21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook

21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook

Handbooks

Edited by: Stephen F. Davis & William Buskist

Abstract

Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.

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    Preface

    Although human and animal behaviors have been topics of interest to scientists and others since antiquity, historians typically date the inception of modern psychology to the mid-1800s. More specifically, they have selected 1879, the year that Wilhelm Wundt established his experimental psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, as the year that modern psychology originated. At that time, Wundt believed that the goals of psychology were (a) to study “immediate” conscious experience using experimental methodology and (b) to investigate higher mental processes using nonexperimental techniques.

    The change that psychology has undergone in the nearly 130 years since its founding has been nothing short of phenomenal. For example, the early portions of the 20th century witnessed the development and popularization of the now classic “schools of psychology” such as structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, and behaviorism. World War II and the Korean War spurred the development of modern clinical psychology. During the mid-1900s, individual schools rose to prominence and tended to dominate psychological research and theorizing. These dominant schools often clashed with clinical psychology. For example, disagreements between behaviorists and clinicians, which have their roots in the 1940s and 1950s, still persist.

    Toward the end of the 1960s, the nature of the field began to change, and the face of modern psychology was forever altered. First, Ulrich Neisser's 1967 book, Cognitive Psychology, ushered in the “cognitive revolution” and put behaviorism on the decline. Technological advances in computer technology, which allowed researchers to simulate human thought and memory processes and to create images of neurological processes, played an inestimable role in modern psychology's metamorphosis. Likewise, advances in social concern and action increased psychologists’ awareness of psychology's diversity and its ability to make significant contributions in these areas. To be sure, the face of contemporary psychology was changing drastically. In fact, in 1992 former American Psychological Association (APA) president George A. Miller believed that psychology had become “an intellectual zoo” (p. 40). Clearly, that situation has not changed, as psychology is evolving in the 21st century.

    Nowhere are psychology's expansion and change seen more clearly than in the evolution of the APA. Founded in 1892 by G. Stanley Hall at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, the APA began with 31 charter members. Currently, there are over 60,000 APA members and 56 divisions with which these members and other interested psychologists can affiliate. The diversity of the APA divisions clearly reflects the changing face of contemporary psychology. They include General Psychology (Division 1), the Study of Social Issues (Division 9), Clinical Psychology (Division 12), Pharmacology and Substance Abuse (Division 28), Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (Division 33), Media Psychology (Division 46), International Psychology (Division 52), and Trauma Psychology (Division 56). Clearly, psychology in the 21st century continues to be a diverse and evolving field.

    We have attempted to capture psychology's dynamic and evolving nature in the 14 sections and the 104 chapters in 21st Century Psychology. Our cadre of authors is composed of both established professionals who have already left their marks on the field and aspiring young professionals whose imprints are certain to be recorded in subsequent years. We believe that our choice of traditional and cutting-edge topics reflects contemporary psychology's diverse nature. For example, our traditional topics include the following:

    Our cutting-edge topics include the following:

    Whether the chapter deals with a traditional topic or a cutting-edge topic, you will find that the authors present the materials in a decidedly contemporary manner. We hope that you will enjoy reading the chapters in the 21st Century Psychology as much as we have enjoyed assembling them for you.

    No reference book is the product of the editors’ and authors’ efforts alone; the editorial and production teams at SAGE deserve special praise. We extend our special thanks to James Brace-Thompson (Senior Editor, SAGE Reference), Rolf Janke (Vice President and Publisher, SAGE Reference), Sara Tauber (Development Editor), Diana Axelsen (Senior Development Editor), Leticia Gutierrez (Systems Manager), Tracy Buyan (Reference Production Supervisor), and Belinda Thresher (Production Editor, Appingo).

    Finally, we dedicate this book to all students of psychology; they truly are the promising future of our field.

    Stephen F.Davis
    WilliamBuskist
    References and Further Readings
    Miller, G. A.(1992).The constitutive problem of psychology. In S.Koch, & D. E.Leary (Eds.), A century of psychology as science (pp. 40–45). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Neisser, U.(1967).Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

    About the Editors

    Stephen F. Davis is an emeritus professor at Emporia State University. He served as the 2002–2003 Knapp Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Diego. Currently he is Visiting Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Texas Wesleyan University. In 2007, he was awarded the honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree by Morningside College. Since 1966, he has published over 285 articles and 24 textbooks, and has presented over 900 professional papers; the vast majority of these publications and presentations include student coauthors. Among his recent books are Handbook of Research Methods in Experimental Psychology, An Introduction to Statistics and Research Methods: Becoming a Psychological Detective (with Randolph A. Smith), and Handbook of the Teaching of Psychology (with William Buskist). He has served as president of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (Division 2 of the American Psychological Association), the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology, the Southwestern Psychological Association, and Psi Chi (the National Honor Society in Psychology). Davis received the American Psychological Foundation National Teaching Award and the Society for the Teaching of Psychology National Teaching Award. Additionally, he was selected as the first recipient of the Psi Chi Florence L. Denmark National Faculty Advisor Award. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Society and Divisions 1 (General), 2 (Society for the Teaching of Psychology), 3 (Experimental), and 6 (Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology) of the American Psychological Association.

    William Buskist is the Distinguished Professor in the Teaching of Psychology at Auburn University and a faculty fellow at Auburn's Biggio Center for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning. In his 25 years at Auburn, he has taught over 32,000 undergraduates, mostly in large sections of introductory psychology. He serves as the section editor for the Generalist's Corner section of Teaching of Psychology and as a member of the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology (NITOP) planning committee. Together with Steve Davis, he has edited two volumes on the teaching of psychology: The Teaching of Psychology: Essays in Honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie and Charles L. Brewer (Erlbaum, 2003) and The Handbook of the Teaching of Psychology (Blackwell, 2005); with Barry Perlman and Lee McCann, he has edited Voices of Experience: Memorable Talks from the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology (American Psychological Society, 2005). He has also coedited several electronic books for the Society of the Teaching of Psychology (http://teachpsych.org/resources/e-books/e-books.php). He has published over 30 books and articles on the teaching of psychology. In 2005, he was a corecipient (with Leanne Lamke) of Auburn University's highest teaching honor, The Gerald and Emily Leischuck Presidential Award for Excellence in Teaching. In addition, he was the American Psychological Association's 2005 Harry Kirke Wolfe lecturer. He also is a recipient of the 2000 Robert S. Daniel Teaching Excellence Award from the Society of the Teaching of Psychology. He is a fellow of American Psychological Association Divisions 1 (General Psychology) and 2 (Society for the Teaching of Psychology), and he is currently serving as president of the latter. His proudest career achievement is having five of his graduate students honored with national teaching awards.

    About the Contributors

    Brenda Anderson is an associate professor in biological psychology at Stony Brook University in Stony Brook, New York. Dr. Anderson received her MS degree in psychology from Emporia State University, and her PhD in biological psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is interested in the influence of the environment and lifestyle on neural connections. Her research is designed to test whether learning, exercise, or stress can alter synapse numbers, regional volume, and metabolic capacity. She is also interested in environmental control over neuronal vulnerability to metabolic challenges. She uses animal models to explore causality between variables shown to be related in humans. Dr. Anderson's research relies on anatomical methodologies that span the subcellular to regional levels of analysis.

    Francisco Arcediano completed his undergraduate and graduate education at the University of Deusto (Spain), where he obtained a PhD in psychology and conducted graduate research in both psychology and computer science. He then went on to become a postdoctoral fellow and research scientist at the State University of New York at Binghamton, where he further specialized in the areas of associative learning and memory in both humans and nonhumans. He is currently completing his graduate education in computer science and software engineering at Auburn University, where he joined the Intelligent and Interactive Systems Laboratory, and is conducting research on artificial intelligence, human-computer interactions, cognitive science, and learning technologies. He is an active researcher in the areas of human cognition, animal learning and cognition, and computer science, and has published multiple papers investigating these issues. During his academic career he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in artificial intelligence, intelligence, learning and conditioning, memory, and personal computer applications.

    Jeremy Atkinson is a PhD candidate in biopsychology at the State University of New York at Albany. His research interests include game theory, physical attractiveness in humans, primate genital morphology, and the difference between functionality and attractiveness in the human body, as well as the evolution of specific cognitive modules such as face recognition and human “irrationality.” He is currently investigating osseous markers of attractiveness in the human body, comparative genital morphology in primates, and the attractiveness of specific proportions in the human body.

    David B. Baker received his PhD in counseling psychology from Texas A&M University in 1988. Prior to coming to the University of Akron, he was a member of the psychology department at the University of North Texas, where he was active in child clinical research, training, and practice. As a historian of psychology, he teaches the history of psychology at the undergraduate and graduate levels. A contributing author to three books and more than 30 scholarly articles and book chapters, he maintains an active program of research on the rise of professional psychology in 20th-century America. In addition to being a fellow of the American Psychological Association, he serves on two editorial boards and is an elected member of the Association's Council of Representatives. Baker became the director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology in 1999.

    Lewis Barker was a professor of psychology and neuroscience, as well as director of the PhD program in neuroscience, while at Baylor University from 1972 to 2000. Currently a professor of psychology at Auburn University, he teaches behavioral neuroscience, learning, and large sections of introductory psychology. He has edited two books on appetite and has written textbooks on learning and general psychology.

    Kenneth Barron is currently an associate professor of psychology at James Madison University (JMU). He received his PhD in social/personality psychology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1999. While in graduate school, he developed a particular love for teaching students about research methods and statistics, and his early efforts were recognized with a number of graduate student teaching awards. At JMU, he continues to teach coursework in research methods and statistics. He also coordinates a unique, yearlong residential Psychology Learning Community program for incoming freshmen. He has received JMU's Outstanding Junior Faculty Award and the Provost Award for Excellence in Advising. He also has been nominated for Distinguished Teacher and Distinguished Research Awards. His research focuses on motivation, teaching pedagogy, and research method issues. His coauthors—Allison R. Brown, Theresa E. Egan, Christopher R. Gesualdi, and Kimberly A. Marchuk—were undergraduate students at JMU. All four were members of the Psychology Learning Community program, and all four received undergraduate psychology awards for Outstanding Achievement in Statistics and Research to recognize their early commitment and excellence in their methodology coursework in psychology. His student collaborators each made significant contributions to Chapter 7, Validity.

    W. Robert Batsell earned bachelor's degrees in biology and psychology from Southern Methodist University, and his PhD in experimental psychology, under the direction of Dr. Wayne Ludvigson, from Texas Christian University. Currently he is the Kurt D. Kaufman Associate Professor and chair of psychology at Kalamazoo College in Kalamazoo, Michigan. He is a biopsychologist whose teaching interests include general psychology, experimental psychology, psychology of learning, and biopsychology. His research focuses on the learning mechanisms that underlie taste and odor aversions in humans and nonhumans. His interest in this topic of study emerged from his undergraduate days, when he worked with Dr. Michael Best at SMU.

    Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr., is Presidential Professor of Teaching Excellence and professor of psychology at Texas A&M University. An experimental psychologist by training, he began his academic career at Nebraska Wesleyan University, served 2 years as director of education for the American Psychological Association, and then joined the faculty at Texas A&M, where he has been for 27 years. Benjamin has received numerous teaching awards from Texas A&M University. His national teaching awards include the Distinguished Teaching in Psychology Award from the American Psychological Foundation and the Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training Award from the American Psychological Association. Benjamin's scholarly work includes 22 books and more than 150 articles and book chapters, most on the history of psychology, focusing on the early American psychology laboratories and organizations, the origins of applied psychology, and the popularization of psychology, including a concern with the evolution of psychology's public image and the public's understanding of the science and practice of psychology. His recent books include A Brief History of Modern Psychology (Blackwell, 2007), A History of Psychology in Letters (Blackwell, 2006), and A History of Psychology: Original Sources and Contemporary Research (Wiley-Blackwell, 2008).

    Diane S. Berry is a senior research scientist at Children's Medical Center Dallas. She earned her AB in psychology from Colby College, and her PhD in social/developmental psychology from Brandeis University. Until recently, she served as a tenured professor of psychology at Southern Methodist University, where her work focused on social perception and interaction, personality and social behavior, social and perceptual development, close relationships, and evolutionary psychology. In 2005, she was recruited by Children's Medical Center Dallas to develop a research program focused on psychological influences on pediatric injury risk and strategies for child injury prevention. This work applies basic research in social, developmental, personality, cognitive, and perceptual psychology to the problem of pediatric injury and injury control. Dr. Berry's recent work has been supported by grants from the American Trauma Society, the National Institutes of Health, and the Children's Trust.

    Kathryn Norcross Black learned to give intelligence tests as a graduate student at the University of Iowa. She was heavily involved in testing the gifted for either early admission to school or grade advancement while on the faculty in psychological sciences at Purdue University. She also worked as a psychological consultant for the Gifted Education Resource Institute at Purdue and on several occasions taught in their summer program for gifted students. Shortly after her academic retirement, she began working with the gifted program for the Barrington public schools. She also has consulted for the gifted programs in other private and public schools in suburban Chicago as well as for individual families of the gifted.

    Roger K. Blashfield is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Auburn University. He earned his BS at Ohio State and his PhD at Indiana University. Before coming to Auburn, he was on the faculty at Pennsylvania State University and the University of Florida (psychiatry). His area of research interest is the classification of psychopathology. He has many publications in the area of classification and personality disorders, and was a member of the DSM-IV personality disorders workgroup.

    Christopher M. Bloom earned his doctorate in behavioral neuroscience from Saint Louis University in 2001. While at Saint Louis University, he studied in the Animal Sleep Laboratory of Dr. A. Michael Anch, investigating the role of myelin degeneration in a number of behavioral systems, including sleep. The laboratory continues to investigate basic sleep science via animal models. Dr. Bloom is currently an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Southern Indiana and director of the Southern Indiana Affective Neuroscience Laboratory (SIAN). The SIAN lab researches the role of negative emotions such as fear and disgust in a number of neuropsychological domains.

    Kent Bodily is a teaching fellow and doctoral candidate in the experimental psychology program at Auburn University. His research falls into the areas of animal cognition and comparative psychology. His interests include concept learning, problem solving, conditioning, and spatial navigation. He uses the matching-to-sample (MTS) and same/different (S/D) tasks to determine the mechanisms underlying generalized matching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons. His research suggests that abstract-concept learning is driven by multiple-exemplar training in both MTS and S/D tasks. He also uses desktop-computer immersive digital environments to test the applicability of nonhuman research to human spatial navigation and problem solving. His research has demonstrated commonalities between pigeon and human navigation in analogous spatial navigation tasks.

    Jennifer M. Bonds-Raacke is an assistant professor of psychology in the Department of Psychology and Counseling at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. She obtained her PhD in experimental/cognitive psychology from Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas. Dr. Bonds-Raacke has taught classes on the topic of memory, and her research interests include autobiographical memories for media experiences and decision-making strategies of couples. In addition, Dr. Bonds-Raacke is a member of the Association for Psychological Science, the Midwestern Psychological Association, and Psi Chi. She is dedicated to the involvement of undergraduates in research endeavors.

    Jay C. Brown was born in Wisconsin, receiving his BS and MS from the University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh. It was there that he first developed his love of the history of psychology, though he had developed a general love of history much earlier. He went on to the State University of New York at Stony Brook for his PhD. After doing postdoctoral training at Carnegie Mellon University, he was an assistant professor at Missouri State University. Currently he is an assistant professor at Texas Wesleyan University, where he regularly teaches the History of Psychology course.

    Danny R. Burgess is an advanced doctoral student in the Department of Psychology at Auburn University. He earned his BS at the University of Southern Mississippi. His doctoral dissertation focuses on the clinical utility of the five-factor model versus Axis II of DSM-IV-TR versus Axis V of DSM-IV-TR when characterizing personality disorders. He plans to continue researching the classification issue of whether a categorical or dimensional model is the most precise and useful system in understanding psychopathology. He currently is completing his internship at the University of Wisconsin Health Sciences Center in the Departments of Psychiatry and Rehabilitation Medicine in Madison, Wisconsin.

    Susan R. Burns is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Morningside College (Sioux City, IA). Although her teaching load is somewhat diverse in the area of psychology, her teaching emphasis is on the human development courses (i.e., child and adolescent psychology and developmental psychology). Beyond her course load, Susan actively engages students in the research process. She currently has several students involved in both group and individual research projects investigating a variety of topics (e.g., bullying in high school, empathy and gender roles in adolescents enrolled in an intake treatment facility, cross-sectional analysis of short-term memory functioning, academic dishonesty, and gender role beliefs in relationships). Her students consistently present at local, small and large regional, and national conferences. Dr. Burns is currently serving as a consulting editor for Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research, and recently has assumed the position of managing editor-elect for the Journal of Psychological Inquiry. Dr. Burns received her BS and MS in experimental psychology from Emporia State University (Emporia, Kansas) and her PhD in personality/social psychology with an emphasis in child development from Kansas State University (Manhattan, Kansas).

    Robert B. Cialdini received undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate education in psychology at the University of Wisconsin, the University of North Carolina, and Columbia University, respectively. He is currently Regents’ Professor of Psychology and Marketing at Arizona State University, where he has also been named Distinguished Graduate Research Professor. He has been elected president of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology and has been the recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award of the Society for Consumer Psychology, the Donald T. Campbell Award for Distinguished Contributions to Social Psychology, and the Peitho Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Science of Social Influence. His interests in persuasion and social influence have manifested recently in an emphasis on consumer psychology, which he makes a large part of his graduate and undergraduate courses in interpersonal influence. His focus on the influence process is also evident in his projects, currently underway, to investigate the factors that incline people to behave according to the norms of the society, especially in the arena of environmental protection.

    Andrew L. Cohen is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at Auburn University. Mr. Cohen graduated from UCLA and began his graduate training in 2002. His primary research interests include the developmental study of ADHD, with an emphasis in childhood ADHD, and other childhood externalizing disorders. He has earned departmental recognition for his excellence in teaching and has published in the literatures pertaining to the teaching of psychology and ADHD. Upon obtaining his doctorate, Mr. Cohen wishes to enter the professoriate as an instructor, a researcher, and a clinician.

    William G. Collier earned his BS in psychology from Oklahoma Christian University. He earned his first master's degree in experimental psychology at the University of Central Oklahoma. He proceeded to earn another master's degree and a doctorate in experimental psychology, with an emphasis in cognition, at Texas Christian University. Dr. Collier is currently an assistant professor of cognitive psychology at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. While in graduate school, Dr. Collier developed an interest in research questions that psychologists have grappled with throughout the history of modern scientific psychology, such as the nature versus nurture question. The nature versus nurture issue is also relevant to Dr. Collier's primary research interest in the psychology of music. Since music exists in multiple species (e.g., birds, whales, and humans) and in all known human cultures, it is likely that there is a significant biological component to music. However, the varieties of music seen across human cultures suggest a significant environmental influence as well. Future research should investigate how nature and nurture combine and interact to influence our experiences with music.

    Thomas S. Critchfield is a professor of psychology at Illinois State University. His scholarly interests focus on the study of fundamental processes of operant learning in people, and the expression of these processes in complex everyday settings. He is a past president of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, a former associate editor of Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 25). In 18 years of university teaching, he received eight departmental awards for teaching and student mentoring and has published more than two dozen journal articles and book chapters with student coauthors. During that span, students working under his supervision have been honored for their scholarship by professional associations more than a dozen times.

    Lisa Curtin is a professor of psychology at Appalachian State University and associate director for research at the ASU Institute for Health and Human Services. She routinely teaches abnormal psychology, psychotherapy courses, and seminars in addictive behaviors. Her research program actively involves undergraduate and graduate students, and focuses on the understanding and treatment of substance use disorders as well as other addictive disorders, primarily eating disorders. She received the Outstanding Young Faculty Member award in the College of Arts and Sciences, and she was named the Outstanding College of Arts and Sciences Advisor. She routinely partners with community agencies to conduct research and evaluate community health programs, including serving on the advisory council for the North Carolina Office on Disability and Health. She is actively involved in community tobacco prevention efforts and in the planning of a community integrative medicine center.

    Alan M. Daniel is an experimental psychologist with a focus on animal learning. Daniel is presently working in the lab of Mauricio R. Papini at Texas Christian University. The overarching goal of his research is to advance the study of how behavior and ecology interact to produce adaptive behavioral responses, which is key to understanding the driving forces in evolution. Currently, his research is centered upon exploring the adaptive significance and origins of frustration. By examining the effects of drugs, artificial selection, and various other manipulations on successive negative contrast, Daniel seeks genetic components and developmental pathways involved in the emergence of frustration.

    John M. Davis is a professor of psychology at Texas State University, San Marcos. He received his PhD in experimental-social psychology from the University of Oklahoma in 1974. He has worked as a psychologist and lived in Germany, China, England, and the United States. He has conducted research and published in the areas of international psychology, interpersonal and intergroup relations, refugee stress and adaptation, and health psychology. Recent publications include a chapter (1999) on health psychology in international perspective, an article (2000) on international psychology in the Encyclopedia of Psychology (APA/Oxford University Press), a chapter (2002, republished in 2004) on countering international terrorism from the perspective of international psychology, and several articles on psychology throughout the world in the International Journal of Psychology.

    James C. Denniston received his BA in psychology from New York University in 1992, his MA in psychology from Bucknell University in 1994, and his PhD from the State University of New York at Binghamton in 1999. He is currently an associate professor and assistant chair of the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University. His current research focuses on elementary information processing in animals, including mechanisms involved in the extinction of conditioned fear and the role of context in modulating behavior.

    Elizabeth B. Denny, a North Carolina native, earned a master's degree and a doctorate in psychology with a specialization in clinical psychology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She completed her doctoral internship at the Veteran's Administration Medical Center in Salem, Virginia. She has a long-standing interest in cognitive aspects of clinical disorders, with a particular interest in memory and depression. She is currently a professor in the Department of Psychology and Counseling at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, where she formerly served as the department chair and as the director of the service agency counseling program.

    Wendy Donlin is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at University of North Carolina, Wilmington. She received her MS and PhD in experimental psychology from Auburn University. Prior to joining the faculty at UNCW, she completed a two-year NIH postdoctoral fellowship in the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Her interests lie in human and animal models of illicit drug use, and the development of behavioral interventions for drug abuse.

    Richard L. Doty, PhD, is the director of the University of Pennsylvania's Smell and Taste Center. He is an author or coauthor of over 350 professional publications, and a consultant to over 50 scientific journals. Among his numerous awards are the James A. Shannon Award from the National Institutes of Health (1996); the 2000 Outstanding Scientists of the 20th Century Award from the International Biographical Centre in Cambridge, England (1999); the Olfactory Research Fund's Scientific Sense of Smell Award (2000); the William Osler Patient-Oriented Research Award from the University of Pennsylvania (2003); the Society of Cosmetic Chemists’ Service Award (2004); and the Association for Chemoreception Science's Max Mozell Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Chemical Senses (2005). He was elected to fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2005.

    Lennis Echterling is professor and director of counseling psychology at James Madison University. He has more than 30 years of experience in promoting resilience, particularly during crises and disasters. He has provided disaster intervention services across the country, including in Mississippi and Texas after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Following the 9/11 attacks, he worked as a Red Cross volunteer with survivors at the Pentagon. More recently, he was a crisis counselor after the shootings at Virginia Tech University. His books include Crisis Intervention: Promoting Resilience and Resolution in Troubled Times, Thriving!! A Manual for Students in the Helping Professions, Beyond Brief Counseling, and Becoming a Community Counselor. Dr. Echterling has received the College Award for Distinguished Service, James Madison University's Distinguished Faculty Award, Virginia Counselors Association's Humanitarian and Caring Person Award, and the Counseling Vision and Innovation Award from the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision.

    Nicole Else-Quest completed her PhD in developmental psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 2006. She is assistant professor of psychology at Villanova University, where she teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in life-span development and the psychology of gender. Her previous research includes studies of sexuality development, gender differences in temperament, and the role of emotions in mathematics learning. Her current research focuses on gender differences in emotion and motivation involved in mathematics learning.

    Martha Escobar completed her undergraduate education at the University of Deusto (Spain). She then went on to obtain MA and PhD degrees in cognitive and behavioral sciences from the State University of New York at Binghamton. Since then, she has been at Auburn University, where she is an associate professor of psychology. Her research interests are learning and memory in human and nonhuman animals, with a special interest in determining the underlying principles and applications of Pavlovian (classical) conditioning. She is currently investigating issues such as memory interference, representation of absent stimuli, temporal control of behavior, and causal inference. Her teaching background includes courses in introductory psychology, the psychology of learning, animal behavior, learning and conditioning, and specialized seminars on associative learning. She has published multiple papers and book chapters in the areas of learning and memory, and directed several graduate and undergraduate theses in those areas.

    Jennifer Featherston is the director of a nonprofit that serves individuals with disabilities in Northwest Arkansas. She received her master's degree in rehabilitation counseling psychology from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and is a doctoral candidate in rehabilitation education and research at the University of Arkansas. She is certified as a Rehabilitation Counselor, Vocational Evaluation Specialist, and an Assisted Living Administrator. She is a member of Chi Sigma Iota Counseling Academic and Professional Honor Society International and the National Rehabilitation Association. She is interested in qualitative inquiry because it allows researchers to better understand the lived experiences of individuals in more diverse populations.

    Larry Featherston is a research associate at the National Office of Research on Measurement and Evaluation Systems and an adjunct instructor at the University of Arkansas. He received his master's degree in rehabilitation counseling psychology from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and is a doctoral candidate in rehabilitation education and research at the University of Arkansas. His current research interest focuses on wage differences and wage discrimination experienced by individuals with disabilities. He is a certified Rehabilitation Counselor and Vocational Evaluation Specialist. He is currently a member of the National Rehabilitation Association, National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, National Council on Rehabilitation Education, Society for the Teaching of Psychology, American Statistical Association, and American Educational Research Association. He is interested in disability studies because of his lifelong involvement in working with individuals with disabilities within the community.

    Daniel Fienup is a doctoral candidate in school psychology at Illinois State University. At the time this chapter was published, he was completing a predoctoral internship at the May Institute in Boston. Fienup earned his BA in psychology from Washington University in St. Louis, where his interest in behavioral psychology was sparked. Following this experience he earned a master's degree from the behavior analysis and therapy program at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, where his interest in studying stimulus equivalence began. This interest spans both basic and applied questions. Currently his research focuses on applying technology based on stimulus equivalence to the acquisition of real-life skills and on comparing the efficiency of stimulus equivalence methodology to that of traditional teaching methods.

    Michael Firmentreceived his MA in 1987 and his PhD in 1990 from the University of Cincinnati. His major field of study was cognitive psychology, with minors in perception and human factors. He became a member of the psychology faculty at Kennesaw State University in 1989. His dissertation topic was memory for conceptual categories as instantiated by proverb meanings. He is currently interested in techniques of maximizing retention and transfer of academic knowledge. Dr. Firment has taught perception since 1988.

    Krista K. Fritson earned her doctoral degree at Forrest Institute of Professional Psychology (PsyD) in Springfield, Missouri, in 1997 with a major in clinical psychology. En route to her PsyD, Dr. Fritson earned her MS in clinical psychology from Fort Hays State University and her BS in general psychology from the University of Nebraska at Kearney. Dr. Fritson joined the University of Nebraska at Kearney as an assistant professor after serving as a parttime lecturer for 2 years. At UNK, Dr. Fritson teaches the clinical track courses, abnormal psychology, and general psychology while conducting research. Additionally, Dr. Fritson continues to work as a clinical psychologist. She serves as the supervising practitioner for a residential treatment facility for young boys, provides clinical supervisions for therapists in the community, and maintains a small private practice. Though Dr. Fritson provides clinical consultation and services to all age groups and many diagnoses, her specialization has been working with children, adolescents, and families. With over 21 years of experience working in the mental health field, Dr. Fritson has had the opportunity to provide services to many youth with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Matthew W. Gallagheris a graduate student in the clinical psychology program at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. He received his MA in 2006 from the University of Kansas under the mentorship of C. R. Snyder. His research is currently focused on examining how hope, optimism, and other character strengths lead to the development and maintenance of flourishing mental health, as well as how the findings of positive psychology can be applied to the practice of clinical psychology. He is also currently serving as the managing editor for The Handbook of Positive Psychology (2nd ed., Oxford).

    Gordon G. Gallup, Jr., is an evolutionary psychologist and a professor in the Department of Psychology at the State University of New York at Albany. He is a former editor of the Journal of Comparative Psychology. His current research focuses on the impact of evolution on human behavior, and includes work on genital morphology, brain evolution, paternal assurance tactics, rape prevention strategies, semen chemistry, and the relationship between body configuration and behavior. He is also known for work on mirror self-recognition, localizing self-awareness in the brain, research on schizophrenia as a self-processing deficit, and predator-prey relations. More detailed information about his work can be found at http://www.evolutionarypsych.com.

    E. Scott Geller, Alumni Distinguished Professor, is director of the Center for Applied Behavior Systems at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), where he has been a faculty member since 1969. The author of 31 books, 44 book chapters, and more than 300 research articles addressing the development and application of behavior-change interventions, he has helped to improve the quality of work life across the United States and in several other countries. Since 1990, his monthly articles on the psychology of safety in Industrial Safety & Hygiene News have reached audiences at more than 75,000 companies and, more recently, health-care facilities. Scott Geller's caring, dedication, talent, and energy have helped him earn a teaching award in 1982 from the American Psychological Association, as well as every university teaching award offered at Virginia Tech. In 2001, Virginia Tech awarded Dr. Geller the University Alumni Award for Excellence in Research. In 2002, the University honored him with the Alumni Outreach Award for his exemplary real-world applications of behavioral science, and in 2003 Dr. Geller received the University Alumni Award for Graduate Student Advising. In 2005, E. Scott Geller was awarded the statewide Virginia Outstanding Faculty Award by the State Council of Higher Education.

    Peter J. Giordano is a professor and chair of psychology at Belmont University in Nashville, Tennessee, where he began his career in 1989. He received his BA, MA, and PhD (clinical psychology) from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Personality psychology is one of the courses that first stimulated his interest in pursuing graduate study. He has taught the personality psychology course regularly during his career, typically adopting a writing-intensive format. He has served as National Past President of Psi Chi (the National Honor Society in Psychology) and as the methods and techniques editor for the journal Teaching of Psychology. He is a fellow of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, Division Two of the American Psychological Association. In 1996, he received the Chaney Distinguished Professor Award, the highest teaching honor on his campus, and this past year was nominated for the CASE Professor of the Year Program. He has also received awards from Belmont's Department of Athletics and the Division of Student Affairs for his support of students in these programs.

    C. James Goodwin is an emeritus professor at Wheeling Jesuit University, where he taught for 30 years before taking an early retirement. He is currently a visiting professor at Western Carolina University and living in the mountains at the western edge of North Carolina. He earned a bachelor's degree from the College of the Holy Cross and a master's and PhD in experimental psychology from Florida State University, specializing in memory and cognition. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association in Divisions 2 (teaching) and 26 (history), and he is a past president of Division 26. His research interests on the empirical side are in the area of cognitive mapping and way finding, but his prime interest is in the early history of experimental psychology in the United States. He is the author of two undergraduate textbooks, one in research methods (Research in Psychology: Methods and Design) and one in the history of psychology (A History of Modern Psychology).

    Dana Gresky is an assistant professor at Texas Wesleyan University in Fort Worth, Texas. She is a recent graduate from Texas Christian University, where she completed her degree in experimental social psychology and met her husband. Rather than follow her own interests, she was motivated to learn more about the world of sport psychology because of her husband's enthusiasm about athletic performance.

    Cathy A. Grover received her PhD in experimental psychology with an emphasis in behavioral neuroscience from Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, in 1992. She currently is an associate professor and the director of the graduate experimental psychology program at Emporia State University, where she studies the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse on learning, memory, and social behaviors using rats as an animal model. Cathy enjoys mentoring graduate and undergraduate students in the Davis Laboratory. In 1990, Grover was awarded the Teaching Excellence Early Career Award, presented by Division 2 of the American Psychological Association. She teaches drugs, brain and behavior; physiological psychology; sensation and perception; theories of motivation; research methods and statistics; and foundations of psychology.

    Sharon E. Guttman is an assistant professor in the Psychology Department at Middle Tennessee State University. Her research explores human visual perception, specifically focusing on the binding problem—the question of how the human brain represents connections between different aspects of a perceptual experience. Her current research also includes projects on cross-modal perception, examining the integration of visual information with information gleaned from the other senses, and interactions between cognitive processing and balance.

    Diane F. Halpern is professor of psychology and director of the Berger Institute for Work, Family, and Children at Claremont McKenna College. She has won many awards for her teaching and research, including the 2002 Outstanding Professor Award from the Western Psychological Association, the 1999 American Psychological Foundation Award for Distinguished Teaching, and the Outstanding Alumna Award from the University of Cincinnati. Halpern was 2004 president of the American Psychological Association. In addition, Halpern has served as president of the Western Psychological Association, the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, and the Division of General Psychology of the American Psychological Association. She has published over 350 articles and many books, including Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking (4th ed.), Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities (3rd ed.), and she is currently working on the 3rd edition of Psychological Science with Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton. She is also working with Fanny Cheung from Chinese University on a cross-cultural book, based on more than 60 interviews with women in powerful leadership positions with substantial family responsibilities, titled Women at the Top: How Powerful Leaders Combine Work and Family.

    Jeffrey L. Helms is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Kennesaw State University. He earned his MA and PsyD in clinical psychology from Spalding University in Louisville, Kentucky. He completed his predoctoral internship at Jefferson County Internship Consortium and his postdoctoral training at Family Connections/Seven Counties Services. Prior academic appointments included teaching not only at the undergraduate level but also at the master's, specialist, and doctoral levels. He has previously practiced in California and Kentucky and currently holds licensure as a psychologist in Georgia. His publications, research, and practice interests are predominantly in the areas of adolescence and forensic psychology. He is an associate editor of the Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice. He has practiced in multiple settings including within the community mental health arena, where his client base was predominantly minority juveniles (and their families) who had become entangled in the criminal justice system. Dr. Helms is a member of the American Psychological Association and maintains a small, private, forensic and clinical consulting practice.

    Lisa Hensley is an assistant professor of psychology at Texas Wesleyan University. Her interest in death and bereavement is an outgrowth of both her personal experiences and her teaching and research experiences in the psychology of aging.

    Michelle Hernández is a graduate student in experimental psychology at Auburn University, adjunct faculty at Alabama State University, and member of the teaching fellows program at Auburn University. Her approach toward teaching and research is based on the belief that excellence does not depend solely on the number of things we know, but on how we approach the things we do not know. She has taught cognitive psychology and developmental psychology, and assisted in a variety of courses and laboratories. In class she focuses on presenting tasks that reinforce curiosity and sharing among students as part of the scientific discourse. This approach forms the base of the laboratory training that undergraduate students receive under her mentorship and assisting in her research experience. Her research interests are currently focused on navigation of two-dimensional computerized environments by pigeons. She is currently a coadministrator of psycCOMM, an online community for the exchange of ideas in psychology, including research, teaching, and the application of psychological findings to the community.

    E. Benjamin H. Heuston is a doctoral candidate at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. His interests include education and learning theory, learner modeling, cognition, artificial intelligence, psychometrics and evaluation, delivery systems, and evolutionary and comparative functional morphology. He is the president and chief operating officer of the nonprofit Waterford Research Institute, which seeks to bring equity and excellence in education through the use of technology.

    Rick Hollings received his PhD in psychology from North Carolina State University. He is a licensed practicing psychologist with Wake Forest University Hospital and works at the Fayetteville Family Life Center, one of the faith-based counseling centers under the auspices of the hospital. He has an interest in the integration of psychology and theology and is currently a student at Campbell University Divinity School, pursuing a master of divinity degree.

    Cooper B. Holmes is professor of psychology at Emporia State University, Roe R. Cross Distinguished Professor, and a licensed psychologist. He was a research assistant for one year at the Menninger Foundation following his BA from Washburn University, obtained an MA in clinical psychology from Bowling Green State University, and completed the PhD in counseling from the University of Toledo. His clinical experiences include three years as a psychologist at Toledo State Hospital, then, along with teaching, consulting at a mental health center, consulting with a psychiatrist in private practice, and having a private office for diagnostic evaluations. While a professor, he received training in neuropsychology at the VA Medical Center in Kansas City, Missouri. Professional interests include diagnostic fads, suicide, ethics, misdiagnosis of brain disorders as psychiatric conditions, coping with real-life crises, and older literary accounts of “modern” psychological concepts.

    Jeffrey Holmes has been an assistant professor of psychology at Ithaca College for four years since finishing his doctorate in counseling psychology. He teaches large sections of introductory psychology and a senior seminar on controversial issues in psychological theory and research. He also teaches a unique laboratory course that provides introductory students with a vital foundation in psychological research, and advanced students with the opportunity to conduct laboratory-training sessions. He has received departmental recognition for superior teaching, and has twice been nominated for the Ithaca College Teaching Excellence Award. His research is primarily in the areas of teaching of psychology and social psychology. The latter area provided the background for his group processes chapter in the current volume.

    Hui-Chin Hsu is an associate professor in the Department of Child and Family Development at the University of Georgia. Her research interest is on social interactions between mothers and their infants. One of her research topics is whether and how mothers’ emotional experience in parenting, such as separation anxiety, contributes to their sensitivity and responsiveness to infants’ social signals during social interaction. She is also interested in investigating the outcomes of mother-infant interaction that seek to understand the linkage of the quality of social interaction between mother and infant to later child compliance and social understanding in toddlerhood and preschool age.

    Tim Huelsman is an associate professor of psychology at Appalachian State University and director of the industrial-organizational psychology and human resource management program at Appalachian, a multidisciplinary program offering the master's degree. He has served on the Education and Training Committee of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and is the current chair of the North Carolina Industrial-Organizational Psychologists. His specialty is organizational psychology, with special interest in personality and mood in the organization, organizational assessment, and organizational culture and climate. His consulting work is broad, but generally focuses on organizational assessment, organizational development, and program evaluation. He most enjoys opening students’ eyes to the field of I-O psychology and participating in their development as professionals who merge research and practice. He resides in Boone, North Carolina, with his wife, Jeanie, and their son Calvin.

    Matthew T. Huss is an associate professor at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. He is a graduate of the clinical psychology training program (forensic emphasis) and the law and psychology program at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is an author of over 40 different publications, including a forthcoming textbook on forensic psychology, Forensic Psychology: Research, Practice, and Applications. His research interests generally revolve around risk assessment in specific populations (e.g., domestic violence and sex offenders), pedagogy and psychology, and the law in general.

    Mary Inman is an associate professor at Hope College. She has taught social psychology, including social cognition, for 15 years as a college professor. She has published several research articles on social cognition topics such as perceiving discrimination and forming impressions from word-of-mouth communication. For example, she studies how targets of discrimination and third-party observers decide whether an event reflects discrimination. Her research examines why highand low-status groups perceive discrimination differently, how the body responds when a person perceives discrimination, and which interventions can bridge perceptual differences between different groups. She has been an invited reviewer for several leading social psychology journals, including Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Social Cognition, and Basic and Applied Social Psychology. Her upcoming book, The Research Companion for Social Psychology, teaches undergraduate college students how to conduct social psychology research. She resides in Holland, Michigan, with her husband and son.

    Jessica G. Irons is an assistant professor of psychology at James Madison University. She earned her PhD in experimental psychology from Auburn University and an MS from Augusta State University. Her scholarship of teaching interests focuses on empirically supported teaching methods, specifically methods for teaching critical thinking.

    John Juve currently serves as a statistical analyst for JurySync, a litigation consulting firm in Olathe, Kansas. At JurySync, he conducts psychological and legal research investigating juror attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge, and their influence on decision making in the courtroom. He also developed and maintains a proprietary item bank, or virtual library, consisting of hundreds of items and questions used to support his jury selection research. Before coming to Kansas, he spent four years at the University of Missouri-Columbia completing his doctoral degree in educational psychology. He specialized in measurement, assessment, and statistics pertaining to the fields of psychology and education. While at the University of Missouri-Columbia, he taught several undergraduate and graduate courses and served as a research assistant to the associate dean for undergraduate programs and teacher development. He was selected to participate in a summer internship with the Psychological Testing Corporation in San Antonio, Texas, where he conducted psychometric research pertaining to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

    James Kalat is professor of psychology at North Carolina State University, where he has taught introduction to psychology and biological psychology since 1977. He received an AB degree summa cum laude from Duke University in 1968 and a PhD, under the supervision of Paul Rozin, from the University of Pennsylvania in 1971. He is the author of Biological Psychology (9th ed., 2007) and Introduction to Psychology (8th ed., 2008), and coauthor with Michelle N. Shiota of Emotion (2007), all published by Wadsworth. In addition, he has written journal articles on taste-aversion learning, the teaching of psychology, and other topics.

    Jeffrey S. Katz is an alumni associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Auburn University. His research focus is in the area of comparative cognition. Ongoing projects involve avian same/different concept learning, the mechanisms by which pigeons learn matching to sample, behavioral mechanisms of auditory and visual list memory in primates, and problem solving in virtual environments. He teaches undergraduate and graduate classes in advanced experimental psychology, animal learning and cognition, cognitive psychology, and sensation and perception. He also currently holds teaching and research grants from the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Mental Health. He has been honored with the Young Investigator Award—APA's Division 3 Experimental Psychology (2001), Outstanding Professor—Auburn University Panhellenic Council (2003), Psi Chi Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching—Department of Psychology Auburn University (2002), and College of Liberal Arts Early Career Teaching Award—Auburn University (2004–2005).

    Jared W. Keeley is an advanced doctoral student in the Department of Psychology at Auburn University. He earned a BA degree from Knox College in Illinois. His research has investigated if clinicians use a hierarchical model to classify mental disorders, as is implied in the DSM, as well as how clinicians conceptualize comorbidity. Keeley is also actively interested in scholarship on the teaching of psychology, and plans to pursue an academic career.

    Kenneth D. Keith is professor of psychology at the University of San Diego, where he was department chair from 1999 to 2007. He teaches coursework and a laboratory in cross-cultural psychology and conducts research on cross-cultural quality of life. He has a special interest in Japan and Japanese culture. In addition to his cross-cultural work, he has written extensively on other aspects of quality of life, intellectual disability, and the teaching of psychology.

    Marcel Satsky Kerris associate professor of psychology at Texas Wesleyan University and serves as chair of the Department of Psychology. Kerr has taught psychology at the university level for over 10 years at four different schools in Texas—Texas Tech University, South Plains College, Texas Wesleyan University, and Tarleton State University. She received her bachelor's in psychology from Texas A&M University, a MA in experimental psychology from Texas Tech University, a PhD in experimental psychology and statistical methods from Texas Tech University, and a MEd in educational technology from the University of Texas at Brownsville. Kerr's interest in psychometrics emerged during her doctoral work, when survey development projects presented opportunities for skill development and needed income. Her current research focuses on online learning pedagogy, which allows her to continue honing her psychometric skills.

    Beverly R. King is an associate professor in the Psychology and Counseling Department at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. She holds a PhD in developmental psychology from Purdue University and teaches a wide variety of psychology courses, both face-to-face and online. Some of these courses are introductory psychology, child and adolescent psychology, cross-cultural child development, psychology of gender, and human development and personality. Her interest in repressed and recovered memories stems from her use of the topic in many of these courses to illustrate how psychological research can address important societal issues.

    Mary Kite received her BA, MS, and PhD from Purdue University. She is now professor of psychological science at Ball State University. Recently, she served in administrative roles at Ball State, including Acting Graduate Dean and Associate Graduate Dean. Throughout her career, she has maintained an active research program in the area of stereotyping and prejudice, particularly as it relates to antigay prejudice and racism. She has published in a number of journals, including American Psychologist, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Psychology of Women Quarterly, and Sex Roles. Most recently, she has coauthored a textbook, The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination, with Bernard Whitley. She is a fellow of the Society of the Teaching of Psychology, the Society for the Psychology of Women, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues. In 2006, she served as president of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology. She is currently secretary-treasurer of the Midwestern Psychological Association and chairs the APA Task Force on Diversity Education Resources.

    Stephen B. Klein has been professor and head of the Department of Psychology at Mississippi State University since 1990. Dr. Klein obtained his BS degree from Virginia Tech in 1968 and his PhD from Rutgers University in 1971. He taught for 12 years at Old Dominion University and was chair of the Department of Psychology at Fort Hays State University for 7 years prior to coming to Mississippi State University. Dr. Klein has written numerous articles on the biological basis of learning and memory and is the author of seven textbooks, including Learning: Principles and Applications (2002, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, adopted by several hundred universities and translated into Spanish) and Biological Psychology (2007, Worth, coauthored with B. Michael Thorne). He also coedited the two-volume text Contemporary Learning Theories (2001), both published by Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Christopher Koch is a professor of psychology at George Fox University, where he has been department chair, director of scholarship, and director of assessment. He teaches Sensation & Perception, Neuroscience, Cognition, Research Methods, and Statistics. He earned his PhD in cognitive-experimental psychology from the University of Georgia and studies perceptual and attentional processes. Dr. Koch has also conducted cross-cultural research in perception and cognition as a Fulbright scholar in Russia. He is coauthor of CognitionXL, which is an online educational system for active learning about sensory, perceptual, and cognitive processes. Dr. Koch has been president of Psi Chi (the National Honor Society in Psychology) and a Councelor for the Psychology Division of the Council for Undergraduate Research.

    Philip Kortum is currently a professor in the Department of Psychology at Rice University in Houston, Texas. Prior to joining Rice, he worked for almost a decade at SBC Laboratories (now AT&T Laboratories) doing human factors research and development in all areas of telecommunications. Dr. Kortum continues to do work in the research and development of user-centric systems in both the visual (Web design, equipment design, image compression) and auditory domains (telephony operations and interactive voice response systems). He received his PhD in biomedical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin.

    John H. Krantz is professor of psychology at Hanover College. He received his undergraduate degree from St. Andrews Presbyterian College and his master's and doctorate from the University of Florida. His training is in human vision. The principal research methods he was taught and uses are psychophysical methods. Immediately after receiving his doctorate, he worked for Honeywell on cockpit display development. In this work he was able to learn and see how psychophysics contributes to applied research. Since coming to Hanover College in 1990, he has taught a wide range of courses including sensation and perception, biopsychology, cognition, and research methods. All of these courses are laboratory courses. In teaching these courses, particularly the laboratories, he has focused on conveying to his students the importance of clearly understanding one's research methods in how they frame both research questions and answers. His interest in the nature of research methods, such as psychophysics, has led to his work in the exploration of the use of the World Wide Web for psychological research.

    David Kreiner is professor of psychology and associate dean of the Graduate School at the University of Central Missouri, where he began teaching in 1990 after completing a PhD in human experimental psychology at the University of Texas, Austin. He enjoys teaching research design & analysis, cognitive psychology, sensation & perception, advanced statistics, and a colloquium on the psychology of language. Research interests include language processing, memory, and the teaching of psychology. He often collaborates with undergraduate and graduate students on publications and presentations. He is a member of the American Psychological Association Divisions 2 (Teaching of Psychology) and 3 (Experimental Psychology), the Association for Psychological Science, the Midwestern Psychological Association, and the Council of Teachers of Undergraduate Psychology.

    Jason Kring is an assistant professor of human factors and systems at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Daytona Beach, Florida. He received his MS in experimental psychology from Emporia State University, and his PhD in applied experimental and human factors psychology from the University of Central Florida. He has worked as a researcher at the United States Army Research Institute in Orlando and interned at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, developing human factors recommendations related to the International Space Station. He is currently President of the Society for Human Performance in Extreme Environments (HPEE); an interdisciplinary forum for scientists, operational personnel, and students with an interest and expertise in the area of human performance and behavior in complex, high-stress environments. He also serves as editor of the Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments and is codirector of the Team Simulation and Gaming Laboratory at Embry-Riddle. He has over 30 publications and 50 conference presentations, representing a wide range of research interests including performance in extreme and stressful settings; effects of cohesion, trust, and communication on team performance; crew composition and interactions for long-duration spaceflight; aerospace human factors; distributed team performance; and training applications of simulation and virtual reality.

    Natalie Kerr Lawrence received her PhD in experimental social psychology from Virginia Commonwealth University in 2001. She became interested in the study of attitudes during graduate school and completed her dissertation on social identity processes in attitude change. She is now an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at James Madison University, where she teaches general psychology, statistics, research methods, social psychology, and social influence. She is an active member of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, and her current research interests are focused on the teaching of psychology

    Steven R. Lawyer is a clinical psychologist and an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Idaho State University. He received his BS from Western Michigan University in 1995 and his PhD from Auburn University in 2002. His research interests include experimental psychopathology, sexual decision making, and sexual aggression. His clinical work primarily concerns the treatment of anxiety and mood-related disorders using empirically supported treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapies. He teaches graduate and undergraduate courses concerning psychotherapy and psychological science.

    Michael J. T. Leftwich earned his PhD in clinical psychology from Oklahoma State University in 1999, with a subspecialty emphasis in health psychology. He is currently at Forest Institute of Professional Psychology. His primary interests include substance-related disorders, personality theory and assessment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Philip Lewis is a professor of psychology at Auburn University. The recipient of numerous departmental, college, and university teaching awards, Lewis teaches graduate and undergraduate courses on Personality Theory and Adolescent and Adult Development. Phil's interest in a life-span approach to personality development began when he was a doctoral student at Syracuse University working under the direction of the cognitive developmental psychologist David E. Hunt. Phil was the lead investigator in a longitudinal study of West Point cadets and is currently involved in a longitudinal study of transformational change in Harvard MBA students.

    Carolyn A. Licht received her doctorate in clinical psychology with a child and family specialization from Fordham University. She recently became nationally certified as an Acupuncture Detoxification Specialist (ADS). Previously she had an accomplished 10-year professional ballet career dancing in New York, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois; in 1992, she developed a creative dance and movement course for children with special needs. In 2006, she coauthored two published articles introducing selfreport instruments designed to measure the Bowen Family Systems constructs of pursuer-distancer and differentiation of self. She is currently employed at the Family Care Center at Harlem Hospital in New York City.

    Shane J. Lopez is associate professor of counseling psychology at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, where he teaches courses in positive psychology, psychological assessment, and educational leadership. He also is a Gallup senior scientist, a role through which he consults primarily with the Gallup Education Division and Gallup University. He serves on the editorial board of The Journal of Positive Psychology and on the advisory board for Ready, Set, Learn, the Discovery Channel's preschool educational television programming. Through his current research programs, Lopez is examining the effectiveness of hope training programs in the schools (under the auspices of the Making Hope Happen Program), refining a model of psychological courage, and exploring the link between soft life skills and hard outcomes in education, work, health, and family functioning. His books include The Handbook of Positive Psychology (Oxford) and Positive Psychological Assessment: A Handbook of Models and Measures (American Psychological Association Press), both with C. R. Snyder.

    Denise Martz is a professor and coordinator for graduate programs in psychology at Appalachian State University. She regularly teaches health psychology, behavioral medicine, women's health, and large sections of abnormal psychology. She most enjoys mentoring student research, and has chaired numerous master's and honors theses and assisted many students in publishing their thesis work. Her research team's studies on “fat talk,” the social psychology of body image, have received widespread media attention. In 2000, she was the recipient of the Graduate Student Association Award for Outstanding Advising and Mentoring. She has engaged in the private practice of behavioral medicine and psychotherapy in her community for the past 12 years. Eager to bring health psychology to mainstream medicine and public health, she serves a leadership role in planning an integrative medicine center, a partnership between her university and local hospital system, in Boone, North Carolina.

    George Mather is professor of experimental psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom. He received his bachelor's degree in psychology from Sheffield University, United Kingdom, and his PhD in visual psychophysics from Reading University, United Kingdom. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Reading University, United Kingdom; York University, Canada; and University College London, United Kingdom, before joining the faculty at Sussex University. Mather has published numerous research papers on a range of topics, including human spatial vision, depth perception, and motion perception. He is the joint editor (with Frans Verstraten and Stuart Anstis) of The Motion Aftereffect: A Modern Perspective (MIT Press, 1998), and the author of Foundations of Perception (Psychology Press, 2006). He is currently engaged in research into human visual motion perception, and teaches undergraduate courses in perception and in the relation between art and psychology.

    Janet R. Matthews is a tenured professor in the psychology department at Loyola University, New Orleans, where she has taught for well over 20 years. She is a licensed and board-certified clinical psychologist. Dr. Matthews received her PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Mississippi following her predoctoral clinical internship at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Her postdoctoral fellowship in clinical and neuropsychological assessment was at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. She has written numerous articles about ethics as well as other areas of clinical practice. Her clinical psychology textbook was recently published. She served a term on her state psychology licensing board as well as various APA governance groups, including its Council of Representatives and Board of Directors. Her husband, Lee, is also a licensed and board-certified clinical psychologist. Outside psychology, she enjoys spending time with her cats and reading mystery novels.

    Kurt D. Michael is an associate professor of psychology at Appalachian State University (ASU) and Associate Director of Clinical Services at the ASU Institute for Health and Human Services. He teaches abnormal psychology and history and systems at the undergraduate level, and child psychopathology and interventions for children and adolescents at the graduate level. His primary area of research is treatment outcome for child and adolescent disorders as well as substance abuse disorders. He is presently involved in a longitudinal project designed to investigate the efficacy of motivational interviewing in reducing problematic drinking patterns in first-year college students. Thus far, the results appear promising, and a subset of these data was published recently in the American Psychological Association journal, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. In addition to Michael's teaching and research interests, he is a practicing licensed psychologist and oversees the outcome evaluation process for the largest private addictive treatment center in the Carolinas.

    Harold L. Miller, Jr., is professor of psychology and Karl G. Maeser Professor of General Education at Brigham Young University. He is associate editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and has published research reports and reviews in that journal and others devoted to behavior analysis. His primary research interests are choice and decision making in humans and other species, with particular attention to qualitatively different reinforcers, delay discounting, and self-control.

    Richard L. Miller received his PhD in 1975 from Northwestern University. He has taught at Georgetown University and the University of Cologne. He served for many years as the director of applied behavioral science research for HumRRO in Heidelberg, Germany, where he was involved in research on leadership, organizational behavior, and environmental and community psychology. Since 1990, he has held the position of professor and chair of the Psychology Department at the University of Nebraska at Kearney. He is a recipient of the University's Outstanding Teaching and Instructional Creativity Award, a past president of RMPA, and a fellow of both APA and APS.

    Adriana Molitor is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of San Diego. She received her baccalaureate degree from the University of California at Riverside, with a double major in psychology and human development, and earned her doctorate in developmental psychology from Duke University. Before joining the faculty at USD, she completed a postdoctoral research position at the Yale University Child Study Center. Dr. Molitor's teaching interests include infancy, child and adolescent development, and developmental research methods. Her research interests center around the social and emotional development of infants and toddlers. The topics of her research include the dynamics of mother-infant interactions, the impact of these interactions on emotional and social behavior, the problems encountered by at-risk infants and toddlers, and the role of culture in structuring developmental goals and motherchild exchanges.

    David Morgan is a full professor in the School of Professional Psychology at Spalding University in Louisville, Kentucky. Over the course of the past 16 years, he has taught nearly a dozen different courses in both the undergraduate psychology program and the graduate MA and PsyD programs. He maintains specific scholarly interests in behavior analysis and single-subject research designs, and has published numerous articles and books in these areas. A number of years ago, he developed an undergraduate course titled Environmental Problems and Human Behavior. Unlike most environmental psychology courses, Environmental Problems and Human Behavior focuses on human behavior as the independent variable and environmental quality as the dependent variable. Major themes in the course have been the poor fit between humans’ Stone Age dispositions and the current high-tech world in which many of us live, as well as the basic application of fundamental behavior principles to the amelioration of environmental problems.

    Robin K. Morgan is a professor of psychology at Indiana University Southeast in New Albany, Indiana. Over the course of the past 18 years, she has taught over 20 different courses at the undergraduate level and was the founding director of the campus Institute for Learning and Teaching Excellence. Among her teaching awards are the Master Teacher Recognition Award from Indiana University Southeast, the 2001 Herman Fredric Lieber Memorial Award—Distinguished Teaching Award for Indiana University, the Indiana University Southeast Distinguished Teaching Award, membership in F.A.C.E.T. (Indiana University Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching), and the Metroversity Outstanding Adult Teacher Award. Her scholarly work has focused on both the scholarship of teaching and how individuals cope with stressful life events, and she has published articles, chapters, and books in these areas. Her current research is focused on student stalking of faculty.

    Daniel D. Moriarty is professor and chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of San Diego and director of research at the California Wolf Center. His current interests include management of wolves in captivity and the use of conditioned taste aversion to control predatory behavior. As a comparative psychologist, he has long recognized evolutionary theory as the unifying principle in the understanding and explanation of behavior. Extension of the evolutionary perspective to human behavior has been challenging but fruitful, as the development of evolutionary psychology has clearly shown.

    Chad Mortensen received his undergraduate degree in psychology from the University of Iowa. He is now a doctoral student in social psychology at Arizona State University. His interests include social influence and a functional approach to social psychology.

    Sherman M. Normandin is a graduate student in the clinical psychology doctoral training program at Idaho State University. He received his BA at the University of North Dakota in 2000. His research interests include using experimental procedures to examine contextual factors that influence sexual decision making in a laboratory environment. His clinical interests include using behavioral principles to manage childhood disorders as well as adult psychopathology, including substance abuse and anxiety disorders. He is also interested in the study of the history of psychology in general and the history of clinical psychology in particular.

    Joseph J. Palladinois professor of psychology and chair of psychology at the University of Southern Indiana (Evansville, Indiana). He earned his PhD in general theoretical psychology from Fordham University. Since 1981, he has been on the faculty of the University of Southern Indiana, where he has served as chair of the Psychology Department, coordinator of university assessment, and coordinator of programs for the university's Center for Teaching and Learning Excellence. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and its Division on Teaching and has served the Division as president (1991–1992), editor of the Methods and Techniques section of Teaching of Psychology, and chairperson of the program committee. In 2000, he was elected Midwestern vice-president of Psi Chi (the National Honor Society in Psychology). In 1982, he founded the Mid-America Undergraduate Psychology Research Conference, which is now run by a consortium of faculty representing colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky. In 1990, he received the Division 2 Teaching Excellence Award. He received the University of Southern Indiana Alumni Association's Faculty Recognition Award in 2000. His autobiography, “From the streets of the Bronx to academia,” was selected to appear in The Teaching of Psychology in Autobiography: Perspectives from Exemplary Psychology Teachers, which was published in 2005 by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology.

    Mauricio R. Papini, professor of psychology at Texas Christian University, has dedicated his career to the comparative analysis of learning in a variety of species, focusing on situations involving surprising omissions or reductions in incentive magnitude. His current research centers on the neurobiological basis of incentive contrast, with emphasis on limbic structures and the opioid system. The long-term goal of this research is to provide a better understanding of the evolution of brain mechanisms responsible for incentive contrast phenomena. Mauricio has published Comparative Psychology: Evolution and Development of Behavior (2002), translated into Japanese and Spanish and soon to appear in a second edition; was editor of the International Journal of Comparative Psychology (2000–2006); and is president-elect of the International Society for Comparative Psychology.

    Sharon Pearcey received her master's and PhD degrees from Georgia State University in behavioral neuroscience. During the 2000–2001 academic year, Pearcey completed a postdoctoral teaching fellowship in the Psychology Department at Furman University. She is currently an assistant professor of psychology at Kennesaw State University. Her research interests are in the areas of food intake, meal patterns, and activity. She has published her research in several journals, including Physiology & Behavior, Appetite, and The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Pearcey is a member of the Council on Undergraduate Research and is committed to working with undergraduate students on research projects.

    Kerri Pickel is a professor and the director of graduate studies in the Department of Psychological Science at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. Her research focuses on psychology and law, including eyewitness memory and credibility. She has published articles investigating the weapon focus effect, differences between accurate and inaccurate witnesses, the consequences of lying on witnesses’ memory, and how jurors evaluate witnesses’ testimony. At Ball State, she has taught undergraduate courses in research methods, cognition, and statistics, as well as courses in cognition and memory for the graduate program in Cognitive and Social Processes. She is a member of the editorial board of Law and Human Behavior (the journal of Division 41 of the American Psychological Association).

    Wade Pickrenearned his PhD in the history of psychology with a minor in the history of science under the direction of Don Dewsbury at the University of Florida. He is the associate chair of the Department of Psychology at Ryerson University in Toronto, where he also leads the Cultural Strengths Research Group. For 8 years, Pickren was APA historian and director of archives (1998–2006). After moving to Ryerson in 2006, he remains APA Historian. He has two edited books, Evolving Perspectives on the History of Psychology and Psychology and the NIMH. His most recent book, Psychology and the Department of Veterans Affairs: A Historical Analysis of Training, Research, Practice, and Advocacy, was published in 2007. He has served as a guest editor and contributor to several issues of American Psychologist: “The Contributions of Kenneth and Mamie Clark,” “Psychology and the Nobel Prize,” and “50 years after Brown v Board of Education.” Pickren's scholarly interests include the use of narratives in understanding cultural strengths, the history of psychology and health care, the history of efforts to make psychology truly inclusive in both theory and practice, and the history of indigenous psychologies. He enjoys classroom teaching and aims to help students develop a disciplined curiosity about psychology and life.

    Loreto R. Prieto, PhD, is director of the U.S. Latino/a studies program and professor of psychology at Iowa State University. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) through both the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (STP) and the Society of Counseling Psychology. Prieto has over 100 publications and presentations, many focusing on diversity issues, including the upcoming text Got Diversity? Best Practices For Incorporating Culture into the Curriculum, coedited with Dr. Regan Gurung. Prieto was the chair of the STP Diversity Task Force (1998–2005) and also served as chair of the Working Group on Diversity for the APA Psychology Partnerships Project (P3). He is a sought-after speaker and consultant on diversity issues, especially as they pertain to the teaching of psychology.

    John Raacke is currently an assistant professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke (UNCP). Dr. Raacke received both his master's and PhD in experimental/cognitive psychology from Kansas State University. He is currently the chair of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at UNCP and is a member of the Association of Psychological Science as well as the Society of Judgment and Decision Making. His research interests include team decision making, the use of statistical evidence in juror and jury decision making, and the longitudinal development of expertise. Dr. Raacke has published over 10 articles and 4 book chapters, and has written and received over 10 grants. In addition, he has taught classes in a variety of areas in psychology including sensation and perception, problem solving and decision making, physiological psychology, research methods, and developmental psychology.

    Erin Rasmussen is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Idaho State University, where she teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in learning and behavioral pharmacology. She received her MS and PhD in experimental psychology (with a minor in behavioral pharmacology and toxicology) from Auburn University. She taught at the College of Charleston as an assistant professor for three years before joining the faculty at Idaho State University. Her past research involved examination of how prenatal exposure to heavy metals affects the behavior of offspring and the role of environmental enrichment in attenuating those effects. Currently, she is examining the behavioral economics of food choices that lead to obesity in environmental and genetic rodent models of obesity, as well as underlying neurotransmitter systems (endocannabinoids and opioids) that are involved in food reinforcement.

    Shilpa Pai Regan is an assistant professor of clinical psychology at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. In this position, she teaches undergraduate and graduate psychology courses in introductory psychology, adult development, multicultural counseling, and diagnosing and assessing individuals. She maintains an active research program focusing on mental health, specifically the appropriate treatment and assessment of multicultural populations. Dr. Regan is a graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, earned her master's and doctorate in clinical psychology from Oklahoma State University, and is licensed by the North Carolina Psychology Board. She specializes in cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and multicultural counseling. She is experienced in working with adults, couples, families, children, adolescents, and groups. Dr. Regan has significant knowledge and expertise in the evaluation and treatment of substance abuse (alcohol and illicit drugs), trauma reactions, depression, and anxiety disorders.

    Jessica M. Richmond is currently a graduate student at the University of Akron in the counseling psychology doctoral program. She received her master's in clinical psychology from Radford University in 2006. Her research interests include end-of-life care and decision making, quality of life in individuals living with HIV/AIDS, and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. She has been involved in several research projects related to HIV disease, specifically focusing on decision making in HIV-positive pregnant women, and has authored/coauthored several articles and book chapters on issues dealing with the end of life.

    Verena M. Roberts is a graduate student in the clinical psychology doctoral training program at Idaho State University. She was born in Berlin, Germany, but has lived in the United States since 2001. Her research interests include the assessment and treatment of sexual dysfunction in relationships, a focus she plans to apply to her professional clinical work. Clinically, she employs an eclectic mix of therapeutic principles to individualize her treatments and meet her clients’ needs, and embraces an evidence-based approach to psychological care that includes cognitive-behavioral therapy and principles.

    Alexandra Rutherford is an associate professor of psychology at York University in Toronto. She is a primary faculty member in, and past coordinator of, the history and theory of psychology graduate program. She has served for the past five years as chair of the Heritage Committee for the Society for the Psychology of Women of the American Psychological Association. She also serves as the official historian of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Her teaching and research interests and publications span a number of areas, including the history of women and feminism in psychology, the history and social impact of behavioral technologies, and the history of clinical psychology. From 2002 to 2005 she was the book review editor of the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, and since 2002 she has edited a regular column in The Feminist Psychologist highlighting the roles of women in the history of psychology. In addition to her work as an academician, she is also a practicing clinical psychologist.

    Joseph J. Ryan received his PhD from the University of Missouri-Columbia and is currently professor and chair in the Department of Psychology at the University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, Missouri. He is a diplomate in clinical neuropsychology of the American Board of Professional Psychology/American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the National Academy of Neuropsychology. Ryan was the 2006 recipient of the Raymond D. Fowler Award from the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) and, in 2007, was named the William F. Byler Distinguished Faculty at the University of Central Missouri. The author of more than 200 publications, he has received the Outstanding Graduate Professor of Psychology Award from UCM students each of the past five years. Prior to assuming his position at UCM in 1999, he was chief of the Psychology Service at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Veterans Affairs Medical Center and adjunct professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Kansas Medical Center. He has served on the editorial boards of numerous professional publications, including Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, and The Clinical Neuropsychologist.

    Kimberly Rynearson is an associate professor of psychology at Tarleton State University. She holds a BA in psychology (The University of Texas at Austin), a MA in experimental psychology (Texas Tech University), a MEd in adult education and distance learning (University of Phoenix), and a PhD in experimental psychology with an emphasis in cognition (Texas Tech University). Dr. Rynearson's research interests include characteristics of successful online learners, the role of verbally immediate behavior in the online classroom, adult learning theory and its application in a computer-mediated learning environment, the use of technology to enhance K–12 reading instruction, word recognition and reading comprehension among beginning and skilled readers, and characteristics and practices of expert readers.

    Bryan K. Saville is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia, where he has been since the fall of 2004. Prior to joining the faculty at JMU, he was an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas. He earned a BA in psychology from the University of Minnesota, a MS in applied psychology (behavior analysis) from St. Cloud State University, and a PhD in experimental psychology from Auburn University. In 2002, he received the McKeachie Early Career Award from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (STP; Division 2 of APA). He coedited “E-xcellence in Teaching,” a monthly e-column devoted to the teaching of psychology, and Essays from E-xcellence in Teaching (Volumes 3–6), both of which are published on STP's Web site. He has published over 20 journal articles and book chapters, and is author of the forthcoming book, A Guide to Teaching Research Methods in Psychology (Blackwell).

    Lauren F. V. Scharff is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Stephen F. Austin State University (SFASU). She completed her PhD in human experimental psychology in December 1992 from the University of Texas at Austin, and started teaching at SFASU in January 1993. She is codirector for the SFASU Teaching Excellence Center, which she helped establish in 2006. Dr. Scharff regularly teaches introductory psychology, research methods, biopsychology, perception courses, and a teaching seminar. Her major research interests include text readability, Web site usability, visual search, and depth perception, although her students continually shift her research efforts to new directions. For the past nine years, she has actively collaborated with researchers at NASA-Ames to create a metric to predict text readability and to study information processing in the visual system.

    Kelly Schmidtke is a graduate student at Auburn University. At Auburn, she works as a teaching assistant and a research assistant in the Animal Learning and Cognition Laboratory. She is interested in using animal models to understand how organisms acquire skills. Using pigeons as subjects, her current research focuses on how expectancies influence acquisition of the same-different concept.

    Steven K. Shapiro received his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Miami in 1990 upon completing an internship at Duke University Medical Center. Currently, Dr. Shapiro is director of clinical training and associate professor of psychology at Auburn University, where he has been since 1990. His research activities focus on the description and assessment of executive functioning, learning, and conduct problems in children and adults. Dr. Shapiro has taught a variety of undergraduate and graduate courses, and is particularly interested in child psychopathology, child behavioral and cognitive assessment, and clinical supervision.

    Jason Sikorskiis a clinical psychologist privileged to be an assistant professor of psychology at Central Connecticut State University. His research focuses on disruptive behavior problems in adolescence and, more specifically, in predicting risk for sexual offense recidivism in juveniles. However, Dr. Sikorski takes the most pride in being an effective and passionate teacher of psychology. He is a recipient of the McKeachie Early Career Award given yearly by Division 2: The Society for the Teaching of Psychology of the American Psychological Association. This prestigious honor recognizes exemplary classroom teaching, scholarship pertaining to the teaching of psychology, and the establishment of a professional identity as a teacher of psychology.

    Leah Skovran attends the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, as a PhD/MLS student in social psychology and law. Her general research interests include the broad area of legal decision making and, more specifically, the role of emotion in capital murder cases. Her research focus also includes a forensic clinical perspective, particularly in the area of psychopathy and sexual offenders, and their relationship to sensation-seeking behaviors.

    Randolph A. Smith completed his undergraduate degree at the University of Houston and PhD at Texas Tech University in experimental psychology (specialties in human learning/memory and statistics). Randy taught at Ouachita Baptist University in Arkansas for 26 years, chaired Kennesaw State University's Psychology Department for 4 years, and became chair of Lamar University's Psychology Department in 2007. His professional work centers on the scholarship of teaching. Randy serves as editor of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology's journal Teaching of Psychology. He is author of Challenging Your Preconceptions: Thinking Critically About Psychology (2002), coauthor (with Steve Davis) of The Psychologist as Detective: An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology (2007), and coauthor (with Steve Davis) of An Introduction to Statistics and Research Methods: Becoming a Psychological Detective (2005). He has worked with high school teachers grading AP exams since the test's inception and recently served as faculty advisor for TOPSS (Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools). He is a member of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science. In 2006, Smith received the American Psychological Foundation's Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award and the University System of Georgia Regents’ Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Award.

    Todd A. Smitherman is currently completing a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. He completed his PhD in clinical psychology at Auburn University, where his research focused on the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and specific phobias. He has published numerous journal articles and book chapters on these topics. His current interests also include behavioral medicine and the comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders with various medical conditions, such as recurrent headache. In this regard, he has worked to increase awareness of anxiety and mood disorders in medical patients and to develop screening instruments to improve assessment within primary care settings. He has been the recipient of numerous earlycareer awards, recently including an American Headache Society/Merck U.S. Human Health Scholarship, and he publishes actively in the areas mentioned above.

    Chris Spatz is at Hendrix College in Conway, Arkansas. Spatz's undergraduate textbook, Basic Statistics: Tales of Distributions, is in its 9th edition (2008). He is also a coauthor with Edward P. Kardas of Research Methods in Psychology: Ideas, Techniques, and Reports (2008). Spatz was a section editor for the Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science (2005) and has reviewed manuscripts for Teaching of Psychology for more than 20 years. He has written other chapters for edited books and served as an institutional research consultant to Hendrix College.

    Robert J. Sternberg is dean of the School of Arts and Sciences, professor of psychology, adjunct professor of education, and director of the Center for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise and of the Center for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching at Tufts University. He is also Honorary Professor of Psychology at the University of Heidelberg. Sternberg is president of the Eastern Psychological Association and president-elect of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Foundation and of the American Association of Colleges and Universities. Sternberg's PhD is from Stanford, and he holds eight honorary doctorates.

    Richard Stevenson is an associate professor of psychology at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. His PhD work at the University of Sussex was on food preferences, which led to postdoctoral work on food flavor at the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia) and then at the University of Sydney. He took up an academic post at Macquarie University in 1998 with the aim of applying what he had learned about flavor to odor perception. This culminated in a book on odor perception with Don Wilson in 2006. He is currently shifting back to flavor.

    Anne Stewart is professor of graduate psychology at James Madison University. She has worked to promote the resilience of children and families in projects throughout the world, including Sri Lanka and India following the massive tsunami. Dr. Stewart has designed and implemented grant-funded projects to address the psychosocial problems of land mines in Bosnia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Mozambique. In the United States, she has served as a consultant and service provider after Hurricane Katrina, the 9/11 attacks, the Virginia Tech University shootings, and other catastrophic events. Her books include Becoming a Community Counselor and Thriving! A Manual for Students in the Helping Professions. She is the president of the Virginia Play Therapy Association and the recipient of the James Madison University All Together One Award and the College Award for Distinguished Service.

    Jeffrey R. Stowell earned his PhD in psychobiology from Ohio State University in 1999. His dissertation research was on brain mechanisms that regulate the cardiovascular response to fear and anxiety. Under the direction of Dr. Janice Kiecolt-Glaser at OSU, he completed a postdoctoral fellowship in which he supervised a large study on marital stress, immune function, and wound healing. He currently teaches honors introductory psychology, biological psychology, learning, and controversial topics in psychology at Eastern Illinois University. He has won numerous awards for his teaching, including an Early Career Teaching Excellence Award given by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology in 2006. His current research focuses on how stress and coping influence endocrine function.

    Bradley R. Sturz is a recent graduate of the experimental psychology program at Auburn University. After a time as a postdoctoral teacher and researcher at Villanova University, he is now an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Armstrong Atlantic State University. His research focus can be broadly classified as comparative psychology with an emphasis in human and nonhuman spatial learning and cognition.

    Elizabeth V. Swenson is professor of psychology at John Carroll University. She holds a PhD from Case Western Reserve University and a JD from Cleveland State University. Dr. Swenson teaches professional ethics, planning for graduate school, and legal issues in psychology to undergraduate students. She is a member of John Carroll University's Institutional Review Board, where she routinely reviews student and faculty research proposals for the safeguards to human participants. Dr. Swenson has been a member of the ethics committees of both the American Psychological Association and the Ohio Psychological Association. She practices law in Cleveland, Ohio, in the area of child protection and advocacy.

    Laura Ten Eyck is a researcher with the injury prevention program at Children's Medical Center Dallas. She holds several advanced degrees in psychology, including a PhD in experimental social psychology from Texas Christian University. Dr. Ten Eyck has also published several empirical research articles. Along with her colleagues in the injury prevention program, Dr. Ten Eyck applies principles and theories from several fields of psychology to the problem of unintentional injury in children. The goal of the program is to reduce the incidence of preventable injuries in children through basic and applied scientific research. Current injury prevention projects examine the role of attributional biases, personality, and social learning in the transmission of risky behavior and safety attitudes from parents to their children.

    Karin Weis is a research associate in the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative of Harvard University. She received her PhD in psychology in 2005 from the University of Heidelberg in Germany. During her doctoral studies, she spent about one and one half years at Yale doing research on love and hate. After receiving her degree, Weis spent 1 year at the University of Connecticut doing postdoctoral work on a fellowship of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Germany. Her research interests include intergroup relations, terrorism, and crisis leadership. She has coauthored a book on hate and has coedited a book on the psychology of love.

    James L. Werth, Jr., received his PhD in counseling psychology from Auburn University in 1995 and his Master of Legal Studies degree from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1999. He was the 1999–2000 American Psychological Association William A. Bailey AIDS Policy Congressional Fellow, working on aging and end-of-life issues in the office of United States Senator Ron Wyden (D-OR). When this chapter was written, he was an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Akron and the pro bono psychologist for the local HIV services organization, where he provided counseling and consulted with a specialty medical clinic. He is currently professor and director of the PsyD program in counseling psychology at Radford University, in Southwest Virginia. He is on the APA Ad Hoc Committee on End-of-Life Issues and the APA Ad Hoc Committee on Legal Issues. He has authored/coauthored over 75 articles and book chapters, edited/coedited 7 special journal issues, and written/edited 4 books specifically on end-of-life matters and/or HIV disease.

    Mary Whitehouse holds a Master of Divinity degree from Campbell University and is currently a student at North Carolina State University pursuing her PhD in psychology. She has an interest in the integration of psychology and theology.

    Bernard Whitley received his BS in psychology from Loyola University of Chicago and PhD in social psychology from the University of Pittsburgh. He joined the Ball State faculty in 1984 and became department chair in 2005. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter member of the Association for Psychological Science. His research interests include academic integrity and prejudice, and he has published in a number of journals, including Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. His books include The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination (2006) with Mary Kite; Principles of Research in Behavioral Science (2nd ed, 2002); Academic Dishonesty: An Educator's Guide (2002) with Patricia Keith-Spiegel; The Ethics of Teaching: A Casebook (2002) with Patricia Keith-Spiel, Arno Wittig, David Perkins, and Deborah Balogh; and Handbook for Conducting Research on Human Sexuality (2002), edited with Michael Wiederman.

    Patrick Williams is a graduate student at Claremont Graduate University, with a concentration in cognitive psychology. A lifelong resident of Southern California, Patrick received his bachelor's degree in psychology from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. His current research involves visuospatial skills training, gender equality, and standardized testing. In our increasingly complex and technological world, the importance of both visuospatial and critical-thinking skills training cannot be underestimated. He is moving forward as a doctoral student in these areas.

    William Douglas Woody is an associate professor of psychological sciences at the University of Northern Colorado. He is deeply invested in research and teaching in psychology and law. He conducts research on jury decision making, including topics such as damage awards and jurors’ perceptions of juveniles tried as adults, and he teaches classes in psychology and the law. His teaching awards include the Wilbert J. McKeachie Early Career Teaching Excellence Award from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, the Colorado State University Alumni Association Best Teacher Award, and the University of Northern Colorado Academic Excellence Award for Teaching Excellence in Undergraduate Education. Additionally, he has been named best professor by the students at two of the three universities where he has taught.

    Tracy E. Zinnearned her PhD in industrial/organizational psychology with a minor in experimental psychology from Auburn University in 2002. At Auburn, Tracy was privileged to work closely with one of the pioneers in the field of Organizational Behavior Management, and much of her training at Auburn focused on OBM. Currently, she is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia, where she teaches, among others, courses in statistics and research methods, industrial/organizational psychology, and OBM. In addition, she conducts research on effective teaching practices, applying behavioral interventions to improve student learning.

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