Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology

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Edited by: Steven G. Rogelberg

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      Editors

      Steven G. Rogelberg

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Associate Editor

      Charlie L. Reeve

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Senior Advisory Board Members

      Herman Aguinis

      University of Colorado at Denver

      Neil Anderson

      University of Amsterdam

      Janet L. Barnes-Farrell

      University of Connecticut

      Michael J. Burke

      Tulane University

      Jennifer M. George

      Rice University

      Beryl Hesketh

      University of Sydney

      Scott Highhouse

      Bowling Green State University

      Leaetta M. Hough

      Dunnette Group, Ltd., St. Paul, MN

      Timothy A. Judge

      University of Florida

      Jerard F. Kehoe

      Selection & Assessment Consulting, Pottersville, NJ

      Steve W. J. Kozlowski

      Michigan State University

      Kevin R. Murphy

      Pennsylvania State University

      Paul E. Spector

      University of South Florida

      Nancy T. Tippins

      Valtera Corporation

      Toby D. Wall

      University of Sheffield

      Sheldon Zedeck

      University of California, Berkeley

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      About the Editor

      Steven G. Rogelberg, PhD, (Professor, Psychology and Organizational Science) serves as Director of Organizational Science and Director of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, as well as being the Founder/Director of Organizational Science Consulting and Research (outreach and consulting center), all at the University of North Carolina Charlotte. He has authored more than 50 publications and given more than 25 invited addresses/colloquiums addressing issues such as organizational research methods, team effectiveness, health and employee well-being, meetings at work, and organizational development. Besides serving as editor-in-chief on this two-volume series, he edited the Handbook of Research Methods in Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2002, 2004). Recent honors include being named Chair of Education and Training for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), serving as Chair of SIOP's Katrina Relief and Assistance effort, serving as Guest Editor for Organizational Research Methods, being named SIOP Program Chair, receiving the 2001 Bowling Green State University (BGSU) Psi Chi Professor of the Year Award, serving as the 2000 BGSU graduation commencement speaker, receiving the BGSU Master Teacher Award, and being named a BGSU Alumni Research Fellow.

      Dr. Rogelberg has received more than $300,000 of external grant funding. He has held three international guest professor appointments, at the University of Sheffield, England; the University of Tel Aviv, Israel; and the University of Mannheim, Germany. Dr. Rogelberg currently provides ad hoc reviews for a number of journals, as well as the National Science Foundation, and serves or has served on the editorial board for Journal of Management; Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice; the SIOP Professional Practice Book Series; and The Industrial Psychologist. His research has been profiled on public television, on public radio (NPR, CBC), and in newspapers (e.g., Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Wall Street Journal, London Guardian). Companies for whom he has provided consulting services include IBM, Grace Cocoa, National Society for Black Engineers, Procter & Gamble, Brush Wellman, Marathon Ashland Petroleum, Center for Self-Directed Work Teams, Toledo Area Regional Transit Authority, Mid-American Information Services, and Marshall-Qualtec. Before completing his PhD in Industrial/Organizational Psychology at the University of Connecticut in 1994, he received his undergraduate BSc degree from Tufts University in 1989.

      Contributors

      Michael Aamodt

      Radford University

      Gary Adams

      University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

      Mark Agars

      California State University, San Bernardino

      Natalie Allen

      University of Western Ontario

      Tammy Allen

      University of South Florida

      Alicia Alvero

      Queens College, City University of New York

      Neil Anderson

      University of Amsterdam Business School

      Richard Arvey

      University of Minnesota

      James Austin

      Ohio State University

      Carolyn Axtell

      University of Sheffield

      Shahnaz Aziz

      East Carolina University

      Peter Bachiochi

      Eastern Connecticut State University

      Todd Baker

      Human Performance Systems, Inc.

      Boris Baltes

      Wayne State University

      William Balzer

      Bowling Green State University

      Albert Bandura

      Stanford University

      Alison Barber

      Michigan State University

      Julian Barling

      Queen's University

      Janet Barnes-Farrell

      University of Connecticut

      Talya Bauer

      Portland State University

      Terry Beehr

      Central Michigan University

      Christopher Berry

      University of Minnesota

      John Binning

      Illinois State University

      Kamal Birdi

      University of Sheffield

      Anita Blanchard

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Richard Block

      Michigan State University

      Silvia Bonaccio

      University of Ottawa

      Joyce Bono

      University of Minnesota

      Wendy Boswell

      Texas A&M University

      Jennifer Bott

      Ball State University

      Chieh-Chen Bowen

      Cleveland State University

      David Bowen

      Thunderbird, The Garvin School of International Management

      Nathan Bowling

      Wright State University

      Brittany Boyd

      City University of New York

      Joan Brannick

      Brannick HR Connections

      Susan Brodt

      Queen's University

      Robyn Brouer

      Florida State University

      Douglas Brown

      University of Waterloo

      Kenneth Brown

      University of Iowa

      Steven Brown

      University of Houston

      Valentina Bruk-Lee

      University of South Florida

      Kim Buch

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Rebecca Bull

      Purdue University

      Angela Bullock

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Jennifer Burnfield

      Bowling Green State University

      Steven Caldwell

      University of South Carolina Upstate

      Roy Campbell

      Human Resources Research Organization

      David Caruso

      EI Skills Group and Yale University

      Wayne Cascio

      University of Colorado at Denver

      David Chan

      Singapore Management University

      Samantha Chau

      Stow, Ohio

      Peter Chen

      Colorado State University

      Tina Chen

      San Diego Gas & Electric

      Oleksandr Chernyshenko

      University of Canterbury

      Jagdeep Chhokar

      Indian Institute of Management

      Andrew Christopher

      Albion College

      Allan Church

      PepsiCo, Inc.

      Olga Clark

      Bowling Green State University

      Gail Clarkson

      The University of Leeds

      Chris Clegg

      University of Sheffield

      Richard Cober

      Booz Allen Hamilton

      Yochi Cohen-Charash

      Baruch College

      Joe Colihan

      IBM

      Jason Colquitt

      University of Florida

      Patrick Converse

      Florida Institute of Technology

      Jim Conway

      Central Connecticut State

      University

      Helena Cooper-Thomas

      University of Auckland

      Steven Cronshaw

      University of Guelph

      Russell Cropanzano

      University of Arizona

      Craig Crossley

      Bowling Green State University

      Reeshad Dalal

      Purdue University

      Scott Davies

      Hogan Assessment Systems, Inc.

      Rene Dawis

      University of Minnesota

      Sarah DeArmond

      Colorado State University

      Edward Deci

      University of Rochester

      Angelo DeNisi

      Tulane University

      Marcus Dickson

      Wayne State University

      James Diefendorff

      University of Colorado at Denver

      Sharon Discorfano

      University of Arizona

      Michael Doherty

      Bowling Green State University

      David Dorsey

      Personnel Decisions Research Institutes

      Dave Dougherty

      Southminster, Inc.

      Dennis Doverspike

      University of Akron

      John Dovidio

      University of Connecticut

      Ronald Downey

      Kansas State University

      Taylor Drummond

      Dallas, TX

      Stephen Dwight

      Novo Nordisk

      Dov Eden

      Tel Aviv University

      Jack Edwards

      U.S. Government Accountability Office

      Jill Ellingson

      The Ohio State University

      Amir Erez

      University of Florida

      Miriam Erez

      Technion-Israel Institute of Technology

      James Farr

      Pennsylvania State University

      Gerald Ferris

      Florida State University

      Lori Ferzandi

      Indianapolis, IN

      Lisa Finkelstein

      Northern Illinois University

      Cynthia Fisher

      Bond University

      Steven Fleck

      University of Sheffield

      John Fleenor

      Center for Creative Leadership

      Thomas Fletcher

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      J. Kevin Ford

      Michigan State University

      Mark Frame

      University of Texas at Arlington

      Michael Frese

      University of Giessen

      Yitzhak Fried

      Syracuse University

      Louis Fry

      Tarleton State University Central Texas

      Clive Fullagar

      Kansas State University

      Marylène Gagné

      John Molson School of Business

      Concordia University

      Deborah Gebhardt

      Human Performance Systems, Inc.

      Michele Gelfand

      University of Maryland

      Robert Gibby

      Procter & Gamble

      Jennifer Gillespie

      Bowling Green State University

      David Gilmore

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Harold Goldstein

      Baruch College, The City

      University of New York

      Jerald Greenberg

      The Ohio State University

      Gary Greguras

      Singapore Management University

      Rebecca Grier

      Aptima, Inc.

      Mark Griffin

      University of New South Wales

      Michael Hadani

      Syracuse University

      Rosalie Hall

      University of Akron

      Katherine Hamilton

      Pennsylvania State University

      Leslie Hammer

      Portland State University

      Paul Hanges

      University of Maryland

      Jo-Ida Hansen

      University of Minnesota

      Chaitra Hardison

      RAND Corporation

      Michael Harris

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Todd Harris

      PI Worldwide

      John Hausknecht

      Cornell University

      Michelle Haynes

      New York University

      Mikki Hebl

      Rice University

      Eric Heggestad

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Madeline Heilman

      New York University

      Christine Henle

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Anne Herman

      University of Nebraska at Omaha

      Peter Heslin

      Southern Methodist University

      Jody Hoffman

      University of Michigan

      Leaetta Hough

      Dunnette Group, Ltd.

      Yueng-hsiang Huang

      Liberty Mutual Research

      Allen Huffcutt

      Bradley University

      Gregory Huszczo

      Ann Arbor, Michigan

      Remus Ilies

      Michigan State University

      Jody Illies

      St. Cloud State University

      Michelle Inness

      University of Alberta

      Richard Jeanneret

      Jeanneret & Associates, Inc.

      Steve Jex

      Bowling Green State University

      Joseph Jones

      Development Dimensions International

      Robert Jones

      Missouri State University

      Daniel Kain

      Northern Arizona University

      John Kammeyer-Mueller

      University of Florida

      Lisa Kath

      University of Connecticut

      Brian Katz

      Human Resources Research Organization

      Kathryn Keeton

      University of Houston

      Jerard Kehoe

      Selection & Assessment Consulting

      John Kello

      Davidson College

      Stacey Kessler

      University of South Florida

      Eden King

      Rice University

      Ute-Christine Klehe

      Universität Zürich

      Deirdre Knapp

      Human Resources Research Organization

      Gary Kohut

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Judith Komaki

      Baruch College, City University of New York

      Shawn Komar

      University of Waterloo

      Laura Koppes

      University of Kentucky

      Meni Koslowsky

      Bar-Ilan University

      Janet Kottke

      California State University

      Steve Kozlowski

      Michigan State University

      Kurt Kraiger

      University of Tulsa

      Allen Kraut

      Baruch College, City University of New York

      David Kravitz

      George Mason University

      Glen Kreiner

      University of Cincinnati

      Amy Kristof-Brown

      University of Iowa

      Kristine Kuhn

      Washington State University

      Caterina Lachel

      Syracuse University

      Tracy Lambert

      The University of Georgia

      Ronald Landis

      Tulane University

      Frank Landy

      Landy Litigation Support Group

      Laurent Lapierre

      University of Ottawa

      Gary Latham

      University of Toronto

      Charlie Law

      Rice University

      Huy Le

      Human Resources Research Organization

      Manon LeBlanc

      Queen's University

      Jo Ann Lee

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Joel Lefkowitz

      Baruch College, City University of New York

      Linda Leonard

      Bristol Myers Squibb

      Lisa Leslie

      University of Maryland

      Melanie Leuty

      University of Minnesota

      Ariel Levi

      Wayne State University

      Paul Levy

      University of Akron

      Filip Lievens

      Ghent University

      Edwin A. Locke

      Univerisity of Maryland

      Karen Locke

      College of William and Mary

      Manuel London

      State University of New York at Stony Brook

      Shawn Long

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      David Lubinski

      Vanderbilt University

      Alexandra Luong

      University of Minnesota Duluth

      Therese Macan

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Heather MacDonald

      University of Waterloo

      William Macey

      Valtera Corporation

      Debra Major

      Old Dominion University

      Mitchell Marks

      San Francisco State University

      Keith Markus

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Joseph Martocchio

      University of Illinois

      Douglas Maynard

      State University of New York at New Paltz

      Rodney McCloy

      Human Resources Research Organization

      Lynn McFarland

      Clemson University

      Steven Mellor

      University of Connecticut

      Jessica Mesmer-Magnus

      University of North Carolina

      Wilmington

      Rustin Meyer

      Purdue University

      Marie Mitchell

      University of Central Florida

      Jacqueline Mitchelson

      Wayne State University

      Susan Mohammed

      Pennsylvania State University

      Frederick Morgeson

      Michigan State University

      Sherry Moss

      Wake Forest University

      Morell Mullins, Jr.

      Xavier University

      Kevin Murphy

      Pennsylvania State University

      Elizabeth Nair

      Work and Health Psychologists

      Linda Neider

      University of Miami

      Greg Oldham

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Celina Oliver

      Portland State University

      Julie Olson-Buchanan

      California State University, Fresno

      Alison O'Malley

      The University of Akron

      Brittany O'Neal

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Deniz Ones

      University of Minnesota

      Frederick Oswald

      Michigan State University

      Paul Paese

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Michael Paley

      Aptima, Inc.

      Sharon Parker

      University of Sheffield

      Avi Parush

      Carleton University

      Lisa Penney

      University of Houston

      Chuck Pierce

      University of Memphis

      Craig Pinder

      University of Victoria

      Adrian Pitariu

      University of South Carolina

      Virginia Pitts

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Robert Ployhart

      University of South Carolina

      Corrie Pogson

      The University of Tulsa

      Richard Posthuma

      University of Texas at El Paso

      S. Douglas Pugh

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Dan Putka

      Human Resources Research Organization

      Nambury Raju

      Illinois Institute of Technology

      Johannes Rank

      University of Giessen

      Andreas Rauch

      University of Giessen

      Jana Raver

      Queen's University

      Elizabeth Ravlin

      University of South Carolina

      Jochen Reb

      University Lee Kong Chian

      Brian Redmond

      Baruch College

      Charlie L. Reeve

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Roni Reiter-Palmon

      University of Nebraska at Omaha

      Doug Reynolds

      Development Dimensions International (DDI)

      Ronald Riggio

      Claremont McKenna College

      Quinetta Roberson

      Cornell University

      Karlene Roberts

      University of California, Berkeley

      Chet Robie

      Wilfrid Laurier University

      Ozgun Rodopman

      University of South Florida

      Mark Roehling

      Michigan State University

      Steven Rogelberg

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Christopher Rosen

      The University of Akron

      Denise Rousseau

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Disha Rupayana

      Kansas State University

      Steven Russell

      Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Inc.

      Paul Sackett

      University of Minnesota

      Kayo Sady

      University of Houston

      Christopher Sager

      Human Resources Research Organization

      Eduardo Salas

      University of Central Florida

      Jesús Salgado

      University of Santiago de Compostela

      Lee Sanborn

      Ford Motor Company

      Diana Sanchez

      Portland, OR

      Deidra Schleicher

      Krannert School of Management, Purdue University

      Aaron Schmidt

      University of Akron

      Robert Schmieder

      Schmieder & Associates

      Chester Schriesheim

      University of Miami

      Alex Schwall

      Pennsylvania State University

      Birgit Schyns

      University of Twente

      John Scott

      Applied Psychological Techniques, Inc.

      Gary Shteynberg

      University of Maryland

      Kenneth Shultz

      California State University, San Bernardino

      William Siegfried, Jr.

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Evan Sinar

      Development Dimensions International

      Robert Sinclair

      Portland State University

      Oi-ling Siu

      Lingnan University

      Kelley Slack

      Wyle Laboratories

      Jerel Slaughter

      University of Arizona

      Elaine Sloan

      Personnel Decisions International

      D. Brent Smith

      Rice University

      James Smither

      La Salle University

      Sabine Sonnentag

      University of Konstanz

      John Sosik

      The Pennsylvania State University at Great Valley

      Jennifer Sparr

      University of Konstanz

      Paul Spector

      University of South Florida

      Christiane Spitzmüller

      University of Houston

      Gretchen Spreitzer

      University of Michigan

      Jeffrey Stanton

      Syracuse University

      Stephen Stark

      University of South Florida

      Dianna Stone

      University of Central Florida

      Eugene Stone-Romero

      University of Central Florida

      Lela Strong

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Daniel Svyantek

      Auburn University

      Eric Swartout

      Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Inc.

      Hsien-Yao Swee

      University of Akron

      Simon Taggar

      Wilfrid Laurier University

      Ben Tepper

      Georgia State University

      Lori Foster Thompson

      North Carolina State University

      Nancy Tippins

      Personnel Research Associates

      Scott Tonidandel

      Davidson College

      Peter Totterdell

      University of Sheffield

      Donald Truxillo

      Portland State University

      Nick Turner

      Queen's University

      Mary Uhl-Bien

      University of Central Florida

      Wendelien van Eerde

      Eindhoven University of Technology

      Chad Van Iddekinge

      Florida State University

      Daan van Knippenberg

      Erasmus University Rotterdam

      Robert Vance

      Vance & Renz, LLC

      Jeffrey Vancouver

      Ohio University

      Vicki Vandaveer

      The Vandaveer Group, Inc.

      Laura Vaughan

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Robert Vecchio

      University of Notre Dame

      Vijaya Venkataramani

      Purdue University

      Chockalingam Viswesvaran

      Florida International University

      Victor Vroom

      Yale School of Management

      Janine Waclawski

      PepsiCo, Inc.

      J. Craig Wallace

      Tulane University

      Mo Wang

      Portland University

      John Wanous

      The Ohio State University

      Rose Webb

      Vanderbilt University

      Andrew Wefald

      Kansas State University

      Sara Weiner

      IBM

      Jennifer Welbourne

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Mina Westman

      Tel Aviv University

      Joseph Whitmeyer

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      David Whitney

      Westminster, California

      Darin Wiechmann

      Bristol Myers Squibb

      Steffanie Wilk

      Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania

      Jason Williams

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Daniel S. Wong

      University of California, Berkeley

      Robert Wood

      The University of Sydney

      Stephen Wood

      University of Sheffield

      Robert Yonker

      University of Toledo

      Lindsey Young

      Wayne State University

      Justin Yurkovich

      University of Nebraska at Omaha

      Stephen Zaccaro

      George Mason University

      Kelly Zellars

      University of North Carolina Charlotte

      Shuangmei Zhou

      University of Minnesota

      Michael Zickar

      Bowling Green State University

      Donald Zink

      Personnel Management Decisions

      Introduction

      The Field

      Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and behavior. Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists focus the lens of psychological science on a key aspect of human life, namely, their work lives. In general, the goals of I/O psychology are to better understand and optimize the effectiveness, health, and well-being of both individuals and organizations.

      The specific topics of study in I/O psychology include but are not limited to the following:

      • Team and organizational effectiveness—organization culture and climate, group dynamics, cross-cultural issues, customer service, labor relations
      • Employee recruitment, selection, and promotion—recruitment practices, selection strategies and systems, assessment centers, selection process fairness, hiring, consultation and expert testimony on Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action (EEO/AA)
      • Individual differences, measurement and testing—human cognitive abilities, physical abilities, personality dispositions, vocational interests, test theory and scale construction, validity and validation strategies
      • Training and development—executive coaching, management development, training
      • Performance management—design of job performance measurement systems for feedback and performance improvement, performance appraisal and management
      • Workplace health—ergonomics, human factors, and safety; overcoming stress; Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
      • Employee attitudes and satisfaction—empowerment, retention, job satisfaction, conflict and stress management, aging and retirement, turnover, organizational commitment
      • Compensation and benefits—pay, perks, rewards, recognition
      • Communication effectiveness—organizational communication design, processes, and effectiveness; technology-facilitated communications
      • Employee motivation—factors that motivate employees, job design and evaluation
      • Change management—mergers and acquisitions, process reengineering, productivity and quality improvement, downsizing
      • Employee citizenship and deviance—harassment, bullying, prosocial behavior, violence

      Given that I/O psychology is both a science and a practice, enhanced understanding of the foregoing topics leads to applications and interventions that benefit individuals, organizations, and the communities in which people live and work.

      The field is experiencing tremendous growth. Take, for example, the following data. Over the 18-year span from 1986 to 2004, there has been a nearly 50% increase in I/O doctoral programs and a greater than 200% increase in I/O master's programs. Membership in the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), the principal professional organizational of I/O psychologists, has increased more than 65% since 1991. Attendance at the annual SIOP conference has increased 400% in the last 20 years and is now approaching 4,000 attendees. Arguably, I/O is the fastest growing area of psychology.

      This growth has been spurred in part by the steadily increasing demand for the services of I/O psychologists. Employment surveys have been taken for many years by SIOP. For the last 25 years, these surveys have consistently indicated near zero unemployment for the society's membership, a clear indicator of the need for I/O psychologists. The American Psychological Association's Report of the Employment Status of 1997 Graduates and the follow-up Report of the Employment Status of 2001 Graduates show that I/O psychologists composed the highest proportion of individuals employed full-time (lowest unemployment rates), compared with other fields of specialization (health service provider, social/personality, developmental/educational, physiological/experimental).

      Rationale for Encyclopedia

      Though the extraordinary growth of I/O psychology over the last two decades signals the vibrancy of this field, it has also created a void in the literature. With the ever-widening range of topics studied, no single extant reference source captures the diversity and sophistication of the field. In addition, with the increasing visibility of I/O psychology, there is a growing need for a resource appropriate for experts but accessible to nonexperts. The Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology was designed to fill this void.

      The Encyclopedia is designed to be an introduction to the topics of I/O psychology for an audience including undergraduate students, beginning graduate students of I/O psychology and related disciplines, lay audiences seeking a nontechnical description of the field and its practices, practitioners wishing to stay abreast of the changes and updates in the field, and even the PhD-level academic seeking a portal into a new specialty area. It should also be noted that although the Encyclopedia is designed to be comprehensive in its coverage of topics, it is not meant to provide comprehensive treatments of any given topic.

      Content and Organization

      There was an explicit effort to cover every topic that is currently studied by I/O psychologists. This is, of course, a lofty and complex goal, in that it is probably impossible ever to have unanimous consensus on what would constitute such a list. Nonetheless, we have tried to be as comprehensive as possible without being overly redundant. To accomplish this, all entries include several associated topics and cross-references. In some cases, a topic that was covered in the context of a larger topic did not receive its own entry; in those cases, the smaller topic is listed with a cross-reference to the entry in which it is discussed.

      To help the reader navigate the Encyclopedia, a Readers Guide is provided, organizing the content into four parts comprising 14 sections. Additionally, there is a list of the entries are presented in alphabetical order.

      As noted earlier, the content of each entry is designed to be a concise summary of the major aspects of the topic. Further, there was an explicit effort to have the entries written in a nontechnical manner so that they would be accessible to the novice. Each entry is designed to provide the reader with a basic description of the topic that will provide a foundation in that area. Following each entry is a Further Reading section that can take the reader to the next level.

      How the Encyclopedia was Created

      The Encyclopedia was developed in six basic steps:

      • Step 1—Leading I/O psychologists around the world were invited to serve on the senior editorial board. The senior editorial board includes editors of the field's top journals, prolific researchers, and other leaders in the field. The senior editorial board also includes the associate editor, Dr. Charlie L. Reeve, who represents one of the top young talents in the discipline and a future leader.
      • Step 2—We created a master list of topics for the book. This step involved two primary parts. First, an initial list of topic headwords was assembled by the editor and associate editor. To do this, we did a page-by-page search of eight major I/O psychology textbooks and handbooks. Then, we went through the last three years of the top I/O journals to cull additional topics. This draft list was then reviewed by the entire senior editorial board, which made a series of additions and subtractions. It should be noted that we explicitly made an effort to include topics that are not readily found in published sources to date, but that we felt were just on the cusp of becoming mainstream given their treatment in recent journal articles. Time will tell the extent to which we have accurately forecast the viability of these topics.
      • Step 3—We identified and invited contributors. The senior editorial board was first asked to nominate individuals to author the list of entries. We also searched PsychINFO to find people publishing on certain topics, and we consulted with our colleagues for additional suggestions.

      Just as we wanted the content of the Encyclopedia to accurately reflect the content of the field of I/O psychology, we sought to recruit a collection of contributors that would represent our population. As such, we invited authors from all career stages, ranging from promising young doctoral students to some of the most well-known and talented luminaries in our field. Likewise, we invited a mix of leading academics and practitioners from around the world. In this sense, we believe the list of contributors itself is a valuable resource, a virtual who's who (or in some cases, a “who will be who”) of I/O psychologists.

      Based on this initial list, we then invited individuals to contribute. We were pleasantly surprised by the phenomenal acceptance rate in the first round of invitations. In relatively few cases did people decline (usually due to time commitments).

      • Step 4—Contributors were given basic guidelines and instructions regarding the writing of their entries. In particular, we encouraged them to be thorough in describing the entire topic area and to write in nontechnical, accessible language.
      • Step 5—The editor and associate editor then reviewed all the entries and asked authors for revisions as necessary.
      • Step 6—We finalized the volumes and compiled the appendixes.
      Acknowledgments

      The existence of this Encyclopedia, and in particular its high level of quality, is a testament to the efforts of a large number of extraordinary people. First, I would like to thank the senior editorial team, with special recognition to my excellent associate editor Charlie Reeve. I am also indebted to the talented publishing team at Sage, whose high levels of professionalism and efficiency were much appreciated. Thanks also go to Molly Behringer and Shannon Randall for their administrative help. And, of course, I would like to thank the first-rate scholars and professionals who authored the entries.

      I also appreciate the advice, counsel, and friendship of my current and former colleagues in I/O psychology and organizational science at the University of North Carolina Charlotte: Anita Blanchard, Kimberly Buch, David Gilmore, Eric Heggestad, Jo Ann Lee, Charlie Reeve, William Siegfried, Jennifer Welbourne, Chris Henle, Doug Pugh, Beth Rubin, Kelly Zellars, Yang Cao, Teresa Scheid, Wei Zhao, Shawn Long, Clifton Scott, John Kello, Scott Tonidandel, and Ben Tepper.

      I also thank the Department of Psychology and Chair Brian Cutler for supporting this endeavor. I also wish to extend deep gratitude to my Studio B literary agent Neil Salkind for his wisdom and mentorship.

      On a personal level, I want to thank my wife, Sandy Rogelberg, for her love, her balance, and her unyielding support. I would like to thank my brother, David Rogelberg, for making book publishing a reality for me and being a source of inspiration. I would like to thank my mom, Jane Rogelberg, and dad, Joel Rogelberg, for, well—everything. I also want to thank the best friend a person can have, Peter Kahn.

      Steven G.Rogelberg
    • Appendixes: Pursuing a Career as a Successful Industrial and Organizational Psychologist

      We gratefully acknowledge the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) for providing content for these appendixes. As a division of the APA and an organizational affiliate of APS, the society seeks to enhance human well-being and performance in organizational and work settings by promoting the science, practice, and teaching of industrial-organizational psychology through education, public awareness, and opportunities for information exchange among members of the field. To learn more about the society, we direct you to their Web site: http://www.SIOP.org.

      To pursue a successful career in industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology, a graduate degree is recommended. A master's degree takes, on average, two years to complete. Appendix 1 describes the educational approach and topics studied in this type of degree program. A doctorate takes substantially longer to complete, five years on average. The range of topics studied is quite similar to that for the master's degree; however, the depth of study and focus on conducting applied research are the distinguishing characteristics of a doctoral program. Appendix 2 provides a detailed summary of the education and training usually found in a doctoral program.

      Once you have decided on a degree type, you must pick a graduate school. A complete listing of graduate programs in I/O psychology (and related areas) can be found in Appendix 3. To help navigate this list and learn about graduate program rankings, please visit http://siop.org/GTP/.

      A common denominator across almost all graduate programs is a reliance on a scientist-practitioner training model. The hallmark of this approach is using science and research to understand and work to improve individual and organizational health, well-being, and effectiveness. You will read from and perhaps even attempt to publish research in a wide range of scientific journals. Appendix 4 provides a comprehensive listing of the journals you will be seeing in your graduate education.

      Upon graduation, your career options will be terrifically diverse. You can pursue a career in academia or become a practitioner. Appendix 5 outlines the most common academic and practitioner job titles for I/O psychologists.

      To find a good job, many prospective candidates choose to network in professional groups. Appendix 6 provides a thorough listing of such groups throughout the world. Membership in one or more of these groups is also a terrific way to gather current information, stay in touch with colleagues, benchmark problems and solutions, and feel part of a special community of professionals dedicated to studying and working to improve the world of work.

      Appendix 1. Guidelines for Education and Training at the Master's Level in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

      Purpose of the Guidelines

      These guidelines have been written to aid faculty and curriculum planners in the design and change of master's-level graduate programs in industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. Master's-level training in I/O psychology is widespread. Lowe (1993) identified 55 programs designed to award a master's degree in I/O psychology as a stand-alone degree, but she acknowledged that this was a conservative estimate. The large majority of these programs are not affiliated with a doctoral program (Koppes, 1991).

      The impetus for these guidelines is threefold. First, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (SIOP) is interested in providing guidance to, and supporting, such programs. Second, the National Conference on Applied Master's Training in Psychology (1990) has recommended the adoption of specialty guidelines such as this. Finally, this is a companion document to the Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral Level in I/O Psychology (SIOP, 1985)1 that called for the creation of guidelines for master's-level education. As the content of this document is an outgrowth of the work that was done for the doctoral-level guidelines, there is much similarity between the two sets of guidelines.

      These guidelines were not written to provide the basis for graduate studies program certification, determining eligibility for specialty licensing as an I/O psychologist, establishing eligibility for membership in the Society, or highlighting the continuing education and training needs of the profession. In addition, these guidelines were not designed to be a set of recommendations for education in related fields (e.g., labor and human resources, organizational behavior). Although it is recognized that many academic disciplines or specialties are concerned with developing related subject matter and skills, these related areas are beyond the scope of the guidelines.

      Perspective of the Guidelines

      These guidelines list, categorize, and describe competencies that should guide curricular and pedagogic decisions by faculty responsible for training I/O students at the master's level. Because almost all of the competencies listed here are also contained in the doctoral guidelines, the reader might ask the obvious question: What distinguishes master's-level and doctoral-level education? The distinctions are described in the following sections.

      Breadth of Training

      Master's-level students will typically receive a narrower breadth of training than will doctoral students. This stems largely from the fact that fewer hours are required for the master's degree. Thus, the competencies listed in Table A.1.1 may not be covered as fully at the master's level as they might be at the doctoral level. As a result, there may be considerable variability in program content among master's-level I/O programs (e.g., one program may emphasize “organizational” issues, while another emphasizes “industrial” issues). Lowe (1993) provides evidence of the variability of master's-level I/O programs.

      Depth of Training

      Master's students are expected to demonstrate basic-level competencies (e.g., regression analysis, classical test theory), but only to be exposed to higher-level concepts (e.g., causal modeling, generalizability theory). For example, whereas a doctoral student may take several courses in statistical analysis, the master's student may have just one or two courses. Besides fewer hours, master's education is typically delivered with a lower faculty-to-student ratio than is true of doctoral-level training (Lowe, 1993). This type of training is consistent with the generalization that master's-level students will typically be consumers of I/O knowledge rather than producers of new knowledge. As such, they are engaged in applying this knowledge to issues involving individuals and groups in organizational settings. Those involved in research usually do so under the guidance of a doctoral-level psychologist.

      Career Options

      The career options are different for master's-level versus doctoral-level graduates. Schippmann, Schmitt, and Hawthorne (1992) reviewed the work roles of I/O students whose terminal degree is the master's degree versus the PhD. They concluded that there are “substantive differences between the kinds of work” performed by these two groups. There were very few master's graduates in academic roles, whereas master's graduates were more highly represented in jobs such as compensation, training, data analysis, and generalist human resource management positions compared with doctoral graduates.

      Further Education

      Some master's-level students are interested in continuing to doctoral study. Master's programs may be designed to serve students who want either (a) predoctoral training, (b) practitioner-oriented training (terminal master's degree), or (c) both. Since doctoral-level education in I/O psychology is based on the scientist-practitioner model, programs that provide predoctoral training should also have a scientist-practitioner focus. Thus, when designing such programs, research skills probably should be weighted more heavily (category II competencies) compared with specific content issues (category III competencies). This type of program would also be appropriate for master's-level I/O practitioners who work in research settings. Programs designed to meet the needs of students for whom the master's degree will be their highest degree may opt to place greater weight on content issues relative to research skills.

      These and other distinctions between master's-level and doctoral-level training lead to substantial differences in the two levels of training. However, none of the differences highlighted earlier suggests that the basic content of the field changes as a function of the level of education. Thus, the competencies in this document and the companion guidelines for doctoral programs are similar. The perspective of these guidelines is that the competencies identified in Table A.1.1 (particularly sections II and III) are ideals that probably no program will meet completely. They are provided to aid faculty and curriculum planners as they start new programs or try to improve their current programs.

      Title

      A semantic difficulty is encountered in a document such as this. What is the appropriate title, or label, for persons who have completed a master's degree in I/O psychology? The term “psychologist” is inappropriate because the use of that term is regulated by law in some states and is usually restricted to persons who have completed doctoral training and/or have been licensed. Further, the employment settings in which these graduates work are so diverse that a job-based title is also inappropriate (e.g., human resource manager, trainer, organization consultant). Titles assigned to other psychological subdisciplines at the master's level (e.g., mental health specialist, caseworker, school counselor) are inappropriate.

      Table A.1.1 Areas of Competence to Be Developed in Master's-Level I/O Psychology Programs
      This table lists the recommended areas of competence to be developed in students in master's-level I/O programs. Competencies listed in Section I may be obtained as part of the student's psychological training at the undergraduate level. Competencies listed in Section IV are optional.
      • Core Psychological Domains (may be acquired at the undergraduate level)
        • History and Systems of Psychology
        • Fields of Psychology
      • Data Collection and Analysis Skills
        • Research Methods
        • Statistical Methods/Data Analysis
      • Core I/O Domains
        • Ethical, Legal, and Professional Contexts
        • Measurement of Individual Differences
        • Criterion Theory and Development
        • Job and Task Analysis
        • Employee Selection, Placement, and Classification
        • Performance Appraisal and Feedback
        • Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation
        • Work Motivation
        • Attitude Theory
        • Small Group Theory and Process
        • Organization Theory
        • Organizational Development
      • Additional I/O Domains (educational experiences in these domains are considered desirable but not essential)
        • Career Development Theory
        • Human Performance/Human Factors
        • Consumer Behavior
        • Compensation and Benefits
        • Industrial and Labor Relations

      The following title is used in this document: “master's-level I/O practitioner.”While it is descriptive, it is both unwieldy and, in some cases, misleading. A shorter title would be preferable (e.g., MBA), but the fact that many people are presently unfamiliar with the discipline of I/O psychology makes the use of a very short acronym inappropriate (e.g., MIOP). Further, some master's-level graduates will work in research and/or educational settings, which makes the use of the word “practitioner” problematic. However, since most master's-level graduates work in applied settings (Ekeberg, Switzer, & Siegfried, 1991; Schippmann et al., 1992), “practitioner” is often an appropriate term.

      Admittedly, a document such as this cannot mandate the use of a particular title. Nor is it the committee's desire to do so. If, and when, a different title achieves popular acceptance, these guidelines should be changed to reflect that fact. Meanwhile, it is important for students in master's-level I/O programs to be identified with the discipline. The title “master's-level I/O practitioner” serves that purpose.

      Competencies

      A competency-based approach is adopted here (as it is in the doctoral guidelines) as opposed to recommendations about specific curriculum designs and educational experiences. These guidelines focus on the outcomes of training, and on the knowledge, skills, behavior, and capabilities necessary to function as a master's-level I/O practitioner. The primary rationale for this approach is contained in the concept of “equifinality.” It is frequently the case that several alternative curriculum arrangements are equally effective at producing competent graduates. There are several means to the same end. Focusing on curriculum design loses sight of this.

      The competencies presented in Table A.1.1 are taken largely from the doctoral-level guidelines. However, there are some significant dissimilarities. First, they are grouped into four major categories. These categories are meant to make some molar distinctions among the competencies. Category I competencies are those that any person who obtains a graduate degree in any field of psychology should possess (see also National Conference on Applied Master's Training in Psychology, 1990). Many students will acquire a substantial portion of this information in an undergraduate psychology program.

      Master's-level I/O programs should ensure that their students have exposure to the broad field of psychology. Category II competencies relate to data collection and analysis. These competencies are important even to “consumers” of knowledge because they enable them to make informed judgments about new research. This training can be very useful to organizations in a variety of applications. Category III competencies are at the “core” of the I/O discipline. Ideally, these should receive substantial coverage by any program. However, of necessity an entire course may not be devoted to each of these competencies, but they could be grouped together in a variety of ways. Category IV competencies are beneficial, but are not at the “core” of the discipline. Many programs might find that other departments or colleges can provide the training for these competencies (e.g., consumer behavior in a marketing department).

      A second difference is that some of the competency descriptions have been rewritten to reflect a lower level of sophistication. For example, the statistical methods/data analysis competency description notes that students should be familiar with (as opposed to competent in) path analysis, factor analysis, and so on. Third, two doctoral-level competencies (decision theory and individual assessment) were eliminated completely. Decision theory is partially subsumed under other competencies (the cognitive-affective bases of behavior section under Fields of Psychology, Employee Selection, Human Performance). Within I/O psychology, the practice of Individual Assessment is generally conceded to require licensure, and thus a doctorate. Finally, two competencies have been added (both in Category IV), namely, Compensation and Benefits and Industrial and Labor Relations. These are areas for which many master's-level I/O practitioners are responsible (Schippmann et al., 1992).

      The additions, deletions, and changes described earlier were based on four sources of information. First, SIOP sponsored a survey of I/O and organizational behavior programs, and specifically extended this survey to include master's programs (SIOP, 1992). The second source was the personal experience of the committee members as master's-level educators and their exposure to a variety of master's-level I/O programs. Third, the job analysis information reported by Schippmann et al. (1992) and by Ekeberg et al. (1991) was consulted. Finally, each of the committee members asked several of their colleagues, in both industry and academics, to critique a draft of these guidelines, and their suggestions and comments were incorporated as appropriate.

      Related Competencies

      The bulk of this document describes the areas or domains recommended specifically for training in I/O psychology. However, before presenting them, it is useful to comment on other areas considered, but judged not to be appropriate as part of this document.

      One such set of competencies that had been suggested might be termed “personal skills.” These include effective oral and written communication skills, facility at developing interpersonal relationships, effective work habits, critical analytic thinking ability, and so forth. It is quite clear that success in graduate school depends on possessing these attributes. They are also needed for success in one's career. Yet these personal skills are of universal importance, and thus are not included in the domains list.

      A second set of issues was suggested by the National Conference on Applied Master's Training in Psychology (1990). All graduate students in psychology should possess these competencies. These include library research skills and sensitivity to social and cultural diversity. These are important skills, but they do not merit inclusion in this list because they are byproducts of quality graduate study and are not specific to I/O training.

      Another cluster of competencies that was not explicated involves areas in which it would be desirable, but not necessary, to have training to ensure career success in I/O psychology. A list of these areas could easily be expanded to include much of the social sciences and business (e.g., content mastery in Economics, Marketing, Labor and Human Resources, and even Accounting). Potentially important process skills would include those needed for employee counseling or individual rehabilitation. Competencies in all these areas would be appropriate and desirable, but they are not made part of these guidelines.

      Finally, some think that a good graduate program provides guidance to students in their own career planning and in the use of career enhancement strategies. Such activities help a student in drawing together personal information and experiences in a formal effort to make a career decision and to map out a suitable career path. Once a decision has been made, appropriate developmental experiences could then be provided in a systematic way. Many schools already incorporate such planning, often using a variety of mechanisms (e.g., assigning formal advisers). However, once again, while this was viewed as a desirable feature of a graduate program, it is not considered to be a competency that graduates ought to possess.

      Table A.1.2 Curriculum Options Considered in the Guidelines
      • Formal coursework is classroom instruction common to university settings in which material pertinent to the domains is covered. This method itself can involve a variety of different techniques including lectures, discussion, presentations, case analysis, experiential exercises, and so forth.
      • Independent reading/study is nonclassroom instruction in which the student, in consultation with qualified faculty, assumes responsibility for and commitment to the accomplishment of domain objectives. This method includes all forms of nonclassroom instruction for which self-initiated effort is of central concern and for which such effort can successfully result in the achievement of relevant domain objectives. Examples would include self-initiated effort through reading; generating appropriate review manuscripts, proposals, or reports; designing and conducting a research investigation; and acquiring interactive computer skills.
      • Supervised experience (internships, practicums) is nonclassroom instruction in which the student is actively engaged in projects under the direct supervision of qualified personnel. Such projects would be aimed at fulfilling specific training objectives mutually agreed to by the student, the supervisor, and program faculty with special emphasis given to the acquisition of skills. Participation would not be motivated primarily for compensation. This method will often be characterized by in vivo learning opportunities such that the student learns skills that will transfer to settings in which the student will eventually be working.

        In all cases, however, there is meaningful professional supervision of the training experience. Although internship supervisors may not be I/O psychologists, their skill and knowledge base, job duties, scope of practice, and ethical principles should be congruent with those of I/O psychology. Students are also supervised by a faculty member who is an I/O psychologist. Examples would include practicum and internship experiences, fieldwork teaching/training, thesis/dissertation research, and so forth.

      • On-the-job training is nonclassroom instruction in which capabilities are learned through “hands-on” experience with applied tasks under the explicit guidance of a professionally qualified task expert. Such training is typically done in conjunction with one's “job,” and participation involves compensation. On-the-job training provides firsthand knowledge of how the skills and knowledge within the domains of I/O psychology can be used to address problems and allows for the opportunity to focus on solutions that will have an impact on the setting in which the student is working.
      • Modeling/observation is nonclassroom implicit instruction that is obtained as a result of studying under, working with, and paying attention to professionally qualified personnel in the daily conduct of their jobs and special projects. This method implies that the learning of important skills might well be obtained without explicit instructional intent on the part of the model. On the other hand, modeling may also be done in a purposeful and self-conscious manner. Modeling/observation, because of its personal nature, cuts across several of the training methods described earlier.
      Strategies for Building Competence

      Program designers and faculty may develop a student's capabilities in a competency domain by using one or more methods or techniques. For many (or most) competencies, multiple means are preferable. A given course is likely to touch upon more than one area, particularly in comparison to doctoral-level training. Moreover, the resources and capacities of a given program also will shape curriculum design. For these reasons, the guidelines do not detail a specific curriculum plan.

      Table A.1.2 describes curriculum options identified by the Master's Education Subcommittee as useful methods for master's-level training. While other approaches and variations do exist, the list in Table A.1.2 is reasonably inclusive. It would be consistent with the spirit of these guidelines for a program to develop skill or knowledge in several domains using a single particular educational experience (e.g., a seminar, a supervised field project, or an assigned reading list).

      Competencies Are Dynamic

      The competency-based approach of these guidelines is advantageous for several reasons. It maintains a focus on what is to be taught and learned, provides desirable flexibility to curriculum planners, and recognizes the multiple paths to developing most important skills. Nonetheless, it also is true that the recommendations based on such an approach might become dated. Therefore, the present guidelines should be reevaluated regularly. They must be kept up-to-date by continuous reference to the nature of work and conditions surrounding the I/O practitioner at work.

      Competency Descriptions
      I. Core Psychological Domains

      (See preceding discussion, especially the Competencies section, for distinctions among the four domains.)

      I.A. History and Systems of Psychology

      If I/O students know how the discipline of psychology developed and evolved into its present configuration, then each generation will share the common bonds and language of the discipline. They will also possess a knowledge of the intellectual heritage of our field. Such common knowledge is important for the pragmatic functional role it plays in communication and in preventing frequent repetitions of the mistakes and dead ends of the past. Many historical schools and systems of psychology have a contemporary representative, in either a pure or a diluted form; a knowledge of the roots of these different theoretical positions is important. For example, many contemporary debates about theoretical perspectives appear dysfunctional when viewed against the background of historical developments in our field. A knowledge of our history enables us to appreciate these different approaches both for their unique contribution to psychology and for the alternatives they provide for an understanding of observable phenomena. Finally, an understanding of history and systems of psychology allows integration of I/O psychology into the broader discipline by tracing our roots back to American functionalism, radical behaviorism, views of Freud, Titchener, Tolman, Spearman, and Cattell and other perspectives that have shaped our thinking about psychology. As consumers of current and future psychological research, master's-level I/O practitioners should understand the relationship of these findings to the broader discipline of psychology.

      I.B. Fields of Psychology

      I/O psychology is basically the study of behavior of individuals that occurs in a particular setting, that is, organizations of almost any kind. This focus differentiates it from fields of psychology that study basic processes (perception, memory, learning); from fields that study particular populations of individuals (children, mentally disturbed, developmentally challenged); from fields that study analytic procedures or assessment procedures (psychometrics); and from fields that study mechanisms of behavior (physiological psychology, brain research). Although the populations of individuals and the locations are diverse, in this emphasis on behavior in a special setting we are eclectic. Because we borrow ideas, procedures, and paradigms from the other fields of psychology, it is important that we have an understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, and sources of our often unacknowledged borrowings.

      While we draw freely from other fields of psychology, we do not borrow equally from all fields. We share a great deal with social psychology, psychometrics, motivation, learning, and personality. In our current work (as a group), we borrow less from clinical, developmental, and physiological-sensory psychology. The importance of these fields of psychology to the I/O area changes over time and varies with the particular interests of the individual I/O practitioner. It is difficult to predict which of the related fields will develop research in the near future that will have an impact on I/O psychology.

      In any event, to be consistent with American Psychological Association (APA) and Council for Applied Master's Programs in Psychology (CAMPP) recommendations, students should be exposed to the following broad areas:

      • Biological bases of behavior: physiological psychology, comparative psychology, neuropsychology, sensation and perception, psychopharmacology
      • Acquired or learned bases of behavior: learning, thinking, motivation, emotion
      • Social bases of behavior: social psychology, group processes, organizational and systems theory
      • Individual differences: personality theory, human development, abnormal psychology

      Master's-level I/O practitioners should be familiar with the relevant perspectives and applications from these areas.

      II. Data Collection and Analysis Skills
      II.A. Research Methods

      The domain of research methods includes the methods, procedures, and techniques useful in the conduct of empirical research on phenomena of interest in I/O psychology. The specific topics encompassed by research methods include the scientific method (with attention to issues in the philosophy of science), inductive and deductive reasoning, problem statements and research questions, hypotheses, study designs (experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental), the nature and definition of constructs, the manipulation of variables (in experimental research), the concepts underlying and methods used for the assessment of the reliability and validity of measures, the administration of various specific types of measures (questionnaires, interviews, observations of behavior, projective measures, etc.), the use of various sampling procedures (probability and nonprobability types) especially as applied to survey research, the conduct of research with various specific strategies (field study, laboratory experiment, field experiment, sample survey, simulation, case study, etc.), the use of statistical methods to establish relationships between variables, the formulation of research-based conclusions, and the ethical standards that govern the conduct of all research involving human participants. Specific knowledge about relative strengths and weaknesses of different research strategies as well as a tolerant appreciation of the benefits of alternative strategies must be developed. While master's-level I/O practitioners will need more expert guidance in using these methods and procedures in complex applications, they should develop the skill to use them in less complex applied situations (such as training evaluation and attitude surveys) and the ability to interpret and evaluate others' research.

      II.B. Statistical Methods/Data Analysis

      This domain has to do with the various statistical techniques that are used in the analysis of data generated by empirical research. The domain includes both descriptive and inferential statistical methods; it spans both parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Among the specific competencies, issues and techniques encompassed by the domain are estimates of central tendency; measures of variability; sampling distributions; point and interval estimates; inferences about differences between means, proportions, and so forth; univariate analysis of variance; linear regression and correlation; and multiple regression. These topics are likely to be particularly useful in mainstream organizational research settings such as survey analysis and program evaluation. Knowledge of this domain implies a basic understanding of the statistical foundation of such methods, asymptotic sampling variances of different statistics, the assumptions underlying the proper use of the same methods, and the generalizations, inferences, and interpretations that can legitimately be made based on statistical evidence. In addition, familiarity with the following techniques would be useful to students in their role as consumers of research: multivariate analysis of variance, nonlinear regression and correlation, path analysis, factor analysis, meta-analysis, and causal modeling.

      Students should be skilled in using at least one of the major statistical software packages designed for social science research so they can perform appropriate analyses for applied research projects in work organizations.

      III. Core I/O Domains
      III.A. Ethical, Legal, and Professional Contexts

      This domain has to do with the ethical, legal, and professional contexts within which the master's-level I/O practitioner will operate. I/O master's graduates should have knowledge of, and should behave in accord with, relevant ethical guidelines (e.g., Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct; APA, 1992). I/O master's students should know relevant federal, state, and local laws, statutes, regulations, and legal precedents (e.g., the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 1978). Since a fair amount of professional work done in organizations is covered by negotiated labor contracts, competency in this domain would also include an awareness of opportunities and constraints imposed by such agreements as well as an appreciation of the labor/management dynamics associated with them. Finally, all master's-level I/O practitioners should have knowledge of the various professional norms, standards, and guidelines relevant to the profession (e.g., Specialty Guidelines for the Delivery of Services by Industrial-Organizational Psychologists APA, 1981; Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures, SIOP, 1987; and Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing APA, 1985).

      III.B. Measurement of Individual Differences

      I/O psychology emphasizes the importance of individual differences in the study of individual behavior. This topic is foundational to many applied issues, such as employee selection, performance appraisal, employee attitude surveys, and training evaluation. A sound background in classical measurement theory is essential (e.g., reliability, validity), and exposure to modern measurement theories and their respective areas of application is highly desirable (e.g., generalizability theory, item response theory, causal modeling). The areas of measurement that are relevant include all knowledge, skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics that affect behavior in work contexts. Master's-level I/O practitioners would not typically be involved in the creation of new measures except under the direction of a PhD-level psychologist. Much of what master's-level I/O practitioners do in this area is subject to close scrutiny by courts of law, civil rights groups, and professional colleagues. Because of these external and internal pressures, master's-level I/O practitioners should be competent to monitor practice and to apply measurement principles in conformance to the highest standards of the discipline.

      III.C. Criterion Theory and Development

      Almost all applications of I/O psychology (e.g., selection, human resources planning, leadership, performance appraisal, organization design, organization diagnosis and development, training) involve measurements against criteria (standards) of effectiveness for individuals, groups, and/or organizations. The selection of criteria is not a simple issue and represents a significant area of concern for I/O psychologists. The knowledge base of this domain incorporates understanding the theoretical and practical issues such as single versus multiple criteria, criterion dynamics, the characteristics of good and acceptable criteria (relevance, reliability, practicality), and criteria as a basis for understanding human behavior at work and in organizations. Beyond this knowledge, the master's-level I/O practitioner should have the skills necessary for developing valid criteria and methods of measuring them. These necessarily include skills in many other domains identified in the document (e.g., job analysis, measurement).

      III.D. Job and Task Analysis

      This domain encompasses the theory and techniques used to generate information about what is involved in performing a job or task, the physical and social context of this performance, and the attributes needed by an incumbent for such performance. Tasks are basic units of activity, the elements of which highlight the connection between behavior and result. A job is a grouping of tasks designed to achieve an organizational objective.

      The fundamental concern of job and task analysis is to obtain descriptive information to design training programs, establish performance criteria, develop selection systems, use job evaluation systems, redesign machinery or tools, or create career paths for personnel. The specific steps taken and the type of information gathered will vary depending on the purpose of the job and task analysis. Relevant information that should be considered includes the worker behaviors involved; the knowledge, skills, and abilities required; the standards of performance wanted; the tools, machines, and work aids used; the sources of information available to the incumbent; the social, environmental, and physical working conditions; and the nature of supervision. Similarly, some steps involved in job and task analyses include identifying the purpose of the analysis; preparing, designing, or selecting a job analysis system; collecting job or task information; summarizing the results; and documenting the steps taken for future reference. The individual competent in this domain should have a knowledge of the different approaches to job and task analysis, as well as skill in applying these techniques in the field.

      III.E. Employee Selection, Placement, and Classification

      This domain consists of the theory and techniques involved in the effective matching of individual needs, preferences, knowledge, skills and abilities with the needs and preferences of organizations. An organization's needs are defined by the jobs assigned to positions in the organization. More specifically, this domain encompasses theory and research in human abilities; test theory development and use; job analysis; criterion development and measurement; classical and decision theory models of selection, placement, and classification; alternative selection devices (e.g., interviews, assessment centers); and legal and societal considerations that affect selection, placement, and classification. In particular, the individual must keep current with the legislation and court decisions related to these issues as well as with responses of the Society to laws and their interpretations. This domain also includes various specialized statistical techniques.

      The level of knowledge of the master's-level I/O practitioner should be sufficient to (a) determine the most appropriate selection procedure for measuring knowledge, skill, ability, and/or personal characteristics and the appropriate validation strategies; (b) recognize when a higher level of expertise is necessary to develop and evaluate a selection system; and (c) work under the direction of a PhD psychologist when conducting criterion-related and/or construct validation studies. In addition, the individual should be skillful in applying the theory and techniques of this domain to develop content-valid selection procedures typically found in an employment setting (e.g., interviews, work samples).

      III.F. Performance Appraisal and Feedback

      Performance appraisal and feedback have a knowledge and skill base. This area centers on the methods of measuring and evaluating individuals as they perform organizational tasks and on taking action (administrative and/or developmental) with individuals based on such appraisals. The knowledge base includes a thorough understanding of rating scale construction and use, as well as understanding of the relative advantages of different rating sources (e.g., supervisory vs. peer). Also relevant are the areas of measurement theory, data analysis, criterion theory and development, motivation theory, and the factors that underlie interpersonal perception and judgment. The skill base includes procedures for communicating performance evaluations to job incumbents and counseling them in appropriate means of improving their performance. Also, skill in designing a complete performance appraisal and feedback system that meets organizational needs while maintaining and/or enhancing worker motivation and/or performance is desirable.

      III.G. Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation

      This domain includes theory and techniques used to design, conduct, and evaluate instructional programs. The instructional process begins with a needs assessment, including organizational, job, and task analyses to determine the goals and constraints of the organization and the characteristics of the job and trainees. Familiarity with basic phenomena of learning (e.g., modern learning theory, principles of adult learning, conditioning principles) as well as knowledge of the different approaches to training (e.g., computer-assisted instruction, simulation, behavior modification) are necessary for designing programs. Transfer of training to the desired setting is an important consideration. For programs to be conducted as planned, the instructors must have good instructional skills. Thus, training the trainers may be necessary.

      Both the process and the outcome of the program may be evaluated to determine if it has been conducted as planned and whether it has had any effect. Knowledge of design issues such as pre- and posttesting and control groups, as well as organizational constraints, is necessary for planning an evaluation strategy.

      III.H. Work Motivation

      Work motivation refers to the conditions within the individual and his or her environment that influence the direction, strength, and persistence of relevant individual behavior in organizations when individual abilities and organizational constraints are held constant. Master's-level I/O practitioners need to have a sound background in work motivation at three levels. First, they must be familiar with the theories of human motivation including (but not limited to) need theories, cognitive theories, and reinforcement theories. In all cases, there must be a good understanding of the extensive research and theory that exist outside the domain of work in the basic psychological literature. At the second level, there must be an understanding of the research and theory in relevant domains of I/O psychology that represent general applications of one or more motivational perspectives (i.e., general strategies for work motivation such as goal setting, job design, incentive systems, and participation in decision making). Finally, there must be an awareness of very specific practices that adapt motivational constructs to specific cases. An example of the latter is the use of management-by-objectives—a combination of goal-setting principles with participation.

      III.I. Attitude Theory

      Attitudes, opinions, and beliefs are extremely important in organizational settings. They are important in their own right because of humanitarian concerns for the quality of working life of those who are employed in organizations. They are also important for diagnosing problems in organizations. Finally, they are important because they relate to the behavioral intentions and to the behavior of individuals at work. In particular, master's-level I/O practitioners should be aware of the extensive literature on the determinants, consequences, and measurement of job satisfaction and related constructs such as involvement and commitment.

      III.J. Small Group Theory and Process

      Much of human activity in organizations takes place in the presence of other people. This is particularly true of work behavior. The pervasiveness of interpersonal relationships and task interdependencies in organizations demands that master's-level I/O practitioners have a good understanding of the behavior of people in social groups. Such an understanding requires that they be familiar with research and theory related to interpersonal behavior in small groups. This body of theory and research draws from social psychology, organizational psychology, sociology, and organizational behavior. A suitable background in group theory involves an understanding of leadership and power, interpersonal influence, group effectiveness, conformity, conflict, role behavior, and group decision making.

      III.K. Organization Theory

      It is well accepted that the structure, function, processes, and other organizational level constructs have an impact on the behavior of individuals in organizations. Therefore, it is necessary that master's-level I/O practitioners have a good understanding of the nature of complex organizations. This understanding should include, but is not limited to, classical and contemporary theories of organizations, organizational structure, organizational design, technology, and the process of organizational policy formation and implementation.

      III.L. Organizational Development

      This domain encompasses theory and research about facilitating change in individuals, groups, and organizations to improve their effectiveness. This body of theory and research draws from such related fields as social psychology, counseling psychology, educational psychology, vocational psychology, engineering psychology, and organizational theory. More specifically, this domain concerns theory and research related to individual change strategies including training, socialization, attitude change, career planning, counseling, and behavior modification; interpersonal and group change strategies, including team building and group training, survey feedback, and conflict management; role or task oriented change strategies, including job redesign, role analysis, management by objectives, and temporary task forces; and organizational system directed change strategies, including survey feedback, open systems oriented change programs, human resource accounting, flexible working hours, structural changes, control system changes, sociotechnical systems, and quality circles.

      IV. Additional I/O Domains
      IV.A. Career Development Theory

      Theories and empirical research on career development are concerned with the interplay between individuals and environments and attempt to describe the nature of the patterns of positions held and resultant experiences during an individual's working life. Included in this domain are models and explanations of the origin and measurement of individual aptitudes and interests; how individual, social, chance, and environmental factors shape educational and training experiences; specific skill training and development; early work history, occupational choice, organizational/job choice, and change; the sequence of jobs taken after organization entry; and preretirement planning.

      Knowledge in this area would reflect an understanding of these interactional processes, developmental events, and phenomena as they are considered both by the individual employee and from the perspective of the employing organization. Knowledge of how organizational practices such as recruitment, selection, job placement, training, performance appraisal, and career planning programs enhance or retard career development is also necessary.

      IV.B. Human Performance/Human Factors

      Human performance is the study of limitations and capabilities in human skilled behavior. Skill is broadly construed to include perceptual, motor, and cognitive activities, and the integration of these into more complex behavior. Emphasis is on the interaction of human behavior and the task environments, ranging from detection and identification of simple events to problem solving, decision making, and control of complex environments. Included among the variables that affect human performance are individual differences, organismic variables, task variables, environmental variables, and training variables.

      Competency in this area assures awareness of issues of experimental design, some knowledge of computer programming, and quantitative modeling based on techniques from mathematical psychology, engineering, and computer science. Familiarity in the subject areas of basic experimental psychology is combined with an awareness of applied research in such areas as workstation design, workload measurement, control systems, information display systems, and person-computer interactions.

      IV.C. Consumer Behavior

      The focus of this area is the systematic study of the relationship between the producers (and distributors) and actual or potential consumers of goods and services. This involves many of the following concerns: consumer preferences for product features, product testing, consumer attitudes and motivation, buying habits and patterns, brand preferences, media research (including the effectiveness of advertisements and commercials), packaging design and features, estimating demand for products or services, and the study of the economic expectations of people. There is a substantive or content basis to this domain because there is a body of theory and data amassed dealing with the antecedents and correlates of consumer behavior that can be learned. There is a skill component as well, since the area is built on the appropriate application of a variety of social science research methodologies (e.g., sampling theory, questionnaire and survey protocol design and execution, individual and group interviewing, stimulus scaling, and mathematical model building).

      IV.D. Compensation and Benefits

      The reward system for employees can be critical to the success or failure of an organization, and is of intense interest to individual employees as well. Employee benefits constitute a substantial proportion of labor costs. Retirement plans, medical plans, family and parental leave, vacation time, and alternative work schedules are but a few of the issues that an organization must address. This is an applied domain that incorporates many of the competencies identified earlier including job and task analysis, work motivation (e.g., equity and expectancy theory), attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), and legal and regulatory contexts. In addition, there are specific methods or approaches to the design and implementation of a reward system that should be well understood (e.g., point system of job evaluation).

      IV.E. Industrial and Labor Relations

      The presence of a union, either formal or informal, in an organization strongly influences human resource management activities. Particularly relevant are the limitations imposed by seniority and job security rules, grievance and arbitration procedures, wage and benefit administration, and union versus management rights regarding job assignments, promotion, discipline, training, attendance, and termination. In addition, the role of unions in supporting systemwide organizational change is critical to the functions of employee and organizational development. Competency in this domain includes familiarity with major labor legislation and with contractual obligations that affect human resource policy implementation, as well as familiarity with labor contract administration processes, with the effects of union-management relationships on disciplinary systems, job and employee evaluation systems, recruitment, selection, placement and training systems, motivation and reward systems, and processes for effecting organizational change.

      These guidelines were prepared by the Master's Education Subcommittee of the Education and Training Committee of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc.

      EDITOR'S NOTE: Information for this appendix was graciously provided by the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

      NOTE

      1. A revised version was approved by the American Psychological Association in August 1999.

      References
      American Psychological Association. (1977). Standards for providers of psychological services. Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychological Association. Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by industrial-organizational psychologists. American Psychologist36664–669. (1981). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0078379
      American Psychological Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.
      Ekeberg, S., Switzer, F., & Siegfried, W. D., Jr. (1991, April). What do you do with a master's degree in I/O psychology? L. L. Koppes (Chair), I/O psychology master's level training: Reality in search of legitimacy. Symposium conducted at the sixth annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, MO.
      Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Uniform guidelines on employee selection. Federal Register43 (166) 38290–38315. (1978, August 25).
      Koppes, L. L.I/O psychology master's-level training: Reality and legitimacy in search of recognition. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist29 (2) 59–67. (1991).
      Lowe, R. H.Master's programs in industrial-organizational psychology: Current status and a call for action. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice2427–34. (1993). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.24.1.27
      National Conference on Applied Master's Training in Psychology. (1990). Executive summary: Resolutions and standards on education and training for applied master's programs in psychology. (Available from Rosemary H. Lowe, Department of Psychology, The University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514).
      Schippmann, J. S., Schmitt, S. D., and Hawthorne, S. L.I/O work roles: Ph.D. vs. master's level practitioners. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist29 (4) 35–39. (1992).
      Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1985). Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral level in industrial-organizational psychology. Arlington Heights, IL: Author.
      Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1987). Principles for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures (
      3rd ed.
      ). Arlington Heights, IL: Author.
      Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1992). Graduate training programs in industrial-organizational psychology and related fields. Arlington Heights, IL: Author.

      Appendix 2. Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral Level in Industrial/Organizational Psychology

      These guidelines were prepared by the Education and Training Committee of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc., Janet Barnes-Farrell, chair. Members of the Committee were Debra A. Major (subcommittee chair), Jeffrey Reed, Kecia Thomas, Lisa Scherer, and Kathleen Lundquist.

      Purpose of the Guidelines

      These guidelines replace an earlier version published in 1985 by the Society for I/O Psychology (SIOP; Division 14 of the American Psychological Association). The last version was developed by the members of the 1982 Education and Training Committee of the Society for I/O Psychology (i.e., Klimoski, Hulin, Ilgen, Neumann, Peters, Schneider, and Stone). These guidelines have been written to aid faculty and curriculum planners in the design of doctoral-level graduate programs in industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. They may also be useful to potential doctoral students in the discipline by providing a preview of doctoral training, suggesting criteria that may be used to select a doctoral program, and giving students an overview of the competencies they are responsible for mastering during the course of their doctoral education.

      The term guidelines refers to pronouncements, statements, or declarations that are suggestions or recommendations. Guidelines differ from “standards” in that standards may be mandatory and may be accompanied by an enforcement mechanism. Thus, as guidelines, this document is not intended to be either mandatory or exhaustive or a substitute for appropriate professional judgment, and it may not always be applicable in all situations. The aspirational intent of the guidelines is to facilitate the continued development of I/O psychology.

      Although such guidelines have implications for several other related concerns of the Society members, these other concerns will not be addressed here. Specifically, these guidelines were not written for the purpose of providing the basis for graduate studies program certification, determining eligibility for specialty licensing as an I/O psychologist, establishing eligibility for membership in the Society, or highlighting the continuing education and training needs of the profession. Those interested in training at the master's level are referred to the Guidelines for Education and Training at the Master's Level in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (SIOP, 1994). Finally, it should be reiterated that the focus of this document is the training of I/O psychologists. These guidelines are not designed to be a set of recommendations for education in related fields (e.g., labor and human resources, organizational behavior). Although it is recognized that a large number of academic disciplines or specialties are concerned with developing related subject matter and skills, these related areas are beyond the scope of the guidelines.

      Perspective of the Guidelines

      In many respects, the perspective taken in the current guidelines is consistent with that expressed in the 1985 version. In particular, this revision adheres to the scientist-practitioner model and takes a competency-based approach. In other respects, this version is substantially different from the 1985 guidelines (e.g., our treatment of “personal skills”). Both the similarities and differences are discussed in more detail the following sections.

      The scientist-practitioner. Consistent with the traditional orientation and philosophy of the members of the Society, the underlying theme embedded in these training guidelines is that the I/O psychologist is frequently both the generator of knowledge and the consumer/user of such knowledge. As a scientist, he or she develops and evaluates theory using research and empirical skills. As a practitioner, he or she applies and evaluates theory and research under specific conditions. Thus, the I/O psychologist frequently provides psychological services to individuals and groups in organizational settings.

      Taking the scientist-practitioner model seriously means that doctoral education needs to focus on both the theory and application associated with all content areas. In preparing for the current version of the guidelines, many I/O psychologists, especially those employed outside the academic setting, have expressed concern that previous guidelines have been too focused on theory. We recommend that theory and practice both receive consideration as students learn about the content of I/O psychology. The relevance of theory to practice and applied research should be emphasized. I/O practitioners working in the field can facilitate the development of doctoral students' practical knowledge by offering internship and research opportunities and sharing their own practical experiences.

      This dual emphasis on theory and practice is needed regardless of a student's intended career path. Those interested in academic careers need to understand both theory and practice to develop sound research, the findings of which should have a meaningful applied impact. Academicians will also be charged with teaching new generations of I/O psychologists about the theory and applications associated with each content area. I/O practitioners in industry, government, and consulting are required to use their knowledge and skills to deliver products. Thus, students not only need to know each topic in a theoretical sense; they also need to know how to develop and implement associated products. For example, a student should know how to design and conduct a job analysis or conduct and report on the results of a test validation. Learning about a topic in a theoretical sense is not equivalent to the experience of doing it. Doing it and having firsthand familiarity with the pitfalls, limits, and constraints of a technique is different from, and as critical as, theoretical knowledge.

      Competencies

      As emphasized in the 1985 Guidelines, the goal of graduate training is developing competencies. Taking a competency-based approach, these guidelines focus on the skills, behaviors, and capabilities one needs to function as a new member of the profession. One of the committee's primary goals was to update the competency list to reflect current content thought to be important for I/O psychologists.

      The description of each competency area was amended as needed to reflect the current state of the discipline. In some cases competency titles were altered or reorganized to reflect new content and more appropriate groupings within a domain. The current guidelines include four additional competency areas (i.e., Business and Consulting Skills, Health and Stress in Organizations, Job Evaluation and Compensation, Leadership and Management). Consistent with the emphasis on the scientist-practitioner model, every opportunity to emphasize both theory and practice related to a competency has been seized in this revision of the guidelines. The word theory was deleted from many of the competency titles to emphasize the point that both the theory and practice related to a competency are important.

      Just as both science and practice are inherent in each competency, we also feel that an appreciation of diversity can be applied to each area. Although the concept has only received theoretical and scientific attention within our field in recent years, the significance of diversity has been long recognized. Thus, graduate training in I/O psychology should take every opportunity to emphasize working with all types of people and developing an appreciation of diverse views.

      The 1985 Guidelines included a thorough discussion of the efficacy of the competency-based approach over the previously used multiple curricula models of the 1973–1974 Guidelines (Schneider, Carlson, Lawler, & Pritchard, 1974). As argued in 1985, we also believe that the competency-based approach allows for a more integrated training model, recognizes the possibility of “equifinality” in the methods used to produce competent graduates, and allows for a broader application of the guidelines regardless of individual program capacities and resources.

      Identifying Competencies

      A number of sources were consulted in updating the content of existing competency areas and developing new ones. As mentioned previously, we relied most heavily on the 1985 version of the guidelines, only departing from it as deemed necessary. We also found Schippmann, Hawthorne, and Schmitt's (1992) analysis of the doctoral-level I/O psychologist's work role particularly helpful. Several discussions of the education and training of I/O psychologists in The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist were consulted (e.g., Greguras & Stanton, 1996; Maahs & Major, 1995; Sebolsky, Brady, & Wagner, 1996). Various other sources supplied a sense of where we have been and where we are going as a discipline (e.g., Dunnette, 1990; Howard, 1990). In addition, numerous I/O psychologists in academia, industry, consulting, and the government provided input, as did students at various stages of graduate training.

      The 1985 Guidelines purposely excluded “personal skills” (e.g., oral and written communication skills, facility at developing interpersonal relationships, effective work habits, critical/analytic thinking ability, etc.). The argument for exclusion was that such skills are of universal importance and should constitute a common concern of graduate training in any field. In this version of the guidelines, many of these skills have been included in a new competency labeled Consulting and Business Skills. Our contention is that these skills are critical to competence and success as an I/O psychologist. While such skills are indeed universally important, they are applied by I/O psychologists in some unique and consistent ways (e.g., to apply for funding, to communicate with executives and constituents outside the discipline). Although we agree with the 1985 Guidelines that such skills could presumably be used as selection criteria in the screening of applicants for graduate study, we also recognize that these skills may need to be further developed through graduate training.

      Related Competencies

      The bulk of this document describes the areas or domains recommended specifically for training in I/O psychology. However, before presenting them, it would be useful to comment on domains considered, but judged not to be appropriate as part of this document.

      One cluster of competencies that was omitted involves areas in which it would be desirable, but not necessary, to have training to ensure career success in I/O psychology. A list of these areas could easily be expanded to include much of social science and business (e.g., content mastery in economics, marketing, labor relations, and even accounting). Potential important process capabilities (skills) would include those needed for organizational development efforts, employee counseling, or individual rehabilitation. Competencies in all these areas would indeed be appropriate and desirable, but they are not made part of these guidelines.

      Other aspects of graduate training have not been formally incorporated into these guidelines. Any quality graduate program should provide students with a realistic preview particular to that program. Expectations and requirements should be clear and explicit from the outset, beginning with the recruiting process. If a program has a particular emphasis (e.g., training academicians or training practitioners), it is also reasonable to expect that emphasis to be clearly communicated. While these are things that we encourage graduate programs to do, we have not developed specific guidelines for them.

      There is a belief that a good doctoral program provides guidance to students in their own career planning and in the use of career enhancement strategies. Such activities assist a student in drawing together personal information and experiences in a formal effort to make a career decision and to map out a suitable career path. Once a decision has been made, appropriate developmental experiences could then be provided in a systematic way. Many schools already incorporate such planning, often using a variety of mechanisms (e.g., assigning an adviser; establishing a guidance committee). While this is viewed as a desirable feature of a graduate program, it is not expressed as a competency.

      Finally, if a primary aim of graduate education is to produce responsible professionals, it seems reasonable that this notion be reinforced throughout graduate training. Helping students understand the ways in which they are responsible for their own education and career development is highly appropriate and desirable. Though we believe that taking responsibility for one's own professional development should be emphasized (e.g., developing a professional network, communicating with peers, participating in the field, etc.), a relevant competency has not been formally articulated.

      The Recommended Domains

      Table A.2.1 lists the areas identified by the committee as relevant to the training of I/O psychologists at the doctoral level. The competencies were organized into two groups. The first (competencies 1–6) reflects the more general knowledge and skill areas deemed appropriate in the training of I/O psychologists. The second group (competencies 7–25) contains those competencies that reflect substantive content in the field of I/O psychology. The entries are presented alphabetically within their group. Neither the presentation order of the two groupings nor the individual entries should be construed to reflect importance or priority in training at the doctoral level.

      In describing the knowledge and skills to be developed, the committee endeavored to stay at the appropriate level of specificity. Our goal was to highlight the key components of each domain well enough to be of help to curriculum designers. We do not describe the totality of the domain. It is also clear that domains are not always easily differentiated. In some cases it may be argued that (analytically/taxonomically) one area could be subsumed within another. Similarly, it is clear that competencies in one domain facilitate mastery or performance in another. These points not-withstanding, the areas listed in Table A.2.1 were all felt to be sufficiently discrete and important to warrant their separate places on the list.

      Table A.2.1 Areas of Competence to Be Developed in Doctoral-Level I/O Psychology Programs
      1. Consulting and Business Skills
      2. Ethical, Legal, and Professional Contexts of I/O Psychology
      3. Fields of Psychology
      4. History and Systems of Psychology
      5. Research Methods
      6. Statistical Methods/Data Analysis
      7. Attitude Theory, Measurement, and Change
      8. Career Development
      9. Consumer Behavior
      10. Criterion Theory and Development
      11. Health and Stress in Organizations
      12. Human Performance/Human Factors
      13. Individual Assessment
      14. Individual Differences
      15. Job Evaluation and Compensation
      16. Job/Task Analysis and Classification
      17. Judgment and Decision Making
      18. Leadership and Management
      19. Organization Development
      20. Organization Theory
      21. Performance Appraisal and Feedback
      22. Personnel Recruitment, Selection, and Placement
      23. Small Group Theory and Team Processes
      24. Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation
      25. Work Motivation

      The presentation of the domain attempts both to define and to suggest ways to measure or to index achievement. That is, there is frequent reference to indicators or possible ways that skills in a domain are manifested. Many of these might be used by educators to decide whether or not a person is indeed proficient in an area. This is not to imply that those which are presented are the only indicators of proficiency.

      Recommended Areas of Competence

      Table A.2.1 lists the areas recommended by these guidelines for inclusion in doctoral-level programs in I/O psychology. The majority of these competencies were included in the 1985 version of the guidelines. The description of each competency area was updated as appropriate. In some cases competency titles were altered to reflect new content. In addition, four new competency areas (i.e., Consulting and Business Skills, Health and Stress in Organizations, Job Evaluation and Compensation, Leadership and Management) were added to the list. Each competency area is described in the following sections.

      1. Consulting and Business Skills

      Success as an I/O psychologist requires development of a variety of consulting and business skills. Communication, business development, and project management represent broad categories capturing some of the most essential business and consulting skills.

      Effective business communication is critical and encompasses a variety of writing, presenting, and interpersonal skills. Business writing is characterized by its brevity, action orientation, attention to the audience, and link to the organization's bottom line. Business presentation involves the development and presentation of information to a business audience that clearly articulates key messages in terms the audience can understand, along with skills in presenting and responding to questions. Effective communication and interpersonal skills are required to interact with and influence organizational members. These skills are particularly important in team contexts. An understanding of how individual efforts facilitate group performance and the ability to contribute as a member of a group are essential.

      Effective business development depends on the ability to package ideas, proposals, and requests in a fashion that leads to their acceptance and movement of the organization in desired directions. Many good ideas are rejected because they are poorly communicated or inadequately justified in terms of their benefits. A practical problem-solving approach is frequently required in a business or consulting setting. Relevant content and methodological skill or knowledge, regardless of its source or discipline, along with creative “outside-the-box” thinking, is often required to address and solve practical business problems. This involves understanding how elements relate to a larger whole (e.g., effect of a change in compensation on employee productivity, satisfaction, turnover).

      Project management skills focus on the details of organizing work in a business setting, whether as an internal or external consultant. This may include budgeting, scheduling, and managing others so that work is accomplished in an efficient and effective manner. Project management often requires the integration and utilization of information from several sources. Success is contingent on being able to attend to detail while maintaining a view of the “big picture.”

      2. Ethical, Legal, and Professional Contexts of I/O Psychology

      This domain has to do with the ethical, legal, and professional contexts within which the I/O psychologist operates. The I/O psychologist should have knowledge of and should behave in accord with relevant ethical guidelines (e.g., Ethical Principles of Psychologists, APA, 1981, 1992; and the Ethical Principles in the Conduct of Research with Human Participants, APA, 1973, 1982). The I/O psychologist should also have knowledge of relevant federal, state, and local laws, statutes, regulations, and legal precedents (e.g., the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures). Since a fair amount of professional work done in organizations is covered by negotiated labor contracts, competency in this domain would also include an awareness of opportunities and restrictions imposed by such agreements, as well as an appreciation of the labor/management dynamics associated with them. Finally, all I/O psychologists should have knowledge of the various professional norms, standards, and guidelines relevant to their profession (e.g., Specialty Guidelines for the Delivery of Services by Industrial/Organizational Psychologists, 1981; Standards for Providers of Psychological Service, APA, 1979; Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures, APA, 1987; and Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, National Council on Measurement in Education, 1985).

      3. Fields of Psychology

      I/O psychology is basically the study of behaviors of individuals or groups of individuals that occur in a particular type of location—organizations of almost any kind. I/O psychology is a context-centered discipline. This focus differentiates it from fields of psychology that study basic processes (e.g., perception, memory, learning), from fields that study particular populations of individuals (e.g., children, mentally disturbed), from fields that study analytic procedures or assessment procedures (e.g., psychometrics), and from fields that study mechanisms of behavior (e.g., physiological psychology, brain research). Although the populations of individuals and the locations are different, in this emphasis on behavior in a set of locations we are like educational psychologists in our eclecticism. Because we borrow concepts, procedures, and paradigms from the other fields of psychology, it is important that we have an understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, and sources of our often unacknowledged borrowings.

      While we draw freely from other fields of psychology, we may not borrow equally from all fields. We share a great deal with social psychology, psychometrics, motivation, learning, and personality. Historically, the discipline has borrowed less heavily from clinical, developmental, and physiological-sensory psychology. The importance of these fields of psychology to the I/O area changes over time and obviously varies with the particular interests of the individual I/O psychologist. It is difficult to predict which of the related fields will develop research leads and findings in the near and distant future that will have an impact on I/O psychology. In any event, to be consistent with APA recommendations (American Psychological Association Committee on Accreditation, 1996), exposure should reflect competency in the following broad areas:

      • Biological Bases of Behavior: Physiological Psychology, Comparative Psychology, Neuropsychology, Sensation and Perception, Psychopharmacology.
      • Cognitive-Affective Bases of Behavior: Learning, Thinking, Motivation, Emotion.
      • Social Bases of Behavior: Social Psychology, Group Processes, Organizational and Systems Theory.
      • Individual Differences: Personality Theory, Human Development, Abnormal Psychology.

      Students in doctoral programs in I/O psychology should be able to read and to comprehend the issues and controversies involved in basic research published in journals in at least a subset of these related areas. The specific fields of competency and journals read will vary among individuals; but awareness, interest, and reading in several areas seem crucial to both initial doctoral training and continuing education.

      4. History and Systems of Psychology

      If students in graduate programs in I/O psychology know how the discipline of psychology developed and changed into its present configuration, then each generation will share the common bonds and language of the discipline. They will also possess a knowledge of the intellectual heritage of our field. Such common knowledge is important for the pragmatic functional role it plays in communication and in preventing frequent repetitions of the mistakes and dead ends of the past. Many historical schools and systems of psychology have contemporary representatives, either in a pure or a diluted form; a knowledge of the roots of these different theoretical positions is important. For example, many contemporary debates about theoretical perspectives appear dysfunctional when viewed against the background of historical developments in our field. A knowledge of our history enables us to appreciate these different approaches both for their unique contributions to psychology and for the alternatives they provide for an understanding of observable phenomena.

      An understanding of history and systems of psychology allows integration of I/O psychology into the broader discipline by tracing our roots back to American functionalism, radical behaviorism, views of Freud, Titchener, Tolman, Spearman, and Cattell and other perspectives that have shared the thinking of psychology. Such integration is important to foster an attitude among I/O psychologists that places high value on the development of theoretical approaches to the I/O problems that are well integrated with psychology as a whole. In addition, there is the specific history of the field of I/O psychology to consider. Understanding one's “roots” as an I/O psychologist and our more recent past is essential.

      5. Research Methods

      The domain of research methods includes the methods, procedures, techniques, and tools useful in the conduct of empirical research on phenomena of interest in I/O psychology. At a general level, the areas encompassed by research methods include the scientific method (with attention to issues in the philosophy of science), inductive and deductive reasoning, problem statements and research questions, hypotheses, the nature and definition of constructs, and study designs (experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental). At a more operational level, research methods includes, but is not limited to, the manipulation of variables (in experimental research), the concepts underlying and methods used for the assessment of the reliability and validity of measures, the administration of various specific types of measures (questionnaires, interviews, observations of behavior, projective measures, etc.), the use of various sampling procedures (probability and nonprobability type) especially as applied to survey research, the conduct of research with various specific strategies (field study, laboratory experiment, field experiment, sample survey, simulation, case study, etc.), the use of statistical methods to establish relationships between variables, and the formulation of research-based conclusions. Specific knowledge about relative strengths and weaknesses of different research strategies, an understanding of qualitative research methods, as well as a tolerant appreciation of the benefits of alternative strategies must be developed. Computer literacy has become increasingly important, and programming skills may be particularly useful. Finally, an understanding of the ethical standards that govern the conduct of all research involving human participants is essential.

      6. Statistical Methods/Data Analysis

      This domain has to do with the various statistical techniques that are used in the analysis of data generated by empirical research. The domain includes both descriptive and inferential statistical methods; it spans both parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Among the specific competencies, issues and techniques encompassed by the domain are estimates of central tendency; estimates of variability; sampling distributions; point and interval estimates; inferences about differences between means, proportions, and so forth; univariate and multivariate analyses of variance (fixed, random, and mixed effects models); linear and nonlinear regression and correlation; path analysis; multiple discriminant function analysis; multiple and canonical regression; factor analysis; components analysis; cluster analysis; pattern analysis; and structural equation modeling. Knowledge of this domain implies a basic understanding of the statistical foundation of such methods, asymptotic sampling variances of different statistics, the assumptions underlying the proper use of the same methods, and the generalizations, inferences, and interpretations that can legitimately be made on the basis of statistical evidence.

      7. Attitude Theory, Measurement, and Change

      Attitudes, opinions, and beliefs are extremely important in organizational settings. They are important in their own right because of humanitarian concerns for the quality of working life of those who are employed in organizations. They are also important for diagnosing problems in organizations. Finally, they are important because they relate to the behavioral intentions and the behaviors of individuals at work. Some of the job attitudes typically studied by I/O psychologists include, but are not limited to, job satisfaction (general and various facets), job involvement, organizational commitment, and perceptions of fairness.

      It is also important that I/O psychologists be aware of the extensive literature on attitude theory, attitude measurement, and attitude change. In particular, I/O psychologists must know how attitudes are formed and changed and how they are related to behaviors. With respect to the latter, a knowledge of the literature on the relationship between attitudes and behavior is important if for no other reason than to know the limitations of the connections between these two constructs.

      8. Career Development

      Theory and research regarding career development are concerned with the interplay between individuals and environments, and they attempt to describe the nature of the patterns of positions held and resultant experiences during an individual's life span. Included in this domain are models and explanations of the origin and measurement of individual aptitudes and interests, how individual, social, chance, and environmental factors shape educational and training experiences, specific skill training and development, early work history, occupational choice, organizational/job choice and switching, the sequence of jobs taken after organizational entry, work/family issues, midcareer plateaus, and retirement planning.

      Knowledge in this area would reflect an understanding of these processes, events, or phenomena as they are considered both by the individual employee and from the perspective of the employing organization. Knowledge of how organizational practices such as recruitment, selection, job placement, socialization, training, performance appraisal, and career planning programs enhance or retard career development is also necessary, as is an understanding of the special career issues and challenges faced by particular groups (e.g., women, ethnic minorities, the disabled).

      9. Consumer Behavior

      The focus of this area is the systematic study of the relationship between the producers (or distributors) and consumers (actual or potential recipients) of goods and services. Usually this involves many of the following concerns: consumer preferences for product features, consumer attitudes and motivation, buying habits and patterns, brand preferences, media research (including the effectiveness of advertisements and commercials), estimating demand for products or services, and the study of the economic expectations of people. Closely allied to those areas of market research that focus on personal consumption, there is a substantive or content basis to this domain insofar as there is a body of theory and data amassed dealing with the antecedents and correlates of consumer behavior that should be learned. There is a skill component to be mastered as well, inasmuch as the area is built on the appropriate application of a variety of social science research methodologies (e.g., sampling theory, questionnaire and survey protocol design and execution, individual and group interviewing, stimulus scaling, and mathematical model building).

      10. Criterion Theory and Development

      Almost all applications of I/O psychology (e.g., selection, human resources planning, leadership, performance appraisal, organization design, organization diagnosis and development, training) involve measurements against criteria (standards) that indicate effectiveness on the part of individuals, groups, and/or organizations. The selection of criteria is not a simple issue and represents a significant area of concern for I/O psychologists.

      The knowledge base of this domain incorporates understanding the theoretical issues such as single versus multiple criteria, criterion dynamics, the characteristics of good and acceptable criteria (relevance, reliability, practicality), and criteria as a basis for understanding human behavior at work and in organizations. Knowledge of past research in this area, which is quite extensive, is also necessary.

      Beyond this knowledge, the I/O psychologist should have the skills necessary for developing valid criteria and methods of measuring them. These necessarily include skills in many of the other domains identified in the document (e.g., Job Analysis, Psychometrics).

      11. Health and Stress in Organizations

      Job performance and effective organizational functioning can be affected by health and safety factors in the workplace that result in suboptimal working conditions and reduced productivity. This competency area requires the study of interactions between human physical capabilities and problematic conditions in the workplace in an attempt to understand the limits of performance and negative effects on workers. Among the factors considered are hazardous environmental conditions induced by toxic substances (e.g., chemical, biological, nuclear), loud noises, blinding lights, and noxious odors. Other factors considered are related to organizational structure and job design, such as shiftwork or the requirements of particular tasks. Additional sources of organizational stress that may affect performance, commitment, and attitudinal variables include downsizing, harassment, work–family pressures, and outsourcing. There should be some familiarity with government standards relating to the workplace (e.g., OSHA).

      12. Human Performance/Human Factors

      Human Performance is the study of limitations and capabilities in human skilled behavior. Skill is broadly construed to include perceptual, motor, memory, and cognitive activities, and the integration of these into more complex behavior. Emphasis is on the interaction of human behavior and tools, tasks, and environments, ranging from detection and identification of simple events to problem solving, decision making, human errors, accidents, and control of complex environments. Included among the variables that affect human performance are individual differences, organismic variables, task variables, environmental variables, and training variables.

      Competency in this area assures awareness of issues of experimental design, a grounding in perception, cognition, and physiological psychology, some knowledge of computer programming, and quantitative modeling based on techniques from mathematical psychology, engineering, and computer science. Familiarity in the subject areas of basic experimental psychology should be combined with an awareness of applied research in such areas as workstation design, workload measurement, control systems, information display systems, health and safety, and human–computer interactions.

      13. Individual Assessment

      This domain refers to a set of skills that are needed for assessing, interpreting, and communicating distinguishing characteristics of individuals for a variety of work-related purposes. The two primary purposes of individual assessment can be defined broadly as selection (e.g., hiring, promotion, placement) and development (e.g., career planning, skill and competency building, rehabilitation, employee counseling). Individual assessment may help attain multiple goals, many of which are aimed at achieving some form of person–environment fit, including assessee fit to a specific job or career track and assessee fit within a specific organizational context (e.g., department, work group).

      Individual assessment incorporates skill in individual testing, interviewing, and appraisal techniques for the purpose of evaluating ability, personality, aptitude, and interest characteristics. Individual assessment also requires identifying, developing, selecting, and/or using the appropriate means for such assessment, and communicating the results and interpretation of assessment accurately in both face-to-face and written form.

      A knowledge of the fact that individual assessment focuses on the whole person is required. In addition, a knowledge of the manner in which environmental and contextual factors shape the purpose and use of the accumulated information of individual assessments is necessary.

      14. Individual Differences

      I/O psychology emphasizes the importance of individual differences in the study of individuals' behaviors. Because this emphasis requires accurate assessments of unobservable psychological traits, a sound background in both classical and modern measurement theories and their respective areas of application is essential. The domain of measurement includes theory and assessment of individual differences in skills and abilities. This exposure would cover the nature of construct measurement and the philosophy of science assumptions underpinning many of our approaches to scale development. Other topics which might be covered are the measurement of attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction) and product preferences by scaling procedures, measurement of performance on complex jobs, and measurement of comparable worth of individuals to organizations.

      A great deal of what I/O psychologists do in this area is subjected to close scrutiny by courts of law, civil rights groups, and professional colleagues. Because of these external and internal pressures, students must be trained to conduct research and to apply measurement principles in conformance to the highest standards of our discipline. Students may also need skills to help communicate their research methods and findings to interested parties outside the discipline.

      It is important to recognize the limitations of classical true score theory. Questions about item and scale bias, test equating, minimum competence assessments, mastery testing, tailored testing, and appropriateness measurement raise issues for which classical true score theory can provide only approximate solutions. Although these areas of application were originally studied in relation to ability measurement, they have been generalized to attitude scales, surveys, questionnaires, and rating scales. Thus, it is increasingly important that students in I/O psychology be prepared to use and to conduct research on both classical measurement procedures and more contemporary procedures (e.g., Item Response Theory).

      15. Job Evaluation and Compensation

      This competency area focuses on determining the appropriate compensation level for skills, tasks, and/or jobs. Job evaluation is a processes by which the relative value of jobs is determined and then linked to commensurate compensation. Job evaluation is closely tied to and usually predicated upon sound job/task analyses. In general, job evaluation and compensation involves identifying compensable factors, attending to perceptions of fairness and equity, and considering issues of comparable worth. Proficiency in this competency area is demonstrated by a theoretical and applied understanding of various job evaluation techniques, compensation strategies (e.g., pay for skills, team-based pay, etc.), and the legal and social issues surrounding compensation.

      16. Job/Task Analysis and Classification

      This domain encompasses the theory and techniques used to generate information about what is involved in performing a job or task, the physical and social context of this performance, and the attributes needed by an incumbent for such performance. Tasks are basic units of activity, the elements of which highlight the connection between behavior and result. A job is an arbitrary grouping of tasks designed to achieve an organizational objective. It is common for jobs to be grouped or classified on the basis of a variety of criteria, depending on the purpose and goals of the classification system.

      The fundamental concern of job and task analysis is to obtain descriptive information to design training programs, establish performance criteria, develop selection systems, implement job evaluation systems, redesign machinery or tools, and create career paths for personnel. The specific steps taken and the type of information gathered will vary depending on the purpose of the job and task analyses and the classification system. Relevant information includes, but is not limited to, the worker behaviors involved; the knowledge, skills, and abilities required; the standards of performance desired; the tools, machines, and work aids used; the sources of information available to the incumbent; the social, environmental, and physical working conditions; and the nature of supervision. Similarly, some of the steps involved in job and task analyses include identifying the purpose of the analysis; preparing, designing, or selecting a job analysis system; collecting job or task information; summarizing the results; and documenting the steps taken for future reference. The classification of jobs typically entails identifying the purpose and goals of the classification system; designing a classification scheme; categorizing jobs according to the established scheme; and documenting the classification process and outcomes.

      The individual competent in this domain should have a knowledge of the different approaches to job/task analysis and classification, as well as skill in applying these techniques to real-world situations. This competency area is likely to continue to evolve as the nature of work in our society continues to change.

      17. Judgment and Decision Making

      Judgment and decision making encompasses an area of research and knowledge that is both prescriptive and normative in its emphases. This area is important because judgment and decision making under conditions of uncertainty probably describes the majority of the decisions managers, psychologists, market forecasters, and budget/policy planners make during the course of their work and research. A knowledge of decision theory, judgment, and problem solving research is important to understanding the critical processes that influence how information is processed and the quality of the decision outcomes.

      Many different content areas within the broad area of I/O psychology can be studied explicitly as applications of decision and judgment theory. Such areas as vigilance behavior, employee selection, choice behavior, and human performance in complex environments can be integrated by principles of decision theory that may require fewer concepts than are necessary when each content area is considered distinct and unique. Applications of decision theory to the policies of decision makers, judges, and clinicians allow greater understanding of inferential procedures used by individuals. Approaches for describing and predicting judgment and decision making include Brunswik's lens model, Bayesian inference, subjective expected utility, prospect theory, and the cognitive information processing paradigm. A knowledge of these approaches and an ability to integrate across the different approaches are indicative of breadth as well as depth of training in judgment and decision theory.

      18. Leadership and Management

      Management and leadership can be approached at different levels. The study of management and leadership at the macro level involves the influences senior-level individuals have in the larger organizational context: setting strategy, directing change, and influencing values. Theory and research may focus on characteristics of leaders, leader style, leader–member interactions, behaviors of leaders, and related phenomena. At a more micro level, leadership and management involve the day-to-day exchange between leaders and followers. This includes challenges faced by line managers in their relationships with subordinates in the assignment of tasks, evaluation of performance, coaching and counseling for improvement, resource planning, and related tasks. Related to many other areas, effective leadership and management involves task analysis, motivation, decision making, career planning, selection, performance appraisal, interpersonal communication, and listening and related skills in a supervisor–subordinate context. Increasingly, attention is placed on team leadership and self-leadership (especially in relation to empowerment) and horizontal leadership (i.e., peer influence processes).

      19. Organization Development

      This domain encompasses theory and research relevant to changing individuals, groups, and organizations to improve their effectiveness. This body of theory and research draws from such related fields as social psychology, counseling psychology, educational psychology, vocational psychology, engineering psychology, and organizational theory.

      More specifically, this domain concerns theory and research related, but not limited, to individual change strategies including training, socialization, attitude change, career planning, counseling, and behavior modification; interpersonal and group change strategies, including team building and group training, survey feedback, and conflict management; role or task-oriented change strategies, including job redesign, role analysis, management by objectives, and temporary task forces; and organization system–directed change strategies, including survey feedback, open systems–oriented change programs, human resource accounting, flexible working hours, structural changes, control system changes, and quality circles.

      20. Organization Theory

      It is well accepted that the structure, function, processes, and other organizational-level constructs have an impact on the behavior of individuals in organizations. Therefore, it is necessary that I/O psychologists have a thorough understanding of the nature of complex organizations. This understanding should include, but is not limited to, classical and contemporary theories of organizations, organizational structure, organizational design, technology, and the process of organizational policy formation and implementation. Much of this theory and research is generated by sociologists and those students of organizational behavior who choose as their unit of analysis constructs not primarily within the individual or within the immediate group environment of the individual. Integration of organizational and individual constructs is an important area of study within I/O psychology. Such an integration obviously requires a knowledge of organizational theory.

      21. Performance Appraisal and Feedback

      Performance appraisal and feedback have both a knowledge and a skill base. This area centers on the methods of measuring and evaluating individuals as they perform organizational tasks and on taking action (administrative and/or developmental) with individuals on the basis of such appraisals.

      The knowledge base includes a thorough understanding of rating scale construction and use. Also relevant are the areas of measurement theory, data analysis, criterion theory and development, motivation theory, and the factors that underlie interpersonal perception and judgment. An understanding of the similarities, differences, and inconsistencies among the perceptions of performance and feedback supplied by peers, subordinates, and supervisors is essential.

      The skill base includes procedures for communicating performance evaluations to job incumbents and counseling them in appropriate means of improving their performance. Also, skill in designing a complete performance appraisal and feedback system that meets organizational needs while maintaining or enhancing worker motivation or performance is required.

      22. Personnel Recruitment, Selection, and Placement

      This domain consists of the theory and techniques involved in the effective matching of individual needs, preferences, skills, and abilities with the needs and preferences of organizations. An organization's needs are defined by the jobs assigned to positions in the organization.

      More specifically, this domain encompasses theory and research in human abilities; test theory, development, and use; job analysis; criterion development and measurement; recruitment; classical and decision theory models of selection and placement; alternative selection devices (e.g., interviews, assessment centers); and legal and societal considerations that affect recruitment, selection, and placement. In particular, the individual must keep current with the legislation and court decisions related to these issues, as well as with responses of the Society to laws and their interpretations.

      23. Small Group Theory and Team Processes

      Much of human activity in organizations takes place in the presence of other people. This is particularly true of work behavior. The pervasiveness of interpersonal and task interdependence in organizations demands that I/O psychologists have a good understanding of the behavior of people in work groups. Though the labels group and team are often used interchangeably, it is also critical to have a familiarity with the growing teamwork literature. This requires an understanding that extends beyond familiarity with research and theory related to interpersonal behavior in small groups. The body of theory and research concerning groups and teams draws from social psychology, organizational psychology, sociology, and organizational behavior. A good background in group theory and team processes includes, but is not limited to, an understanding of leadership, motivation, interpersonal influence, group effectiveness, conformity, conflict, role behavior, and group decision making.

      24. Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation

      This domain includes theory and techniques used to design, conduct, and evaluate instructional programs. The instructional process begins with a needs assessment, including organizational, job and task, and person analyses, to determine the goals and constraints of the organization and the characteristics of the job and trainees. Familiarity with basic phenomena of learning (e.g., modern learning theory, conditioning principles), as well as knowledge of the different approaches to training (e.g., computer-assisted instruction, simulation, behavior modification), are necessary for designing programs. An ability to develop meaningful and appropriate training objectives is essential. Transfer of training to the desired setting is an important consideration. For programs to be conducted as planned, the instructors must have good instructional skills. Thus, training the trainers is necessary.

      Both the process and the outcome of the program may be evaluated to determine if it has been conducted as planned and whether or not it has had any effect. Knowledge of appropriate training evaluation criteria and design issues, such as pre- and posttesting and control groups, as well as organizational constraints, is necessary for planning an evaluation strategy.

      25. Work Motivation

      Work motivation refers to the conditions within the individual and his or her environment that influence the direction, strength, and persistence of relevant individual behaviors in organizations when individual abilities and organizational constraints are held constant. Increasingly, work motivation is a concern at the group level as well.

      I/O psychologists need to have a sound background in work motivation in at least three respects. First, they must have a thorough understanding of the theories of human motivation including, but not limited to, need theories, cognitive theories, and reinforcement theories. In all cases there must be a thorough understanding of the extensive research and theory that exist outside the domain of work in the basic psychological literature. At the second level, there must be an understanding of the research and theory in motivationally relevant domains of I/O psychology that represent general applications of one or more motivational perspectives. Such general strategies for work motivation as goal setting, job design, incentive systems, and participative decision making are relevant here. Finally, there must be an awareness of and ability to apply very specific, motivationally oriented practices that adapt motivational constructs to specific cases. For example, understanding and implementing management by objectives involves an application of goal setting principles and participation.

      Strategies for Building Competence

      Program designers and faculty may develop a student's capabilities in a recommended area by using one or more methods or techniques. In some cases it is likely that multiple means might actually be preferred. A given course may touch on more than one area. Moreover, the resources and capacities of a given program will also shape decisions in this area. For these reasons the guidelines will not detail a specific curriculum plan. However, suggested strategies are provided.

      Table A.2.2 describes curriculum options identified as useful methods for doctoral-level training. While other approaches and variations do exist, the list in Table A.2.2 is reasonably inclusive. Table A.2.3 summarizes the recommendations of the guidelines by relating the goals of training to the methods or techniques identified. The entries in this table should be viewed as suggestions of reasonable and appropriate approaches to educating students in the desired knowledge and skill domains. Though the techniques identified are not necessarily the only ones available, an effort was made to match each competency area with the techniques most likely to be effective for development in that domain. The fact that there are multiple entries for training in a skill area should not imply that all techniques listed are required to promote a level of mastery deemed appropriate by a program's faculty. Finally, it would be consistent with the spirit of these guidelines for a program to develop skills or knowledge in several of the domains using a single particular educational experience (e.g., a seminar, a supervised field project, or an assigned reading list).

      Table A.2.2 Curriculum Options Considered in the Guidelines
      • Formal coursework: Classroom instruction common to university settings in which material pertinent to the domains is covered. This method itself can involve a variety of different means, to include lectures, discussion, presentations, and so forth. While taking courses, students also have the opportunity to work together with peers, taking advantage of the benefits of cooperative peer learning.
      • Independent readings/study: Nonclassroom instruction in which the student, in consultation with qualified personnel, assumes basic responsibility for and commitment to the accomplishment of domain objectives. This method includes all forms of nonclassroom instruction for which self-initiated effort is of central concern and for which such effort can successfully result in the achievement of relevant domain objectives. Examples would include self-initiated effort aimed at covering defined domains through reading; generating appropriate review manuscripts, proposals, or reports; designing and conducting a research investigation; and acquiring interactive computer skills.
      • Supervised experience (and field research): Nonclassroom instruction in which the student is actively engaged in projects under the direct supervision of qualified personnel (e.g., faculty, senior students, I/O practitioners). Such projects would be aimed at fulfilling specific training objectives with special emphasis given to the acquisition of skills. Participation would not be motivated primarily for compensation. This method might often be characterized by in vivo learning opportunities such that the student learns in settings similar to those to which transfer can be expected. Research experience should begin during the first year of graduate education with small projects and be expanded in later years as the student gains skill and knowledge in the field.

        In all cases, however, there must be meaningful professional supervision of the training experience. Examples would include practicum and internship experiences, fieldwork teaching/training, thesis/dissertation research, and so forth. An extensive (even yearlong) supervised internship performing the work of an I/O psychologist in a business, consulting, or government organization is strongly recommended as an essential component of doctoral preparation, especially for those who intend to become practitioners.

      • On-the-job training: Nonclassroom instruction in which capabilities are learned through “hands-on” experience on applied tasks under the explicit guidance of a professionally qualified task expert. Such training is typically done in conjunction with one's “job,” and participation involves compensation. In any event, on-the-job training provides firsthand knowledge of the problems associated with particular I/O domains and allows for the opportunity to focus on solutions which will have an impact on the setting in which the student is working.
      • Modeling/observation: Nonclassroom implicit instruction that is obtained as a result of working with and paying attention to professionally qualified personnel in the daily conduct of their jobs or projects. This method implies that learning of important skills might well be obtained without explicit instructional intent on the part of the model. On the other hand, modeling may also be done in a purposeful and self-conscious manner. Modeling/observation, because of its general nature, cuts across several of the training methods described earlier.

      Though the guidelines are most specifically intended for curriculum development, they also serve as a guide for students in ensuring the adequacy of their education. It is our firm belief that students are every bit as responsible for their education as faculty are. In some cases this means students must take advantage of presented opportunities (e.g., taking a needed class, participating in a research project, attending conferences). It may also mean that students need to be proactive in developing their own opportunities (e.g., independent study, finding an internship, developing a professional network, reading appropriate journals).

      Furthermore, we encourage practitioners to continue to play an active role in the development of I/O psychologists. Giving students opportunities to work on applied projects, offering internships, and taking an active role in the education and training of doctoral students (e.g., serving on the E&T Committee, contributing to doctoral consortia, visiting and speaking at graduate programs). In some respects, no one is more aware of the most current knowledge, skills, and abilities required of I/O psychologists than those practicing the discipline in the field.

      Table A.2.3 Means of Training the Recommended Capabilities
      ABCDE
      1.Consulting and Business Skills****
      2.Ethical, Legal, and Professional Contexts of I/O Psychology****
      3.Fields of Psychology**
      4.History and Systems of Psychology**
      5.Research Methods****
      6.Statistical Methods/Data Analysis****
      7.Attitude Theory, Measurement, and Change***
      8.Career Development****
      9.Consumer Behavior***
      10.Criterion Theory and Development****
      11.Health and Stress in Organizations***
      12.Human Performance/Human Factors****
      13.Individual Assessment****
      14.Individual Differences***
      15.Job Evaluation and Compensation****
      16.Job/Task Analysis, Job Evaluation, and Compensation****
      17.Judgment and Decision Making**
      18.Leadership and Management****
      19.Organization Development*****
      20.Organization Theory***
      21.Performance Appraisal and Feedback*****
      22.Personnel Recruitment, Selection, Placement, and Classification****
      23.Small Group Theory and Team Processes****
      24.Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation*****
      25.Work Motivation****
      A = formal coursework; B = independent reading/study; C = supervised experience (and field research); D = On-the-job training; E = modeling/observation.
      Summary

      The competency-based approach of these guidelines has much to recommend it. It maintains a focus on what is to be taught and learned, provides desirable flexibility to curriculum planners, and recognizes the multiple paths to developing most skills of importance. Nonetheless, it is also true that the recommendations based on such an approach might become dated or irrelevant to the field. Therefore, the present guidelines should be reevaluated on a regular basis. They must be kept up-to-date by continuous reference to the nature of work and conditions surrounding the I/O psychologist at work.

      Doctoral education in I/O psychology must employ multiple methods of education and training. All of the foregoing approaches have value and should be integrated into a complete program of education and training. This program should ensure that the graduate will possess an appreciation of the roles of both theory and practice; will be able to develop new ideas and also to apply relevant information to solve real-world problems; and will possess the research, methodological, statistical, and measurement knowledge and skills to enable conduct of appropriate research and problem solving.

      EDITOR'S NOTE: These guidelines represent the views and expertise of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc., Division 14 of the American Psychological Association and Organizational Affiliate of the Association for Psychological Science. In issuing these guidelines, SIOP is not speaking for APA, APS, or any other division or unit of APA or APS.

      Further Reading
      American Psychological Association. (1973, 1982). Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants. Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychological Association. (1979). Standards for providers of psychological service (
      Rev. ed.
      ). Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychological Association. (1981, 1992). Ethical principles of psychologists. Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychological Association Committee on Accreditation. (1996, January). Guidelines for the review of doctoral and internship programs. Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychological Association Committee on Professional Standards and Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessment. (1986). Guidelines for computer-based tests and interpretations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      American Psychological Association, Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (1987). Principles for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures. Washington, DC: Author.
      Dunnette, M. D. (1990). Blending the science and practice of industrial and organizational psychology: Where are we and where are we going? In M. D.Dunnette, & L. M.Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 1–27). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
      Greguras, G. J., and Stanton, J. M.Three considerations for I/O graduate students seeking academic positions: Publish, publish, publish. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist33 (3) 92–98. (1996).
      Howard, A. (1990). The multiple facets of industrial-organizational psychology: Membership survey results. Washington, DC: Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
      Maahs, C. J., and Major, D. A.Does your graduate program fully prepare you to enter the professional world?The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist32 (4) 90–93. (1995).
      National Council on Measurement in Education. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: Authors.
      Schippmann, J. S., Hawthorne, S. L., and Schmitt, S. D.Work roles and training needs for the practice of industrial-organizational psychology at the master's and Ph.D. level. Journal of Business and Psychology6311–331. (1992). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01126768
      Schneider, B., Carlson, R., Lawler, E., & Pritchard, R. (1974). Guidelines for education and training in industrial and organizational psychology. Washington, DC: APA Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
      Sebolsky, J. R., Brady, A. L., and Wagner, S.Want an applied job? Get experience!The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist33 (4) 65–70. (1996).
      Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1985). Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral level in industrial/organizational psychology. College Park, MD: Author.
      Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1994). Guidelines for education and training at the master's level in industrial/organizational psychology. Arlington Heights, IL: Author.

      Appendix 3. Universities with Master's and/or Doctoral Graduate Programs in Industrial and Organizational Psychology (and Related Fields)

      Information about these graduate programs can be found at http://siop.org/GTP/:

      • Alliant International University
      • Angelo State University
      • Antioch University Los Angeles
      • Appalachian State University
      • Auburn University
      • Austin Peay State University
      • Ball State University
      • Barry University
      • Baruch College, City University of New York
      • Bowling Green State University
      • California State University, Long Beach
      • California State University, Sacramento
      • California State University, San Bernardino
      • Capella University
      • Carlos Albizu University
      • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Case Western Reserve University
      • Central Michigan University
      • Central Washington University
      • Chapman University
      • Chicago School of Professional Psychology
      • Christopher Newport University
      • Claremont Graduate University
      • Clemson University
      • Cleveland State University
      • Colorado State University
      • Concordia University
      • Curtin University
      • De Paul University
      • East Carolina University
      • Eastern Kentucky University
      • Elmhurst College
      • Emporia State University
      • Exeter University
      • Fairfield University
      • Fairleigh Dickinson University (Florham-Madison)
      • Florida Atlantic University
      • Florida Institute of Technology
      • Florida International University
      • George Mason University
      • George Washington University
      • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • Georgia State University
      • Golden Gate University
      • Griffith University
      • Harvard Business School
      • Hofstra University
      • Illinois Institute of Technology
      • Illinois State University
      • Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Kansas State University
      • Kean University
      • Lamar University
      • Louisiana State University
      • Louisiana Tech University
      • Macquarie University
      • Marshall University
      • McMaster University
      • Michigan State University
      • Middle Tennessee State University
      • Minnesota State University
      • Montana State University
      • Montclair State University
      • National University
      • New Mexico State University New York University
      • North Carolina State University
      • Northern Illinois University
      • Northern Kentucky University
      • Northwestern University
      • Ohio University
      • Old Dominion University
      • Pennsylvania State University
      • Polytechnic University (Brooklyn, NY)
      • Portland State University
      • Purdue University
      • Radford University
      • Rice University
      • Roosevelt University
      • Rutgers–The State University of New Jersey
      • Saint Cloud State University
      • Saint Joseph's University
      • Saint Louis University
      • Saint Mary's University
      • San Diego State University
      • San Francisco State University
      • San Jose State University
      • Saybrook Graduate School & Research Center
      • Seattle Pacific University
      • Sonoma State University
      • Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville
      • Southern Oregon University
      • Southwest Missouri State University
      • Springfield College
      • Stanford University
      • State University of New York, Binghamton
      • State University of New York, Buffalo
      • Stephen F. Austin State University
      • Teachers College, Columbia University
      • Temple University
      • Texas A&M University
      • Texas Tech University
      • Tulane University
      • Union Institute and University
      • University at Albany, SUNY
      • University of Akron
      • University of Arizona
      • University of Arkansas
      • University of Baltimore
      • University of Calgary
      • University of California, Berkeley
      • University of California, Irvine
      • University of Central Florida
      • University of Connecticut
      • University of Detroit–Mercy
      • University of Georgia
      • University of Guelph
      • University of Hartford
      • University of Houston
      • University of Idaho
      • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
      • University of London
      • University of Maryland
      • University of Memphis
      • University of Michigan
      • University of Minnesota
      • University of Mississippi
      • University of Missouri, Columbia
      • University of Missouri–St. Louis
      • University of Nebraska–Omaha
      • University of New Haven
      • University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
      • University of North Carolina Charlotte
      • University of North Texas University of Northern Iowa
      • University of Nottingham–UK
      • University of Oklahoma
      • University of Oklahoma–Tulsa
      • University of Sheffield
      • University of South Carolina
      • University of Southern Mississippi
      • University of South Florida
      • University of Surrey
      • University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
      • University of Tennessee, Knoxville
      • University of Texas–Arlington
      • University of the Philippines
      • University of Toronto
      • University of Tulsa
      • University of Waikato
      • University of Waterloo
      • University of West Florida
      • University of Western Ontario
      • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh
      • University of Wisconsin–Stout
      • University of Witwatersrand–South Africa
      • Valdosta State University
      • Villanova University
      • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Virginia Tech
      • Washington State University
      • Wayne State University
      • West Chester University
      • Western Kentucky University
      • Western Michigan University
      • William Carey College on the Coast
      • Wright State University
      • Xavier University

      EDITOR'S NOTE: Information for this appendix was graciously provided by the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

      Appendix 4. Scientific Journals Publishing Research in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (and Related Fields)

      Academy of Management Executive *

      Academy of Management Journal **

      Academy of Management Review **

      Administration and Society

      Administrative Science Quarterly **

      American Psychologist

      Applied Ergonomics

      Applied H.R.M. Management

      Applied Psychological Measurement *

      Applied Psychology: An International Review *

      Australian Journal of Management and Organisational Behaviour

      Basic and Applied Social Psychology *

      British Journal of Management

      British Journal of Personality

      Business Ethics: A European Review

      Career Development Quarterly

      Conflict Resolution Quarterly

      Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research

      Creativity and Innovation Management

      Cross Cultural Management

      Educational and Psychological Measurement *

      Employee Assistance Quarterly (changing to Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health)

      Employee Relations

      Environment and Behavior

      Ergonomics

      European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology

      European Review of Applied Psychology

      Gender, Work, and Organization

      Group Decision and Negotiation

      Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice *

      Group Organizational Management *

      Group Processes and Intergroup Relations

      Human Computer Interaction

      Human Factors *

      Human Performance *

      Human Relations *

      Human Resource Development Review

      Human Resources Development International

      Human Resources Development Quarterly

      Human Resources Development Review

      Human Resources Management *

      Human Resources Management: International Digest

      Human Resources Management Journal *

      Human Resources Management Review *

      Human Resources Planning

      Industrial and Corporate Change

      Industrial and Labor Relations Review

      Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society

      Intelligence

      International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics

      International Journal of Conflict Management

      International Journal of Cross Cultural Management

      International Journal of Human Resources Management

      International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics

      International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior

      International Journal of Organizational Analysis

      International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management

      International Journal of Selection and Assessment *

      International Journal of Social Research Methodology

      International Journal of Stress Management

      International Journal of Testing

      International Journal of Training and Development

      International Organization

      International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology

      Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior

      Journal of Applied Behavioral Science *

      Journal of Applied Business Research

      Journal of Applied Measurement

      Journal of Applied Psychology **

      Journal of Applied Social Psychology *

      Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

      Journal of Business and Psychology *

      Journal of Business Research

      Journal of Career Assessment

      Journal of Career Development

      Journal of Change Management

      Journal of Communication

      Journal of Communication Management

      Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology

      Journal of Computer Mediated Communication

      Journal of Conflict Resolution

      Journal of Counseling Psychology

      Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization

      Journal of Economic Psychology

      Journal of Employment Counseling

      Journal of Environmental Psychology

      Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied *

      Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

      Journal of Human Resources: Education, Manpower, and Welfare Economy

      Journal of Individual Differences

      Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies

      Journal of Management **

      Journal of Management and Education

      Journal of Management Development

      Journal of Management Studies

      Journal of Managerial Issues

      Journal of Managerial Psychology

      Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology *

      Journal of Occupational Health Psychology *

      Journal of Occupational Science

      Journal of Organizational Behavior **

      Journal of Organizational Behavior Management

      Journal of Organizational Change Management

      Journal of Organizational Excellence

      Journal of Personality

      Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

      Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied

      Journal of Social Psychology

      Journal of Vocational Behavior **

      Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation

      Journal of Workplace Learning

      Journal of World Business

      Law and Human Behavior

      Leadership

      Leadership and Organizational Development Journal *

      Leadership Quarterly *

      Learning and Individual Differences

      Learning and Motivation

      Management and Organization Review

      Management Learning

      Management Science

      Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives

      Military Psychology

      Motivation and Emotion

      Negation Journal

      Organization Science *

      Organization: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Organization, Theory, and Society

      Organizational Analysis

      Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes **

      Organizational Development Journal *

      Organizational Dynamics *

      Organizational Research Methods **

      Organizational Studies

      Personality and Individual Differences

      Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

      Personality and Social Psychology Review

      Personnel Psychology **

      Personnel Review

      Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

      Psychological Assessment

      Psychological Bulletin *

      Psychological Methods *

      Psychological Review *

      Psychology and Marketing

      Psychology, Public Policy and Law

      Public Administration: An International Overview

      Public Administration Review

      Public Opinion Quarterly

      Public Personnel Management

      Quality and Quantity: International Journal of Methodology

      Representative Research in Social Psychology

      Risk, Decision, and Policy

      Small Group Research *

      Social Behavior and Personality

      Social Psychology Quarterly

      Strategic Change

      Strategic Management Journal

      Strategic Organization

      Strategy and Leadership

      Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress

      Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress

      Work and Occupations

      Work and Stress *

      Work, Employment, and Society

      Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation

      EDITOR'S NOTE:

      * A journal that would generally be considered as a more common outlet for I/O psychology research in the United States.

      ** A journal ranked as one of the top 10 journals in I/O psychology: Zickar, M. J., & Highhouse, S. (2001). Measuring prestige of journals in industrial-organizational psychology. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 38, 29–36.

      Information for this appendix was gathered and organized by Andrew Smith, Grove City College.

      Appendix 5. Job Titles of Industrial/Organizational Psychologists

      Corporate Vice President, Director, Manager, Staff Member of

      Organizational Development, Management Development, Human Resources Research, Employee Relations, Training and Development, and Leadership Development

      President, Vice President, Director of

      Private research, consulting companies, and organizations

      Full, Associate, Assistant Professor of

      Psychology, Management, Organizational Behavior, and Industrial Relations

      EDITOR'S NOTE: Information for this appendix was graciously provided by the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

      Appendix 6. Groups and Organizations That Have Industrial/Organizational Psychologists as Members

      ASAP (Atlanta Society of Applied Psychology)

      For more information, visit http://www.asapatlanta.org

      ASTD (American Society of Training and Development)

      The major, national training association. For more information, visit http://www.astd.org

      BAAP (Bay Area Applied Psychologists)

      For more information, visit http://www.baaponline.net

      Brunswik Society

      Informal association of researchers who are interested in understanding and improving human judgment and decision making. For more information, visit http://brunswik.org/

      Central Florida I/O Interest Group

      An informal I/O interest group. For more information, please contact Paul Spector spector@chuma.cas.usf.edu

      CIOP (Chicago I/O Psychologists, formerly GCAIOP)

      For more information, visit http://www.ciop.net

      CODESP (Cooperative Organization for the Development of Employee Selection Procedures)

      A consortium of classified personnel departments in Nevada and California public school districts. For more information, visit http://www.codesp.com/

      Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations

      Founded in 1996 to aid advancement of research and practice related to emotional intelligence in organizations. For more information, visit http://www.eiconsortium.org

      Competency Consortium

      Consortium providing a forum for organizations to share competency models, applications, lessons learned, and benchmark best practices. For more information, please contact Mariangela Battista at 914-640-2686 or Mariangela.Battista@starwoodhotels.com

      COP (College of Organizational Psychologists, Australia)

      This group is affiliated with the Australian Psychological Society. For more information, visithttp://www.aps.psychsociety.com.au/units/colleges/organisational/

      CSIOP (I/O Division of the Canadian Psychology Association)

      For more information, visit http://www.ssc.uwo.ca/psychology/csiop/

      CWAIOP (Colorado-Wyoming Association of I/O Psychologists)

      For information, visit http://www.cwaiop.colostate.edu/

      DAIOP (Dallas Area I/O Psychologists)

      For more information, visit http://www.daiop.org

      EAWOP (European Association of Work and Organizational Psychologists)

      A network linking together I/O groups from several European nations. For more information, visit http://www.eawop.org

      GIOP (Gateway I/O Psychologists)

      Members-only discussion list at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gioptalk

      HAIOP (Houston Area Industrial and Organizational Psychologists)

      For more information, visit http://www.haiop.org or e-mail info@haiop.org

      HFES (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society)

      5,000 members and in existence since 1957. For more information, visit http://www.hfes.org

      HRPS (Human Resource Planning Society)

      National group for senior HR consultants, academics, and Fortune 500 practitioners. 3,000 members. For more information, visit http://www.hrps.org/home/index.shtml

      IPMA (International Personnel Management Association)

      For more information, visit http://www.ipma-hr.org/

      IPMA–Assessment Council

      A subset of IPMA. Focuses on recruitment, selection, and assessment issues primarily in the public sector. For more information, visit http://www.ipmaac.org/

      ISIR (International Society for Intelligence Research)

      A scientific society for researchers in human intelligence; sponsors an annual conference focused on all aspects of intelligence research. For more information, visit http://www.isironline.org

      ISPI (International Society for Performance Improvement)

      A 39-year-old group of “performance technology” individuals. 10,000 members. For more information, visit http://www.ispi.org

      ITC (International Testing Commission)

      Founded in 1978, an association of psychological associations, test commissions, and other organizations committed to promoting effective testing and assessment policies and to the proper development, evaluation, and uses of educational and psychological instruments. For more information, visit http://www.intestcom.org

      ITSG (Information Technology Survey Group)

      A consortium of about 15 companies (e.g., IBM, Intel, Sun, SAP, Microsoft) in the IT industry. For more information, visit http://www.itsg.org

      MAIOP (Michigan Association of I/O Psychologists)

      For more information, visit http://www.maiop.org

      MAPAC (Mid-Atlantic Personnel Assessment Consortium, Inc.)

      An association of mid-Atlantic public sector agencies interested in assessment. For more information, visit http://www.ipmaac.org/mapac/

      Mayflower Group

      Founded in 1971, consortium of blue-chip companies employing at least 10,000 U.S.-based employees. Dedicated to employee opinion surveys. For more information, visit http://www.mayflowergroup.org

      METRO (Metropolitan New York Association for Applied Psychology)

      For more information, visit http://www.MetroAppPsych.com/

      MPPAW (Minnesota Professionals for Psychology Applied to Work)

      For more information, visit http://www.mppaw.org

      NCIOP (North Carolina Industrial and Organizational Psychologists)

      For more information, visit http://www.ncsu.edu/psychology/graduate/conc/iov/organizations/ncio/index.htm

      NESAP (New England Society for Applied Psychology)

      For more information, visit http://www.NESAP.org

      Northwest Conversations

      An informal association of assessment professionals in the Pacific Northwest. For more information contact Leta Danielson at letad@dop.wa.gov

      NYSPA IOP Division (New York State Psychological Association's Industrial, Organizational & Personnel)

      For more information, visit http://www.NYSPA.org/specialty/pio.htm

      ODI (Organization Development Institute)

      For more information, visit http://members.aol.com/odinst/membinfo.htm

      ODN (Organization Development Network)

      3,200 members. For more information, visit http://www.ODNetwork.org/

      OH-IO (Ohio I/O Psychologists)

      For more information, please contact Jim Austin at 614-292-9897 or austin.38@osu.edu; or David Kriska at 614-645-8008 or dkriska1@csc.cmhmetro.net

      PAI (People Assessment in Industry, South Africa)

      Focuses on marketing and educating people about psychological assessment, validation studies, and ethics of use. For more information, visit http://www.pai.org.za

      Performance America

      Learning network devoted to assessing and improving government performance through organizational assessment and development. For more information, visit http://www.opm.gov/employ/html/perf_am.htm

      PIOPA (Portland Industrial & Organizational Psychology Association)

      For more information, visit http://www.piopa.org

      PSAIOP (Puget Sound Association of I/O Psychologists)

      For more information please contact Peter Scontrino at 425-392-5694 or mpscontrino@aol.com

      PTC/A (Personnel Testing Council of Arizona)

      For more information, visit http://www.ipmaac.org/ptca/index.html

      PTC/MW (Personnel Testing Council of Metropolitan Washington, DC)

      For more information, visit http://www.ptcmw.org

      PTC/NC (Personnel Testing Council of Northern California)

      For more information, visit http://www.ipmaac.org/ptcnc/

      PTC/SC (Personnel Testing Council of Southern California)

      For more information, visit http://www.ipmaac.org/ptcsc/

      SCIP (Society for Computers in Psychology)

      For more information, visit http://141.225.14.239/scip/index.php

      SCPMA (Southern California Personnel Management Association)

      For more information, please contact Bill Osness at 714-536-5586 or fax to 714-374-1571.

      SHRM (Society for Human Resource Management)

      National group focusing on the needs of HR generalists. For more information, visit http://www.shrm.org

      SIOP (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology)

      Over 6,000 members. Principal professional association for I/O psychologists in the United States. For more information, visit http://www.siop.org

      SJDM (Society for Judgment & Decision Making)

      For more information, visit http://www.sjdm.org

      SPIM (Society of Psychologists in Management)

      For more information, visit http://www.spim.org

      TIOP (Texas I/O Psychologists)

      For more information, please contact Clyde Mayo at 713-667-9251 or mpsmayo@aol.com

      WRIPAC (Western Regional Intergovernmental Personnel Assessment Council)

      A consortium of public sector agencies in California, Nevada, and Arizona with an interest in assessment. For more information, visit http://www.wripac.com/

      EDITOR'S NOTE: Information for this appendix was graciously provided by the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

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