Feminine Style in Communication

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Entry
  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index

  • Scholars of political discourse argue that women have, because of a centuries-long relegation to the private sphere, developed a rhetorical style that tends to (a) be more personal in tone, (b) rely on personal experience, (c) be structured inductively, (d) invite audience participation, (e) address the audience as peers, and (f) identify with the audience's experience.

    Male speech strategy, conversely, tends to (a) use deductive logic, (b) affirm expertise, (c) refer to expert authority, and (d) use impersonal examples that are not connected to audience experience.

    A person's goal when using a “feminine” style of communication is to empower the listener to become effective or an agent of change. Further, the strategy is not exclusive to women and can be used by men. In addition, a more ...

    Looks like you are not subscribed to have access to full content on this book.

    Please login or subscribe to get access.

    If your Institution does not have a subscription and you cannot access the full text of content on the site, find out how your Institution can subscribe.

    • Abdullah II
    • All the President's Men
    • Argentina Democratization Process, Role of the Media
    • Carrie Chapman Catt Center for Women and Politics
    • Brazil, Media and the Political System
    • Ad Watch
    • Abortion
    • Apathy, Voter
    • American-Style Campaigning
    • AARP
    • Checkers Speech
    • Electoral Systems
    • Abortion
    • Agenda Melding
    • Bush–Rather Confrontation
    • Carrie Chapman Catt Center for Women and Politics
    • Feminine Style in Communication
    • Commentary, Political
    • Agenda Setting
    • Aging and Politics
    • European Parliamentary Elections
    • Chinese Cultural Revolution
    • Advocacy Advertising
    • Ballot Initiatives
    • Authoritarianism
    • Affirmative Action
    • Advocacy Advertising
    • China, Media and Politics in
    • Center for the Study of the American Electorate
    • Brazil, Media and the Political System
    • American Voter, The
    • Adenauer, Konrad
    • Agnew, Spiro
    • Bowling Alone
    • Bulgaria, Democratization
    • Freedom Forum Media Studies Center
    • Chinese Cultural Revolution
    • Agenda Melding
    • Ballot Initiatives
    • Cybernationalism
    • Campaign Finance
    • Aging and Politics
    • Falklands-Malvinas War
    • E-Voting
    • Ballot Initiatives
    • Americanization
    • Embedded Journalists
    • First Ladies, Political Communication of
    • Gender and Politics
    • Hostile Media Effect
    • Apologia
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • Grassroots Campaigning
    • Gulf War, Media Coverage of
    • American Association of Political Consultants
    • Candidate-Centered Communication
    • Ideology
    • Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
    • Agenda Setting
    • Communism
    • Graduate School of Political Management
    • Democratization, Role of the Media in
    • Campaigns & Elections Magazine
    • Ailes, Roger
    • Al-Asad, Hafiz
    • Candidate, The
    • Direct Action Protest, Australia
    • McGovern Library and Center for Public Service and Leadership
    • Conservative, Conservatism
    • Al Jazeera Television
    • Brazil, Media and the Political System
    • Mass Political Behavior
    • Candidate Films, Biographical
    • Center for the Study of the American Electorate
    • Helsinki Process
    • Iowa Caucuses
    • Issue Management
    • Argumentation, Political
    • Journalism, Political
    • Hill–Thomas Hearings
    • Women Candidates, Advertising
    • Metacoverage
    • Aristotle
    • Issue Ownership
    • Primaries
    • Heuristics in Political Decision Making
    • Commission on Presidential Debates
    • Celebrities in Politics
    • New Right
    • Buckley v. Valeo
    • Alternative Media in Politics
    • E-Government
    • Pew Internet & American Life Project
    • Direct Democracy
    • Candidates and Their Images
    • Alfonsín, Raúl
    • Allende, Salvador
    • Citizen Kane
    • German Unification, Role of the Media
    • Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
    • Electoral Systems
    • Argentina Democratization Process, Role of the Media
    • Campaign Finance
    • Parasocial Relationships in Politics
    • Commission on Presidential Debates
    • Congress and the Media
    • Hill–Thomas Hearings
    • Proportional Representation
    • Kids Voting USA
    • Authoritarianism
    • Muckrakers, Muckraking
    • Women Candidates, News Coverage
    • Pack Journalism
    • Communism
    • Lobbying, Lobbyist
    • Second-Order Election
    • Hong Kong Handover
    • Conservative Party, Britain
    • Daisy Girl Ad
    • Party Identification
    • Censorship, Political
    • Banner Ads
    • Eurobarometer
    • Political Commercial Archive
    • Hungary, Communication and Politics
    • Commander in Chief
    • Al-Sadat, Anwar
    • Arafat, Yasser
    • Comparing Media Systems
    • Poland, Democratization
    • Political Communication Center
    • European Commission
    • Big-Character Posters, China
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • Political Branding
    • Debates
    • Conventions, Political
    • Inaugural Addresses, Presidential
    • Ticket Splitting
    • Mass Political Behavior
    • Conservative, Conservatism
    • Pooled Journalism
    • Public Journalism
    • Constructivism
    • Minorities, Role in Politics
    • Voter News Service
    • Iowa Caucuses
    • Council of Europe, Media Policy
    • DebateWatch
    • Political Correctness
    • Communications Act of 1934
    • Blogs, Blogging
    • European Parliament
    • Survey Research Center
    • Russia, Democratization and Media
    • Creating Reality
    • Aznar, José María
    • Bachelet Jeria, Michelle
    • Crosstalk
    • Vanderbilt Television News Archive
    • European Parliamentary Elections
    • Brazil, Media and the Political System
    • Council of Europe, Media Policy
    • Political Culture
    • Free Airtime
    • Democratic National Committee
    • Iraq War, Media Coverage of
    • Voting Behavior
    • Political Corruption
    • Critical Theory
    • Talk Radio, Political
    • Talk Shows, Television
    • Cultivation Theory
    • Political Knowledge
    • Youth Voting
    • Kennedy Assassination
    • Democratic Party
    • Grassroots Campaigning
    • Political Involvement
    • Equal Time Provision
    • Bush–Rather Confrontation
    • European Union
    • World Association for Public Opinion Research
    • Daily Show, The
    • Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine
    • Berlusconi, Silvio
    • Deciding What's News
    • Federal Trade Commission
    • Campaigns & Elections Magazine
    • European Commission
    • Political Knowledge
    • Hate Speech
    • European Association of Political Consultants
    • Mass Nonviolent Protest, Australia
    • Segregation
    • Cultural Imperialism
    • Women Candidates, News Coverage
    • Yellow Journalism
    • Cultural Studies
    • Welfare Policy
    • McCarthy Hearings
    • European Parliament
    • Iowa Caucuses
    • Polls
    • European Convention on Human Rights
    • Candidate Films, Biographical
    • Government Communication
    • Effects of Mass Communication, The
    • Blair, Tony
    • Blumler, Jay G.
    • Film and Politics
    • Hong Kong Handover
    • Cartoons, Political
    • European Court of Justice
    • Populism
    • Media Consultants
    • European Parliamentary Elections
    • Muhammed Cartoon Events
    • Dealignment
    • Deliberation
    • Pentagon Papers, The
    • European Union
    • Negative Campaigning
    • Psychographics in Politics
    • European Union Media Policy
    • Checkers Speech
    • Hungary, Communication and Politics
    • Four Theories of the Press
    • Bormann, Ernest
    • Bouteflika, Abdelaziz
    • Great Debates, The
    • Political Prisoners
    • China, Media and Politics in
    • Fairness Doctrine
    • Public Opinion
    • Party Election Broadcasts
    • European Union, Media Policy
    • Political Conflict
    • Democracy Theories
    • Demography
    • Political Scandal
    • Feminist Movement
    • Personal Campaigning
    • Race in Politics
    • Federal Election Campaign Act
    • Citizen Journalism
    • Press Secretary, White House
    • Handbook of Political Communication, The
    • Brandt, Willy
    • Broder, David
    • Image, The
    • Proportional Representation
    • CNN (Cable News Network)
    • Federal Trade Commission
    • Ticket Splitting
    • Political Advertising
    • Freedom Forum Media Studies Center
    • Protests, Political
    • Dependency Theory, Media
    • Diffusion of Innovations
    • Revolution, Political
    • Glasgow Media Group
    • Political Advertising, Independent
    • Voter Behavior
    • First Amendment
    • Commander in Chief
    • Public Affairs, Communication in
    • Mediated Political Realities
    • Buchanan, Patrick
    • Bush, George H. W.
    • Nature of Prejudice, The
    • State of the Union Address
    • Commentary, Political
    • Free Airtime
    • Political Advertising, Radio
    • Green Party
    • Speeches, Presidential
    • Digital Divide
    • Dramatistic Approaches to Political Communication
    • Spiegel Affair
    • Interest Groups in Politics
    • Primaries
    • Freedom of Information
    • Congress and the Media
    • Supreme Court, Media and the
    • News: The Politics of Illusion
    • Bush, George W.
    • Bush, Laura
    • Nightline
    • C-SPAN Network
    • Libel
    • Soft Money
    • Labour Party, Britain
    • State of the Union Address
    • Fantasy Theme Analysis
    • Fear Appeals, Use in Politics
    • Tampa Incident
    • Latinos and Politics, Media
    • Testimonials, Political
    • McConnell v. Federal Election Commission
    • Daily Show, The
    • People's Choice, The
    • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique
    • Carville, James
    • Personal Influence
    • Daisy Girl Ad
    • Obscenity and Pornography
    • Web Campaigning
    • Libertarian Party
    • Terrorism and Media
    • Feminine Style in Communication
    • Focus Groups
    • Waldheim Affair
    • Lobbying, Lobbyist
    • Webstyle
    • Press Freedom
    • Debates
    • Political Campaign Communication
    • Castro, Fidel
    • Chaffee, Steven H.
    • Political Communication
    • DebateWatch
    • Press Law of 1766, Sweden
    • Willie Horton Ad
    • Minorities, Role in Politics
    • War Coverage
    • Framing
    • Gender and Politics
    • Watergate
    • NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
    • Women Candidates, Advertising
    • Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC
    • Democratization, Role of the Media in
    • Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, The
    • Chávez, Hugo
    • Chirac, Jacques
    • Processing the News
    • Direct Mail
    • Reputation in Politics
    • Women Candidates, News Coverage
    • National Association of Broadcasters
    • Watts Riots
    • Globalization
    • Group Decision Making, Political
    • New Right
    • Royal Commission on the Press
    • Editorials
    • Psychology of Radio, The
    • Chisolm, Shirley
    • Churchill, Sir Winston
    • Responsive Chord, The
    • E-Mail, Political Uses
    • Shield Laws
    • Party Identification
    • Heuristics in Political Decision Making
    • Hostile Media Effect
    • Pew Internet & American Life Project
    • Soft Money
    • Fairness Doctrine
    • Saturday Night Live
    • Çiller, Tansu
    • Clinton, Hillary Rodham
    • Selling of the President 1968, The
    • Film and Politics
    • UNESCO Media Policy
    • Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
    • Humor in Politics
    • Image, Political
    • Political Action Committees (PACs)
    • United States Information Agency
    • Fireside Chats
    • Symbolic Uses of Politics, The
    • Clinton, William Jefferson
    • Coburg-Gotha, Simeon Saxe
    • Television in Politics
    • Fourth Estate, Media as
    • Political Culture
    • Impression Management
    • Indexing Theory
    • Political Parties
    • Fox News
    • Unseeing Eye, The
    • Collor de Mello, Fernando
    • Connally, John
    • Virtuous Circle, A
    • Free Airtime
    • Reform Party
    • Information Flow, Global
    • Information Society
    • Religion in Politics
    • Freedom Forum Media Studies Center
    • War of the Worlds, The
    • Cronkite, Walter
    • Dean, Howard
    • West Wing, The
    • German Unification, Role of the Media
    • Republican National Committee
    • Inoculation, Political
    • Intercultural Communication, Dimensions
    • Republican Party
    • Gulf War, Media Coverage of
    • de Gaulle, Charles
    • Demirel, Süleyman
    • Hard News
    • Solidarity Movement
    • Interpersonal Communication
    • Kids Voting USA
    • UNESCO Media Policy
    • Horserace Coverage
    • Deng Xiaoping
    • Denton, Robert E., Jr.
    • Hostile Media Effect
    • Unions, Political Activity
    • Knowledge Gap
    • Language and Politics
    • Youth Voting
    • Hungary, Communication and Politics
    • Dole, Elizabeth
    • Dole, Robert
    • Information Technology in Politics
    • Limited Effects Theory
    • Mass Political Behavior
    • Infotainment
    • Donsbach, Wolfgang
    • Dukakis, Michael
    • Iraq War, Media Coverage of
    • McConnell v. Federal Election Commission
    • Mediatization
    • Letters to the Editor
    • Ecevit, Bülent
    • Edelman, Murray
    • Media Bias
    • Medium Theory
    • Methodology
    • Media Buying in Politics
    • Eisenhower, Dwight D.
    • Entman, Robert
    • Media Consultants
    • Modernization
    • Music and Politics
    • Media Events
    • Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip
    • Ferraro, Geraldine
    • Media Feeding Frenzy
    • News Management
    • News Selection Process
    • Media Logic
    • Fleischer, Ari
    • Ford, Betty
    • Mediatization
    • Orientation, Need for
    • Participation, Political
    • Metacoverage
    • Ford, Gerald
    • Fox, Vicente
    • Muckrakers, Muckraking
    • Personalization of Politics
    • Persuasion, Political
    • Music and Politics
    • Franken, Al
    • Gandhi, Indira
    • National Association of Broadcasters
    • Pharisee Effect
    • Pluralistic Ignorance
    • National Public Radio (NPR)
    • Gerbner, George
    • Gingrich, Newt
    • Negative Advertising
    • Political Conflict
    • Political Disaffection
    • New Media Technologies
    • Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry
    • Giuliani, Rudy
    • New York Times, The
    • Political Efficacy
    • Political Engagement
    • News Coverage, Politics
    • Goebbels, Joseph
    • Goldwater, Barry
    • News Magazines
    • Political Information Efficacy
    • Political Information Processing
    • News Management
    • González Márquez, Felipe
    • Gorbachev, Mikhail
    • News Selection Process
    • Political Involvement
    • Political Knowledge
    • Newspapers, Role in Politics
    • Gore, Albert
    • Graber, Doris A.
    • Nightline
    • Political Leadership
    • Political Marketing
    • Party Election Broadcasts
    • Greeley, Horace
    • Guggenheim, Charles
    • Party Press
    • Political Scandal
    • Political Socialization
    • PBS (Public Broadcasting Service)
    • Haider, Jörg
    • Hallin, Daniel C.
    • Political Advertising, Independent
    • Politics, Policy, Polity
    • Presidential Communication
    • Political Advertising, Radio
    • Hanson, Pauline
    • Harris, Fred
    • Political Advertising
    • Press and Politics
    • Press Theories
    • Political Branding
    • Hart, Gary
    • Hart, Roderick P.
    • Pooled Journalism
    • Priming
    • Professionalization
    • Posters, Political
    • Hassan II, King
    • Havel, Václav
    • Press and Politics
    • Propaganda
    • Psychographics in Politics
    • Press Conferences
    • Hearst, William Randolph
    • Hitler, Adolf
    • Press Freedom
    • Public Communication in Politics
    • Public Sphere
    • Press Secretary, White House
    • Holtz-Bacha, Christina
    • Humphrey, Hubert H.
    • Press Theories
    • Pundits, Punditry
    • Race in Politics
    • Public Affairs, Communication in
    • Hussein I, King
    • Jackson, Jesse
    • Public Relations, Political
    • Reputation in Politics
    • Resonance Theory
    • Public Service Broadcasting
    • Jamieson, Kathleen Hall
    • Johnson, Lyndon B.
    • Radio Addresses
    • Rhetoric, Political
    • Selective Processes, Exposure, Perception, Memory
    • Radio Free Europe
    • Jordan, Barbara
    • Kaid, Lynda Lee
    • Radio, Politics and
    • Sleeper Effect
    • Social Marketing
    • Reporters Without Borders
    • Katz, Elihu
    • Kekkonen, Urho
    • Rock the Vote
    • Social Responsibility Theory
    • Speeches, Presidential
    • Russia, Democratization and Media
    • Kennedy, Edward (Ted)
    • Kennedy, John F.
    • Rwanda Genocide, Role of Media
    • Spiral of Silence
    • Strategic Communication
    • Saturday Night Live
    • Kennedy, Robert F.
    • Kenyatta, Jomo
    • Soft News
    • Symbolic Convergence Theory
    • Systems Theory
    • Sound Bite
    • Kepplinger, Hans Mathias
    • Kerry, John
    • Spin, Political
    • Third-Person Effect
    • Two-Step Flow Model of Communication
    • Stringer
    • Khrushchev, Nikita
    • Kibaki, Mwai
    • Supreme Court, Media and the
    • Uses and Gratifications Approach
    • Verbal Style
    • Tabloids
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr.
    • Klapper, Joseph
    • Talk Radio, Political
    • Videostyle
    • Voter Behavior
    • Talk Shows, Television
    • Kohl, Helmut
    • Kraus, Sidney
    • Tampa Incident
    • TechnoDistortions
    • Kreisky, Bruno
    • Kwaśniewski, Aleksander
    • Testimonials, Political
    • Underground Media
    • Lang, Gladys Engel
    • Lang, Kurt
    • UNESCO Media Policy
    • Video Games, Political
    • Lasswell, Harold
    • Lazarsfeld, Paul F.
    • Videostyle
    • Voice of America
    • Lehrer, Jim
    • Lenin, Vladímir I.
    • Voter News Service
    • War Coverage
    • Le Pen, Jean-Marie
    • Lewinsky, Monica
    • War of the Worlds, The
    • Washington Post, The
    • Limbaugh, Rush
    • Lippmann, Walter
    • Web Campaigning
    • Webstyle
    • Loukanov, Andrey
    • Machiavelli, Niccolò
    • West Wing, The
    • White House Press Corps
    • Mancini, Paolo
    • Mandela, Nelson
    • Willie Horton Ad
    • Women Candidates, Advertising
    • Mandelson, Peter
    • Mao Zedong
    • Women Candidates, News Coverage
    • World Wide Web, Political Uses
    • Marx, Karl
    • Matalin, Mary
    • Mazzoleni, Gianpietro
    • McCain, John
    • McCombs, Maxwell
    • McGovern, George
    • McLuhan, Marshall
    • McQuail, Denis
    • Meir, Golda
    • Menem, Carlos
    • Merkel, Angela
    • Mitsotakis, Konstantinos
    • Mitterrand, François
    • Mohammed VI
    • Moi, Daniel Arap
    • Morales, Evo
    • Moseley Braun, Carol
    • Moyers, William (Bill)
    • Mubarak, Hosni
    • Murrow, Edward R.
    • Muskie, Edmund
    • Nader, Ralph
    • Napolitan, Joseph
    • Nasser, Gamal Abdel
    • Nimmo, Dan
    • Nixon, Richard M.
    • Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth
    • Nyerere, Julius
    • Obama, Barack
    • Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy
    • O'Reilly, Bill
    • Özal, Turgut
    • Palme, Olof
    • Papandreou, Andreas
    • Perón, Juan
    • Perón, María Eva Duarte de
    • Perot, Ross
    • Putin, Vladimir
    • Quayle, Dan
    • Rabin, Yitzhak
    • Rather, Dan
    • Rawlings, Jerry
    • Reagan, Nancy
    • Reagan, Ronald
    • Rice, Condoleezza
    • Richards, Ann
    • Rivera, Geraldo
    • Rogers, Everett M.
    • Roosevelt, Eleanor
    • Roosevelt, Franklin D.
    • Sabato, Larry
    • Sanders, Keith R.
    • Schramm, Wilbur
    • Schröder, Gerhard
    • Schroeder, Patricia
    • Schulz, Winfried
    • Schüssel, Wolfgang
    • Schwartz, Tony
    • Schwarzenegger, Arnold
    • Senghor, Léopold Sédar
    • Sharon, Ariel
    • Simitis, Konstantinos
    • Stephanopoulos, George
    • Stevenson, Adlai
    • Thatcher, Margaret
    • Trippi, Joe
    • Uzan, Cem
    • Vargas, Getulio
    • Vranitzky, Franz
    • Wałęsa, Lech
    • Wallace, George
    • Watts, J. C.
    • Weaver, David H.
    • Wellstone, Paul
    • Will, George
    • Wilson, Harold
    • Wolfsfeld, Gadi
    • Yassine, Abdessalam
    • Yeltsin, Boris
    • Zhelev, Zhelyu
    • Zhivkov, Todor
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z


      • Loading...
    Back to Top