc.mtmercy.edu
      • University of Northern Iowa
      • Dept. of Communications & Theatre Arts
      • Cedar Falls, IA 50614
      • Dr. Gayle Pohl, APR
      • Phone: (319) 273-6308
      • gayle.pohl@uni.edu
      • Simpson College
      • Dept. of Communication Studies
      • Indianola, IA 50125
      • Susanne Gubanc
      • Phone: (515) 961-1740
      • gubanc@simpson.edu
        Kansas (2)
      • University of Kansas
      • School of Journalism & Mass Communication
      • Lawrence, KS 66045
      • Prof. David Guth, APR
      • Phone: (785) 864-4755
      • dguth@ku.edu
      • Kansas State University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Manhattan, KS 66506
      • Joye Gordon
      • Phone: (785) 532-6890
      • gordon@ksu.edu
        Kentucky (5)
      • Eastern Kentucky University
      • Dept. of Mass Communications
      • Alumni Coliseum, Rm. 108
      • Richmond, KY 40475
      • Mary Jo Nead
      • Phone: (859) 622-1143
      • Maryjo.nead@eku.edu
      • University of Kentucky
      • College of Communication
      • Lexington, KY 40592
      • Dr. Scott Witlow
      • Phone: (859) 257-9000
      • scott@uky.edu
      • Morehead State University
      • Dept. of Communications & Theater
      • Breckinridge Hall
      • Morehead, KY 40351
      • Shirley Serini, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (606) 783-2694
      • s.serini@morehead-st.edu
      • Murray State University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Murray, KY 42071
      • Robin B. Orvino-Proulx
      • Phone: (270) 762-5308
      • robin.proulx@murraystate.edu
      • Western Kentucky University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Bowling Green, KY 42101
      • Ken Payne
      • Phone: (502) 745-5836
      • ken.payne@wku.edu
        Louisiana (9)
      • Grambling State University
      • Dept. of Mass Communications
      • Grambling, LA 71245
      • Dr. Martin O. Edu
      • Phone: (318) 274-2189
      • edum@alpha0.gram.edu
      • University of Louisiana
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Lafayette, LA 70503
      • Phone: (337) 482-6103
      • University of Louisiana
      • Dept. of Communication Arts
      • Monroe, LA 71209
      • Dr. Bette Kauffman
      • Phone: (318) 342-1090
      • kauffman@ulm.edu
      • Louisiana State University
      • Manship School of Mass Communications
      • Baton Rouge, LA 70803-7202
      • Lori Boyer
      • Phone: (225) 578-3488
      • lboyer@lsu.edu
      • Louisiana State University
      • Communications Department
      • Shreveport, LA 71115
      • Prof. Ron Sereg
      • Phone: (318) 797-5375
      • resereg@hotmail.com
      • Loyola University
      • Communications Dept.
      • New Orleans, LA 70118
      • Dr. Cathy Rogers
      • Phone: (504) 865-3297
      • crogers@loyno.edu
      • McNeese State University
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • PO Box 90335
      • Lake Charles, LA 70609-0335
      • Dr. Leonard Barchak
      • Phone: (337) 475-5430
      • barchak@mail.mcneese.edu
      • Nicholls State University
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • Thibodaux, LA 70310
      • Felicia LeDuff Harry
      • Phone: (986) 448-4959
      • Maco-flh@nicholls.edu
      • Northwestern State University
      • Dept. of Language & Communication
      • Natchitoches, LA 71457
      • Paula Furr
      • Phone: (318) 357-5213
      • furrp@nsula.edu
        Maryland (5)
      • Bowie State College
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Bowie, MD 20715
      • Dr. Rev. Unnia Pettus-Hargrove
      • Phone: (301) 464-7869
      • revunnia@aol.com
      • Hood College
      • Dept. of Communication Arts
      • Frederick, MD 21701
      • Dave Medaris
      • Phone: (301) 360-2690
      • Medaris@aol.com
      • Loyola College
      • Writing & Media Dept.
      • Baltimore, MD 21210
      • Dr. Elliott King
      • Phone: (410) 617-2819
      • eking@loyola.edu
      • University of Maryland
      • College of Journalism
      • College Park, MD 20740
      • Dr. Bey-Ling Sha, APR
      • Phone: (301) 405-7447
      • profsha@hotmail.com
      • Towson University
      • Dept. of Speech & Mass Communication
      • Towson, MD 21252
      • Dr. Meg Algren, APR
      • Phone: (410) 830-2000
      • malgran@towson.edu
        Massachusetts (5)
      • Boston University
      • School of Public Communication
      • Boston, MA 02215
      • Prof. Stephen P. Quigley, APR
      • Phone: (617) 358-0066
      • squigley@bu.edu
      • Emerson College
      • Communication & Performing Arts
      • Boston, MA 02116
      • Prof. Abbott Ikeler
      • Phone: (617) 824-3427
      • Abbott_Ikeler@emerson.edu
      • Northeastern University
      • School of Journalism
      • Boston, MA 02115-5000
      • Prof. Gladys McKie
      • Phone: (617) 373-4054
      • g.mckie@neu.edu
      • Salem State College
      • School of Arts & Sciences
      • Salem, MA 01970-5353
      • Dr. Robert Brown
      • Phone: (978) 542-6463
      • d28man@mindspring.com
      • Simmons College
      • 300 The Fenway
      • Boston, MA 02115
      • Lynda A. Beltz
      • Phone: (617) 521-2831
      • Lynda.beltz@simmons.edu
        Michigan (9)
      • Adrian College
      • Communications Dept.
      • Adrian, MI 49221
      • Prof. Joanna Schultz
      • Phone: (517) 265-5161
      • jschultz@adrian.edu
      • Central Michigan University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859
      • Prof. Diane Krider
      • Phone: (989) 774-3153
      • kride1ds@cmich.edu
      • Eastern Michigan University
      • PR Area, Dept. of English
      • Ypsilanti, MI 48197
      • Dr. Melissa Motschall, APR
      • Phone: (734) 487-0147
      • melissa.motschall@emich.edu
      • Ferris State University
      • School of Business
      • Big Rapids, MI 49307
      • Prof. Ronald H. Greenfield, APR
      • Phone: (231) 591-2448
      • ronald_greenfield@ferris.edu
      • Grand Valley State College
      • School of Communication
      • Allendale, MI 49401
      • Tim Penning, APR
      • Phone: (616) 331-3478
      • penningt@gvsu.edu
      • Michigan State University
      • Advertising Department
      • East Lansing, MI 48824
      • Dr. Brenda Wrigley
      • Phone: (517) 355-7556
      • wrigley1@msu.edu
      • Northern Michigan Univ.
      • 1401 Presque Isle
      • Marquette, MI 49855
      • Prof. Wally Niebauer
      • Phone: (906) 227-1057
      • niebauer@nmu.edu
      • University of Michigan, Dearborn
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Dearborn, MI 48128-1491
      • Susan L. Sheth
      • Phone: (313) 436-9177
      • susheth@umd.umich.edu
      • Wayne State University
      • Speech/Communication & Theatre
      • Detroit, MI 48202
      • Dr. Shelly Najor
      • Phone: (313) 577-1556
      • m.a.najor@wayne.edu
        Minnesota (4)
      • University of Minnesota
      • School of Journalism & Mass Communication
      • Minneapolis, MN 55455
      • Dr. Albert Tims
      • Phone: (612) 625-0020
      • Timsx001@unm.edu
      • Minnesota State University, Moorhead
      • Mass Communication Dept.
      • Moorhead, MN 56560
      • Susanne Williams
      • Phone: (218) 291-4373
      • willmsu@mnstate.edu
      • St. Cloud State University
      • Dept. of Mass Communications
      • St. Cloud, MN 56301
      • Prof. Gretchen Tiberghien, APR
      • Phone: (320) 255-3293
      • gtib@stcloudstate.edu
      • University of St. Thomas
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • St Paul, MN 55105
      • Jeanne Steele
      • Phone: (612) 962-5265
      • jrsteele@stthomas.edu
        Mississippi (2)
      • Univ. of Southern Mississippi
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5121
      • Dr. Charles Mayo
      • Phone: (601) 266-6471
      • Charles.mayo@usm.edu
      • Mississippi State University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • P.O. Box PF
      • Mississippi State, MS 39762
      • Dr. John E. Forde, APR
      • Phone: (662) 325-8033
      • jeforde@ra.msstate.edu
        Missouri (5)
      • Central Missouri State University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Warrensburg, MO 64093
      • Dr. Tricia L. Hansen-Horn
      • Phone: (660) 543-8635
      • hansen-horn@cmsu1.cmsu.edu
      • Northwest Missouri State University
      • 136 Wells Hall
      • Maryville, MO 64468
      • Dr. Melody Hubbard
      • Phone: (660) 562-1827
      • hubbar@mail.nwmissouri.edu
      • Southeast Missouri State University
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • Cape Girardeau, MO 63701
      • Dr. Susan Gonders
      • Phone: (573) 651-2486
      • sgonders@hotmail.com
      • Stephens College
      • Communications Department
      • Columbia, MO 65215
      • Prof. John S. Blakemore, APR
      • Phone: (573) 876-7104
      • johnb@stephens.edu
      • Missouri Southern State University-Joplin
      • Department of Comm. & Foreign Languages
      • Joplin, MO 64801
      • Prof. Brenda J. Kilby
      • Phone: (417) 625-9786
      • kilby-b@mssc.edu
        Nebraska (3)
      • Creighton University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Omaha, NE 68178
      • Prof. Eileen Wirth
      • Phone: (402) 280-3014
      • emw@creighton.edu
      • University of Nebraska
      • 206 Avery Hall
      • Lincoln, NE 68588-0130
      • Prof. Phyllis Larsen
      • Phone: (402) 472-3041
      • plarsen1@unl.edu
      • University of Nebraska
      • Dept. of Journalism & Mass Communication
      • Omaha, NE 68182-0112
      • Prof. Karen Weber
      • Phone: (402) 554-2246
      • kweber@mail.unomaha.edu
        Nevada (2)
      • University of Nevada
      • School of Communications
      • 4505 Maryland Parkway
      • Box 451024
      • Las Vegas, NV 89154-1024
      • John Naccarato
      • Phone: (702) 895-1333
      • John.naccarato@ccmail.nevada.edu
      • University of Nevada
      • School of Journalism
      • Reno, NV 89557-0040
      • Dr. Amiso George
      • Phone: (775) 784-4198
      • ageorge@unr.edu
        New Jersey (4)
      • Monmouth University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • West Long Branch, NJ 07764
      • Nancy Wiencek
      • Phone: (732) 571-7553
      • nwiencek@monmouth.edu
      • Rowan University
      • Communications Dept.
      • 201 Mullica Hill Rd.
      • Glassboro, NJ 08028
      • Larry Litwin
      • Phone: (856) 256-4224
      • larry@larrylitwin.com
      • Rutgers University
      • Dept. of Journalism & Mass Media
      • New Brunswick, NJ 08903
      • Dr. W. David Gibson
      • Phone: (732) 932-7500 x 8114
      • gibson@scils.rutgers.edu
      • Seton Hall University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • South Orange, NJ 07079
      • Prof. Kathleen D. Rennie, APR
      • Phone: (908) 851-0804
      • kathdrenn@aol.com
        New Mexico (1)
      • University of New Mexico
      • Dept. of Communication & Journalism
      • Albuquerque, NM 87131
      • Dr. Dirk Gibson
      • Phone: (505) 277-2727
      • dirkgib@unm.edu
        New York (14)
      • Buffalo State College
      • Communication Dept.
      • Buffalo, NY 14222
      • Marian Deutschman
      • Phone: (716) 878-6008
      • mardeu@localnet.com
      • Canisius College
      • Dept. of Communication Studies
      • 2001 Main Street
      • Buffalo, NY 14208-1098
      • Prof. Stanton Hudson, Jr., APR
      • Phone: (716) 888-2589
      • hudsons@canisius.edu
      • City College of New York
      • Dept. of Communications
      • New York, NY 10031
      • Prof. Lynn Appelbaum
      • Phone: (212) 650-6561
      • lappelbaum@ccny.cuny.edu
      • Cornell University
      • Dept. of Communication Arts
      • Ithaca, NY 14853
      • Dr. James Shanahan
      • Phone: (607) 255-8058
      • jes30@cornell.edu
      • Fashion Institute of Technology (SUNY)
      • Advertising & Communication
      • New York, NY 10001
      • Prof. Roberta Elins
      • Phone: (212) 217-7705
      • Roberta_elins@fitnyc.edu
      • Iona College
      • Communication Arts Dept.
      • 715 North Ave.
      • New Rochelle, NY 10801
      • Prof. Robert J. Petrausch
      • Phone: (914) 633-2000
      • rpetrausch@iona.edu
      • Ithaca College
      • School of Communications
      • Ithaca, NY 14850-5801
      • Jerry Engel, APR
      • Phone: (607) 274-1030
      • jengel@ithaca.edu
      • Long Island Univ. at C.W. Post
      • Communication Arts
      • Brookville, NY 11548
      • Prof. Abby Dress, APR
      • Phone: (516) 299-2984
      • Dress2@worldnet.att.com
      • New York University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • New York, NY 10003
      • Dr. Joyce Hauser
      • Phone: (212) 998-5196
      • jh7@nyu.edu
      • SUNY at Geneseo
      • Dept. of Speech Communication
      • Geneseo, NY 14454
      • Mary Mohan
      • Phone: (585) 245-5223
      • mohan@geneseo.edu
      • SUNY at Oswego
      • Communication Studies Dept.
      • Oswego, NY 13126
      • Dr. Zoltan Bedy
      • Phone: (315) 425-9143
      • bedy@oswego.edu
      • Syracuse University
      • Newhouse School
      • Syracuse, NY 13244
      • Robert Kucharvy
      • Phone: (315) 443-2747
      • rmkuckar@syr.edu
      • Utica College
      • Dept. of Journalism & PR
      • Utica, NY 13502
      • Patricia Swann
      • Phone: (315) 792-3243
      • pswann@utica.edu
      • University of Buffalo
      • Dept. of Communication
      • 359 Baldy Hall
      • Buffalo, NY 14260
      • Deborah Silverman, Ph.D., APR
      • Phone: (716) 645-2141, ext. 1181
      • debsilv@aol.com
        North Carolina (8)
      • Appalachian State Univ.
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Boone, NC 28608
      • Dr. Janice Pope
      • Phone: (828) 262-2391
      • popejt@appstate.edu
      • Campbell University
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • Buies Creek, NC 27506
      • Prof. Olivia Ross, APR
      • Phone: (910) 893-1526
      • ross@mailcenter.campbell.edu
      • East Carolina University
      • School of Communication
      • 221 Joyner East
      • Greenville, NC 27858
      • Christine R. Russell
      • Phone: (252) 328-2670
      • russellc@mail.ecu.edu
      • Elon University
      • Campus 2850
      • Elon College, NC 27244
      • Jessica J. Gisclair
      • Phone: (336) 278-5724
      • jgisclair@elon.edu
      • University of North Carolina
      • School of Journalism
      • Chapel Hill, NC 27514
      • Larry Lamb
      • Phone: (919) 843-5851
      • llamb@email.unc.edu
      • University of North Carolina
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Charlotte, NC 28223
      • Dr. Alan Freitag
      • Phone: (704) 687-4005
      • arfreita@email.uncc.edu
      • North Carolina State University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Raleigh, NC 27695-8104
      • Dr. Juliette Storr
      • Phone: (919) 515-9749
      • jmstorr@social.chass.ncsa
      • Western Carolina University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Cullowhee, NC 28723
      • Debie Connelly
      • Phone: (704) 227-7491
      • dlconnelly@email.wcu.edu
        North Dakota (2)
      • University of North Dakota
      • School of Communication
      • Grand Forks, ND 58203
      • Michael Nitz
      • Phone: (701) 777-3053
      • dakotanitz@hotmail.com
      • North Dakota State University
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • Fargo, ND 58105
      • Paul Nelson
      • Phone: (701) 231-7705
      • Paul.nelson.1@ndsu.nodak.edu
        Ohio (16)
      • University of Akron
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Akron, OH 44325
      • Dr. Nancy Somerick
      • Phone: (330) 972-6686
      • nmsomer@uakron.edu
      • Bowling Green State University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Bowling Green, OH 43403
      • Prof. Terry Rentner
      • Phone: (419) 372-2079
      • trentne@bgnet.bgsu.edu
      • Capital University
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Columbus, OH 43209
      • Dr. Steven Bruning
      • Phone: (614) 236-6323
      • sbruning@capital.edu
      • University of Dayton
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Dayton, OH 45469
      • Dr. Doris Dartey
      • Phone: (937) 229-3945
      • doris.dartey@notes.udayton.edu
      • University of Findlay
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Findlay, OH 45840-3695
      • Prof. Jeanette Drake, APR
      • Phone: (419) 434-6982
      • drake@findlay.edu
      • John Carroll University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • University Heights, OH 44118
      • Fred Buchstein
      • Phone: (216) 397-4378
      • fbuchstein@jcu.edu
      • Kent State University
      • School of Journalism
      • 138A Taylor Hall
      • P.O. Box 5190
      • Kent, OH 44242-001
      • Michelle Ewing, APR
      • Phone: (330) 672-4288
      • meewing@kent.edu
      • Miami University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Oxford, OH 45056
      • Dr. Marjorie K. Nadler
      • Phone: (513) 529-7175
      • nadlemk@muohio.edu
      • Ohio University
      • School of Journalism
      • Athens, OH 45701
      • Diana Knott
      • Phone: (740) 597-1294
      • knott@ohio.edu
      • Ohio Northern University
      • Dept. of Communication Arts
      • Ada, OH 45810
      • Dr. Stephen Iseman
      • Phone: (419) 772-2053
      • s-iseman@onu.edu
      • Ohio State University
      • School of Journalism
      • 3016 Derby Hall
      • 154 N. Oval Mall
      • Columbus, OH 43210
      • Daniel J. Steinberg, APR
      • Phone: (740) 344-8177
      • steinberg.28@osu.edu
      • Otterbein College
      • Dept. of Speech Communication
      • Westerville, OH 43081
      • Prof. Denise Shively, APR
      • Phone: (614) 823-1838
      • dshively@otterbein.edu
      • University of Toledo
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Toledo, OH 43606
      • Prof. Joseph L. Clark, APR
      • Phone: (419) 530-4794
      • jclark@utnet.utoledo.edu
      • Ursuline College
      • Communication Arts Dept.
      • Pepper Pike, OH 44124
      • Prof. Rosemary Rood-Tutt
      • Phone: (440) 449-4200
      • rtutt@ursuline.edu
      • Wright State University
      • Department of Communication
      • Dayton, OH 45435
      • Dr. Henry J. Ruminski, APR
      • Phone: (937) 775-2950
      • henry.ruminski@wright.edu
      • Xavier University
      • Communication Arts Dept.
      • 3800 Victory Parkway
      • Cincinnati, OH 45207
      • Dr. Jennifer Wood
      • Phone: (513) 745-3704
      • jfwphd@aol.com
        Oklahoma (5)
      • University of Central Oklahoma
      • Journalism Department
      • Edmond, OK 73034
      • Prof. Jill Kelsey, APR
      • Phone: (405) 974-5914
      • jkelsey@ucok.edu
      • University of Oklahoma
      • School of Journalism & Mass Communication
      • Norman, OK 73019
      • Prof. Kenneth McMillen, APR
      • Phone: (405) 325-3737
      • kmcmillen@ou.edu
      • Oklahoma State University
      • School of Broadcasting & Journalism
      • Stillwater, OK 74078
      • Prof. R. Brooks Garner, APR
      • Phone: (405) 744-8271
      • garnerr@okstate.edu
      • Oral Roberts University
      • Communication Arts Dept.
      • Tulsa, OK 74171
      • Dr. Johnny Mac Allen
      • Phone: (918) 495-6867
      • jallen@oru.edu
      • University of Tulsa
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Tulsa, OK 74104
      • Prof. Shari Weiss
      • Phone: (918) 631-3811
      • weisss@centum.utulsa
        Oregon (1)
      • University of Oregon
      • School of Journalism
      • Eugene, OR 97403
      • Dr. Jim Van Leuven, APR
      • Phone: (541) 346-3752
      • jvanleuv@oregon.uoregon.edu
        Pennsylvania (19)
      • Bloomsburg University
      • Mass Communications Dept.
      • Bloomsburg, PA 17815
      • Dr. Richard Ganahl III
      • Phone: (560) 389-4783
      • rganahl@husky.bloomu.edu
      • California University
      • Communication Studies
      • California, PA 15419-1394
      • Dr. Sylvia Sholar
      • Phone: (724) 938-4227
      • sholar@cup.edu
      • Drexel University
      • Humanities/Communication
      • Philadelphia, PA 19104
      • Alexander G. Nikolaev
      • Phone: (215) 895-1823
      • Alexander.g.nikolaev@drexel.edu
      • Duquesne University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Pittsburgh, PA 15282
      • Dr. Kathleen Roberts
      • Phone: (412) 396-5698
      • robertskg@duq.edu
      • Edinboro University
      • Dept. of Speech & Communication – Studies
      • Edinboro, PA 16444
      • Dr. Anthony C. Peyronel
      • Phone: (814) 732-2116
      • apeyronel@edinboro.edu
      • Lehigh University
      • Division of Journalism
      • Bethlehem, PA 18015
      • Prof. Carole Gorney, APR,
      • Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (610) 758-4178
      • cmg1@lehigh.edu
      • Mansfield University
      • Communication & Theater Dept.
      • Mansfield, PA 16933
      • Prof. Holly Pieper
      • Phone: (570) 662-4789
      • hpieper@mnsfld.edu
      • Marywood College
      • Communication Arts Dept.
      • 2300 Adams Ave.
      • Scranton, PA 18509
      • Prof. Jay Hammeran
      • Phone: (570) 348-6209
      • hammeran@es.marywood.edu
      • Millersville University
      • Dept. of Communication and Theater
      • PO Box 1002
      • Millersville, PA 17551-0302
      • Prof. Thomas P. Boyle, APR
      • Phone: (717) 871-5448
      • thomas.boyle@millersville.edu
      • Pennsylvania State University
      • College of Communications
      • University Park, PA 16802
      • Prof. Anne Marie Major, APR
      • Phone: (814) 863-3069
      • amm17@psu.edu
      • Point Park College
      • Dept. of Journalism & Communication
      • Pittsburgh, PA 15222
      • Prof. Bob O'Gara, APR
      • Phone: (412) 392-3413
      • rogara@ppc.edu
      • University of Scranton
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Scranton, PA 18505
      • Dr. Jan Kelly, APR
      • Phone: (570) 941-7745
      • kellyj1@scranton.edu
      • Shippensburg University
      • Communication/Journalism
      • Shippensburg, PA 17257
      • Prof. Kathleen Williams
      • Phone: (717) 477-1594
      • kpwill@ship.edu
      • Slippery Rock University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Slippery Rock, PA 16057
      • Dr. Mark Banks
      • Phone: (724) 738-2569
      • mark.banks@sru.edu
      • Susquehanna University
      • Communication Department
      • Selinsgrove, PA 17870
      • Dr. Randall Hines, APR
      • Phone: (570) 372-4079
      • hines@susqu.edu
      • Temple University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Philadelphia, PA 19122
      • Dr. Jean L. Brodey, APR
      • Phone: (215) 204-8757
      • brodey44@aol.com
      • Villanova University
      • Communications Dept.
      • 800 Lancaster Ave.
      • Villanova, PA 19085-1699
      • William L. Cowen
      • Phone: (610) 519-7921
      • William.cowen@villanova.edu
      • Westminster College
      • Dept. of English
      • New Wilmington, PA 16172
      • Prof. Delores Natale
      • Phone: (724) 946-7348
      • nataleda@westminster.edu
      • York College
      • Dept. of Communication
      • York, PA 17405
      • Robert Carroll, Ph.D., APR
      • Phone: (717) 815-6451
      • rcarroll@ycp.edu
        Rhode Island (1)
      • Roger Williams University
      • Dept of Communication
      • Bristol, RI 02809
      • Robert J. Ristino, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA
      • rristino@rwu.edu
        South Carolina (2)
      • College of Charleston
      • Communication Department
      • Charleston, SC 29424
      • Vincent L. Benigni
      • Phone: (843) 953-7019
      • benigniv@cofc.edu
      • University of South Carolina
      • College of Journalism
      • Columbia, SC 29208
      • Prof. Beth Dickey
      • Phone: (803) 777-3320
      • beth_dickey@usc.jour.sc.edu
        South Dakota (1)
      • University of South Dakota
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • Vermillion, SD 57069
      • Karen Thompson
      • Phone: (605) 677-6471
      • kthompso@usd.edu
        Tennessee (9)
      • Austin Peay University
      • Dept. of Communication and Theatre
      • Clarksville, TN 37044
      • Dr. Frank E. Parcells
      • (931) 221-6308
      • parcellsf@apsu.edu
      • East Tennessee State Univ.
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Johnson City, TN 37601
      • Dr. John King
      • Phone: (423) 439-4169
      • johnking@etsu.edu
      • Lee University
      • Dept. of Communication Arts
      • 1120 N. Ocoee Street
      • Cleveland, TN 37320
      • Prof. Patricia Silverman, APR
      • Phone: (423) 614-8228
      • psilverman@leeu.edu
      • Lipscomb University
      • Communication Dept.
      • Nashville, TN 37204
      • Dr. Kenneth R. Schott
      • Phone: (615) 279-5816
      • ken.schott@lipscomb.edu
      • University of Memphis
      • Journalism Dept.
      • Memphis, TN 38152
      • Dr. Rick Fischer, APR
      • Phone: (901) 678-2853
      • rfischer@memphis.edu
      • Middle Tennessee State University
      • Department of Journalism
      • Murfreesboro, TN 37132
      • Dr. Teresa Mastin
      • Phone: (615) 904-8239
      • mastinte@msu.edu
      • University of Tennessee
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Chattanooga, TN 37403
      • Prof. Rebekah Bromley
      • Phone: (423) 874-0896
      • Rebekah_bromley@utc.edu
      • University of Tennessee
      • School of Journalism
      • 1345 Circle Park Drive, Room 476
      • Knoxville, TN 37966-0330
      • Dr. Bonnie Riechert
      • Phone: (865) 974-5108
      • breicher@utk.edu
      • University of Tennessee
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Gooch Hall, GH 305
      • Martin, TN 38238
      • Dr. Jeff Hoyer
      • Phone: (731) 514-3197
      • jhoyer@utm.edu
        Texas (15)
      • Abilene Christian University
      • Journalism & Mass Communications Div.
      • Abilene, TX 79699
      • David A. Hogan
      • Phone: (325) 674-2045
      • Dave.hogan@acu.edu
      • Baylor University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • P.O. Box 97353
      • Waco, TX 76798-7353
      • Dr. Michael Bishop, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (254) 710-1469
      • Michael_Bishop@baylor.edu
      • Hardin-Simmons University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Box 16022 HSU Station
      • Abilene, TX 79698
      • Dr. Randy Armstrong
      • Phone: (915) 670-1436
      • University of Houston
      • School of Communication
      • Houston, TX 77204-3786
      • Dr. Robert Heath
      • Phone: (713) 743-2873
      • rheath@uh.edu
      • Howard Payne University
      • Brownwood, TX 76801
      • Prof. Peter Seward
      • Phone: (915) 646-2502 ext. 5531
      • pseward@hputx.edu
      • University of North Texas
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • P.O. Box 311460
      • Denton, TX 76201
      • Dr. Richard Wells, APR
      • Phone: (940) 565-22167
      • wells@unt.edu
      • Sam Houston State University
      • Journalism Program
      • Huntsville, TX 77341
      • Prof. Franklin Krystyniak, APR
      • Phone: (936) 294-1833
      • frankk@shsu.edu
      • Southern Methodist University
      • Center for Communication Arts
      • Dallas, TX 75275
      • Prof. Chris Anderson, APR
      • Phone: (214) 768-3378
      • Southwest Texas State University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • San Marcos, TX 78666
      • Dr. Bruce Renfro
      • Phone: (512) 245-2656
      • Rr08@stsw.edu
      • University of Texas
      • Dept of Communications/PRSSA-UTA Station
      • Box 19107
      • Arlington, TX 760190107
      • Alisa White
      • Phone (817) 272-5185
      • arwhite@uta.edu
      • University of Texas
      • Dept. of Advertising
      • CMA 7.142
      • Austin, TX 78712
      • Prof. Ron Anderson
      • Phone: (512) 471-1989
      • rba@mail.utexas.edu
      • University of Texas
      • Communication Dept.
      • San Antonio, TX 78249
      • Prof. Aimee Shelton
      • Phone: (210) 458-5348
      • ashelton@utsa.edu
      • Texas A&M University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • College Station, TX 77843
      • Dr. Douglas Starr, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (979) 845-5374
      • d-starr@tamu.edu
      • Texas Christian University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Fort Worth, TX 76129
      • Dr. Douglas Ann Newsom, APR, Fellow PRSA
      • Phone: (817) 257-6552
      • d.Newsom@tcu.edu
      • Texas Tech University
      • Dept. of Mass Communication
      • Lubbock, TX 79409
      • Dr. Michael Parkinson, APR
      • Phone: (806) 742-6500
      • michael.parkinson@ttu.edu
        Utah (4)
      • Brigham Young University
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Provo, UT 84602
      • Prof. Rich Long
      • Phone: (801) 422-2924
      • commsec@byugate.byu.edu
      • University of Utah
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Salt Lake City, UT 84112
      • Julia Corbett
      • Phone: (801) 581-4577
      • fleener@aol.com
      • Utah State University
      • Department of Journalism
      • Logan, UT 84322
      • Les Roka
      • Phone: (435) 797-0369
      • lroka@cc.usu.edu
      • Weber State University
      • Dept of Communication
      • 1605 University Circle
      • Ogden, UT 84408-1605
      • James Andrew Lingwall
      • (801) 626-8128
      • alingwall@weber.edu
        Virginia (7)
      • George Mason University
      • Dept of Communications
      • 4400 University 3D6
      • Fairfax, VA 22030
      • Katherine Rowan
      • Phone: (703) 993-4063
      • krowan@erols.com
      • Hampton University
      • Dept. of Mass Media
      • Hampton, VA 23668
      • Pro. Rosalynne Whitaker-Heck
      • Phone: (757) 727-5405
      • rosalynne.whitaker-heck@hamptonu.edu
      • Liberty University
      • School of Communications
      • 1971 University Blvd. Lynchburg, VA 24502
      • Deborah Wade Huff
      • Phone: (804) 582-2428
      • dwhuff@liberty.edu
      • Norfolk State University
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Norfolk, VA 23504
      • Prof. Francis McDonald, APR
      • Phone: (757) 683-9559
      • francis.mcdonald@hamptonu.edu
      • Radford University
      • PO Box 6932
      • Radford, VA 24142
      • Dr. Kristin K. Froemling
      • Phone: (540) 831-5282
      • kfroemling@hotmail.com
      • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • School of Mass Communication
      • Richmond, VA 23284-2034
      • Dr. Ernest F. Martin, Jr.
      • Phone: (804) 828-6000
      • Martinef99@yahoo.com
      • Virginia Polytechnic Institute
      • Communications Studies
      • Blacksburg, VA 24061
      • Dr. Rachel Hollaway
      • Phone: (540) 231-9828
      • rhollowa@vt.edu
        Washington (5)
      • Central Washington Univ.
      • Communication Dept.
      • Ellensburg, WA 98926
      • Prof. Beatrice Coleman
      • Phone: (509) 963-1070
      • profcoleman@hotmail.com
      • Eastern Washington University
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Cheney, WA 990042431
      • Dr. Patricia Chantrill
      • Phone: (509) 359-2313
      • patricia.chantrill@mail.ewu.edu
      • Gonzaga University
      • Communication Arts Dept.
      • AD Box 70
      • Spokane, WA 99258-0001
      • Dale Goodwin
      • Phone: (509) 328-4220
      • dgoodwin@gonzaga.edu
      • Washington State University
      • Dept. of Communications
      • Pullman, WA 99164-2520
      • Moon J. Lee
      • Phone: (509) 335-4225
      • Moonlee@wsu.edu
      • University of Washington
      • School of Communication
      • Seattle, WA 98195
      • Prof. Kathleen Fearn-Banks
      • Phone: (206) 543-7646
      • kfb@u.washington.edu
        West Virginia (4)
      • Bethany College
      • Communication Dept.
      • Bethany, WV 27032
      • Prof. Ted Pauls, MBA
      • Phone: (304) 829-7000
      • tpauls@mail.bethanywv.edu
      • Marshall University
      • School of Journalism
      • 400 Hal Greer Blvd.
      • Huntington, WV 25755-2622
      • Kim Carico-Simpson
      • Phone: (304) 696-4636
      • carico3@marshall.edu
      • West Virginia University
      • School of Journalism
      • Morgantown, WV 26506-6010
      • Dr. Ivan Pinnell
      • Phone: (304) 293-3505
      • Ivan.pinnell@mail.wvu.edu
      • West Virginia State College
      • Communication Department
      • Institute, WV 25112
      • Dr. Trevellya Ford-Ahmed
      • Phone: (304) 766-3327
      • tfordahmed@mail.wvsc.edu
        Wisconsin (6)
      • Marquette University
      • Dept. of Advertising & PR
      • P.O. Box 1881
      • Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881
      • Dr. Daradirek “Gee” Ekachai
      • Phone: (414) 288-3649
      • ekachaid@mu.edu
      • University of Wisconsin
      • School of Journalism & Mass Communication
      • Madison, WI 53706
      • Michelle Nelson
      • Phone: (608) 263-3397
      • mrnelson@facstaff.wisc.edu
      • University of Wisconsin
      • Dept. of Journalism
      • Oshkosh, WI 54901
      • Dr. Julie Henderson, APR
      • Phone: (920) 424-1105
      • henderso@uwosh.edu
      • University of Wisconsin
      • Journalism/Mass Communication Dept.
      • UWM Chapter PRSSA
      • Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413
      • Prof. Becky Crowder, APR
      • Phone: (414) 229-5794
      • bcrowder@csd.uwm.edu
      • University of Wisconsin-SP
      • Division of Communication
      • 219 CAC, UWSP
      • 1101 Reserve Street
      • Stevens Point, WI 54481
      • Dr. Richard M. Dubiel
      • Phone: (715) 346-2007
      • rdubiel@uwsp.edu
      • University of Wisconsin
      • Dept. of Communication
      • Whitewater, WI 53190
      • Dr. Peter Smudde
      • Phone: (414) 472-1234
      • smuddep@uww.edu
      Public Relations Student Society of America. Reprinted with permission. For the most recent listings, visit the Society's Web site, http://www.prssa.org
      Appendix 9: Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement

      Alpha Level (α) The amount of error or chance allowed in sampling or inferential testing

      Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) An inferential statistical test of significance for continuous-measurement dependent variables against a number of groups as independent variables

      Attitude A predisposition to act or behave toward some object; a motivating factor in public relations composed of three dimensions: affective (emotional evaluation), cognitive (knowledge evaluation), and connotative (behavioral evaluation)

      Attitude Research The measuring and interpreting of a full range of views, sentiments, feelings, opinions, and beliefs that segments of the public may hold toward a client or product

      Attitude Scale A measure that targets respondent attitudes or beliefs toward some object; typically interval-level data, and requires that an arbitrary or absolute midpoint (“neutral” or “neither agree nor disagree”) be provided to the respondent; also known as Likert or semantic differential measures

      Audience A specified group from within a defined public targeted for influence


      Baseline An initial measurement against which all subsequent measures are compared

      Behavioral Objective (1) An objective that specifies the expected public relations campaign or program outcome in terms of specific behaviors; (2) a measure that is actionable in that it is the behavior requested of a target audience

      Belief A long-held evaluation of some object, usually determined on the basis of its occurrence; clusters of beliefs yield attitudes

      Benchmarking (Benchmark Study) A measurement technique that involves having an organization learn something about its own practices and the practices of selected others, and then compare these practices

      Bivariate Analysis A statistical examination of the relationship between two variables

      BRAD British Rate and Data measure, providing circulation and advertising cost data


      Campaign (Program) The planning, execution, and evaluation of a public relations plan of action aimed at solving a problem

      Case Study Methodology An informal research methodology that gathers data on a specific individual, company, or product with the analysis focused on understanding its unique qualities; not generalizable to other cases or populations

      Categorical Data Measurement data that are defined by their association with groups and are expressed in terms of frequencies, percentages, and proportions (see Nominal data, Ordinal data)

      Category In content analysis, the part of the system where the units of analysis are placed; also referred to as subjects or buckets

      Causal Relationship A relationship between variables in which a change in one variable forces, produces, or brings about a change in another variable

      Census Collection of data from every person or object in a population

      Central Tendency A statistic that describes the typical or average case in the distribution of a variable (see Mean, Median, Mode, Range, Standard deviation, Standardized score, Variance, Z-score)

      Characters A manifest unit of analysis used in content analysis consisting of individuals or roles (e.g., occupations, roles, race)

      Chi-Square2) An inferential statistical test of significance for categorical data (nominal or ordinal)

      Circulation Number of copies of a publication as distributed (as opposed to read)

      Closed-Ended Question A question that requires participants to supply selected and predetermined responses (e.g., “strongly agree,” “agree,” “neither agree nor disagree,” “disagree,” “strongly disagree”)

      Clustered Sample A type of probability sample that involves first breaking the population into heterogeneous subsets (or clusters) and then selecting the potential sample at random from the individual clusters

      Coefficient Alpha (α) A statistical test for a measurement's reliability for interval and ratio data; also known as Cronbach's coefficient alpha

      Cohort Survey A type of longitudinal survey in which some specific group is studied over time according to some criterion that stays the same (e.g., age = 21) while the samples may differ

      Column Inches Total length of an article if it were all in one column, measured in inches (or centimeters); determines the total “share of ink” that a company or brand has achieved

      Communication(s) Audit A systematic review and analysis of how effectively an organization communicates with all of its major internal and external audiences by identifying these audiences, by identifying the communication programs and their communication products utilized for each audience, by determining the effectiveness of these programs and their products, and by identifying gaps in the overall existing communication program; uses accepted research techniques and methodologies (see the following methodologies: Case study, Content analysis, Experimental, Focus group, Formal, Historical, In-depth interview, Informal, Secondary, Survey, Participant-observation)

      Community Case Study An informal methodology whereby the researcher takes an in-depth look at one or several communities—subsections of communities—in which an organization has an interest by impartial, trained researchers using a mix of informal research methodologies (i.e., participant-observation, role-playing, secondary analysis, content analysis, interviewing, focus groups)

      Confidence Interval In survey methodology based on a random sampling technique, the range of values or measurement within which a population parameter is estimated to fall (e.g., for a large population we might expect answers to a question to be within ±3 percent of the true population answer; if 55 percent responded positively, the confidence interval would be from 52 to 58 percent); sometimes called measurement error

      Confidence Level In survey methodology based on a random sampling technique, the amount of confidence we can place on our confidence interval (typically set at 95 percent, or 95 out of 100 cases truly representing the population under study, with no more than 5 cases out of 100 misrepresenting that population); sometimes called sampling error

      Construct Validity A statistically tested form of measurement validity that seeks to establish the dimensionality of a measure

      Content Analysis (1) An informal research methodology (and measurement tool) that systematically tracks messages (written, spoken, broadcast) and translates them into quantifiable form using a systematic approach to defining message categories via specified units of analysis; (2) the action of breaking down message content into predetermined components (categories) to form a judgment capable of being measured

      Content Validity A form of measurement validity that is based on other researchers' or experts' evaluations of the measurement items contained in a measure

      Contingency Question A survey question that is to be asked only to some respondents, determined by their responses to some other questions; sometimes called a funnel question

      Contingency Table A statistical table for displaying the relationship between variables in terms of frequencies and percentages; sometimes called a cross-tabulation table or cross tab

      Continuous Data Data measured on a continuum, usually as interval data

      Convenience Sample A non-probability sample where the respondents or objects are chosen because of availability (e.g., “man on the street”); a type of non-probability sample in which whoever happens to be available at a given point in time is included in the sample; sometimes called a “haphazard” or “accidental” sample

      Correlation (r) A statistical test that examines the relationships between variables (either categorical or continuous)

      Correlation Coefficient A measure of association that describes the direction and strength of a linear relationship between two variables; usually measured at the interval or ratio data level (e.g., Pearson Product Moment Coefficient, r) but can be measured at the nominal or ordinal level (e.g., Spearman-Rho)

      Cost per Thousand (CPM) Cost of advertising for each 1,000 homes reached by the media

      Covariation A criterion for causation whereby the dependent variable takes on different values depending on the independent variable

      Criterion Variable The variable the research wants to predict

      Criterion-Related Validity A form of validity that compares one measure against others known to have specified relationships with what is being measured; the highest form of measurement validity

      Crossbreak Analysis A categorical analysis that compares the frequency of responses in individual cells

      Cross-Sectional Survey A survey based on observations representing a single point in time (see Snapshot survey)

      Cumulative Scale (Guttman Scale/Scalogram) A measurement scale that assumes that when you agree with a scale item you will also agree with items that are less extreme

      Cyber Image Analysis (1) The measurement of Internet content via chat rooms or discussion groups in cyberspace regarding a client or product or topic; (2) the measurement of a client's image everywhere on the Internet


      Data The observations or measurements taken in evaluating a public relations campaign or program (see Interval data, Nominal data, Ordinal data, Ratio data)

      Deduction A philosophical logic in which specific expectations or hypotheses are developed or derived on the basis of general principles

      Delphi Technique A research methodology (usually survey or interview) where the researcher tries to forecast the future based on successive waves of interviews or surveys with a panel of experts in a given field as a means of building a “consensus” of expert opinion and thought relating to particular topics or issues

      Demographic Analysis Analysis of a population in terms of special social, political, economic, and geographic subgroups (e.g., age, sex, income level, race, educational level, place of residence, occupation)

      Demographic Data Data that differentiate between groups of people or things (e.g., by sex, race, or income)

      Dependent Variable The variable that is measured or collected as the outcome of changes in the independent variable

      Depth Interview An extensive, probing, openended, largely unstructured interview, usually conducted in person or by telephone, in which respondents are encouraged to talk freely and in great detail about given subjects; also known as an in-depth interview

      Descriptive Research A form of research that gathers information in such a way as to paint a picture of what people think or do

      Descriptive Statistics The reduction and simplification of the numbers representing research, to ease interpretion of the results

      Descriptive Survey A type of survey that collects in quantitative form basic opinions or facts about a specified population or sample; also known as a public opinion poll

      Double-Barreled Question A question that attempts to measure two things at the same time; a source of measurement error


      Environmental Scanning A research technique for tracking new developments in any area or field by carrying out a systematic review of what appears in professional, trade, or government publications

      Equal Appearing Interval Scale A measurement scale with predefined values associated with each statement; also known as a Thurstone Scale

      Equivalent Advertising Value (AVE) Equivalent cost of buying space devoted to editorial content

      Ethnographic Research An informal research methodology that relies on the tools and techniques of cultural anthropologists and sociologists to obtain a better understanding of how individuals and groups function in their natural settings (see also Participant-observation)

      Evaluation Research A form of research that determines the relative effectiveness of a public relations campaign or program by measuring program outcomes (changes in the levels of awareness, understanding, attitudes, opinions, and/or behaviors of a targeted audience or public) against a predetermined set of objectives that initially established the level or degree of change desired

      Events A community affairs or sponsorship output

      Experimental Methodology A formal research methodology that imposes strict artificial limits or boundaries on the research in order to establish some causal relationship between variables of interest; is not generalizable to a larger population

      Explanatory Research A form of research that seeks to explain why people say, think, feel, and act the way they do; concerned primarily with the development of public relations theory about relationships and processes; is typically deductive

      Exploratory Research A form of research that seeks to establish basic attitudes, opinions, and behavior patterns or facts about a specific population or sample; is typically inductive and involves extensive probing of the population, sample, or data


      Face Validity A form of measurement validity that is based on the researcher's knowledge of the concept being measured; the lowest form of measurement validity

      Facilitator An individual who leads a focus group; also known as a moderator

      Factor Analysis A statistical tool that allows researchers to test the dimensionality of their measures; used to assess a measure's construct validity

      Field Study Methodology A formal research methodology that imposes fewer restrictions, limits, or boundaries on the research in order to test some causal relationships found in experimental research and generalize them to a larger population

      Filter Question A question used to move a respondent from one question to another; a question that is used to remove a respondent from a survey or interview; also known as a funnel question

      Focus Group Methodology An informal research methodology that uses a group approach to gain an in-depth understanding of a client, object, or product; is not generalizable to other focus groups or populations

      Formal Methodology (1) A set of research methodologies that allow the researcher to generalize to a larger audience but often fail to gain indepth understanding of the client, object, or product; (2) a set of methodologies that follow the scientific or social scientific method; (3) a set of methodologies that are deductive in nature

      Frequency A descriptive statistic that represents the number of objects being counted (e.g., number of advertisements, number of people who attend an event, number of media release pickups)

      F-Test An inferential test of significance associated with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

      Funnel Question A question used in a questionnaire or schedule that moves an interviewer or respondent from one part of a survey to another (e.g., “Are you a registered voter?” If the respondent says yes, certain questions are asked; if not, then other questions are asked)


      Goal (Objective) The explicit statement of intentions that supports a communication strategy and includes an intended audience/receiver, a proposed measurable outcome (or desired level of change in that audience), and a specific time frame for that change to occur

      Gross Rating Points (GRP) Measures of weight, readership, or audience equivalent to audience exposure among 1 percent of the population (see also Targeted Gross Rating Points [TGRP])

      Guttman Scale (Cumulative Scale/Scalogram) A measurement scale that assumes (1) unidimensionality and (2) that people, when faced with a choice, will also choose items less intense than the one chosen


      Historical Methodology An informal research methodology that examines the causes and effects of past events

      Hypothesis An expectation about the nature of things derived from theory; a prediction of how an independent variable changes a dependent variable; formally stated as a predication (e.g., “males will purchase more of X than females”) but tested via the null hypothesis (“males and females will not differ in their purchases of X”)

      Hypothesis Testing Determining whether the expectations that a hypothesis represents are indeed found in the real world


      Image Research A research program or campaign that systematically studies people's perceptions toward an organization, individual, product, or service; sometimes referred to as a reputation study

      Impressions The number of people who might have had the opportunity to be exposed to a story that has appeared in the media; also known as opportunity to see, usually refers to the total audited circulation of a publication or the audience reach of a broadcast vehicle

      Incidence The frequency with which a condition or event occurs in a given time and population or sample

      Independent t-Test An inferential statistical test of significance that compares two levels of an independent variable against a continuous measured dependent variable

      Independent Variable The variable against which the dependent variable is tested

      In-Depth Interview Methodology An informal research methodology in which an individual interviews another in a one-on-one situation (see Depth interview)

      Induction A philosophical logic in which general principles are developed from specific observations

      Inferential Research Statistical analyses that test if the results observed for a sample are indicative of the population; the presentation of information that allows us to make judgments about whether the research results observed in a sample generalize to the population from which the sample was drawn

      Inferential Statistics Statistical tests that allow a researcher to say within a certain degree of confidence whether variables or groups truly differ in their response to a public relations message (see Analysis of Variance [ANOVA], Bivariate Analysis, Chi-Square [χ2], Correlation [r], Regression [REGR], t-Test)

      Informal Methodology A research methodology that does not allow the researcher to generalize to a larger audience but leads to in-depth understanding of the client, object, or product

      Informational Objective An objective that establishes what information a target audience should know or the degree of change in knowledge levels after the conclusion of a public relations campaign or program

      Inputs The research information and data from both internal and external sources applied in the conception, approval, and design phases of the input stage of the communication production process

      Inquiry Research A formal or informal research methodology that systematically employs content analysis, survey methodology, and/or interviewing techniques to study the range and types of unsolicited inquiries that an organization may receive from customers, prospective customers, or other target audience groups

      Instrumental Error In measurement, error that occurs because the measuring instrument was poorly written

      Interval Data Measurement data that are defined on a continuum and assumed to have equal spacing between data points (see Ratio data); examples include temperature scales and standardized intelligence test scores

      Interview Schedule A guideline for asking questions in person or over the telephone

      Issues Research A formal or informal research methodology that systematically studies public policy questions of the day, with the chief focus on those public policy matters whose definition and contending positions are still evolving

      Item A manifest unit of analysis used in content analysis consisting of an entire message (e.g., an advertisement, story, or press release)


      Judgmental Sample A type of non-probability sample in which individuals are deliberately selected for inclusion in the sample by the researcher because they have special knowledge, positions, or characteristics or represent other relevant dimensions of the population that are deemed important to study; also known as a purposive sample


      Key Performance (Performance Result) The desired end effect or impact of a program of campaign performance

      Known Group t-Test An inferential statistical test of significance that compares the results for a sampled group on some continuous-measurement dependent variable against a known value

      KR-20 A reliability statistic for nominal- or ordinal-level measurement; also known as Kuder-Richardson Formula 20


      Latent Content From content analysis, an analysis of the underlying idea, thesis, or theme of content; the deeper meanings that are intended or perceived in a message

      Likert Scale An interval-level measurement scale that requires people to respond to statements on a set of predetermined reactions, usually “strongly agree,” “agree,” “neither agree nor disagree,” “disagree,” “strongly disagree”; must possess an odd number of reaction words or phrases; also called summated ratings method because the scale requires at least two, if not three, statements per measurement dimension

      Longitudinal Survey A type of survey involving different individuals or objects that are observed or measured over time (e.g., multiple snapshot samples)


      Mail Survey A survey technique whereby a questionnaire is sent to a respondent via the mail (or Internet) and the respondent self-administers the questionnaire and then sends it back

      Mall Intercept Research A special type of person-to-person surveying in which in-person interviewing is conducted by approaching prospective participants as they stroll through shopping centers or malls; a non-probability form of sampling

      Manifest Content From content analysis, an analysis of the actual content of a message exactly as it appears as opposed to latent content that must be inferred from messages

      Market Research Any systematic study of buying or selling behavior

      Mean (1) A descriptive statistic of central tendency that describes the “average” of a set of numbers on a continuum, also called average; (2) the process of applying a precise number or metric, which is both valid and reliable, to the evaluation of some performance

      Measurement A way of giving an activity a precise dimension, generally by comparison to some standard; usually done in a quantifiable or numerical manner

      Measurement Error For surveys, see Confidence interval

      Measurement Reliability The extent to which a measurement scale measures the same thing over time (see Coefficient alpha [α], Split-half reliability, Test-retest reliability)

      Measurement Validity The extent to which a measurement scale actually measures what it is believed to measure (see Construct validity, Content validity, Criterion-related validity, Face validity)

      Media Includes newspapers, business and consumer magazines and other publications, radio and television, the Internet; company reports, news wires, government reports and brochures; Internet Web sites and discussion groups

      Media Evaluations The systematic appraisal of a company's reputation, products, or services, or those of its competitors, as measured by their presence in the media

      Median A descriptive statistic of central tendency indicating the midpoint in a series of data, the point above and below which 50 percent of the data values fall

      Mention Prominence An indication of how prominently a company, product, or issue is mentioned in the media, typically measured in terms of percentage of article and position within the output (e.g., headline, above the fold, first three minutes)

      Mentions Counts of incidence of company, product, or person appearances in the media; one mention constitutes a media placement

      Message Content (1) The verbal, visual, and audio elements of a message; (2) the material from which content analyses are conducted; (3) a trend analysis factor that measures what, if any, planned messages are actually contained in the media (see also Message content analysis)

      Message Content Analysis Analysis of media coverage of messages regarding a client, product, or topic on key issues

      Message Strength A trend analysis factor that measures how strongly a message about a client or product or topic was communicated

      Mode A descriptive statistic of central tendency indicating the most frequently occurring, or the most typical, value in a data series

      Moderator An individual who leads a focus group; also known as a facilitator

      Motivational Objective An objective that establishes the desired level of change in a target audience's specific attitudes or beliefs after a public relations campaign

      Multivariate Analysis An inferential or descriptive statistic that examines the relationship among three or more variables


      Network Analysis A formal or informal research method that examines how individuals or units or actors relate to each other in some systematic way

      Neutral Point In attitude measurement scales, a point midway between extremes; in Likert-type scales usually defined as “neutral” or “neither agree nor disagree”

      Nominal Data Measurement data that are simple categories in which items differ in name only and do not possess any ordering; data that are mutually exhaustive and exclusive; the simplest or lowest of all data; categorical data; example: male or female, where neither is seen as better or larger than the other

      Nonparametric Statistics Inferential and descriptive statistics based on categorical data

      Non-Probability Sample A sample drawn from a population wherein respondents or objects do not have an equal chance of being selected for observation or measurement

      Nonverbal Communication That aspect of communication that deals with messages that are not a part of a natural language system (e.g., visual, spoken [as opposed to verbal], environmental)

      Normal Curve Measurement data reflecting the hypothetical distribution of data points or cases based on interval- or ratio-level data that are “normally distributed” and error free; every continuous or parametric data set has its own normally distributed data that fall under its specific normal curve

      Null Hypothesis The hypothesis of no difference that is formally tested in a research campaign or program; its rejection is the test of the theory


      Objective (1) A measurable outcome in one of three forms: informational (cognitive), motivational (attitudinal/belief), or behavioral (actionable); (2) an explicit statement of intentions that supports a communication strategy and, to be measurable, includes an intended audience/public, a proposed change in a communication effect, a precise indication of the amount or level of change, and a specific time frame for the change to occur

      Omnibus Survey An “all-purpose” national consumer poll usually conducted on a regular schedule (once a week or every other week) by major market research firms; also called piggyback or shared-cost survey

      Opinion A verbalized or written evaluation of some object

      Opportunities to See (OTS) The number of times a particular audience has the potential to view a message, subject, or issue; also known as impressions

      Ordinal Data Measurement data that are categories in which items are different in name and possess an ordering of some sort; data that are mutually exhaustive and exclusive and ordered; categorical data; example: income as the categories of under $25K, $26K–$50K, $51K–$75K, $76K–$100K, over $100K

      Outcomes (1) Quantifiable changes in awareness, knowledge, attitude, opinion, and behavior levels that occur as a result of a public relations program or campaign; (2) an effect, consequence, or impact of a set or program of communication activities or products, that may be either short term (immediate) or long term

      Outgrowth The cumulative effect of all communication programs and products on the positioning of an organization in the minds of its stakeholders or publics

      Outtake (1) Measurement of what audiences have understood and/or heeded or responded to with regard to a communication product's call to seek further information from public relations messages prior to measuring an outcome; (2) audience reaction to the receipt of a communication product, including favorability of the product, recall and retention of the message embedded in the product, and whether the audience heeded or responded to a call for information or action within the message


      Paired t-Test An inferential statistical test of significance that compares data that are collected twice on the same sample

      Panel Survey (1) A type of survey that consists of the same individuals or objects that are observed or measured over time; (2) a type of survey in which a group of individuals are deliberately recruited by a research firm because of their special demographic characteristics for the express purpose of being interviewed more than once over a period of time for various clients on a broad array of different topics or subjects

      Parameter In sampling, a characteristic of a population that is of interest

      Parametric Statistics Inferential and descriptive statistics based on continuous data

      Participant-Observation An informal research methodology where the researcher takes an active role in the life of an organization or community, observes and records interactions, and then analyzes those interactions

      Percent of Change A measure of increase or decrease of media coverage

      Percentage A descriptive statistic based on categorical data; defined as the frequency count for a particular category divided by the total frequency count; example: 10 males out of 100 people = 10%

      Percentage Point The number by which a percentage is increased or decreased

      Performance The act of carrying out, doing, executing, or putting into effect; a deed, task, action, or activity is a unit of a program of performance

      Performance Indicator A sign or parameter that, if tracked over time, provides information about the ongoing results of a particular program of performance or campaign

      Performance Measure A number that shows the exact extent to which a result was achieved

      Performance Result (Key Performance) The desired end effect or impact of a program of campaign performance

      Performance Target A time-bounded and measurable commitment toward achieving a desired result

      Periodicity A bias found in sampling due to the way in which the items or respondents are chosen; example: newspapers may differ by being daily, weekly, weekday only, and so forth

      Poll (1) A form of survey research that focuses more on immediate behavior than on attitudes; (2) a very short survey-like method whose questionnaire asks only very brief and closed-ended questions

      Position Papers Print output

      Positioning Trend analysis factor that measures how a client, product, or topic was positioned in the media (e.g., leader, follower)

      Probability Sample A sample drawn at random from a population such that all possible respondents or objects have an equal chance of being selected for observation or measurement

      Probe Question A question used in a questionnaire or schedule that requires the participant to explain an earlier response, often in the form of “why do you think this?”

      Product (Communication Product) The end result of the communication product process resulting in the production and dissemination of a brochure, media release, video news release, Web site, speech, and so forth

      Program (Campaign) The planning, execution, and evaluation of a public relations plan of action aimed at solving a problem

      Prominence of Mention Trend analysis factor that measures how prominently a client or product or topic was mentioned and where that mention occurred (e.g., headline, top of the fold, certain part of a broadcast)

      Proportion A descriptive statistic based on categorical data, defined as the fraction out of 1; example: 10 males out of 100 people represent 10 hundredths (.01) of the sample

      Psychographic Research Research focusing on a population or sample's nondemographic traits and characteristics, such as personality type, lifestyle, social roles, values, attitudes, and beliefs

      Public Opinion Poll A type of survey that collects basic opinions or facts about a specified population or sample; also known as a descriptive survey

      Purposive Sample A non-probability sample in which individuals are deliberately selected for inclusion based on their special knowledge, position, characteristics, or relevant dimensions of the population

      Push Poll A survey technique in which an interviewer begins by acting as if the telephone call represents a general survey but then asks the respondent a question implying questionable behaviors or outcomes of a person or product


      Q-Sort A measurement instrument that focuses on respondent beliefs by asking the respondent to sort through opinion statements and sort them into piles on an 11-point continuum usually bounded by “most like me” and “most unlike me”

      Qualitative Research Usually refers to studies that are somewhat to totally subjective, but nevertheless in-depth, using a probing, open-ended response format or reflecting an ethnomethodological orientation

      Quantitative Research Usually refers to studies that are highly objective and projectable, using closed-ended, forced-choice questionnaires; research that relies heavily on statistics and numerical measures

      Question A statement or phrase used in a questionnaire or schedule that elicits either an open- or closed-ended response from a research participant (see also Funnel question, Probe question)

      Questionnaire A measurement instrument that contains exact questions and measures that an interviewer or survey researcher uses to survey through the mail, Internet, in person, or via the telephone; may be closed ended or open ended, but typically employs more closed-ended questions

      Quota Sample A type of non-probability sample that draws its sample based on a percentage or quota from the population and stops sampling when that quota is met; a non-probability sample that attempts to have the same general distribution of population characteristics as the sample


      Range A descriptive central tendency statistic that expresses the difference between the highest and lowest scores in the data set; example: responses to a question on a 1-to-5 Likert-type scale where all reaction categories were used would yield a range of 4 (5 minus 1)

      Ratio Data Measurement data that are defined on a continuum and possess an absolute zero point; examples: number of children, a bank account, absolute lack of heat (0° Kelvin = −459.67°F or −273.15°C)

      Reach Refers to the scope or range of distribution and thus coverage that a given communication product has in a targeted audience group; in broadcasting, the net unduplicated (also called “duplicated”) radio or TV audience for programs or commercials as measured for a specific time period

      Readership The number of people who actually read each issue of a publication, on average

      Regression (REGR) An inferential statistical test of significance that predicts dependent variable (measured) outcomes for independent variables that may be either categorical (e.g., bivariate) or continuous (interval) in nature

      Reliability In general, the extent to which results would be consistent, or replicable, if the research were conducted a number of times (see also Measurement reliability)

      Research The systematic effort before (formative research) or during and/or after (summative or evaluative research) a communication activity aimed at discovering and collecting the facts or opinions pertaining to an identified issue, need, or question; may be formal or informal

      Response Rate In survey methodology, the number of respondents who actually completed an interview


      Sample A group of people or objects chosen from a larger population (see Convenience sample, Longitudinal survey, Non-probability sample, Panel survey, Probability sample, Snapshot survey)

      Sampling Error For surveys, see Confidence level

      Scale A measurement instrument consisting of attitude or belief items that reflect an underlying structure toward some attitude or belief object

      Scalogram (Guttman Scale/Cumulative Scale) A measurement scale that assumes (a) unidimensionality and (b) that people, when faced with a choice, will also choose items less intense than the one chosen

      Scattergram A descriptive statistic based on continuous data that graphically demonstrates how data are distributed between two variables; also known as a scatter diagram or scatterplot

      Schedule (1) The timeline on which a public relations program or campaign is conducted; (2) a list of questions, usually open ended, used in focus group and in-depth interviews to gather data

      Screener Question One of several questions usually asked at the beginning of an interview or survey to determine if the potential respondent is eligible to participate in the study (see also Funnel question)

      Secondary Methodology An informal research methodology that examines extant data in order to draw conclusions; a systematic re-analysis of a vast array of existing data; often used in benchmarking and benchmark studies

      Semantic Differential An attitude measure that asks respondents to evaluate an attitude object based on bipolar adjectives or phrases separated by a continuum represented as consisting of an odd number of intervals; developed by Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum

      Semantic Space The idea that people can evaluate an attitude object along some spatial continuum

      Share of Ink (SOI) Measurement of the total press/magazine coverage found in articles or mentions devoted to a particular industry or topic as analyzed to determine what percent of outputs or opportunities to see (OTS) is devoted to a client or product

      Share of Voice (SOV) Measurement of total coverage devoted to radio/television coverage to a particular industry or topic as analyzed to determine what percent of outputs or opportunities to see (OTS) is devoted to a client or product; also known as share of coverage

      Simple Random Sample A type of probability sample in which numbers are assigned to each member of a population, a random set of numbers is generated, and then only those members having the random numbers are included in the sample

      Situation Analysis An impartial, often third-party assessment of the public relations and/or public affairs problems, or opportunities, that an organization may be facing at a given time

      Skip Interval The distance between people selected from a population based on systematic sampling; usually defined as the total population divided by the number of people to be sampled (e.g., for a sample of 100 people to be drawn from a population of 10,000 people, the skip interval would be 100/10,000 = 100 individuals skipped between selected participants)

      Snapshot Survey A type of survey that consists of individuals or objects that are observed or measured once (see also Cross-sectional survey)

      Snowball Sample A type of non-probability sample in which individuals who are interviewed are asked to suggest other individuals for further interviewing

      Sources Mentioned Trend analysis factor that measures who was quoted in media coverage; also known as quoteds

      Speaking Engagements Print or broadcast or Internet communication product output

      Split-Half Reliability A test for a measure's reliability where a sample is randomly split and one segment receives a part of the measure and the second segment receives the rest

      Standard Deviation (σ) A descriptive statistic of central tendency that indexes the variability of a distribution; the range from the mean within which approximately 34 percent of the cases fall, provided the values are distributed along a normal curve

      Standardized Score (Z-Score) A descriptive statistic based on continuous data that expresses individual scores based on their standard deviations from the group mean; the range of scores is usually −3.00 to +3.00

      Statistical Significance Refers to the degree to which relationships observed in a sample can be attributed to sampling error or measurement error alone; expressed in terms of confidence that the relationships are due to error X percent of the time (e.g., 5 percent) or expressed in terms of the confidence that we have that the results are due to what was measured X percent of the time (e.g., 95 percent confident)

      Stratified Sample A type of probability sample that involves first breaking the total population into homogeneous subsets (or strata) and then selecting the potential sample at random from the individual strata; example: stratifying on race would require breaking the population into racial strata and then randomly sampling within each strata

      Survey Methodology A formal research methodology that seeks to gather data and analyze a population's or sample's attitudes, beliefs, and opinions (see Cohort survey, Longitudinal survey, Panel survey, Snapshot survey); data are gathered in-person or by telephone (face-to-face), or the survey is self-administered via the mail, e-mail, or fax

      Symbols/Words A manifest unit of analysis used in content analysis consisting of specific words (e.g., pronouns, client name, logotypes) that are counted

      Systematic Sample A type of probability sample in which units in a population are selected from an available list at a fixed interval after a random start


      Target Audience A very specific audience differentiated from “audience” by some measurable characteristic or attribute (e.g., sports fishermen)

      Targeted Gross Rating Points (TGRP) Gross Rating Points (GRP) targeted to a particular group or target audience

      Test-Retest Reliability A test of a measure's reliability carried out by testing the same sample with the same measure over time

      Themes A latent unit of analysis used in content analysis that measures an underlying theme or thesis (e.g., sexuality, violence, credibility)

      Throughputs The development, creative, and production activities (writing, editing, creative design, printing, fabrication, etc.) as part of the throughput stage of a communication product production process

      Time/Space Measures A manifest unit of analysis used in content analysis consisting of physically measurable units (e.g., column inches, size of photographs, broadcast time for a story)

      Tone Trend and content analysis factor that measures how a target audience feels about the client or product or topic; typically defined as positive, neutral/balanced, or negative

      Trend Analysis Tracking of performance over the course of a public relations campaign or program; a survey method whereby a topic or subject is examined over a period of time through repeated surveys of independently selected samples (snapshot or cross-sectional survey)

      t-Test An inferential statistical test of significance for continuous-measurement dependent variables against a bivariate independent variable; used when the total number of observations is less than 100 (see Independent t-test, Known group t-test, Paired t-test)

      Type of Article (1) Categories of a publication such as “product review,” “bylined article,” “editorial,” “advertorial,” “feature story”; (2) trend analysis factor that measures the nature of client, product, or topic coverage (e.g., column inches, broadcast time)


      Unit of Analysis The specification of what is to be counted in content analysis methodology; consists of symbols/words, time/space measures, characters, themes, and items; may be manifest (observable) or latent (attitudinal)

      Univariate Analysis The examination of only one variable at a time


      Validity In general, the extent to which a research project actually measures what it is intended or purports to measure (see also Measurement validity)

      Value An underlying cultural expectation; usually directs an individual's beliefs

      Variance2) A descriptive statistic of central tendency that measures the extent to which individual scores in a data set differ from each other; the sum of the squared standard deviations from the mean (σ)


      Word/Symbol In content analysis, a unit of analysis


      Z-Score (Standardized Score) A descriptive statistic of central tendency that takes data from different types of scales and standardizes them as areas under the normal curve for comparison purposes

      ©2002, The Institute for Public Relations, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118400, Gainesville, FL 32611-8400. Reprinted with permission. This dictionary, prepared and edited by Don R. Stacks, is updated regularly by the Institute at its Web site, http://www.instituteforpr.com.
    Back to Top

    Copy and paste the following HTML into your website