Leadership in Nonprofit Organizations: A Reference Handbook

Handbooks

Edited by: Kathryn A. Agard

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Nonprofit and Philanthropic Sector

    Part II: History of the Nonprofit and Philanthropic Sector

    Part III: Common Interest Areas of Nonprofits and Foundations

    Part IV: Nonprofit Organizations and Historically Disenfranchised Groups

    Part V: Leading the Nonprofit Organization

    Part VI: Leading a Grantmaking Foundation

    Part VII: Leadership of Nonprofits and the Individual

    Part VIII: Ethics and Social Responsibility in the Nonprofit World

  • Editorial Board

    Editor

    Kathryn A. Agard Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy Grand Valley State University

      Consulting Editor
    • Lucretia McCulley University of Richmond
      Associate Editor
    • Alyssa Mary Desgranges Grand Valley State University
      Editorial Board
    • Robert F. Ashcraft Lodestar Center for Philanthropy and Nonprofit Innovation Arizona State University
    • Dorothy A. Johnson Trustee, W. K. Kellogg Foundation Founder and President Emeritus, Council of Michigan Foundations
    • Russell G. Mawby Chairman Emeritus, W. K. Kellogg Foundation
    • Patrick M. Rooney The Center on Philanthropy Indiana University

    Copyright

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    List of Entries

    Reader's Guide

    Foreword

    When the editors at SAGE Publications approached me nearly 4 years ago to describe a new leadership handbook series they hoped to develop and to ask if I might be interested in serving as a series consulting editor, I was intrigued. From the viewpoint of a librarian who has worked with the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond, I was familiar firsthand with the needs of both faculty researchers and undergraduate students and topics of interest and relevance. From this perspective, I collaborated with SAGE to develop a list that, over the intervening years, has evolved into a series of two-volume reference handbooks on political and civic leadership, gender and women's leadership, leadership in Nonprofit organizations, leadership in science and technology, and environmental leadership.

    It is my hope that students, faculty, researchers, and reference librarians will benefit from this series by discovering the many varied ways that leadership permeates a wide variety of disciplines and interdisciplinary topics. SAGE's Encyclopedia of Leadership (2004) has been an outstanding reference tool in recent years to assist students with understanding some of the major theories and developments within leadership studies. As one of the newest interdisciplinary fields in academia in the past 20 years, leadership studies has drawn on many established resources in the social sciences, humanities, and organizational management. However, academic resources that are wholly dedicated and developed to focus on leadership as an academic study have been few and far between. The SAGE Reference Series on Leadership will provide an excellent starting place for the student who wants a thorough understanding of primary leadership topics within a particular discipline. The chapters in each of the handbooks will introduce them to key concepts, controversies, history, and so forth, as well as helping them become familiar with the best-known scholars and authors in this emerging field of study. Not only will the handbooks be helpful in leadership studies schools and programs, they will also assist students in numerous disciplines and other interdisciplinary studies programs. The sources will also be useful for leaders and researchers in Nonprofit and business organizations.

    I would like to acknowledge Jim Brace-Thompson, senior editor, and Rolf Janke, vice president and publisher at SAGE Reference for their guidance, superb organization, and enthusiasm throughout the handbook creation process. I admire both of them for their intellectual curiosity and their willingness to create new reference tools for leadership studies. I would also like to acknowledge the faculty, staff, and students of the Jepson School of Leadership Studies for the many contributions they have made to the establishment of leadership studies as an academic field. Founded in 1992, the Jepson School of Leadership Studies is the only institution of its kind in the world, with a full-time, multidisciplinary faculty dedicated to pursuing new insights into the complexities and challenges of leadership and to teaching the subject to undergraduates. When I was assigned to serve as the liaison librarian to the new school in 1992, I had no idea of how much I would learn about leadership studies. Over the past 18 years, I have audited courses in the school, attended numerous Jepson Forums and speaker series, taught library and information research skills to Jepson students, assisted faculty and staff with various research questions, and engaged in enlightening conversations with both faculty and students. Through these many experiences, my knowledge and understanding of the field has grown tremendously, and it has been a unique experience to observe the development of a new field of study in a very brief time. I thank my Jepson colleagues for including me on the journey.

    LucretiaMcCulley, Consulting Editor Director, Outreach Services Liaison Librarian for Leadership Studies Boatwright Memorial Library University of Richmond, Richmond, VA

    Introduction

    Leaders of Nonprofit organizations deliver programs and services vital to the quality of life in the United States. All the activities of our religious communities; the vast majority of the arts and culture, human services, and community development services; as well as education and environmental advocacies take root and deliver services in the Nonprofit sector.

    This social space is where various individuals and like-minded groups can organize themselves to “petition government.” This sector is where individuals with common interests “peaceably assemble.” “Freedom of religion” is expressed in the Nonprofit sector. The Nonprofit, or independent, or third, or charitable, or tax exempt, or volunteer, or philanthropic (all names used for these activities and organizations) sector is how “we the people of the United States” retain our sovereignty.

    This reference volume engages a range of voices on issues and leadership topics important to those seeking to understand more about this dynamic sector of society. The authors include academic researchers and theorists who consider the role and function of Nonprofit organizations in our way of life. Other writers of chapters are current sector leaders, practitioners with responsibility for key Nonprofit and foundation organizations. Still other contributors are new PhDs describing current research and thinking about leadership in this sector. In total, these voices provide a wide range of knowledge and wisdom on these important topics.

    The authors have been encouraged to speak from their own experiences, research, knowledge, and perspective. Some of the chapters are formal and academic in tone. Other chapters are informal and conversational. This diversity in the background of the authors and the presentation of their material is a direct reflection of the variety, vibrancy, and creativity of the sector itself.

    By the same token, the chapters in this volume describe a robust and diverse assortment of organizations and opportunities for leadership. For readers interested in pursuing a profession as a Nonprofit or foundation leader, there are several chapters defining the sector and describing its development in the United States. Only by understanding the language and definitions of their profession will emerging leaders be able to assume roles as thoughtful, reflective practitioners or researchers. Several chapters provide an overview of the history of Nonprofit organizations in our country. Many issues that new leaders will face are rooted in the political, economic, and social theory of the nation and the history that frames the sector.

    A major focus in this reference work is on the specific roles and skills required of the Nonprofit leader. While many of these chapters might be defined as management chapters, each section details the basic requirements that must be mastered by the effective leader to consider and lead on issues of larger organizational strategy. With a deep understanding of theory and history, paired with mastery of skills and responsibilities of management, the Nonprofit leader is prepared to assume the role of effective leadership.

    Leadership can happen at any level of an organization, not only “at the top.” Since everyone “has a boss,” all leaders are also followers. Everyone reports to someone else who has power over what he or she does. These dual roles provide Nonprofit leaders with opportunities to gain insight into their own leadership styles and preferences as they observe the leaders who have authority over their work. Leaders can be men or women, or even children. They come in many shapes and sizes and ages. Personalities vary as do their personal styles. Many Nonprofits are so small that there is not the luxury of making a distinction between management and leadership, hence in every area of the organization there is the opportunity for both.

    Leadership also occurs in many places. The mid-level manager in a Nonprofit organization might be the choir director in her religious community. The secretary might be the president of the Junior League outside of work. The janitor might be an Eagle Scout adviser or a captain in the Salvation Army. The executive director might work as a server in a local food pantry. The volunteer board member, leading a large corporation in the community, may help his fellow board members from the women's shelter paint playground equipment for the agency children. Several chapters explore the nature of leadership and its complexities, as exemplified in the Nonprofit sector.

    The chapters in this handbook can be read in order, starting from the general definitions of the sector and working through final chapters about leadership. A reader can also select a specific section that groups chapters addressing an aspect of leadership of Nonprofits. Finally, the reader can simply pick and choose chapters based on an individual question or area of interest.

    The appendices include a number of resources for readers who want to pursue a deeper level of understanding. These appendices include annotated descriptions of books, websites, and organizations. Appendix D is a set of chapters from the only high school-level textbook in the nation on philanthropy. These chapters offer a perspective on the Nonprofit sector through the lens of the social studies disciplines taught in the high schools. Philanthropy related to government, economics, history, and geography is introduced in both the United States and from an international perspective. College students in related majors, such as political science, economics, U.S. history, and geography, will find these chapters useful in directly applying their academic field of study to their interest in Nonprofit leadership.

    This is a large, independent, diverse, and dynamic part of our society. In many ways, the new ideas generated by volunteers and citizens acting to solve problems keep our society fresh, changing, and vibrant. In the United States, when people see a problem or envision a better world, they bring together their friends, form a Nonprofit organization, roll up their sleeves, and “do it themselves.” Not only is the government not threatened by this citizen engagement in solving public problems but the United States provides a number of tax advantages to encourage and support this activism. The power of private citizen action for the betterment of the community helps define the American character.

    Welcome to the world of leadership in Nonprofit organizations. The sector offers a place to lead and ways to meet needs that can encompass the interests and skills of each individual. There is an opportunity to serve, and an opportunity to lead. We all benefit when each of us commits to giving, serving, and acting as private individuals for the common good.

    Acknowledgments

    This reference exists due to the talents and commitment of a team of professionals at the Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University and at SAGE Publications, as well as a network of passionate authors and leaders who love the charitable sector and seek to enhance its role in making the world a better place. Special thanks go to Johnson Center student Alyssa Desgranges who led the organization of chapters and communications with all the contributors. As she takes the next step in her career, I know she will become a great international lawyer. Recognition must also be extended to all the Johnson Center staff. Thanks to each of you for supporting this work and for “going the extra mile” to benefit all students, on top of your already committed schedules. To the dean of the College of Community and Public Service, George Grant Jr., thank you for your leadership and support of the Johnson Center and for the time involved in completing this work.

    The simple listing of the SAGE team and editors does not do justice to their vision for this project, their dedicated labor in bringing it to our sector and our students, and their e-mail friendship. Thank you. I have learned a lot about the effort and talent needed to provide us with such a comprehensive resource. Your careful reading, project nurturing, and expert editing of all our words will make a difference in the world. In addition to the members of the SAGE team listed in the masthead, thanks to Charles Wankel for sharing his experience, his resources, and providing very timely advice.

    To each and every author, my sincere gratitude for taking the time to wrestle with your chapter(s) and to pour your energy into sharing your expertise with our next generation of philanthropic leaders. You are each actively involved in other endeavors yet still committed to sharing what you have learned with others. You model the qualities of giving from the sector you serve.

    There are not enough thanks that can be given to the editorial board members of this reference. They are longstanding leaders, wise counselors, activists, and role models who have shaped and nurtured the Nonprofit sector and individual scholars and practitioners worldwide. Dottie, Russ, Patrick, and Robert, thank you for who you are, what you've done, and all that you still contribute to supporting citizen action for the common good.

    Finally, a personal thank you for the ongoing support of Hans Agard; Kelly, Michael, Piper, and Gavin Greeby; and Corey, Jennifer, and Avery Agard.

    With deep gratitude for all that has been given us and for our common heritage of seeing need, reaching out, digging deep, and pitching in to help one another.

    Kathryn A.Agard, Editor Executive Director, Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy, Grand Valley State University

    About the Editors

    Editor

    Kathryn A. Agard is the executive director of the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy, a department of the College of Community and Public Service at Grand Valley State University. The Johnson Center is a university-based academic center serving Nonprofits, foundations, and other charitable organizations that seek to transform their communities for the common good. The center assists communities through applied research, professional development, and the advancement of social technologies.

    Prior to joining the Johnson Center in May of 2006, Dr. Agard served for a decade as the founding executive director of Learning to Give, an initiative of the Council of Michigan Foundations. In this role, she provided leadership and had management responsibility for a new national venture to develop, test, refine, and infuse into the kindergarten through twelfth-grade school curriculum the teaching of philanthropy (http://www.learningtogive.org).

    Prior to her work with Learning to Give, Dr. Agard led the development and implementation of the Michigan Community Foundations’ Youth Project (MCFYP) for the Council of Michigan Foundations. MCFYP was a %70 million W. K. Kellogg Foundation-funded project designed to (1) extend the reach of community foundations to serve every community and donor in Michigan, (2) bring each foundation up to a minimum level of organizational viability, and (3) engage generations of Michigan youth in the process of grantmaking. Designed as a challenge grant program, MCFYP generated an additional %140 million from local donors in permanent assets endowed for Michigan communities.

    Dr. Agard has over 40 years of Nonprofit management and executive experience in health care, higher education, and foundation philanthropy. She has held Nonprofit leadership roles in organizations in Michigan, including the cities of Muskegon, Grand Rapids, and Detroit, and in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She holds a doctorate in educational leadership from Western Michigan University with a double major in public administration and human resource development. Her dissertation identified the common characteristics of community foundations at differing ages and asset sizes. Her master's degree in public administration is from Western Michigan University, and her bachelor's is from Albion College, where she achieved a double major in political science and communication. Dr. Agard has written and published numerous books and monographs related to organizational development and the Nonprofit sector.

    Along with her career in the Nonprofit sector, Kathy has served on a number of Nonprofit boards of trustees, including past service as the vice chair of the board of a community hospital, where she also chaired the Investigational Review Committee and served on the Executive and Personnel committees. She has been a lay leader of her church and on a number of community-based Nonprofit boards. Currently, she serves as a board member of Learning to Give and on the statewide board of the Michigan Nonprofit Association. She is a board member of the Nonprofit Academic Centers Council where she served on the first Curriculum Committee, which developed guidelines for instruction on philanthropy and Nonprofit leadership in colleges and universities.

    Dr. Agard and her husband of over 30 years, Hans Agard, live in Muskegon, Michigan. She has two grown and married children and three perfect grandchildren.

    Associate Editor

    Alyssa Mary Desgranges completed her undergraduate degree at Grand Valley State University in May 2010, with a major in legal studies and a double minor in Spanish and criminal justice. During college she worked part time for 3 years at the Johnson Center for Philanthropy as a student administrative assistant. At the center, she worked closely with Dr. Agard who gave her the opportunity to be the associate editor for this publication. Ms. Desgranges was very active in student life at Grand Valley and was a member of the GVSU Law Society and of Alpha Phi Sigma—the criminal justice honor society. When she is not at school or work, she enjoys spending time with her family and friends. She is from Ionia, Michigan, and currently resides in Houston, Texas, where she will be attending South Texas College of Law in the fall of 2010.

    About the Contributors

    Rikki Abzug (PhD, Yale University) is an associate professor of management, Anisfield School of Business, Ramapo College of New Jersey. A researcher of organizational governance, sector theory, social purpose organizations, and neo-institutionalism in organizations, Dr. Abzug is coauthor (with Jeffrey Simonoff) of Nonprofit Trusteeship in Different Contexts.

    Salvatore P. Alaimo is an assistant professor in the School of Public, Nonprofit, and Health Administration at Grand Valley State University. Dr. Alaimo earned his PhD in philanthropic studies from Indiana University and has 9 years experience working and consulting for Nonprofit organizations. His published works include a journal article titled “Nonprofits and Evaluation: Managing Expectations From the Leader's Perspective” in New Directions for Evaluation and a chapter titled “Contracting Out” in Nonprofit Economics and Management.

    Ann Armstrong has been an instructor at the Rotman School of Management for the past 10 years. She is the director of the Social Enterprise Initiative. In that role, she is responsible for increasing the school's involvement in the Nonprofit/social enterprise sectors through curriculum design, research, and community engagement. Armstrong teaches in various executive programs internationally as well as in the MBiotech, Management, and Culture, Communication and Technology programs at the University of Toronto at Mississauga. She is the academic director of Rotman's Learning Exchange with Regent Park. She sits on several Nonprofit boards and works on a research project supported by the Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council that looks at the social economy of Ontario. She has coauthored two textbooks: Organization Theory and Design, with R. Daft, and Understanding Canada's Social Economy, with J. Quarter and L. Mook, both published in 2009.

    Philip L. Barclift is director of liberal studies and associate professor of theology and Nonprofit leadership at Seattle University. His research has moved in two interconnected directions. A large part of his research has been done on the ground in the Middle East, where he studies the status of the Palestinians under Israeli occupation on the West Bank and Gaza. He also studies the dynamics of philanthropy (that is, why do some people act altruistically while others act selfishly, even to the point of using unwarranted violence toward others), philanthropic ethics, and the relationship between faith and philanthropy.

    Audrey Barrett, PhD, LCSW, received her degree in leadership studies with a special emphasis on Nonprofit organizational management from the University of San Diego in May 2008. She was nominated for and received the William P. Foster Outstanding Dissertation Award for her work in developing the Nonprofit Ethics Survey. Following graduation, Dr. Barrett has extended her work to make the survey available online to Nonprofit organizations. She worked as a doctoral research assistant for the Institute for Nonprofit Education and Research while completing her degree and represents one of the first graduates nationally with a doctoral degree focusing on third-sector studies. She currently serves as an adjunct faculty member at various institutions of higher education and is a practicing licensed clinical social worker. Dr. Barrett and her husband, Kevin, have two young sons.

    Teresa R. Behrens is the editor-in-chief of The Foundation Review and a senior research associate at the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University. She was formerly the director of evaluation at the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, a program officer for the Michigan Strategic Fund, and a consultant to Nonprofit and government agencies. She earned her MS and PhD in psychology from North Carolina State University and her BA from Case Western Reserve University.

    Karabi Chaudhury Bezboruah is an assistant professor at the School of Urban and Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Arlington. Previously, she worked as a visiting assistant professor at the Department of Public Administration at the University of North Texas. She studies corporate philanthropy and its implications for Nonprofit organizations, especially in terms of resource development and leadership and management. Her other research interests include organizational change and behavior, accountability issues in Nonprofit management, nongovernmental organizations, and economic and community development. She was awarded the Emerging Scholar Award at the 2008 ARNOVA Conference. She graduated with her doctoral degree in public affairs in 2008 from the University of Texas at Dallas with specialization in Nonprofit organizations.

    Wolfgang Bielefeld is professor of public and Nonprofit management and philanthropic studies in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University in Indianapolis. He also holds appointments in the Sociology Department and at the Center on Philanthropy at that university. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of Minnesota. His research interests include the dynamics of urban Nonprofit sectors, the relations between Nonprofit organizations and their environments, Nonprofit social entrepreneurship and enterprise, and the involvement of faith-based organizations in service delivery.

    Angela Bies is an assistant professor at the Bush School of Government and Public Service, Texas A & M University, where her teaching and research focus on Nonprofit management and the Nonprofit sector. Bies was previously a Nonprofit executive working in accountability and evaluation, international development, education, and arts contexts.

    Joseph Borrell is an associate professor at Shippensburg University and chair of the Communication/Journalism Department. He regularly teaches writing for the electronic media, Internet communication, and radio production courses. In addition to teaching undergraduate broadcast and public relations courses, he also offers a media research and grant-writing course at the graduate level. Dr. Borrell earned a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg School for Communication in 2000, holds a master's degree from Duke University, and completed his BS degree at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His recent research has been supported by grants from the Kennedy and Rockefeller foundations.

    John Brothers is a recognized leader in the Nonprofit arena with nearly 20 years of sector experience. He is a national expert in the field of executive transition management, Nonprofit effectiveness and sustainability, and assisting organizations in organizational crises and turnarounds. Brothers is working toward a doctorate in law and policy from Northeastern University in Boston and has an MPA in Nonprofit and public management from New York University and an MBA in public policy from American Public University. He is an adjunct professor in Nonprofit finance at New York University's Wagner School for Public Service and a visiting fellow at the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations at Harvard University. In addition, Mr. Brothers is a senior fellow in executive leadership with the Support Center for Nonprofit Management, for which he also is the editor of the Journal for Nonprofit Management. He is the principal of Cuidiu Consulting, a consulting firm servicing Nonprofit and government agencies throughout the United States.

    Kimberly A. Carlson is a PhD candidate at the Center for Public Administration and Policy at Virginia Tech, with a concentration in Nonprofit management, organizational development, and leadership development. She received her BS in psychology and BA in theater arts, with a minor in sociology, from Virginia Tech in 1997. She also received her MSW in clinical social work and a certificate in arts and community practice from Florida State University in 2000. Before returning to Virginia Tech, Kimberly worked as a director for community arts and arts education programs at various arts organizations in both Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and Pensacola, Florida.

    Heather Carpenter has served as a Nonprofit manager, accidental techie, consultant, researcher, and trainer to Nonprofit organizations for over 7 years. She is former assistant director of Aspiration, a technology Nonprofit whose mission is to help Nonprofits understand software so they can better achieve their missions. Heather earned her MM in Nonprofit administration from North Park University in Chicago, Illinois, and is currently pursuing her PhD in leadership at the University of San Diego, where she serves as Viterbi Family Doctoral Fellow and research assistant at the Caster Family Center for Nonprofit Research. She teaches and presents on a variety of topics in the Nonprofit sector and is a well-known blogger in the sector through her Nonprofit Leadership 601 blog.

    Paul Cavanagh is a social worker with a master's degree from Stony Brook University and a doctoral degree from the Columbia University School of Social Work. His professional career has encompassed two primary areas of service delivery: in agencies serving individuals with a developmental disability and in the administration of large volunteer organizations. Cavanagh is currently an assistant professor at Seton Hall University in the Department of Public and Healthcare Administration. His current research interests focus on the use of technology in human services administration and entrepreneurial efforts by Nonprofit organizations.

    Frederik Claeyé is a doctoral researcher and lecturer at Middlesex University Business School, United Kingdom, and visiting lecturer at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa. He holds an MA in conflict and development from Ghent University (Belgium) and an MSc in research methods from Middlesex University Business School. In his doctoral research project, he examines the power dynamics shaping the emergence of hybrid management systems in Nonprofit organizations in South Africa. In 2006—2007 he carried out independent research on local notions of development in Morogoro, Tanzania. In 2007—2008 he was key researcher for the project Cross-Cultural Management in Health Service Project Delivery: HIV/AIDS & TB in South Africa and Botswana, funded by the UK Department of Education and British Council. He has presented a number of conference papers in the area of cross-cultural management and power dynamics in international development.

    Forrest Clift is the assistant director of community outreach in the College of Education (COE) at Grand Valley State University (GVSU). His current work focuses on creating programs, resources, and opportunities that link COE faculty, staff, and students with local underserved and/or underfunded school systems. His additional professional interests include place-based education and developing transitional programs utilizing service learning. He currently sits on the Governing Board of Groundswell, a regional hub committed to providing middle-and high-school students with opportunities to engage in environmental stewardship/education focused on the Grand River Watershed and the Great Lakes. He holds a BA in English (writing) and an MEd (elementary) from the University of Mary Washington in Fredericksburg, Virginia.

    Michele T. Cole, JD, PhD, is director of the masters program in Nonprofit management and associate professor of Nonprofit management at Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania. She received her law degree in 1982 from Duquesne University and her doctorate in public administration with a concentration in Nonprofit management in 1993 from the University of Pittsburgh. Her research interests include effective online instruction, Nonprofit-sector curriculum development, legal issues in personnel management, and application of business best practices and research to the Nonprofit sector, as well as the application of technology to learning strategies.

    Robert S. Collier serves as president and CEO of the Council of Michigan Foundations (CMF), a statewide Nonprofit association of more than 350 private and community foundations. With an MPA from Central Michigan University, his career in philanthropy includes service as a program officer with the C. S. Mott Foundation, grants director for the Gannett Foundation, executive director of Rotary Charities of Traverse City, and founding director of the Grand Traverse Regional Community Foundation. Since joining CMF in 1995, Collier has been involved in the creation of family foundations, corporate foundations, community foundations, and their donor-advised funds. He has also worked on development of community foundations and youth philanthropy programs nationally and globally.

    Kathryn Collins is an advanced PhD candidate at the University of Pittsburgh in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs. She worked with the University Center for Social and Urban Research to measure the impact of the Nonprofit sector on the county (and on the city of Pittsburgh). She specializes in organizational research and the Nonprofit sector.

    Julie Couturier, CPA, is the accountant for the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University. She is responsible for all financial reporting, budgeting, and financial analysis for the Johnson Center. Couturier is also a business and accounting adjunct instructor for Grand Rapids Community College. Before joining the Johnson Center in 2006, Julie was the finance supervisor from 2004 to 2006 at Spectrum Health Hospital. She was responsible for all financial reporting, budgeting, and financial analysis for ambulatory services. From 1997 to 2004, Julie was the accounting manager for Holland Community Hospital. Julie holds a BS in business administration from Central Michigan University and is a certified public accountant.

    Mariam DeLand is a recent graduate of the MSW program at the University of Michigan. She is interested in finding ways to help Nonprofit organizations become more efficient and effective through a better understanding of collaborations and mergers.

    Lisa A. Dicke, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Public Administration at the University of North Texas. She is an active member of the American Society for Public Administration and the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action. Her teaching and research interests are in government and Nonprofit management, accountability, and capacity building.

    Barbara Dillbeck is curriculum director of Learning to Give (LTG), a program that empowers youth to discover and develop their “philanthropic muscles” through service learning. She is a certified teacher and has an MEd in curriculum and instruction with a service learning/philanthropic focus. She is responsible for the content and quality of educational resources on the LTG website (http://www.learningtogive.org). Dillbeck mentors teachers in writing lessons that teach children about giving time, talent, and treasure, and about taking action for the common good. She trains teachers in philanthropy education and service learning, presents at state and national conferences.

    Shannon Dosemagen has an MS degree in anthropology and a master's certificate in Nonprofit management from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Her research has dealt with political and social movement formation, youth subcultural social activism, and generating public memory and political identities in post-Katrina New Orleans. She has worked for a number of environmental and cultural Nonprofit organizations in roles ranging from development, education, and research to community advocacy and organizing.

    Matthew Downey is the director for Nonprofit Services and Development for the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University. He holds a master's degree in public administration from Grand Valley State University and a bachelor's degree in Nonprofit arts administration from Butler University. Downey has worked in the Nonprofit sector for 18 years as a fund development officer, program manager, consultant, and board member for a wide variety of organizations, a few of which include the United Negro College Fund (Detroit, Michigan), St. Mary's Hospital for Children (Bayside, New York), Child Care Action Campaign (New York, New York), Queens Borough Public Library (Jamaica, New York), and Irving S. Gilmore International Keyboard Festival (Kalamazoo, Michigan). He is currently a member of Rotary International.

    James Edwards is director of the Community Research Institute for the Dorothy A. Johnson Center at Grand Valley State University and an assistant professor in the School of Social Work at Grand Valley State. He earned his doctorate in social work from Michigan State University. Prior to moving into higher education, Edwards accumulated 13 years of human service and Nonprofit experience in child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and substance use services. He has led numerous trainings on ethics and technology use in service delivery.

    Gianfranco Farruggia is associate professor of Nonprofit management at North Park University's School of Business and Nonprofit Management in Chicago, Illinois. He earned his PhD at The Union Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio, in social service administration. His areas of research in the Nonprofit sector are strategic planning and management, board governance and executive management, capacity building, and issues of ethics and impropriety. He has over 30 years of managerial and executive experience in the areas of human care and employment and training services, has founded three Nonprofit organizations, and has been instrumental in establishing more than a dozen Nonprofit entities. In addition to his faculty appointment, he actively consults with various human service organizations.

    Derrick Feldmann is the CEO of Achieve. He received his MA in philanthropic studies from the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. As CEO of Achieve, Derrick provides overall strategic direction for the work of the firm, clients, and partners. He is a regular contributor to Nonprofit trade publications and a speaker on fundraising, donor engagement, and strategies for organizations. Prior to founding Achieve, Derrick was responsible for all major development programs at The LEAGUE and Learning to Give organizations. His responsibilities beyond fundraising included program expansion, external partnerships, and sponsorship programs, where he led efforts to expand the program offerings in four new markets, negotiated in-kind TV campaigns at a value of more than %10 million, and increased fundraising by 200%.

    Robert L. Fischer is research associate professor at the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences of Case Western Reserve University and program faculty at the Mandel Center for Nonprofit Organizations. He is also codirector of the Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development and leads the center's efforts in regard to evaluation research. He currently coordinates various evaluation projects including the ongoing studies of Invest in Children, a countywide early childhood initiative. Fischer is an active member of the American Evaluation Association (AEA) and is the current president of the Ohio Program Evaluators’ Group, a statewide professional organization affiliated with the AEA. He is the 2006 recipient of the Teacher of the Year Award from the Mandel Center for Nonprofit Organizations and the 2003 recipient of the Emerging Scholar Award from the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration. Fischer received his PhD from Vanderbilt University in policy development and program evaluation.

    Brian Flanagan has been associate director of the Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies at Grand Valley State University since 2003 and program director of the Peter Cook Leadership Academy since 2009. He graduated with honors from the University of Notre Dame (2003) and earned his master's degree in public administration from Grand Valley State University (2009). Flanagan's research interests include the American presidency, leadership, and public affairs. He served on Michigan's Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Committee and as a teaching and learning resources adviser to the National Endowment for the Humanities.

    Betsy Flikkema is former associate director of curriculum for The LEAGUE curriculum by Learning to Give. She is a certified teacher who taught for 9 years before moving into the world of educational publishing. She edited and developed teaching materials for a major publisher and eventually became its director of new product development. For Learning to Give, Betsy writes and edits philanthropic lessons, mentors and trains teachers, and presents at state and national conferences on philanthropic education and service learning.

    John B. Ford is a professor of marketing and international business at the College of Business and Public Administration, Old Dominion University, where he also serves as the coordinator for the PhD in the marketing program. He holds a PhD in business administration from the University of Georgia. His research interests include international advertising strategy, cross-cultural issues in marketing research, Nonprofit marketing issues, and gender issues in marketing. His publications have appeared in the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Business Research, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, and Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.

    David Forte is currently a graduate student at the Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington. He holds a certificate in Nonprofit management and a BA in international studies from Texas A&M University. His research interests center on microfinance and poverty reduction.

    Thomas G. Fuechtmann earned his PhD in political science from the University of Chicago. His study of an emergent organization—the ecumenical religious coalition formed in response to a major steel mill shutdown in Youngstown, Ohio—was published as Steeples and Stacks: Religion and Steel Crisis in Youngstown (1989) in the series Religion and Public Life in America. As senior government relations officer for Loyola University Chicago and DePaul University, he worked with civic and Nonprofit boards as member and consultant. Now retired, he teaches Nonprofit board governance in DePaul's School of Public Service.

    Marybeth Gasman is an associate professor of higher education in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on African American philanthropy, African American leadership, and historically black colleges and universities.

    James Gelatt, PhD, is a professor and program director in the doctoral program at the University of Maryland University College. He is the author of three books on management, one of which has been translated into several languages, including Mandarin Chinese, and has been used as a college text. He is also a regular columnist on Nonprofit management for Contributions magazine and the editor of a popular series of books on fundraising. In his consulting capacity, Gelatt has provided fundraising, strategic planning, and organizational development assistance to over 75 local, regional, and national Nonprofits and associations. A past president of the Washington, D.C., chapter of the Association of Fundraising Professionals, Gelatt was also the founder of the Association Foundation Group.

    Paige Haber is an instructor in the Department of Leadership Studies at the University of San Diego. She is also a doctoral candidate in the Leadership Studies Program at the University of San Diego. Haber's background is in the area of college student leadership education and development, and her research is in leadership studies, college student leadership development, emotional intelligence, and women's leadership.

    Richard Hoefer, PhD, is a professor in the School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington. He received his doctorate in social work and social science (political science) from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His publications include books on social policy and journal articles on Nonprofit administration, social work management, advocacy, comparative social policy, and program evaluation.

    Monika L. Hudson is an assistant professor at the University of San Francisco (USF) and teaches organizational behavior, entrepreneurship, and public administration on both the graduate and undergraduate levels. She is concurrently serving as the director of USF's Gellert Family Business Center, which promotes and supports family business in the Bay Area through a range of educational and networking opportunities. A trained mediator, Hudson developed her expertise in small group facilitation and mediation, strategic planning, business/economic development, and community engagement over a 30-year career in local government. Dr. Hudson served as city manager of both Colma and East Palo Alto, California. She was also an assistant city administrator of Millbrae, California, and served in a range of executive management positions in the California cities of Oakland, Oxnard, Sacramento, and South San Francisco. Hudson is a Mandel Fellow and received her doctor of management from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.

    Chris Huizenga, MNA, received his BA in organizational communications in 2000 from North Central College in Naperville, Illinois. He graduated in 2009 from North Park University in Chicago with a master's degree in Nonprofit administration, where he also holds certificates in health care management and Nonprofit governance. Chris's strategic marketing experience led him to a position with a 501(c)(6) professional association in 2004, and in 2008 he took his talents and experience to marketing and strategy for one of the top-ranking health care systems in America. He currently lives in Chicago, Illinois, with his wife, Erin.

    Terence Jackson, PhD, is professor of cross-cultural management at Middlesex University Business School, London. He has published widely in the area of cross-cultural and NGO management, more recently researching international development, particularly health projects in HIV/AIDS, the informal economy in Africa and indigenous voices, and China in Africa and its implications. He is the author of the book Management and Change in Africa: A Cross-Cultural Perspective (2004) and edits International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management.

    Cynthia R. Jasper is the chair of the Interdisciplinary Studies Department in the School of Human Ecology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where she is also a professor in the Consumer Science Department. She earned her PhD at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Her research focuses on women and philanthropy, and she is especially interested in the changing role of women and its implications for women's philanthropy. She has published a chapter titled, “Women Executives and Business Owners: A New Philanthropy” in The Transformative Power of Women's Philanthropy.

    Carol Jessup is a native of Springfield, Illinois. She obtained her bachelor's and master's degrees in accounting from the former Sangamon State University. Her PhD in business administration, with an emphasis in management and public policy studies, is from Saint Louis University. Jessup is currently an associate professor of accounting at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Her current research pertains to fraud, audit-related topics, and governmental accounting and transparency. Prior to entering academia, Carol was employed in various positions within the Illinois state government. She was also budget manager and chief accountant for the city of Springfield. She is a licensed CPA and a certified fraud examiner.

    Theodore R. Jones, MSW, is a recent graduate of the University of Michigan School of Social Work, with a focus on management of community systems and a minor in community organization. He is currently a community organizer in Detroit, Michigan, with the Harriet Tubman Center and Southwest Solutions.

    Alvin Kamienski is an associate professor in the School of Business and Nonprofit Management at North Park University, where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in finance and economics. Kamienski's research interests include the economics of education, school reform, especially charter schools, and the financial performance of Nonprofit organizations. His current research projects include an examination of the financial allocation decisions and academic achievement for a national charter educational management organization and an exploration of faith and religiosity on early career outcomes. He is a member of the American Educational Research Association and the Association for the Research of Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action.

    James R. Kienker is a student at the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University, Purdue University, Indianapolis, where he is working on a master of arts in philanthropic studies. He received his BA in history at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, with a double minor in prelaw and American studies. His research interest is in the history of religious philanthropy.

    Sarah Eisner Kirch received her BS in human development and psychological services from Northwestern University and her master's degree in Nonprofit administration from North Park University's School of Business and Nonprofit Management. She has 5 years of experience working with Nonprofit organizations providing vital services to children, adolescents, and families.

    Theresa A. Kirchner is an assistant professor of management with the School of Business, Hampton University. She earned a PhD in international business with a concentration in marketing from Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. Her background includes work with Nonprofit boards for more than 20 years as well as extensive executive experience in the corporate world. Dr. Kirchner's research interests include strategic management and marketing of Nonprofit organizations and organizational business continuity planning. Her publications have appeared in the International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Disaster Recovery Journal, the European Journal of Management, and peer-reviewed proceedings of the International Conference on Arts and Cultural Management.

    Lisa Wyatt Knowlton, EdD, is a strategy architect, management guru, and learning coach with Phillips Wyatt Knowlton, Inc. She received a BA in international relations from Michigan State University, as well as an MPA and EdD in management and policy from Western Michigan University. Her work history includes management and program responsibilities with private, corporate, and community foundations. She is a W. K. Kellogg National Leadership Fellow and has considerable experience in Central America, Asia, and Europe. She is coauthor of The Logic Model Guidebook: Better Strategies for Great Results (2009). Knowlton is a passionate advocate for adoption and Lake Michigan conservation.

    Halima Leak is an associate director of the annual fund at Barnard College and a doctoral student in the Department of Administration, Leadership and Technology at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development. Her research interests include ethnic culture and philanthropy, historically black colleges and universities, gender and African American higher education, and African American leadership in higher education.

    Johannes Leitner is a research associate at Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, Austria. He researches and teaches Nonprofit management. The topic of his dissertation is Organizational Slack and Its Impact on Innovation in Nonprofit Organizations. His research interests are in business administration and interdisciplinary southeast European studies in Austria and Italy.

    Al Lyons is former director of the Nonprofit Leadership Institute of the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University. He joined the Johnson Center in 2008 as director of resource development. His current research is on the fundraising and engagement practices of Nonprofit organizations serving specific ethnic populations in western Michigan. Before joining the Johnson Center and while completing a doctorate in philanthropic studies from Indiana University, Lyons helped establish the social entrepreneurship program at Indiana University and for 3 years served as its associate director. Prior to entering the Indiana University doctorate program, Al had over 30 years of professional consulting and leadership experience working with Nonprofit organizations in the areas of organizational management, board development, strategic planning, program evaluation and accountability, and comprehensive fund development programs. His primary work has been with Nonprofit hospitals and health care organizations.

    Heather MacIndoe is an assistant professor in the Department of Public Policy and Public Affairs at the University of Massachusetts Boston. She holds a PhD in sociology from the University of Chicago. MacIndoe's research focuses on Nonprofit organizations and philanthropic foundations in urban areas of the United States. She recently completed a survey of service-providing Nonprofits in Boston that examines the extent to which these organizations engage in advocacy.

    Florentine Maier is a researcher at the Nonprofit Management Group at Wirtschaftsuniversität Vienna University of Economics and Business. She holds a doctoral degree in personnel management and organizational behavior from Wirtschaftsuniversität (2008). Her research areas are the management of NPOs and alternative forms of organizing.

    Catherine McCall Marsh, EdD, has more than 30 years experience in organizational development, human resource development, and fundraising. She is an associate professor of management at North Park in the School of Business and Nonprofit Management. Her expertise stems not only from her functional background but also from lengthy periods during which she lived and worked internationally. Before entering academia, she was director of human resources for 21st Century Telecom Group and founder and president of Catherine Marsh Consulting. In addition to her doctoral degree, Dr. Marsh has an MBA and focuses her research on ethics and leadership development in for-profit and Nonprofit organizations.

    Teresa Martinelli-Lee is an adjunct faculty member in the MSLM program at University of La Verne, California. She has more than 20 years of experience in the aerospace, hospitality, education, health care, and Nonprofit human services industries. She is currently a doctoral candidate in public administration. Her research emphasis is on environmental stewardship and transformational leadership among southern California municipalities. Martinelli-Lee has conducted workshops and presented at several national and international conferences, including the Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference and the International Leadership Association Global Conference.

    Robin McCoy has spent over 20 years using her leadership skills to advance organizations through periods of organizational growth and expansion. Her expertise includes leadership development, strategic planning for organizations, and marketing. She holds a PhD in organizational leadership, an MBA in business strategy, and a BS in finance. McCoy's current research involves leadership development and assessment of leadership programs. Some nontraditional approaches she is researching include behavioral simulations and the art of influencing others through team development activities. McCoy is also on the faculty at the University of San Diego's School of Business. Previously she was president of Murphy Marketing, a management and marketing research company providing a wide range of business development, marketing research, and management consulting services.

    Mary B. Mc Donald, PhD, is an assistant professor at the University of San Diego. Her research focus is Nonprofits and philanthropy, and she is currently the lead researcher for the “Diversity in Philanthropy” project of the Council of Michigan Foundations (CMF) and lead evaluator for the Office of Foundation Liaison in the Michigan Governor's Office. Mc Donald was formerly the director of the Community Research Institute (CRI) at the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University. In that capacity she was regularly involved with both community-based and university-based research in philanthropy and the Nonprofit sector. She earned her PhD at Michigan State University in family and child ecology in 2002.

    Jasmine McGinnis is currently a PhD student in a joint public policy program at the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University and the Ivan Allen College of Public Policy at Georgia Institute of Technology. She received her undergraduate degree from Emory University and her MPA from the University of Georgia. Before entering graduate school, Jasmine worked in corporate fundraising as a senior development manager and was always struck by the emphasis on diversity yet lack of connection between diversity and performance in the sector. Her primary research interest is examining the connection between foundation governance and grantmaking.

    Agnes Meinhard is associate professor of organizational behavior and theory in the Ted Rogers School of Management at Ryerson University. She is the founding director of the Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies at Ryerson. Her research focuses on the voluntary and Nonprofit sector: for example, the formation, growth, and demise of voluntary organizations; risk management in Nonprofit organizations; corporate participation in the social economy; and partnerships between for-profit and Nonprofit organizations. Her work has been published in books and academic journals. Meinhard was instrumental in establishing Canada's first undergraduate interdisciplinary curriculum in Nonprofit and voluntary sector management at Ryerson University and teaches courses in developing effective Nonprofit organizations and leading Nonprofit organizations through change. She serves on the boards of several Nonprofit organizations.

    Stuart Mendel is the assistant dean for the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, and cofounder and codirector of the Center for Nonprofit Policy and Practice. He received a PhD in social policy history and a master's in Nonprofit organizations from Case Western Reserve University in 2000 and 1991, respectively, and a BA in geology and geography from Miami University of Ohio in 1983. His research interests include the nature of the Nonprofit sector, uses of Nonprofit organizations in civil society, social capital, private/public partnerships, the political capacity of Nonprofit organizations, and urban history.

    Debra Mesch is director of the Women's Philanthropy Institute at the Center on Philanthropy, professor of public and Nonprofit management in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, as well as professor of philanthropic studies at Indiana University. Her primary focus has been on expanding the research on women's philanthropy. She received both her MBA and PhD in organizational behavior/human resource management from Indiana University Kelley School of Business. Mesch has published over 30 articles in management and Nonprofit journals and has worked with many Nonprofit organizations such as Goodwill Industries, Big Brothers Big Sisters, and United Way in dealing with human resource management issues.

    Barbara A. Metelsky is an independent organization development consultant with more than 20 years of Nonprofit sector experience. During the first half of her career, Metelsky held leadership positions in Nonprofit organizations. She has spent the second half of her career in administrative positions in Nonprofit academic centers at Seton Hall University and most recently at North Carolina State University. Metelsky has a master's degree in public administration with a concentration in Nonprofit organization management. She is currently completing doctoral studies at North Carolina State University, where she is a member of an interdisciplinary research team studying the communication practices of Nonprofit boards. Her work has been published in practitioner and academic outlets including the Philanthropy Journal, the International Encyclopedia of Civil Society, and Human Resource Development Quarterly.

    Michael Meyer is a professor for Nonprofit management at the Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (WU). He is head of the Research Institute for Nonprofit Organisations and academic director of a professional MBA program in social management, and a member of the European network of excellence CINEFOGO (http://www.cinefogo.org). His current research comprises NPOs, third sector and civil society, careers in NPOs, the social theory of Pierre Bourdieu, text and discourse analysis, and organizational analysis.

    Seong-gin Moon is currently assistant professor in the Department of Public Administration, Inha University, Republic of Korea. He specializes in environmental policy and public and Nonprofit management. His current research interest is in assessing organizational and individual volunteer behavior in improving environmental conditions and philanthropy. Specifically, he has written on issues of corporate environmental responsibility and Asian Americans’ charitable giving and volunteering. His works have been published in several journals, including Social Science Quarterly, Organization and Environment, and Comparative Technology Transfer and Society.

    Melissa Morriss-Olson, PhD, serves as dean of the Graduate School and professor of Nonprofit management and philanthropy at Bay Path College in Longmeadow, Massachusetts. She is the founding director of Bay Path's graduate programs in Nonprofit management and strategic fundraising and philanthropy. She previously served as the founding director and professor at the Axelson Center for Nonprofit management at North Park University in Chicago, Illinois. While at North Park, she created the nationally recognized annual “Symposium for Nonprofit Professionals” event, which attracts over 700 Nonprofit leaders. Morriss-Olson obtained her master's degree from Northeastern Illinois University in counselor education and her doctorate degree from Loyola University (Chicago) in educational leadership and policy studies. She is a frequent presenter at numerous conferences throughout the United States, is a member of several prestigious organizations, and serves on a number of Nonprofit boards, including the Massachusetts Nonprofit Network (MNN).

    J. Patrick Murphy is director and associate professor of the School of Public Service at DePaul University in Chicago. He founded Vincent on Leadership: The Hay Project, a research and training center, also at DePaul. He received his MBA from DePaul and his PhD from Stanford University. He served as treasurer of DePaul and as board chair of two Nonprofit organizations. His published books include Visions and Values in Catholic Higher Education and (with Victor Meyer Jr. and published in Portuguese in Brazil) Dinosaurs, Gazelles and Tigers: New Approaches to Higher Education Management, a Brazil-US Dialog, and Leadership and Management in Catholic Higher Education in the Americas. He has lectured in Europe, Asia, and South America.

    Dorothy Norris-Tirrell is director and associate professor, Division of Public and Nonprofit Administration, School of Urban Affairs and Public Policy, at the University of Memphis. Her research and engaged scholarship focus is on governance, strategic planning, evaluation, and board development for Nonprofit organizations, university-community partnerships, and cross-sector collaborative processes in a variety of policy settings, including community resilience and immigration. Her research has appeared in books and journals including the Policy Studies Journal, American Review of Public Administration, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, and International Journal of Public Administration. She is coauthor of the book, Strategic Collaboration in Public and Nonprofit Administration: A Practice-Based Approach to Solving Shared Problems. Norris-Tirrell has extensive experience as a Nonprofit agency manager, board member, consultant, and volunteer. She received her PhD in public administration from Florida International University.

    S. Nouman Ashraf is a research fellow at the Desautels Centre for Integrative Thinking at the Rotman School of Management within the University of Toronto. He possesses a broad range of professional, academic, and research interests. For the last decade, he has held progressively senior administrative positions at the University of Toronto, where he most recently served as the director of the university's Anti-Racism and Cultural Diversity Office. In this role, he worked closely with senior administrators, student leaders, faculty members, and policymakers in crafting and enabling strategies for the engagement of diverse communities at Canada's largest postsecondary institution. He has also consulted for the private sector in change management. With a particular interest in understanding organizational behavior and drivers of systems-wide cultural change, Nouman Ashraf has served as a consultant to important organizations such as the United Way of Canada and the Ontario Public Service. He holds an undergraduate degree in Economics and History, as well as an Executive MBA from the Rotman School of Management, where he teaches in various executive programs.

    Timothy O'Brien, PhD, is an assistant professor of Nonprofit finance at North Park University's School of Business and Nonprofit Management. He received his PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute and University and combines a background in Nonprofit financial management with organizational behavior in academic as well as consulting engagements. He has served on several Nonprofit boards and is currently publishing and presenting original research in the area of Nonprofit financial health.

    Joel J. Orosz is the distinguished professor of philanthropic studies at the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy of Grand Valley State University. At the Johnson Center, Orosz created the Nonprofit Good Practice Guide, a free resource with a wealth of information for Nonprofit managers, and founded the Grantmaking School, the first university-based training center teaching principles of good grantmaking to employees of charitable foundations. He currently conducts research, writes, and teaches continuing education courses on the topics of philanthropy, volunteerism, and Nonprofit initiative. Before coming to Grand Valley State University, Orosz spent 15 years with the W. K. Kellogg Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan. He has authored or edited six books on the history of museums, numismatics, and philanthropy, most notably For the Benefit of All: A History of Philanthropy in Michigan; The Insider's Guide to Grantmaking: How Foundations Find, Fund and Manage Effective Programs; and Effective Foundation Management: 14 challenges of Philanthropic Leadership—and How to Outfox Them.

    Andrea Pactor is assistant director of the Women's Philanthropy Institute, where she is responsible for operations and coordinating educational services. She has served arts, education, and faith-based organizations as a professional and volunteer for more than 25 years. She was director of development at the Jewish Community Center in Indianapolis, director of publicity and grants at the Herron School of Art, and visual arts and museum coordinator at the Indiana Arts Commission. She was also local and regional president of her faith-based women's group and a United Way allocations committee member for 10 years. Her BA in history and literature is from The American University in Washington, D.C., and she holds an MA in museum practice from the University of Michigan and an MA in philanthropic studies from Indiana University.

    Joseph Palus is a PhD candidate in philanthropic studies at the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. His research interests include family foundation boards and how they make decisions, as well as how foundations and other grantmaking organizations communicate their purposes and policies. His professional experience includes over 9 years in grantmaking and 20 years in grant seeking.

    Dennis L. Poole, PhD, is a dean and professor in the College of Social Work at the University of South Carolina at Columbia.

    Jayme R. Pyne is the assistant director of the College of Education Community Outreach Office at Grand Valley State University. He coordinates the College of Education's service learning initiative. He earned his BA in history from Aquinas College and an MEd in school counseling from Grand Valley State University. Pyne writes and manages grants to promote service learning in K-12 schools, writes and presents on counseling, community partnerships, and service learning, and connects College of Education faculty and staff to community-based initiatives. He also created and manages an online educational community called ColleaguesPlus.

    Ramya Ramanath is assistant professor at Grand Valley State University's School of Public, Nonprofit and Health Administration, where she teaches philanthropy, voluntarism, and management of Nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations. She conducts research on Nonprofit-government relations, interorganizational collaboration, voluntarism, and urban poverty. Her research has been published in the Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Nonprofit Management and Leadership, Public Voices, and elsewhere. Her employment and research experience span work in public, for-profit, and Nonprofit settings in both India and the United States. She has a PhD in public and international affairs from Virginia Tech and a master's in social work from the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, India.

    Sarah Jane Rehnborg, PhD, is a professor and the associate director of planning and development for the RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service at the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin.

    Jenna Leigh Riedi received her bachelor's degree in history from the University of Wisconsin and her master's degree in Nonprofit management from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. She has been working with and volunteering for Nonprofit organizations in several capacities over the past 7 years. Her areas of interest in the Nonprofit sector are environmental protection and animal rights groups. She currently lives in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with her dog, Montague (Monty), and her cat, Loki.

    John Risley has a PhD in evaluation (public policy evaluation) from Western Michigan University. He has several years of experience working with local governments, community groups, and Nonprofit organizations on evaluation and research projects while at Grand Valley State University, Western Michigan University, and the Greater Kalamazoo United Way.

    Darlene Xiomara Rodriguez is an assistant professor in the Political Science Department at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her research and teaching interests are identity-based Nonprofit organizations, organizational effectiveness, and federal immigration policy.

    Michael K. Roemer, MA, is an assistant professor at Ball State in the Sociology of Religion Department.

    Pier C. Rogers, PhD, is the director of the Axelson Center for Nonprofit Management and professor of Nonprofit management in the School of Business and Nonprofit Management, North Park University in Chicago.

    John C. Ronquillo is a doctoral candidate in the School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia. His primary research interests are in public and Nonprofit management, innovation and organizational change, social entrepreneurship, and diversity as it relates to public and Nonprofit organizations. Prior to entering academia, he worked in the fields of applied research and policy analysis, intergovernmental relations, and social impact assessment.

    Ashima Saigal is formerly the director of technology and social media at the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University. Prior to joining the Johnson Center in 2005, she worked as director of services for the Grand Rapids office of NPower Michigan, as a senior engineer at Steelcase, and as a senior developer at AudienceOne, as well as owned an award-winning computer consulting business. Her master's degree is in computing and information systems and her bachelor's is in computer science. Saigal enjoys spreading her knowledge of technology to the Nonprofit community and can often be found teaching classes or consulting with Nonprofits on effectively using their existing technology tools.

    Steve Schneiter is a former PhD student in Higher Education at Virginia Tech. He currently resides in Ohio where he is the CEO of Inspiration Archaeology, a leadership consultant, and a corporate trainer.

    Margaret Schulte is associate professor in the Graduate Program in Health Administration at Grand Valley State University, serves on the faculty of the Northwestern University Masters of Science in Medical Informatics program, and is editor of Frontiers in Health Services Management, a publication of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Previously she served as vice president of education for the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS), where she was responsible for the professional education programs of this membership association of IT professionals. She has also held positions as vice president of research and development for the publishing division of the American Hospital Association, as director of education with the Healthcare Financial Management Association, and as faculty of the graduate program in Healthcare Policy and Management at Mercer University in Atlanta, Georgia. Schulte holds a doctorate in business administration from Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and a master's in business administration from Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio. Her recent publications include Healthcare Delivery in the USA: An Introduction and The EHR: Award Winning Implementation.

    H. Luke Shaefer is an assistant professor at the University of Michigan School of Social Work, where he teaches Nonprofit management and community-level practice. His current research focuses on the economics of Nonprofit administration, especially on the responses of human service providers to the recent economic crisis. He also studies the effectiveness of the U.S. social safety net in serving low-wage workers. His research has appeared in Administration in Social Work, Social Service Review, and Journal of Social Policy. He received his PhD in social service administration from the University of Chicago.

    Robert Shalett is the director of communications at the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University. Robert joined the Johnson Center in 2008 after having worked in marketing and publications for Nonprofits for over 20 years, primarily in health care and philanthropic-related fields. Before joining the Johnson Center, Robert served in the marketing and/or communications departments at the Council on Foundations, the American Society of Clinical Oncologists, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Psychiatric Association. Robert graduated from Southern Methodist University with a BA in advertising and a minor in English.

    Robb Shoaf is pastor of the United Methodist Church in Madison, New Jersey. He has served in Madison for the past 18 of his 30 plus years in ministry. The United Methodist Church is adjacent to Drew University, where Shoaf has taught in the seminary, led the Religious Life Council, and presently sits on the Institutional Review Board. He serves on the Council of Finance and Administration for the Greater New Jersey Annual Conference. He has both an MDiv and PhD from Drew. He also holds an MS in Nonprofit management from New York University.

    Diana Sieger is the president of the Grand Rapids Community Foundation located in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and has held that position since 1987. She received her MSW with a concentration in policy, planning, and administration from Western Michigan University in 1978. She has two honorary degrees—Doctor of Humane Letters from Aquinas College and from Grand Valley State University. Sieger has been a leader in the social/Nonprofit sector since 1973. The areas of focus in her career have primarily been that of a funder, policymaker, and advocate for social change.

    S. Wojciech Sokolowski is senior research associate for the Johns Hopkins University Center for Civil Society Studies. He received his PhD in sociology from Rutgers University. The central focus of his academic work involves comparative, cross-national research on civil society institutions worldwide. He has coauthored numerous publications that have reported data on Nonprofit institutions in over 40 countries. His academic interests also include social organization of work and the professions in a cross-national perspective, and cognitive implications of different arrangements of social organization of work and professional practice. He has published a book and several journal articles reporting results of empirical inquiries into this subject area.

    Alan D. Steinman received his PhD in botany/aquatic ecology from Oregon State University and did his postdoctoral research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Steinman has been director of Grand Valley State University's Annis Water Resources Institute, located in Muskegon, Michigan, since 2001. Previously, he was director of the Lake Okeechobee Restoration Program at the South Florida Water Management District in West Palm Beach, Florida. Steinman has published over 100 scientific articles and book chapters, is associate editor of two scientific journals, has been awarded over %40 million in grants for scientific and engineering projects, and has been invited to speak throughout the world. His awards include Phi Beta Kappa, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Outstanding Planning Achievement Award, and the Joan Hodges Queneau Palladium Medal from the National Audubon Society. Currently, he is a member of U.S. EPA's Science Advisory Board—Report on the Environment Committee. Steinman's current research projects include economic valuation of ecosystem services, ecological impacts of stormwater and nonpoint source pollution, and the use of created wetlands to mitigate nonpoint source pollution.

    Hephzibah V. Strmic-Pawl is an advanced PhD candidate in the Sociology Department at the University of Virginia. She holds an MA from the University of Chicago and a BS from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Her research interests are race, inequality, family, gender, and intersectional analysis. Her dissertation focuses on multiracial identity, specifically in respect to how racial identity options are changing and the resilience of racism. Outside of academia, Strmic-Pawl is a trained community organizer and has worked with several Nonprofits and student organizations, including as multicultural issues director for a state student association. She also leads her own Nonprofit, Continuing College, which helps community college students transfer to four-year universities/colleges.

    Lorri Sulpizio has worked with gender, leadership, and authority for over 10 years in an applied setting and within an academic environment—teaching and conducting research. She is cofounder and chief executive partner of the Lotus Leadership Institute, a research, consulting, and leadership development company for women. Sulpizio teaches women and leadership at the University of San Diego and teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in the School of Business and Management at National University. Additionally, she has sat on the board for the New Children's Museum in San Diego and the California Community College Women's Basketball Association. Her current research interests and projects include women and authority, women developing their leadership capacity, and transitional leadership. Sulpizio received her PhD in leadership from the University of San Diego.

    Louis B. Swartz, JD, is associate professor of legal studies at Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania. He teaches legal environment of business and the Constitution and current legal issues at the undergraduate level and legal issues of executive management in the MBA program. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Wisconsin in Madison and his juris doctorate from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is the coordinator of the Robert Morris University Pre-Law Advisory Program and a member of the Northeast Association of Pre-Law Advisers (NAPLA) and the Academy of Legal Studies in Business (ALSB). His research interests include online education, legal studies, and business law.

    Lisa Gale Van Brackle is a doctoral candidate in the social welfare program of the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. She holds a master's degree in social work, earned at the Hunter College School of Social Work, where she has also taught courses in administration and social policy. Her work stems from her 20-year career in Nonprofit program development, organizational development, and administration and management and undergraduate studies in marketing and consumer research at Bernard Baruch College, also of the City University of New York.

    Jon Van Til is professor of urban studies and community planning at Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey. Among the 12 books he has authored or edited are Growing Civil Society (2008, 2000), Critical Issues in American Philanthropy (1990), and Mapping the Third Sector: Voluntarism in a Changing Social Economy (1988). Van Til served as editor-in-chief of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly (formerly the Journal of Voluntary Action Research) from 1978 through 1992. He was twice elected president of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars and is the founding board chair of the Center for Nonprofit Corporations (Trenton). In 1994, Van Til received the Career Award for Outstanding Research and Service from the Association for Research in Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA). He has also served as Carlson Distinguished Visiting Professor of Social Science at West Virginia University and as Distinguished Fulbright Scholar at the University of Ulster (Northern Ireland) in 2004. He currently is listed as a Fulbright Senior Specialist and serves as adviser to international programs such as INCORE (International Conflict Resolution) Northern Ireland, the Swarthmore College foreign studies program, and Elte University (Budapest).

    Lora Vitek graduated in 2000 from Millikin University with a degree in marketing. Her career of nearly 10 years in the Nonprofit sector began with her position as consultant for a Nonprofit consulting firm, Nike B. Whitcomb Associates in Chicago, Illinois. Vitek's responsibilities included events management, marketing communications, feasibility studies, and board development for Nonprofit clients. She then took a position with the National Safety Council in Itasca, Illinois, where her responsibilities included events management, annual giving, and donor relations. Today, Vitek is the director of development and public relations for Teen Parent Connection, formerly Greater DuPage MYM. Vitek holds additional degrees from North Park University that include a master's of business administration, a master's of management in Nonprofit administration, and additional certificates in marketing and management.

    Lilya Wagner, EdD, CFRE, is director of Philanthropic Service for Institutions, an internal consulting department for a system of North American organizations. She is also on the faculties of the Center on Philanthropy and The Fund Raising School, where she was employed until 2005. She received her doctorate in education (curriculum and instruction) from the University of Florida and has master's degrees in journalism and music. Her work in leadership resulted in a book titled Leading Up: Transformational Leadership for Fundraisers.

    Melissa A. Walker, PhD (University of Chicago), MPA (Harvard University), teaches Nonprofit management in a graduate MPA program. She teaches financial management, human resource management, strategic planning, and program evaluation, and she has extensive experience working with Nonprofit organizations in these areas. Her research explores the intersection of the public and Nonprofit sectors. Walker's current research interests include tax exemption and Medicaid fee-for-service arrangements.

    Lili Wang is an assistant professor in Nonprofit leadership and management at the School of Community Resources and Development of Arizona State University. She received her PhD in public administration from the University of Southern California. Her research focuses on individual charitable behavior, institutional philanthropy, social capital, international NGOs, and health policy. She has published in various journals, including Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, Social Science and Medicine, Journal of Health Politics, and Policy and Law, among others.

    Gleaves Whitney has been director of the Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies at Grand Valley State University since 2003. Previously he worked for 11 years in Michigan Governor John Engler's administration, serving as senior writer, chief speechwriter, and historian. In addition to his public work, Gleaves is a scholar who writes and lectures nationally on a variety of historical topics. He is author or editor of 14 books, including most recently (with Mark Rozell) Testing the Limits: George W. Bush and the Imperial Presidency. In 2008, Whitney was awarded a Russell Mawby Fellowship for Philanthropic Studies. Several of his talks have appeared on C-SPAN, and he has been interviewed by CNN, MSNBC, ABC, FOX News, Newsweek, US News & World Report, and NPR affiliates. Gleaves graduated with honors from Colorado State University, was elected into the Phi Beta Kappa honor society, and was a Fulbright scholar in Germany. His master's degree and doctoral candidacy were at the University of Michigan. He has taught at the University of Michigan, Droste-Hulshof Gymnasium, Colorado State University, Aquinas College, and Grand Valley State University. He received the honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California.

    E. Miles Wilson is director of The Grantmaking School at the Johnson Center for Philanthropy. Prior to this position, he was an independent Nonprofit consultant supporting Nonprofit capacity building, civic engagement, and philanthropic efforts in Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and nationally. As a program director at the Omidyar Foundation in Redwood City, California, Wilson worked with a small team of professionals assisting the founder and chairman of Ebay with his charitable endeavors. Prior to this, he served from 1998 through 2003 as vice president for grants and programs with the Greater Cincinnati Foundation, a regional community foundation that serves southwestern Ohio, northern Kentucky, and southeastern Indiana. He was also part of the original start-up team that initiated the AmeriCorps National Service program after the legislation passed in late 1993. Wilson served as associate director in the Office of Community Service Learning at Ohio Wesleyan University and a research associate with R/K Dawson & Associates—a Nonprofit and government consulting firm based in Columbus, Ohio. He holds a bachelor's degree from Ohio Wesleyan University and a master's degree in higher education policy and leadership from The Ohio State University.

    Claudia Sowa Wojciakowski is a professor in the College of Education at Grand Valley State University. She teaches in the School Counseling Program and directs the College of Education Community Outreach Office. Her publications and presentations are primarily in the area of student development and achievement. She is involved in the integration of service learning in schools to promote learning, character development, and academic success in K-12 students. Wojciakowski has a PhD in counseling and educational psychology from Michigan State University. She also graduated from Michigan State University with a BS in mathematics and a master's in K-12 school counseling.

    Matthew Wojciakowski currently serves as community engagement coordinator with the Carlson Leadership and Public Service Center at the University of Washington, Seattle campus. His work connects students and community-based organizations in reciprocal partnerships that deepen learning, advance civic leadership, and contribute to the greater community. After earning a master's degree in student development administration from Seattle University, Wojciakowski has studied how students connect academic study and their experiences beyond the classroom. A focus for his work is examining how higher education institutions and community development organizations can work together to support students in thinking critically about issues facing society and defining their role within the context of public service and civic responsibility.

    Jessica K. A. Word is an assistant professor of public administration at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). She graduated from the Askew School of Public Administration and Policy with her PhD in 2006. She currently serves as the director of the Graduate Certificate in Nonprofit Management at UNLV and as the director of UNLV's Office of Nonprofit Excellence (UNLV ONE). Her research interests include public and Nonprofit management, Nonprofit organizations, program evaluation, and organizational behavior.

  • Appendix A: Print Resources on Nonprofit Leadership

    Books on Nonprofit Leadership

    Anheier, H. K., & Hammack, D. C. (2010). American foundations: Roles and contributions. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

    This book attempts to assess the impact and significance of philanthropic foundations in the United States. Over the course of 3 years, the authors Helmut Anheier and David Hammack gathered leading researchers to examine the work of foundations across a broad spectrum of fields including education, health care, social welfare, and the arts and culture. The research sought to address a number of compelling questions: Is American society different because of the existence of foundations? What roles have foundations played in the history of the United States? What roles do they fill now, and what roles are they likely to fill in the future? See also other books by Hammack: Making the Nonprofit Sector in the U.S. and Nonprofit Organizations in a Market Economy: Understanding New Roles, Issues, and Trends (with Young).

    Bennis, W. G. (2009). On becoming a leader. New York: Basic Books.

    Warren G. Bennis is a university professor and founding chairman of the Leadership Institute at the University of Southern California. He is also chairman of the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard's Kennedy School and Distinguished Research Fellow at the Harvard Business School and the author of numerous articles and books on leadership. This book explores the qualities that define leadership and those who exemplify those qualities. It explores the strategies that make leaders successful and provides guidance for those wishing to excel in leadership positions.

    Bennis, W. G., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: Strategies for taking charge. New York: HarperCollins.

    Warren G. Bennis is a university professor and founding chairman of the Leadership Institute at the University of Southern California. He is also chairman of the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard's Kennedy School and Distinguished Research Fellow at the Harvard Business School and the author of numerous articles and books on leadership. Burt Nanus is professor emeritus of management at the University of Southern California and founder of the university's Center for Futures Research. In this text, the authors argue that the most pressing issue facing corporate America is leadership. They address what they see as the four key principles of management: attention through vision, meaning through communication, trust through positioning, and the deployment of self. This book is of interest to any person in a position of leadership or any student of leadership theory.

    Boris, E. T., & Steuerle, C. E. (Eds.). (2006). Nonprofits and government: Collaboration and conflict. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

    This collection of 10 essays considers the relationship between government and the nonprofit sector. It attempts to address such critical issues as the role that tax breaks should play in charitable giving and whether nonprofits can fill the gaps in public service created by cuts in government spending over the last 3 decades. This should be of interest to researchers or policymakers, as well as to those directing or working within nonprofit institutions or foundations.

    Bremner, R. (1988). American philanthropy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Robert Bremner, the author of several books on philanthropy, is professor emeritus at Ohio State University. This book, which Bremner admits is not meant to be encyclopedic, offers a history of philanthropy in America from the country's founding to the present. New chapters in the book cover the last quarter century and the radical changes in tax law that have dramatically altered how money and resources are given, by whom, and to whom. The book includes a substantial bibliographic essay offering suggestions for further reading in the field. The book serves as an excellent introduction to the study of philanthropy in America.

    Brest, P., & Harvey, H. (2008). Money well spent. New York: Bloomberg Press.

    Paul Brest is President of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Before joining the Hewlett Foundation, he was a professor at Stanford Law School, serving as dean from 1987 to 1999. Hal Harvey is founder and President of the ClimateWorks Foundation. Previously, he directed the Hewlett Foundation's Environment Program. This book argues that strategy is the critical factor in successful philanthropy. It provides foundations and philanthropists with a road map for developing strategies to achieve their missions and philanthropic goals.

    Brinckerhoff, P. C. (2009). Mission-based management: Leading your not-for-profit in the 21st century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

    Peter C. Brinckerhoff is a trainer, author, and consultant to nonprofit organizations, working to help them become more mission capable. This book provides ideas and criteria for success in today's competitive nonprofit sector. Written with nonprofit managers and leaders in mind, it addresses their unique concerns, providing a list of core characteristics of successful nonprofits and tools for using technology to improve mission outcome

    Bryson, J. M. (2004). Strategic planningfor public and nonprofit organizations (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    The book is about the set of concepts, tools, and designs leaders need to develop to cope with the changing environment. The leader will need to decide and develop a coherent organizational vision of success, using strategic identifications and approaches. The book features the strategy change cycle, a proven planning process used by a large number of organizations. It also offers detailed guidance on implementing the planning process and specific tools and techniques to make the process work in any organization. Leadership, management, and strategic planning are blended together in alignment with trends in the field. Practitioners, nonprofit managers, board leaders, students, and fundraisers will benefit from the broad range of topics covered, including strategy, mapping, stakeholder analysis, and strategic management.

    Burlingame, D. (Ed.). (1992). The responsibilities of wealth. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    This collection of essays questions both the tradition and current state of philanthropic giving in the United States. It begins with Andrew Carnegie's “The Gospel of Wealth” (1889) and uses that as a frame to explore the philosophical basis for charitable giving: Who should give? In what context? What should be the relationship between the donor and recipient? What should be given? The collection considers the more practical side of philanthropy but is primarily concerned with the fundamental questions underpinning charity and whether the wealthy have a responsibility to share with those less fortunate. See also Critical Issues in Fund Raising; Philanthropy Across the Generations: New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising; Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia; Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money (with Hulse); and Corporate Philanthropy at the Crossroads (with Young).

    Burlingame, D. (Ed.). (1997). Critical issues in fund raising. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    This collection of 16 pieces has its roots in the “Think Tank on Fund-Raising Research” and presents a wide-ranging consideration of the most fundamental questions facing philanthropical organizations today. The ethics of philanthropical giving are considered, as are the patterns of giving in Europe and how those might help organizations in America. One paper looks at current research in donor motivation, while another tackles the role of the government in regulating charitable fundraising. This collection, given its scope, should appeal both to fundraising professionals and academics, board members and consultants. See also other books by Burlingame: The Responsibilities of Wealth; Philanthropy Across the Generations: New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising; Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia; Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money (with Hulse); and Corporate Philanthropy at the Crossroads (with Young).

    Burlingame, D. (Ed.). (2004). Philanthropy across the generations: New directions for philanthropic fundraising. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This is the 42nd issue of the quarterly report series New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, representing the 16th Annual Symposium on Philanthropy, held in August 2003. The nine chapters in this volume consider such questions as whether or not altruism is an evolutionary adaptation, how to resolve potential moral ambiguities in philanthropical giving, the potential for transforming the roles of “fundraising practitioners” in the future, and the critical value of the estate tax. See also other books by Burlingame: The Responsibilities of Wealth; Critical Issues in Fund Raising; Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia; Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money (with Hulse); and Corporate Philanthropy at the Crossroads (with Young).

    Burlingame, D. (Ed.). (2004). Philanthropy in America: A comprehensive historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

    This is a three-volume set. The first two volumes have 250 entries that document the history, the major figures, the important events, and the prominent organizations of American philanthropy. The third volume supplements those entries with 75 primary source documents that range from Aristotle's consideration of charity to a 2003 Supreme Court case. The encyclopedia considers America's history of not only philanthropy but also the roots of that history, tracing, for example, the institutionalization of charity in 14th-century England. See also other books by Burlingame: The Responsibilities of Wealth; Critical Issues in Fund Raising; Philanthropy Across the Generations: New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising; Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money (with Hulse); and Corporate Philanthropy at the Crossroads (with Young).

    Burlingame, D., & Hulse, L. J. (Eds.). (1991). Taking fund raising seriously: Advancing the profession and practice of raising money. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This book is a compilation of papers originally presented at a 1990 symposium held at the Indiana University Center on Philanthropy. The papers not only look at the critical role that nonprofit organizations play in American society but also question the potential public misconceptions of nonprofit fundraising. Along with the history of nonprofits, the authors also consider the ethics of public fundraising. Individual papers address current changes in the structure and leadership of nonprofit organizations. This collection is aimed at those interested in distinct individual views on the history, ethics, and future of public fundraising. See also other books by Burlinghame: The Responsibilities of Wealth; Critical Issues in Fund Raising; Philanthropy Across the Generations: New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising; Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia; and Corporate Philanthropy at the Crossroads (with Young).

    Burlingame, D., & Young, D. (Eds.). (1996). Corporate philanthropy at the crossroads. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    This collection of papers, from academics and volunteers, business people and students, considers the future of corporate philanthropy as it moves from a “do what is right” model toward a “consider only the bottom line” model. The papers are heavily research driven and are geared toward fundraisers as they think about the future of their organizations and potential corporate donations. They may also be of interest to academics working in corporate philanthropy See also other books by Burlingame: The Responsibilities of Wealth; Critical Issues in Fund Raising; Philanthropy Across the Generations: New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising; Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia; and Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of-Raising Money (with Hulse).

    Canfield, J., Hansen, M. V., Oberst, A., & Boal, J. (2002). Chicken soup for the volunteer's soul: Stories to celebrate the spirit of courage, caring and community. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.

    This collection of stories is designed to inspire community involvement and social engagement. The individual stories highlight Habitat for Humanity, Big Brothers/Big Sisters, the Peace Corps, the Red Cross, and many other nonprofit organizations. A constant theme is that the individual who volunteers tends to discover something important or unique about him-or herself. It should be of interest to those who volunteer or those considering giving time or money to volunteer organizations.

    Carnegie, A. (2008). The gospel of wealth. Gloucester, UK: Dodo Press.

    Andrew Carnegie was a businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of the Carnegie Steel Company, which later became U.S. Steel. This book is an essay he wrote in 1889 describing the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class and arguing for the superiority of the American system of republican government to the British monarchical system. He argues that the wealthy entrepreneurs must accept the responsibility of giving money in the most effective manner possible.

    Carver, J. (2006). Boards that make a difference: A new design for leadership in nonprofit and public organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This author considers the variety of different boards and the difficulties they tend to face. Based on these difficulties, Carver argues for new principles of governance and approaches to policymaking for boards. He argues for new approaches to board-staff relationships, as well as the role of the chief executive. The book addresses performance monitoring and virtually every aspect of the boardmanagement relationship. The author also recognizes the importance of keeping the mission of the organization in front. The book is of particular interest to those serving on boards, or those who work with nonprofit boards.

    Clifton, D. O., & Rath, T. (2004). How full is your bucket? New York: Gallup Press.

    This brief book contains helpful and simply offered information on how the smallest interactions can affect your relationships, health, and productivity. Based on the simple metaphor of a bucket and a dipper, the authors’ theory states that everyone has an invisible “bucket” that is constantly being filled or emptied depending on what others say or do to other people. This book would resonate well with all those wishing to learn how they can better motivate and encourage as well as show their appreciation to others. Teachers, parents, managers, coaches, and so on would benefit from the information in this book.

    Clinton, B. (2007). Giving: How each of us can change the world. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

    This book, by the former president of the United States, considers via personal stories and anecdotes from Oseola McCarthy, Andre Agassi, Oprah Winfrey, and others how individual acts of charity and giving can change the world for the better. In chapters on “Giving Money,” “Giving Time,” “Giving Things,” and “Giving Skills,” Clinton encourages individuals to ask what they have to offer the public sector and then offer it. More an inspirational collection than an academic work, it should be of interest to anyone working in, or considering getting involved in, the nonprofit sector.

    Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap … and others don't. New York:

    HarperCollins.

    Jim Collins is known for his work examining enduring companies—how they grow, how they attain superior performance, and how good companies can become great ones. He founded a management laboratory where he conducts multiyear research projects and works with executives from the private, public, and social sectors. This book outlines the results of a 5-year research project comparing companies to identify what makes a company likely to progress from good to great. This book discusses concepts like level 5 leadership, first who (first get the right people on the bus, then figure out where to drive it), and the flywheel. See also Collins's Good to Great and the Social Sectors: Why Business Thinking Is Not the Answer—A Monograph to Accompany Good to Great.

    Collins, J. (2005). Good to great and the social sectors: Why business thinking is not the answer—A monograph to accompany good to great. New York: HarperCollins.

    Jim Collins is known for his work examining how enduring companies grow, attain superior performance, and become great. This brief monograph, originally intended as a new chapter in future editions of Good to Great: Why some Companies Make the Leap … and Others Don't, is based on interviews and workshops with over 100 social sector leaders. Collins examines the concepts of good to great and their meaning and applicability within the public sector. The monograph addresses such issues as how to define greatness for the public sector and how to recruit and retain the right people. See also Collins's Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap … and Others Don't.

    Compton, D. W., Baizerman, M., & Stockdill, S. H. (Eds.). (2002). The art, craft and science of evaluation capacity building. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This book defines evaluation capacity building (ECB) and provides a practical framework for understanding its core elements. The book examines four case studies that demonstrate ECB's complexity and the variation that can occur within organizations. Using the guidance and information presented in this literature, an organizational ECB checklist can be developed for organizational use. The purpose of the book is to help develop a general understanding of ECB and how it can be conducted and implemented in an organization; accordingly, the book is meant for students and those entering the nonprofit sector, as well as working professionals in the private and public sector.

    Cortes, M., & Rafter, K. M. (Eds.). (2007). Nonprofits and technology: Emerging research for usable knowledge. Chicago: Lyceum Books.

    This book is a collection of 10 research papers regarding the challenges facing nonprofits when investing in new technology. The papers were originally presented and debated in a symposium of technology adaptation in 2004 in the Institute for Nonprofit Organization Management at the University of San Francisco. The book explores how nonprofit organizations are using technology, the problems they encounter, and how technology can be used to its full potential to advance their goals and mission. Contributing authors include both scholars and practitioners, presenting information in a number of ways, including both in-depth case studies and large data sets of 1000s of surveys. This book would be of interest to students, nonprofit staff, and funders.

    Drucker, P. F. (2005). Managing the nonprofit organization: Principles and practices. New York: HarperCollins.

    Peter F. Drucker is the author of over 35 books, including many on business management and economics. In this book, he considers the management skills that are necessary to managing any operation and those especially unique to the nonprofit sector. He offers “dos” and “don'ts” for truly effective leadership, suggestions for fundraising, possible methods for evaluating success, and models for developing successful staff and donor relationships. This book is of most interest to managers of nonprofit organizations but also of interest to those who study the nonprofit sector.

    Eisenberg, P. (2004). Challenges for nonprofits and philanthropy: The courage to change—Three decades of reflection (S. Palmer, Ed). Lebanon, NH: Tufts University Press.

    Pablo Eisenberg is a senior fellow at the Georgetown University Public Policy Institute. He is also the leader of the Center for Community Change and founder of the National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy. This book is a collection of his speeches and articles spanning nearly 3 decades. The works address both American and global philanthropy in terms of their challenges, responsibilities, successes and failures, accountability, and leadership. He also speculates on what the future might hold as the United States moves toward the greatest transfer of intergenerational wealth in the country's history. This collection would be of interest to nonprofit leaders, donors, grantmakers, those involved with poverty-fighting organizations, and faculty members and researchers who study nonprofit organizations.

    Ellis, S. J. (1999). From the top down: The executive role in volunteer program success. Philadelphia: Energize.

    Susan J. Ellis is president of Energize, Inc., a training, consulting, and publishing firm specializing in volunteerism. She has authored and coauthored many books on the topic of volunteer recruiting and from 1981 to 1987 served as the editor in chief of the Journal of Volunteer Administration. This book is unique in its focus on the top decision-maker's roll in a volunteer program. With the intent of explaining how to structure a successful volunteer program, the author explores issues such as including an overall vision, policy questions, budgeting, staffing, employee-volunteer relations, the role of the board of directors, and assessing the impact of volunteer contributions. She also addresses dealing with risk management, and legal and insurance issues. See also Ellis's Volunteer Recruitment and Membership Development (3rd ed.).

    Ellis, S. J. (2002). Volunteer recruitment and membership development (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Energize.

    Susan J. Ellis, president of Energize, Inc., a training, consulting, and publishing firm specializing in volunteerism, has authored and coauthored many books on the topic of volunteer recruiting. This book provides recommendations on the subject of volunteer recruitment, addressing how an organization's image can impact recruitment success and where to find the most qualified individuals. It includes a 2002 Appendix update, “Outreach in Cyberspace,” exploring how to use the Internet and social media to their full potential as recruitment tools. See also Ellis's From the Top Down: The Executive Role in Volunteer Program Success.

    Esposito, V. M. (Ed.). (1999). Conscience and community: The legacy of Paul Ylvisaker. New York: Peter Lang.

    This is a collection of essays, speeches, and articles by Paul Ylvisaker on philanthropy, education, urban issues, and community. Paul Ylvisaker made a profound contribution to the American people through his philanthropic works and his commitment to public service. The writings span a period of 30 years, addressing critical issues and movements such as the war on poverty, the environmental movement, the meaning of public service, and education reform. See also Ylvisaker's Family Foundations Now—and Forever? The Question of Intergenerational Succession.

    File, K. M., & Prince, R. A. (1994). The seven faces of philanthropy: A new approach to cultivating major donors. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Karen Maru File is associate professor of marketing at the University of Connecticut at Stamford. Russ Alan Prince is president of Prince & Associates, a consultancy in the private wealth field. This is primarily a book about identifying what the authors refer to as the “seven types of major donors.” File and Prince offer strategies on how to approach these different types of donors, with the notion that knowing the different types can help nonprofits tailor their marketing to best appeal to its target audience. Any person responsible for fundraising will be interested in this book.

    Fleishman, J. L. (2007). The foundation: A great American secret: How private wealth is changing the world. New York: Public Affairs.

    Joel L. Fleishman is a philanthropist and a professor of Law and Public Policy at Duke University and serves as a director of Boston Scientific. In this book, he traces the history of private foundations in America, covering philanthropists from Andrew Carnegie to Bill Gates, and he looks closely at contemporary private foundations that collectively are responsible for giving away over %32 billion each year. He uses 12 individual case studies—Children's Television Workshop, for example—to ask why some succeed, why some fail, and what can and should be done to improve private foundations in the future.

    Flynn, P., & Hodgkinson, V. A. (Eds.). (2001). Measuring the impact of the nonprofit sector. New York: Klewer Academic/Plenum.

    The 16 papers collected in this text were written in an attempt to assess the current methods of studying the efficacy of nonprofit organizations. The early sections are primarily concerned with general methodology (“Concerns of Measurement and Evaluation”); later sections are more concerned with the various subsectors of the nonprofit world (“Measuring the Impact of Various Subsectors and Special Populations”). Throughout, the focus remains on the question of how to effectively study and evaluate the effectiveness of nonprofit organizations. It is primarily of interest to those studying the nonprofit sector or those involved in evaluating the efficacy of individual nonprofit institutions.

    Friedman, L. J., & McGarvie, M. (Eds.). (2003). Charity, philanthropy and civility in American history. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Lawrence J. Friedman is professor of History and Philanthropic Studies at Indiana University. Mark McGarvie is the Gotlieb Fellow in Legal History at New York University School of Law. This collection of papers provides surveys of the history of philanthropic giving in America, as well as various theories seeking to explain the role of philanthropy in that history. Individual essays cover such topics as Protestant missionaries, post-Civil War Reconstruction, American philanthropy abroad, Catholic charities, the civil rights movement, and the welfare state. Both historians and those working within philanthropic institutions should find this book of interest.

    Frumkin, P. (2005). On being nonprofit: A conceptual and policy primer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Peter Frumkin is professor of Public Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, and director of the RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service. This concise book provides insight into the conceptual and policy terrain of the nonprofit sector. The book is divided into six chapters: “The Idea of a Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector,” “Civic and Political Engagement,” “Service Delivery,” “Values and Faith,” “Social Entrepreneurship,” and “Balancing the Functions of Nonprofit and Voluntary Action.” This book will be of value both to those new to public-sector work and experts in the field. See also Frumkin's Strategic Giving: The Art and Science of Philanthropy.

    Frumkin, P. (2006). Strategic giving: The art and science of philanthropy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Peter Frumkin is professor of Public Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, and director of the RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service. This book, first and foremost, attempts to place philanthropic giving on a philosophical or theoretical scale. Frumkin argues that philanthropy should be seen not only as a way to meet the needs of society but also as a way of conveying personal beliefs. In searching for a theoretical framework for philanthropy that will accomplish both of those goals, he identifies what he insists all donors must consider, including how much engagement is sought, the purpose of the gift, and the time frame for the donation. This text should be of interest to those considering establishing a foundation or donating to an existing foundation, as well as to any student of philanthropy. See also Frumkin's On Being Nonprofit: A Conceptual and Policy Primer.

    Galaskiewicz, J., & Bielefeld, W. (1998). Nonprofit organizations in an age of uncertainty: A study of growth and decline. New York: Walter de Gruyter.

    Joseph Galaskiewicz is a professor of Sociology and Strategic Management/Organization at the University of Minnesota. He is the author of several books, and his research has focused on the role of informal social structures in explaining business organizations and on organizational change. Wolfgang Bielefeld is associate professor of Sociology and Political Economy in the School of Social Sciences at the University of Texas in Dallas. His research has focused on the relations between organizations and their environments and the dynamics of nonprofit sectors. This book is a study of organizational change using data from a panel of public charities in the Minneapolis—St. Paul metropolitan area from 1980 to 1994. It focuses on why some nonprofits survived and why others did not during that period of time, specifically on the strategies that were employed and the consequences for the nonprofits as a result of those strategy choices. The first two chapters in the book introduce the research program, the next three chapters provide the empirical results, and the final chapter draws conclusions from the research data.

    Galston, W. A. (Ed.). (2005). Community matters: Challenges to civic engagement in the 21st century.

    Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    This collection of essays, the fourth volume in a series from the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy Studies, addresses the challenges of making a citizen, how citizens are to agree or disagree, and the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. Galston explores the underperformance of schools in terms of their civic missions, the critical process of decision making in a community while avoiding violence and maintaining a sense of unity, and the arguments surrounding compulsory military service.

    Gardner, J. W. (1993). On leadership. New York: Free

    Press.

    John Gardner served as secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under President Lyndon Johnson. He also created Common Cause, the first nonprofit public interest group in the United States. In this book, he explores leadership theory, and through using historical figures as examples of the tremendous public energy and potential that can be tapped by effective leaders, he argues that the greatest problem facing the country is a lack of leadership. He challenges current leaders to rededicate the country to its ideals of freedom and justice and to develop and refine a vision of the country's vast potential. The book is of interest to any person in a position of leadership or any student of leadership theory. See also Gardner's Self-Renewal: The Individual and the Innovative Society.

    Gardner, J. W. (1995). Self-renewal: The individual and the innovative society. New York: W. W. Norton.

    John Gardner served as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under President Lyndon Johnson. He also created Common Cause, the first nonprofit public interest group in the United States. Originally published in 1963, this book explores why some individuals and societies are capable of renewal and innovation while others fall into stasis and decay. He argues that the attributes of the “self-renewing” individual—independence, motivation, self-knowledge, and flexibility—are the same for organizations and societies. Organizations and societies that possess these attributes will flourish; those that don't possess them most likely will not. This book is of interest to those interested in motivational theory, as well as those serving in positions of power within organizations. See also Gardner's On Leadership.

    Gast, E. (2005). Community foundation handbook: What you need to know. Washington, DC: Council on Foundations.

    This text provides an overview of community foundations. It includes chapters on accountability, management and finance, grantmaking, donor relationships, and marketing. It is written primarily for foundation staff, but it will also be of interest to board members and volunteers.

    Gerston, L. N. (2002). Public policymaking in democratic society: A guide to civic engagement. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

    In this book, Larry Gerston, a professor of political science at San Jose Sate University, provides an overview of the American political process as it relates to making policy. He covers the process from identifying an issue to implementation and evaluation, providing the tools and information a citizen needs to participate fully in policymaking. It will be of most interest to students, interns, those participating in service-learning opportunities, and anyone attempting to both inspire citizens to participate in their government and teach them how to participate in that government effectively.

    Goldberg, G., Pittelman, P., & Resource Generation. (2006). Creating change through family philanthropy: The next generation. New York: Soft Skull Press.

    This book is based on the work and experience of the Resource Generation, a nonprofit institution that works with wealthy young people. The book offers an introduction to family foundations and explains how such foundations work. The authors argue that family foundations can legitimize social issues, and as such, those with wealth are in a unique position to define what issues are important. In that context, the book is a resource for creating and managing family foundations. Young people interested in philanthropical giving might find this of most use, but philanthropical advisers and nonprofit fundraisers should also find it interesting.

    Greenleaf, R. K. (1998). The power of servant leadership. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

    This collection of nine essays by the late Robert K. Greenleaf examines the theory behind and practice of servant-leadership as a model for business leaders. When Robert K. Greenleaf retired from AT&T in 1964, where he had worked in management, research, development, and education, he began a new career as a speaker, writer, and consultant. He coined the term “servant-leadership,” emphasizing an approach to leadership that puts serving others, including employees, customers, and the community, first. These essays explore the nature and practice of servant-leadership, interweaving issues of spirit, wholeness, and vision.

    Grimm, R. (Ed.). (2002). Notable American philanthropists: Biographies of giving and volunteering. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

    This book is a collection of 78 profiles of individuals and families who have made significant contributions to the history of American philanthropy through voluntary service or charitable donations. The profiles cover both men and women from different time periods, of varying race and ethnicity, and from differing social strata. The profiles follow the same general format, examining the individual's early years, education, career, and philanthropic philosophy and actions. The profilers go on to examine the individual's motivations and justifications for philanthropy. Individuals profiled include Clara Barton, Andrew Carnegie, Cesar Estrada Chavez, the Guggenheim Family, and Booker T. Washington. The contributing authors have all done significant work related to specific philanthropists or related to American philanthropy in general.

    Hall, P. D. (1992). Inventing the nonprofit sector and other essays on philanthropy, voluntarism, and nonprofit organizations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Peter Dobkin Hall is a cultural historian and a Leonard Bacon Research Scholar in the Yale University Program on Non-Profit Organizations. He teaches in the Divinity School at Yale University. Through this collection of his essays, he describes and analyzes the development of the fastest growing institutional sector in the United States. The essays explore the historical, religious, cultural, managerial, and public policy aspects of philanthropy and volunteerism. The book concludes with an essay exploring the near future of the nonprofit sector in the aftermath of the “me generation.”

    Hammack, D. C. (Ed.). (1998). Making the nonprofit sector in the U.S. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    This book is a collection of essential documents, including interpretations and critiques by recent scholars on the origins and evolution of the nonprofit sector in the United States. This anthology is divided into four primary sections: British and Colonial Patterns, The American Revolution: Sources of the Nonprofit Sector, Uses of Nonprofit Organizations, and Nonprofit Structures for the Twentieth Century. Each section is divided by chronology and subject matter and explores why the United States has funneled most of its formal religious activity through the nonprofit sector. See also Anheier and Hammack's American Foundations: Roles and Contributions, and Young and Hammack's Nonprofit Organizations in a Market Economy: Understanding New Roles, Issues, and Trends.

    Harkavy, D. (2007). Becoming a coaching leader: The proven strategy for building your own team of champions. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    The information in this book revolves around Harkavy's “Core Four Success Puzzle” of developing leaders. Beginning with an in-depth explanation of “what is a coach?” the author then dives into the Core Four and how you can develop as well as inspire others to create their plan. This book would resonate well with anyone who is striving to achieve more success and satisfaction in both their personal and professional lives. Individuals in leadership-management positions would find this book helpful as it serves as a guide to transform the lives of the people they lead and serve.

    Hodgkinson, V., & Foley, M. (Ed.). (2003). The civil society reader. Hanover, CT: University Press of New England.

    This book is an anthology on civil society comprised of 24 readings from individuals who helped shape and define the civil society tradition in Western political thought. The introduction provides a foundation for understanding the complexities of the debate over the conditions of citizenship and the defining qualities of a good society. Writings include excerpts from Aristotle's The Politics, Thomas Paine's Rights of Man, Peter L. Berger and Richard John Neuhaus's To Empower People, and Jean L. Cohen and Andrew Arato's Civil Society and Political Theory. See also Schervish, Gates, and Hodgkinson's Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations, and Wuthnow and Hodgkinson's Faith and Philanthropy in America: Exploring the Role of Religion in America's Voluntary Sector.

    Houle, C. O. (1997). Governing boards: Their nature and nurture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Cyril O. Houle is a senior consultant for the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and professor emeritus at the University of Chicago. He has served on more than 30 boards and has written many books. This book serves as a basic yet comprehensive manual for boards. It addresses issues such as the underlying concept behind boards; how to determine, structure, and organize board membership; board procedures and accountability; and external board relationships. It provides insight into how to successfully manage the full range of challenges facing board members.

    Illchman, W. F., Katz, S. N., & Queen, E. L., II (Eds.). (1998). Philanthropy in the world's traditions. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    The 20-odd contributors to this collection argue that far from being a particularly Western phenomenon, philanthropy is a tradition with a worldwide scope, encompassing many different cultures and traditions. Individual essays consider such diverse topics as “Reciprocity and Assistance in Precolonial Africa,” “Generosity and Service in Theravada Buddhism,” and “The Origins of Modern Jewish Philanthropy.” Also addressed are Native Americans, 17th-century China, Islamic philanthropy, and the Serbian Orthodox Church. The collection should be of interest to any student of philanthropy.

    Ingram, R. (2009). Ten basic responsibilities of nonprofit boards. Washington, DC: BoardSource.

    This book explores both the fundamental responsibilities of nonprofit boards and the challenges that those nonprofits and their boards face today. Individual issues considered include determining the board's mission, selecting the chief executive, monitoring programs and services, ensuring adequate financial resources, protecting assets, ensuring legal and ethical integrity, and enhancing the organization's public standing. This is of particular interest to board members and executives.

    Jeavons, T., & Basinger, R. B. (2000). Growing givers’ hearts: Treating fundraising as a ministry. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Thomas H. Jeavons is general secretary of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends and was the founding director of the Center on Philanthropy and Nonprofit Leadership at Grand Valley State University. Rebekah Burch Basinger is an independent consultant in fundraising and stewardship education. This book is based on a 3-year study of Christian organizations that have been successful in raising funds and material resources and in encouraging spiritual development in their donors. This book is written primarily for Christian development staff, executives, and board members.

    Karoff, H. P. (Ed.). (2004). Just money: A critique of contemporary American philanthropy. Boston: TPI Editions.

    H. Peter Karoff is the founder of The Philanthropic Initiative and a senior fellow at Tufts University

    College of Citizenship & Public Service. This book collects the experience and insight of 10 former leaders of large philanthropic foundations, national, community, and corporate. While the experience reflected in these 10 pieces is diverse, the lessons learned and the wisdom gained return again and again to the same ideas: Not only can money be used to do good, but it also can be used to do good well. As a resource to better management of foundations in the future, the book is of most interest to those working with philanthropic organizations.

    Karoff, P., & Maddox, J. (2007). The world we want: New dimensions in philanthropy and social change. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

    Peter Karoff founded the Philanthropic Initiative (TPI) to help donors increase the impact of their philanthropy and at the same time make “giving” more meaningful in their own lives. President of TPI from 1989 to 2002, he is a senior fellow at the College of Citizenship and Public Service at Tufts University. Jane Maddox is an editor and writer at TPI who has worked to help public agencies, companies, and nonprofits communicate their missions, programs, and ideas. This book presents a vision for an ideal work through personal reflections and conversations with more than 40 social entrepreneurs, activists, nonprofit leaders, and philanthropists. It focuses on the value of human connection, the capacity for caring, and citizen engagement.

    Kass, A. A. (Ed.). (2008). Giving well, doing good: Readings for thoughtful philanthropists. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    This anthology explores the enterprise of philanthropy and serves as a sequel to Amy A. Kass's first edited anthology of writings on philanthropy, The Perfect Gift. It brings together critical texts from the classic to the contemporary and includes speeches, foundation documents, and writings of poets and novelists. Each reading provides guidance to current and prospective donors, trustees and professional staffs of foundations, and leaders of nonprofit organizations. The book is organized thematically, focusing on goals and intentions; gifts, donors, and recipients; grants, grantors, and grantees; bequests and legacies; effectiveness; accountability; and leadership.

    Katz, S. N. (2000). Colonial America: Essays in politics and social development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    This is an anthology of readings by some of the most highly regarded scholars in the field of early American history. It focuses on the British colonies in North America, presenting current research from colonial historians on topics ranging from abortion and gender roles and social and political organization to early religion and early contact with Native Americans.

    Kim, D., & Cory, D. (2004). It begins here: Organizational learning toolkit. Singapore, Republic of Singapore: Cobee Trading.

    It Begins Here provides an overview of several useful tools divided into four sections. The Organizing Framework section includes two tools that can be used to describe the organization's theory of success and its capabilities to support organizational learning. The Aspiration section discusses the Creative Tension Model and the Hierarchy of Choices Model, which help to discuss personal mastery and shared vision. In the Generative Conversation section, 11 different models are demonstrated to facilitate the understanding of mental models and team learning. Finally, the Understanding Complexity section discusses 11 models to further systems thinking. This book is for nonprofit leaders from executive directors and board members to program staff that desire to better understand how their nonprofit can engage in organizational learning.

    Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R., Roth, G., Senge, P., & Smith, B. (1999). The dance of change: The challenges to sustaining momentum in learning organizations. New York: Doubleday.

    This book can be considered a follow-up to the 1990 bestseller The Fifth Discipline in which Peter Senge brought to light the concept of the learning organization and how personal mastery and systems thinking are vital to the success of an organization. This book dives deeper into the concept by explaining how to sustain the changes described in The Fifth Discipline. The authors outline potential obstacles to organizational learning and propose ways to turn these obstacles into sources of improvement. This book would resonate well with management wanting to drive and sustain positive change within their organization to make it a more worthwhile place to work.

    Knowlton, L., & Phillips, C. (2009). The logic model guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    The Logic Model Guidebook offers a thorough description of the various thinking and planning skills needed for the logic modeling process. The authors examine the structures and the processes of logic modeling. This serves as an instrument to develop and implement change in programs within a variety of organizational contexts. By offering step-by-step guidance and visual examples of how to develop, design, and revise logic models, the authors prepare students, researchers, and practitioners to critically think about the programs and initiatives that their organizations are conducting. This guidebook serves as a great tool to increasing the efficiency of programs and services that nonprofit organizations are performing.

    Kunreuther, F. (2008). Working across generations: Defining the future of nonprofit leadership. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

    This book specifically deals with the nonprofit sector and the generational workforce phenomenon. Kunreuther offers insight on how to communicate across generations and ensure that organizations make a smooth leadership transition. The author also provides good context for the differences about generations and why organizations will change based on these differences.

    La Piana, D. (2000). Nonprofit mergers workbook: The leader's guide to considering, negotiating, and executing a merger. Saint Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.

    This text walks nonprofits through mergers from the earliest stages of planning through implementation and funding. It includes chapters on internal self-assessment for nonprofits, assessment of potential partners, potential difficulties associated with mergers, and negotiation strategies. Also included are case studies, checklists, resources, and decision trees. This text is of interest, especially, to those working within nonprofits who might consider or who might benefit from a merger with another organization. See also La Piana's Nonprofit Strategy Revolution: Real-Time Strategic Planning in a Rapid-Response World.

    La Piana, D. (2008). Nonprofit strategy revolution: Realtime strategic planning in a rapid-response world. Saint Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance.

    David La Piana is an expert on partnerships among nonprofit organizations, known for his work to improve leadership and management practices throughout the nonprofit sector for greater social impact. This book introduces the concept of real-time strategic planning, a fluid, organic process that engages staff and board in a program of systematic readiness and continuous responsiveness. It provides readers with the tools to clarify competitive advantages, develop criteria for evaluating strategies, handle big issues effectively, develop and test strategies, and implement and adapt strategies on a continuous basis. See also La Piana's Nonprofit Mergers Workbook: The Leader's Guide to Considering Negotiating and Executing a Merger.

    Light, P. C. (2002). Pathways to nonprofit excellence. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

    Paul C. Light is a professor at New York University's Wagner School of Public Service, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, and a former grantmaker and presidential adviser. This volume is the fourth in a series of reports regarding the changes in what public service means both within the government and the nonprofit sector. It is based on interviews with 250 leaders on philanthropy, scholarship, and consulting and interviews with 250 executive directors from some of the most effective nonprofits in the United States. The author argues that higher performance can be achieved using one of several strategies and that every nonprofit organization can improve how they are currently performing.

    Lohmann, R. A. (1992). The commons: New perspectives on nonprofit organizations and voluntary action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Roger A. Lohmann is a professor and director at West Virginia University-Nova Institute. He formerly served as the editor in chief at Nonprofit Management & Leadership. This article presents the concepts of “commons” and common goods as having critical multidisciplinary implications. Commons refers to uncoerced participation, mutuality, and shared purposes and resources.

    Mahwah, B., & Avolio, J. (2005). Leadership Development in Balance: Made/Born. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    A valuable contribution to the field of leadership development—the book is a good reflective piece for practitioners. The author notes how leadership development happens within one's life and is often facilitated by “trigger events.” He encourages a process of Advanced Action Review (AAR), that is, reflection or personal debriefing on the effects of one's actions. He defines leadership as “influencing people to achieve some particular targeted objective.” He shows how the leader may tend to use one of four lenses to view these events: control, quid pro quo, stakeholder, and transformation. There is material on trust building, “e-leadership,” measuring the impact of leadership programs, and distinguishing among passive-avoidant, corrective, transactional, and transformational leadership. His model of leadership development asserts the need for leaders to grow in self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-development.

    Maxwell, J. C. (1991). The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership: Follow them and people will follow you. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    The book will help you understand that leaders are made. The 21 laws will help you become a person people want to follow. The author also uses some examples of leaders’ intriguing stories about their leadership experiences, such as Princess Diana, Ray Kroc, and Theodore Roosevelt, who used these leadership principles to achieve great success in their lives and had a major impact on the lives of many other people. Leadership in this book is made simple, but its powerful effect is demonstrated through these illustrations. It is full of direction and encouragement and the hope that with these procedures, students and professionals may learn and apply these timeless principles.

    Maxwell, J. C. (1998). Developing the leaders around you. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    This book is about helping others reach their potential. Developing a leader means knowing the leadership within you. John Maxwell shows how to train and develop an eye for potential leaders. The message of the book is for any person—an individual can't lead alone. If a person really wants to be a leader, that is, to have power to influence others, he or she must develop other leaders around him or her by establishing a team. The author details how to help others reach their full potential and how to identify and train potential leaders in order to get a personal vision seen. Leaders are made, not born. Maxwell also indicates that leadership grows from mentoring relationships and helping others.

    McCarthy, K. (2009). The on-purpose person—Making your life make sense. Winter Park, FL: On-Purpose Publishing.

    This book is for anyone who has ever felt like his or her life is being pulled in too many directions. The content presents principles that are easy to apply to everyday life in short story format that is entertaining to read. Various topics include how to feel satisfied rather than stressed out at the end of the day, finding meaningful personal time, and managing hurdles and setbacks in a positive light as well as how to tap into your highest potential. This book would resonate with all who feel as though their personal and professional schedule-calendars are out-of-control and who need additional focus in their lives to accomplish more of what is important to them. This book would be particularly helpful for managers who have an overwhelming amount of work on their plate and have difficulty maintaining a work-life balance.

    McNamara, C. (2003). Field guide to leadership and supervision for nonprofit staff. Minneapolis, MN: Authenticity Consulting.

    This is a guide that offers advice for how to recruit the best staff and volunteers for a nonprofit, as well as for how to work with a board. It considers the role of a nonprofit leader and looks at the day-to-day challenges typically faced in such a position. It offers instruction for how to lead, how to collaborate, and how to manage your staff and yourself. It is of particular interest to founders, executive directors, and managers of nonprofits. See also McNamara's Field Guide to Developing, Operating and Restoring Your Nonprofit Board and Field Guide to Nonprofit Program Design, Marketing and Evaluation.

    McNamara, C. (2008). Field guide to developing, operating and restoring your nonprofit board. Minneapolis, MN: Authenticity Consulting.

    This text offers guidelines and advice for planning, starting, and maintaining nonprofit boards. Issues considered include marketing, staffing, finances, fundraising, evaluations, transparency, sustainability, and lobbying. The author specifically addresses ways to detect and fix broken boards, as well as how to define how much board members should be involved in management, whether or not committees should be used, how to establish appropriate goals for committees, and how to ensure ethical behavior of board members. This is of interest to those who manage or serve on boards. See also McNamara's Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision for Nonprofit Staff and Field Guide to Nonprofit Program Design, Marketing and Evaluation.

    McNamara, C. (2008). Field guide to nonprofit program design, marketing and evaluation. Minneapolis, MN: Authenticity Consulting.

    This book provides guidelines for designing, marketing, and evaluating a nonprofit program. In addition to the guidelines, the book includes worksheets to help a nonprofit develop marketing, advertising, promotion, fundraising, and business plans. It includes a section on how to conduct market research and how to analyze the data collected. It is of interest to managers of nonprofits, members of boards of nonprofits, and those who donate to nonprofits. See also McNamara's Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision for Nonprofit

    Staff and Field Guide to Developing, Operating and Restoring Your Nonprofit Board.

    Nielsen, W. A. (1996). Inside American philanthropy: The dramas of donorship. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

    In this book, an analysis of American philanthropic institutions, the author looks at both historical and contemporary philanthropists from Andrew Carnegie to Bill Gates and from Warren Buffett to small family foundations. He also considers what he calls “The Forgotten History” and devotes an entire chapter to “Women in Philanthropy.” As he argues for the true importance of individual organizations’ founders and the deeply personal factors that drive their charitable decisions, he points out the numerous ways foundations have both succeeded and failed, the common pitfalls and the inspirational triumphs. The book will be of interest to both established donors and potential foundation creators, as well as nonprofit advisers and fundraisers.

    Nielsen, W. (2002). Golden donors: A new anatomy of the great foundations. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

    Waldemar Nielsen is a counselor on philanthropy policy. He has served as an adviser to individuals such as John D. Rockefeller III and to major corporations and foundations. This book updates his study of the 36 largest private foundations in the United States. For each foundation, he provides information on the donor as an individual, the foundation's management, and the development of the foundation's mission and programs. The stories about each foundation provide insight into which foundations have been successes and which have failed in recent years and into how the federal government and administrations are helping or hindering their success.

    Noonan, W. R. (2007). Discussing the undiscussable: A guide to overcoming defensive routines in the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    There has been significant research around how well-meaning, smart people can create vicious cycles of defensive behavior to protect themselves from embarrassment and threat, particularly by well-known author Chris Argyris. This book dives deeper into Argyris's work by providing a set of “how to” exercises for detecting, surfacing, and discussing organizational defensive routines in a safe and productive way. This book would resonate with individuals working in a “defensive environment” where addressing challenging issues is an uncomfortable and, in some cases, nonexistent, process.

    Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    The author defines leadership as “a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.” The book offers a good review of 10 theoretical approaches to analyzing leadership: trait, skills, style, situation, contingency, path-goal, leader-member exchange, transformation, team, and psycho-dynamic. Northouse also discusses gender factors and the ethics of leadership useful for today's managers, practitioners, researchers, and students.

    O'Connell, B. (1987). Philanthropy in action. New York:

    Foundation Center.

    This text considers American philanthropical institutions and individuals and assesses what they have done, as well as the manner in which they have done it. Although he labels and addresses nine different goals of philanthropical activity, including to improve communities and to honor the deceased, he argues, ultimately, for the primacy of two: to maximize human potential and to relieve human misery. The book is simultaneously a defense of and celebration of philanthropy in America. See also O'Connell's Powered by Coalition: The Story of Independent Sector, Civil Society: The Underpinnings of American Democracy, and Fifty Years in Public Causes: Stories From a Road Less Traveled.

    O'Connell, B. (1997). Powered by coalition: The story of independent sector. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    In this book, activist, professor, and author Brian O'Connell recounts the founding of Independent Sector, a huge coalition of over 800 foundations, institutions, philanthropic organizations, and corporate giving programs. In addition to the story of how the coalition came together, the challenges overcome in order to remain together, and what it managed to accomplish through cooperation and collaboration, O'Connell also considers the current and future threats to the independent sector in America and includes lessons in building and maintaining large, diverse coalitions. This book will be of interest to those in positions of power within volunteer organizations or coalitions of such organizations, as well as those who study such coalitions. See also O'Connell's Philanthropy in Action, Civil Society: The Underpinnings of American Democracy, and Fifty Years in Public Causes: Stories From a Road Less Traveled.

    O'Connell, B. (1999). Civil society: The underpinnings of American democracy. Hanover, CT: University Press of New England.

    In this book, activist, professor, and author Brian O'Connell argues that active citizen participation is essential to a strong democracy. Such active citizen participation creates what he calls civil society, a society that shares power and responsibility between communities, government, businesses, and volunteer organizations. Civil society, according to O'Connell, is threatened—by government action, by increasing wealth disparity, and by elected officials more attune to lobbyists and special interest groups than their constituents. O'Connell presents solutions to these problems and steps to strengthen civil society, including educating the country's youth on citizens’ rights and responsibilities and drawing on the country's tradition of service. Those working in community organizations or serving as elected officials or studying the current state of civil society, will find this book of interest. See also O'Connell's Philanthropy in Action, Powered by Coalition: The Story of Independent Sector and Fifty Years in Public Causes: Stories From a Road Less Traveled.

    O'Connell, B. (2005). Fifty years in public causes: Stories from a road less traveled. Lebanon, NH: Tufts University Press.

    In this memoir, activist, professor, and author Brian O'Connell writes of his life in philanthropy, public work, and civic action. He includes stories from his time as head of the Mental Health Association and the Independent Sector, a coalition he cofounded with John W. Gardner that advocated for voluntary initiative and philanthropy. In addition to the stories of how much can be accomplished by motivated, dynamic individuals and organizations, O'Connell includes what he sees as the important lessons to pass on to the next generation of activists, organizers, and volunteers. See also O'Connell's Philanthropy in Action, Powered by Coalition: The Story of Independent Sector, and Civil Society: The Underpinnings of American Democracy.

    Odendahl, T. J., Boris, E. T., & Daniels, A. K. (1985).

    Five experienced grantmakers at work. New York: Foundation Center.

    This book presents the results of a study regarding the career paths of foundation employees and is a valuable primer on the various levels of grantmaking jobs. It provides an overview of the roles, responsibilities, and career paths and explores the culture of various foundations with a particular focus on a comparison between men and women working in the field.

    O'Leary, R. (2006). The ethics of dissent: Managing guerrilla government. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

    The author composes a compelling synthesis of the effect of guerrilla government on democracy by analyzing case studies and delving into this under the discussed topic of managers. This is a great contribution to public administration to help better understand the distinction between dissent and commitment to public service. This author gives a glimpse of what happens in the real working world. The book is most interesting when she combines theory and practice. It also provides a list of professional workplace ethical standards. This is eye opening and compelling not only for students and managers of both public and private organization but also for political figures.

    O'Neill, M. (1989). The third America: The emergence of the nonprofit sector in the United States. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This book explores the major nonprofit subsectors and describes the concerns, trends, funding and policy issues, and historical context and development of each. Chapters address the role of various institutions in the nonprofit sector, including religion, health care, education, arts and culture, and legal services. This book would be of value to both scholars in the field, interested in a clear synthesis of academic developments, and students, teachers, and those new to the field, who will find clear, concise information on key nonprofit sector issues. See also O'Neill's Nonprofit Nation: A New Look at the Third America.

    O'Neill, M. (2002). Nonprofit nation: A new look at the third America. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This book attempts to provide a complete guide to understanding the public sector. O'Neill looks at the different nonprofit subsectors—social services, religious organizations, and health care, for example—and considers their influence on government, business, and society. After considering the public sector in its contemporary context, O'Neill presents possibilities for the role and growth of nonprofits for the next 25 years. This should be of interest to those who study the nonprofit sector, as well as to those who work within the public sector and are considering how to maintain and grow their organizations. See also O'Neill's The Third America: The Emergence of the Nonprofit Sector in the United States.

    Orosz, J. J. (2000). The insider's guide to grantmaking. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Joel Orosz is the senior program director in the Philanthropy and Volunteerism programming area of the

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan. In this guide, he provides a practical overview of the necessary skills for successful and ethical grantmaking. It provides a history of public foundations, as well as their function in society. It also looks at the day-to-day activities of program officers and offers advice on the wide variety of challenges they face. It's written primarily for this audience but is also of great value for other grant seekers. See also Orosz's Effective Foundation Management: 14 Challenges of Philanthropic Leadership—And How to Outfox Them.

    Orosz, J. J. (2007). Effective foundation management: 14 challenges of philanthropic leadership—And how to outfox them. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

    In Effective Foundation Management, the author presents “seven challenges” and “seven dilemmas” facing contemporary nonprofit foundations. It considers, for example, the problem of a lack of ideological cohesion within a foundation's staff and lack of an accepted body of good practices within a foundation. It also attempts to respond to questions foundations might face such as whether to be expert based or community based, or whether to be high profile or low profile, or whether a foundation's energy should be turned toward innovation or implementation. The book is especially helpful for foundation managers, but anyone working within the nonprofit sector should find it of value. See also Orosz's The Insider's Guide to Grantmaking.

    Pallotta, D. (2008). Uncharitable: How restraints on nonprofits undermine their potential. Hanover, CT: University Press of New England,

    Dan Pallotta founded Pallotta Team-Works, the for-profit company that created the AIDS Rides and Breast Cancer 3-day events, which raised over half a billion dollars and netted %305 million in 9 years. This book is the author's response to media reports and other attacks questioning the act of spending so much money to raise money and the violation of the premise behind charitable organizations: low profile, low budget, and little or no profit. The book calls into question the fundamental canons of charity and argues that nonprofits must be allowed to use the tools of commerce to thrive and accomplish their missions.

    Payton, R. L., & Moody, M. P. (2008). Understanding philanthropy: Its meaning and mission. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Robert L. Payton served as the first director of the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. Michael Moody is assistant professor in the School of Policy, Planning, and Development at the University of Southern California. Together, they have written a book that explores both why philanthropy exists and what place it has in society. They draw on a wide range of examples, from the Good Samaritan to contemporary student volunteers, to make their case that philanthropy is action, voluntary moral action. The book also serves as an argument for further study of philanthropy and the incorporation of philanthropy into college curricula. The book will be of interest to both students of philanthropy and professionals, and grant seekers and grant-makers alike.

    Peters, T., & Waterman, B. (2001). Disney Institute “Be our guest”—Perfecting the art of customer service. New York: Disney Editions.

    This book outlines the various principles and processes on which the Disney company has built its worldwide empire, specifically around perfecting the art of customer service. The strategies, tactics, and real-life examples presented are geared toward helping an organization focus its vision and assemble its people and systems with a cohesive strategy that focuses primarily on the concept of “exceptional customer service.” This book would resonate with managers or leaders wishing to enhance the understanding and implementation of superior customer service.

    Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Putnam, a Harvard professor, asks in this book why some democratic governments succeed while others fail. To answer his question, he addresses a 1970 experiment in which Italy created new governments for each of its regions. His findings are far-reaching: A strong democratic government depends on a solid civic community and a virtuous citizenry; weak governments tend not to create wealth but to preserve poverty. He argues that civic community is created more by “secondary associations” and not so much by the central government. This book will be of interest to those studying the creation and preservation of democracy. See also Putnam's Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community.

    Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Harvard professor Robert Putnam argues in this book that Americans since 1960 have become increasingly disconnected from one another and their communities.

    Drawing on surveys and interviews, Putnam explores the various ways in which civic involvement in America has changed over the last quarter century. He argues that social engagement is a cause of, not a result of, social circumstances. In the second half of the book, Putnam addresses the negative consequences of America's social disengagement and concludes by looking at the large social movements of the early part of the 20th century and considering what the country needs to restore a sense of social engagement and community. This book will be of interest to sociologists and academics studying patterns of social engagement, community activism, and philanthropy. See also Putnam's Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy.

    Pynes, J. E. (2004). Human resources management for public and nonprofit organizations (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Human resources are essential to any organization, and understanding this field better will promote a more successful organization. Joan Pynes describes how strategic human resource management is critical to the ever-changing environment that nonprofits face. This edition offers guidance on budgeting and compensation. It also assists practitioners in navigating the current legal and technological challenges.

    Quinn, R. E., Faerman, S. R., Thompson, M. P., McGrath, M., & St. Clair, L. S. (2007). Becoming a master manager: A competing values approach (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

    The book emphasizes the importance of managerial skills, which are imperative in the diverse situations and challenges we face in the organization. It also focuses on the management practices and organization of those practices in a theoretically valid framework of managerial competency with the knowledge and application of the four critical actions: compete, collaborate, control, and create. Students in nonprofit and public administration as well as students of business administration, will find tools to assist them in understanding their competing values by learning the eight interactive learning modules covering different leadership roles, including director, producer, mentor, facilitator, coordinator, monitor, innovator, and broker.

    Reinelt, C., Foster, P., & Sullivan, S. (2002). Evaluating outcomes and impacts: A scan of 55 leadership development programs. Brookline, MA: Development Guild/DDI.

    The authors present a typology of outcomes for leadership development programs, including outcomes at the individual, organizational, community, field, and systemic levels. They present a range of methods and approaches for conducting program evaluation, sources of information for evaluations, and challenges faced by evaluators. Over 54 leadership programs were evaluated. Not only practitioners and managers in private corporations but also students in public administration will be benefitted by this book.

    Robbins, D. (2009). Understanding Research Methods: A Guide for the Public and Nonprofit Manager. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

    Many leaders in organizations are faced with quickly reviewing large amounts of information and are asked to use what they learn to make informed decisions. These decisions may have lasting implications for organizations. Learning how to quickly and thoroughly go through massive amounts of information is a skill that leaders need to learn. Discerning valuable information is a vital skill of decision making. This useful text can be used by students and professionals in the nonprofit, public, and private sectors.

    Rosso, H. A. (1991). Achieving excellence in fund raising: A comprehensive guide to principles, strategies, and method. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Henry A. Rosso is the founder of The Fund Raising School, a program of the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. This is a guide to successful fundraising. The author considers each step in a successful fundraising cycle: assessing needs, setting goals, researching markets, soliciting new donors, and encouraging repeat donors. At every step, Rosso considers the reasoning behind the strategies and the principles behind the techniques. This book will be of interest to anyone involved in public-sector fundraising. See also Rosso on Fund Raising: Lessons from a Master's Lifetime Experience.

    Rosso, H. A. (1996). Rosso on fund raising: Lessons from a master's lifetime experience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Henry A. Rosso is the founder of The Fund Raising School, a program of the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. In this book, Rosso identifies the five essential steps of fundraising: analysis, planning, execution, control, and evaluation. Considering case studies and real-life examples, Rosso offers insights from his five decades of experience fundraising for nonprofits. It should be of interest to anyone involved in public-sector fundraising. See also Rosso's Achieving Excellence in Fund Raising: A Comprehensive Guide to Principles, Strategies, and Methods.

    Salamon, L. M. (1999). America's nonprofit sector: A primer. New York: Foundation Center.

    Lester M. Salamon is the director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies. In this book, Salamon considers the structure, scope, and the evolving role of nonprofits in society. By putting the nonprofit sector in context with the government and business sector, he shows how the nonprofit sector has changed over time. He looks at the role of nonprofits in health care, education, legal service, international aid, recreation, advocacy, and social services. He also includes material on different types of tax-exempt institutions and foundations. This book is of interest to anyone working within or interested in the nonprofit sector. See also Salamon's The Resilient Sector: State of Nonprofit America.

    Salamon, L. M. (2003). The resilient sector: State of nonprofit America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

    Lester M. Salamon is the director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies. In this book, Salamon assesses the state of nonprofit institutions today—their significance, impact, health, and future—and considers the changes that might be necessary to ensure the long-term security of those institutions. In considering the challenges that nonprofits face today, Salamon discusses competition, the fiscal health of nonprofits, staffing issues, and the effect on nonprofits of evolving technology. In considering achievements and opportunities, Salamon looks at overall nonprofit sector growth, the dramatic changes in charitable fundraising over the last 2 decades, and the influence of market culture on nonprofit institutions. This book is of interest to both academic students of the nonprofit sector and nonacademic participants in that sector. See also Salamon's America's Nonprofit Sector: A Primer.

    Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This book focuses on the crucial role that leaders play in helping to implement the principles of culture in order to reach organizational goals. The author goes on to show readers how to identify, nurture, and shape the culture of their organizations at any stage and thus presents new practices and information from the field. Key focus areas are understanding team and organizational dynamics, influence of new technology, managing cross-cultural boundaries as well as data relative to overcoming resistance to internal change. This content would be informative to anyone in a leadership position who desires to create and maintain a strong organizational culture that rewards and encourages the collective effort.

    Schervish, P. G. (Ed.). (1994). Wealth in Western thought: The case for and against riches. Westport, CT: Praeger.

    This text is based on a series of discussions held at an interdisciplinary seminar at Boston College in 1989 and 1990. These essays explore America's contemporary “doctrine of wealth” by considering such diverse source material as Ancient Greece, the New Testament, and modern philanthropical organizations. Together, the individual essays, and the collection as a whole, attempt to frame a new debate on wealth and the wealthy in America. See also other books by Schervish: Taking Giving Seriously: Beyond Noble Intentions to Responsible Giving (with Dean and Sherman); Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations (with Gates and Hodgkinson); Gospels of Wealth: How the Rich Portray Their Lives (with Lewis and Coutsoukis); and Wealth and the Will of God: Discerning the Use of Riches in the Service of Ultimate Purpose (with Whitaker).

    Schervish, P. G., Dean, P., & Sherman, L. (Eds.). (1993). Taking giving seriously: Beyond noble intentions to responsible giving. Bloomington: Indiana University Center on Philanthropy.

    In this collection of academic and personal essays, authors consider how to share resources—money and time, for example—wisely and justly. See also other books by Schervish: Wealth in Western Thought: The Case for and Against Riches; Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations (with Gates and Hodgkinson); Gospels of Wealth: How the Rich Portray Their Lives (with Lewis and Coutsoukis); and Wealth and the Will of God: Discerning the Use of Riches in the Service of Ultimate Purpose (with Whitaker).

    Schervish, P. G., Gates, M., & Hodgkinson, V. (Eds.). (1995). Care and community in modern society: Passing on the tradition of service to future generations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This is a collection of 22 essays by scholars and practitioners regarding how the traditions of a caring society are transferred to future generations. It explores how people become involved and committed to caring for others and the impact such care has on our civic, ethical, and spiritual traditions. Contributors represent a cross-section of disciplines including psychology, religious studies, and public policy and leadership from within community organizations, youth groups, and the government. The essays examine topics such as involving children in philanthropy and volunteerism, an exploration of leadership education in the United States, and how institutions impact the evolution of a caring society. This book would be of interest to scholars, nonprofit executives, fundraisers, and students. See also other books by Schervish: Wealth in Western Thought: The Case for and Against Riches; Taking Giving Seriously: Beyond Noble Intentions to Responsible Giving (with Dean and Sherman); Gospels of Wealth: How the Rich Portray Their Lives (with Lewis and Coutsoukis); and Wealth and the Will of God: Discerning the Use of Riches in the Service of Ultimate Purpose (with Whitaker).

    Schervish, P. G., Lewis, E., & Coutsoukis, P. E. (Eds.).

    (1994). Gospels of wealth: How the rich portray their lives. Westport, CT: Praeger.

    This collection of essays attempts to develop a new sociology of wealth, one that goes beyond traditional theories. Its individual chapters allow 12 different Americans to explore, relatively directly, how their financial and spiritual lives intertwine. Chapters such as “What It's Really Like to Be Born Rich” and “Them With the Gold Makes the Rules” offer opportunities for academics in sociology, philanthropy, economic life, and cultural studies to consider a new theoretical framework for understanding wealth and the wealthy. See also other books by Schervish: Wealth in Western Thought: The Case for and Against Riches; Taking Giving Seriously: Beyond Noble Intentions to Responsible Giving (with Dean and Sherman); Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations (with Gates and Hodgkinson); and Wealth and the Will of God: Discerning the Use of Riches in the Service of Ultimate Purpose (with Whitaker).

    Schervish, P. G., & Whitaker, A. K. (2010). Wealth and the will of God: Discerning the use of riches in the service of ultimate purpose. Bloomington: Indiana

    University Press.

    Schervish and Whitaker, professors at Boston College, consider in this book the various Christian spiritual resources that might aid in reflection on wealth and charity. The text begins with Aristotle before moving on to early Christian thinkers, as well as Luther, Calvin, and Jonathan Edwards. The individual chapters should inspire contemporary readers to consider the purpose of love, charity, friendship, and human life. It also looks at ways to connect what we can know about the spiritual foundations of charity with contemporary social needs. See also other books by Schervish: Wealth in Western Thought: The Case for and Against Riches; Taking Giving Seriously: Beyond Noble Intentions to Responsible Giving (with Dean and Sherman); Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations (with Gates and Hodgkinson); and Gospels of Wealth: How the Rich Portray Their Lives (with Lewis and Coutsoukis).

    Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

    Peter Senge is the founder of the Center for Organizational Learning at MIT's Sloan School of Management. In this book, he explains methods for converting companies into “learning organizations.” He covers the “five disciplines” of such organizations, including “personal mastery,” “team learning,” and “systems thinking” (the fifth discipline itself). He also explores the problems currently facing companies and their employees and covers his “eleven laws of the fifth discipline,” including his assertions that behavior may grow worse before it grows better and that, sometimes, the cure is worse than the disease. It will be of interest to executives of both nonprofit and for-profit organizations looking for new ways to understand their organizations’ habits, performance, and future.

    Shafritz, J. M., Ott, J. S., & Jang, Y. S. (2005). Classics of organization theory (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Harcourt College.

    The Classics of Organization Theory is a collection of important works in organization theory written by some of the most influential authors in the field. Within this compilation are works that have stood the test of time and that tell the history of organization theory through the words of great theorists. It is meant to help those new to the field of organization theory understand and appreciate the important themes and perspectives that these theories present. Every chapter focuses on one major perspective or “school” of organization theory. This helps readers learn the theories one perspective at a time. This is a reader-friendly book of theories that have been not only shortened from previous editions but also edited to help readers focus on the central ideas that make these works classics. The Classics of Organization Theory is meant for students, those new to the field, and people who want to be refreshed in the organization theory classics.

    Simmons, A. (2006). The story factor—Inspiration, influence, and persuasion through the art of storytelling. New York: Perseus Books Group.

    In this revised edition of the original 2001 version, the author revisits with readers her concept that “the oldest tool of influence is also the most powerful.” The book showcases over 100 examples of effective storytelling drawn from business and governmental sectors as well as myths, fables, and parables from all over the world. The author uses these examples to show how the story can be used to persuade, motivate, and inspire in ways that cold facts, bullet points, and directives cannot. The book's step-by-step storytelling guide reveals how an ancient art can achieve very modern goals in today's society. Key bits of information included in the book's content include the definition of a story, how to tell a good story, story listening as a tool of influence, storyteller dos and don'ts, and story thinking as a skill. This book would assist anyone interested in learning about unique and creative ways to influence, motivate, and inspire, specifically through the act of storytelling.

    Steinberg, R., & Powell, W. (Eds.). (2006). The nonprofit sector: A research handbook. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    Walter Powell is professor of education and organizational behavior, sociology, and communications at Stanford University. Richard Steinberg is professor of economics, philanthropic studies, and public affairs at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. This collection of papers and articles addresses the history and scope of the nonprofit sector, the relationship between nonprofits and the marketplace, key roles played by nonprofits in society, who participates in nonprofits and why, and the mission and governance of nonprofits. The book is of interest to anyone involved in managing a nonprofit or engaged in research on nonprofits.

    Summerville, B., & Setterberg, F. (2008). Grassroots philanthropy: Field notes of a maverick grantmaker. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books.

    Bill Summerville is the founder of Philanthropic Ventures Foundation. Fred Setterberg has coauthored several books on philanthropy. In this book, Summerville, with Setterberg, argues for a new approach to philanthropy. He urges a drastic reduction in the bureaucracy that tends to bog down so many foundations. He asks why, instead of having to climb the mountains of paperwork that characterize traditional philanthropical organizations, philanthropists cannot simply engage with their communities, find individuals who are doing recognizably great work, and fund those projects. He argues that foundations need to stop summing up what's wrong and start acting, quickly, efficiently, and decisively, to create what's right. This book is of interest to community leaders and activists and philanthropists.

    Tempel, E. R. (Ed.). (2002). Understanding donor dynamics: The organizational side of charitable giving: New directions for philanthropic fundraising. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    The individual chapters in this collection cover consideration of such topics as how to build a donor-focused community foundation, how to increase donor loyalty, and the major waves of change affecting philanthropy in the United States. Together, they reflect a concern with the wants and needs of donors, the growth of philanthropy in the late 20th century, and the evolution of economic theory as it relates to philanthropy. This should be of interest to those studying American philanthropy, as well as nonprofit fundraisers, or those serving as executive officers for philanthropical institutions.

    Tempel, E. R. (2003). Hank Rosso's achieving excellence in fund raising (2nd ed.). (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Fundraising is a critical component to supporting a successful nonprofit organization. Hank Rosso's Achieving Excellence in Fund Raising provides a conceptual foundation for the fundraising profession. This book examines the profession's strategies, principles, and methods and provides advice and tips guided by the fundraising master, Henry A. Rosso. Meant for students interested in fund development, current and potential professionals within the field, and nonprofit organizations, this book is filled with strategies for a vast array of fundraising activities. Providing information on topics such as developing a case for support, approaching donors, managing campaigns, and practicing stewardship, this is a tool that will help professionals develop better fund-development techniques. This book is easy to read and navigate, making it a valuable resource to many current and potential funddevelopment professionals and nonprofits in the sector.

    Tocqueville, A. de. (2000). Democracy in America: The complete and unabridged volumes I and II. New York: Bantam Classics.

    Democracy in America, first published in 1835 and based on de Tocqueville's travels through the United States in the 1830s, is a study of the national character and government of the early 19th century. He writes of the significant effect of majority rule on the rights and liberties of the individual, as well as the need for elected officials to be not only responsible to their constituents, but also moral and virtuous toward them. Students and scholars of American democracy and the American character will be interested in this collection.

    Van Til, J. (2000). Growing civil society: From nonprofit sector to third space. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Jon Van Til is professor of Urban Studies and Community Planning at Rutgers University. In this text, Van Til argues that the “third space,” the part of society occupied by volunteer organizations and the various individuals and groups that work together for the good of that society, is, has been, and will be critical in furthering the common good. Van Til considers the ways these nonprofit (and typically nongovernmental) organizations contribute to the common good and the role he sees them playing, potentially, in the future. See also Van Til's Mapping the Third Sector: Voluntarism in a Changing Social Economy.

    Van Til, J. (2000). Mapping the third sector: Voluntarism in a changing social economy. New York: Foundation Center.

    Jon Van Til is professor of Urban Studies and Community Planning at Rutgers University. He attempts, in this book, to define the field of voluntarism in contemporary society and explore the relation of voluntary action to the business sector, the government, and modern households. He recognizes that American society is changing, that the social economy is changing, and attempts to grapple with those changes as they relate to voluntarism. The book will be of most interest to academics in the field. See also Van Til's Growing Civil Society: From Nonprofit Sector to Third Space.

    Warwick, M. (2008). How to write successful fundraising letters (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Fund development is an important task for nonprofit organizations and Warwick offers advice on how to get results. This book is meant for students wanting to learn about fund development, new professionals in the field, and those wanting to be refreshed on the fundamentals of fundraising. Warwick outlines how to plan campaigns; how to compose, phrase, and punctuate appeals; and how to conduct follow-ups. Providing a vast array of examples and case studies, he offers solid advice and analysis. In addition, Warwick supplies a variety of thank you letters and solicitation letters. This is an effective and easy-to-follow overview of fund development and the steps needed to become successful in fundraising.

    Weisbrod, B. A. (2000). To profit or not to profit: The commercial transformation of the nonprofit sector. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    The book is a great contribution to understanding the trend in nonprofit organizations of adopting the model of for-profit private firms and the consequences of commercialization, including acknowledging the often unseen harmful effects. Nonprofits are becoming increasingly like private firms and the growing financial dependence is moving from charitable donations to commercial sales activity. This book is a coordinated set of studies of the growing tendency of the third sector on user fees and revenue from ancillary activities that do not contribute directly to the organizational mission. Weisbrod has brought attention to important research that will help us define and understand these new relationships. The book concludes with recommendations for research and public policy.

    Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., & Newcomer, K. E. (2004). Handbook of practical program evaluation (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    The ability for nonprofit organizations to demonstrate results is increasing in importance to funders. This book offers economical and efficient methods for assessing program results and helps to identify approaches to improve program performance. The handbook is meant for students, professionals in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors, or for those simply wanting to learn more about how to effectively analyze programs. Including methods for analyzing evaluation data, the handbook covers how to select and train evaluators, the standards and ethics involved in evaluation work, and the steps to increasing the usefulness of the evaluation results for program improvement. The handbook also informs the reader on selecting appropriate evaluation designs, how to select data procedures, and the future trends in program evaluation. This is a thorough overview of evaluation and how it can be used.

    Wooster, M. M. (2007). The great philanthropists and the problem of “Donor intent.” Washington, DC: Capital Research Center.

    This book addresses the continuing importance of the issue of donor intent and provides insight into how those who create charitable foundations can ensure that their wishes are carried out after their death. The author examines the entrepreneurship and charity of some of the best and least known founding fathers of philanthropy in the United States, including Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and Henry Ford. The book follows those cases in which donor intent was upheld and those in which it was not, including a number of cases in which donor intentions were completely violated. The executive summary provides a concise overview of the book.

    Wuthnow, R. (1993). Acts of compassion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Robert Wuthnow is Andlinger Professor of Social Sciences and Director of the Center for the Study of American Religion at Princeton. Wuthnow presents case studies and anecdotes from over 2,000 adults he surveyed across the country as he attempts to answer the question of why Americans volunteer. It is neither a history of philanthropy nor an argument for how to improve the function of philanthropical organizations but, instead, an honest attempt to understand different Americans’ motives for volunteering their time, energy, and money. It should be of particular interest to students of philanthropy and those active in volunteer work. See also Wuthnow's Learning to Care: Elementary Kindness in an Age of Indifference.

    Wuthnow, R. (1995). Learning to care: Elementary kindness in an age of indifference. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Robert Wuthnow is Andlinger Professor of Social Sciences and Director of the Center for the Study of American Religion at Princeton. In this book, Wuthnow asks how we learn to care and how we can inspire caring in others, especially in the young and especially when so many problems seem too vast for an individual to make a difference. In answering his questions, he draws on interviews and national surveys and presents his argument that compassion is learned. As such, he argues that it is through opportunities to volunteer to serve, whether through schools or through religious institutions, that young people develop a sense of the value of service. It is of particular interest to those working within volunteer organizations that work with young people. See also Wuthnow's Acts of Compassion.

    Wuthnow, R., & Hodgkinson, V. A. (Eds.). (1990). Faith and philanthropy in America: Exploring the role of religion in America's voluntary sector. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    This collection of essays, originating in a conference sponsored by the Independent Sector, will be of most interest to leaders of nonprofit associations, both religious and secular, as well as to scholars studying such organizations. The collection was written as an attempt to correct what is seen as a flaw in nonprofit study—that is, the general failure to include religious institutions in serious academic considerations of nonprofit institutions. The individual essays cover tax law, history, current case studies, and the potential future of religious nonprofits in order to argue that the theoretical divide between religious and secular nonprofit associations is only that: purely theoretical. See also Hodgkinson and Foley's The Civil Society Reader, and Schervish, Gates, and Hodgkinson's Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations.

    Ylvisaker, P. (1991). Family foundations now—and forever? The question of intergenerational succession. Washington, DC: Council on Foundations.

    This text is a resource that provides models for the successful operation of family foundations. It also provides different models for how families can negotiate intergenerational succession by considering the roles succeeding generations can play in the administration of a family foundation. It is of particular interest to those within such family foundations or those interested in setting up a multigenerational family foundation. See also Esposito's Conscience and Community: The Legacy of Paul Ylvisaker.

    Young, D. R. (2003). Effective economic decision-making by nonprofit organizations. New York: Foundation Center.

    This book is the first publication of the National Center on Nonprofit Enterprise (NCNE). Dennis R. Young is the director of the Nonprofit Studies Program at Stanford University and a former president and founding CEO of NCNE. The book provides practical guidelines for helping nonprofit managers to further their organization's mission while balancing the often competing interests of trustees, funders, government, and staff. It explores different factors of economic decision making including pricing, employee compensation, outsourcing, fundraising costs, investment and expenditure, commercial ventures, institutional collaboration, and Internet commerce. Chapters are based on the work of a task force that deliberated before the NCNE inaugural conference.

    Young, D. R. (Ed.). (2006). Financing nonprofits: Putting theory into practice. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

    This book represents the culmination of 3 years original research and thinking. It is based on the premise that nonprofit finance is fundamentally different than corporate or public-sector finance. It presents the work of many authors, identifying trends and underlying theories in the forms of support available for nonprofits, from individual contributions to debt financing. The editor, Dennis R. Young, director of the Nonprofit Studies Program at Stanford University and a former president and founding CEO of the National Center on Nonprofit Enterprise, weaves these writings together into a comprehensive theory of nonprofit finance and offers a set of principles for guiding the development of nonprofit portfolios. This book will be of interest to nonprofit CEOs, CFOs, trustees, and to scholars and students of nonprofit finance.

    Young, D. R., & Hammack, D. C. (Eds.). (1996). Nonprofit organizations in a market economy: Understanding new roles, issues, and trends. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

    This collection of essays explores nonprofit organizations and how they function in a market economy. Contributors address topics such as nonprofit organizations as alternatives and complements in a mixed economy, trade associations in the American political economy, how and why nonprofit organizations obtain capital, and what nonprofits and businesses can learn from each other. The target audience for this work includes administrators and policymakers. See also Anheier and Hammack's American Foundations: Roles and Contributions and Hammack's Making the Nonprofit Sector in the U.S.

    Journal Articles on Nonprofit Leadership

    Clegg, S. R. (1992). Postmodern management? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 5, 31—50.

    “Postmodern Management?” is a contextual and cross-cultural look at organizational structures and methods for dealing with change in Japan in comparison to the Western world. It claims that the Western world is centered in a modernist organizational structure that emphasizes unified theories rooted in class struggle, market forces, and classism while the Japanese model can be described as postmodern, focusing more on economic calculation, worker-centered strategy, and long-term goal investment. While the West is focused on growth and strategy, Japan, the author argues, is more focused on the organization as a learning collective worth investing in for core competency over capital gains. The article is written in a typically postmodern style with cultural references and wide historical scope. Its usefulness is in the depth of its cross-cultural analysis as a method of exploring alternatives to Western institutional paradigms.

    Cline, K. D. (2000). Defining the implementation problem: Organizational management versus cooperation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10, 551—571.

    Tackling the area of public policy implementation, Cline analyzes two implementation models to determine which strategy is best for nonprofits and how this affects the way change is approached. Using Goggin and colleagues’ communication model, which focuses on the organization management side of strategy, and the implementation regime framework, which prizes achieving cooperation, Cline evaluates implementation strategy based on 4 criteria. These include top-down versus bottom-up structure, the role of communication, level conflict or cooperation, and applicability to networks. His results show that the cooperation model works better in the nonprofit sector. Without a systematic understanding of the implementation of change, nonprofits will be blocked from moving forward with policies and programs. This article provides insight into the ways in which implementation studies can streamline the process.

    Ferres, N., & Connell, J. (2004). Emotional intelligence in leaders: An antidote for cynicism towards change? Strategic Change, 13, 61—71.

    Ferres and Connell focus on the emotional intelligence needed by leaders to reduce the level of employee cynicism and resistance to organizational change. They take a historical approach, summarizing challenges to change in organizations over the last 100 years. This is followed by a survey of employees to test the hypothesis that managers who are emotionally intelligent have reduced levels of change cynicism among their staffs. They define emotional intelligence using Goleman's ideas, stating that it is characterized by self-awareness, emotional recognition, self-regulation, motivation, and empathy. There results show that their hypothesis was correct and provides important information for people looking to find ways to manage change, increase leadership capabilities, and understand organizational relationships and culture.

    Grant, H. M., & Crutchfield, L. R. (2007, Fall). Creating high-impact nonprofits. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 32—41.

    Grant and Crutchfield outline six major myths about nonprofit management that are assumed to be necessary for success. These myths include perfect management, brand-name awareness, new ideas, textbook mission statements, good statistical standing, and large budgets. They counter these myths by describing the six services of high-impact nonprofits. These are service and advocacy, making markets work, inspiring evangelism, nurturing and cooperation with other nonprofits, adaptation, and sharing leadership. The authors then analyze 12 nonprofits that show outstanding effectiveness and exhibit these nontraditional characteristics. Their writing provides insight into innovative changes in the nonprofit sector and is a useful guide to changing long-held ideas about the necessity for an organization to be competitive and successful.

    Hoag, B. G., Ritschard, H. V., & Cooper, C. (2002). Obstacles to effective organizational change: The underlying reasons. Leadership ? Organizational Development Journal, 23, 6—15.

    This article is a summary of research methods and results for an exploratory survey conducted by the authors at a conference for the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development and the Institute of

    Management. The article begins with an explanation of existing research indicating that the factors most often blamed as obstacles for organizational change are external issues (cost, workload-staff, legislation). Their survey methods are explained and the results are described, showing that the most frequently cited impediments to organizational change are not external but rather internal structural issues including problems with leadership and management. This article shows that what we accept as “common knowledge” in the field of organizational management may, in fact, be part of the underlying structural faults themselves. Any study of changing trends in public administration would benefit from this article and its clear explanation of perceptions of barriers to change on the part of employees and the ways that those perceptions of poor leadership and noncommunicative management prevent smooth organizational transitions.

    Kong, E. (2007). The strategic importance of intellectual capital in the non-profit sector. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 8, 721—734.

    Eric Kong provides a discussion of the need for strong strategic management concepts that take into account the unique properties of nonprofit organizations. His article carefully examines the foundations and pros and cons of several of the most common of these concepts including resource-based view, balanced scorecard, and intellectual capital among others. He argues that given the need for nonprofits to be both competitive and operate under nontraditional business structures, it is intellectual capital (IC) that best serves the sector as a management strategy. IC uses nonfinancial indicators to measure the possibility of future successes, making nonprofits able to include their volunteer base, talent, donations, and so on in describing their prospective financial success. Kong provides a clear description of management concepts and shows clearly how each would function in a nonprofit context.

    Lemak, D. J. (2004). Leading students through the management theory jungle by following the path of the seminal theorists: A paradigmatic approach. Management Decision, 42, 1309—1325.

    In his article, Lemak explains the three major barriers to teaching organizational management (OM) and the problems with current teaching methods and proposes his solution to this problem. He states that the barriers are the amount and rapid pace of the body of knowledge in OM, the gap between practitioners and scholars, and the increasing diversity of the student body. It is his opinion, derived from Koontz, that we need to develop a paradigmatic approach to teaching OM, with an emphasis on context and history rather than chronology (which makes theory seems outdated and therefore of lesser value) and schools of thought (which provide little context or applicability). He attempts to structure this new approach around the ideas of natural law in the “hard” sciences, with a goal of reaching underneath what has changed over the years and finding what common threads exist. By using clear, simple language and avoiding jargon and arcane references, Lemak provides insights that would be valuable both to the organization management teacher but also to the struggling student who wishes to understand more about the epistemological practices of the discipline.

    Luthens, F. (2002). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 695—706.

    In this article, Luthens discusses new trends in positive psychology and the implications of new research in this field for application in organizational behavior theory. Luthens argues that, like psychology, organizational behavior theory has focused too heavily on the negative aspects of organizational change including leadership dysfunction and employee resistance. A discussion of new characteristics and states of being are described, and the development of a new model for studying organizational change is explained. The CHOSE model focuses on these new characteristics (confidence, hope, optimism, subjective well-being, and emotional intelligence) in order to establish new criteria for studying qualities that lead to successful change within organizations as a way of identifying who may be adaptable to transition. This article provides a counterpoint to the large body of work in organizational management theory focusing on the negative aspects of organizational structure-culture that inhibit change. It is a valuable article for showing new insights and point of views in how we view the development of methods for analyzing the likely success of implemented change.

    Norman, S., Luthans, B., & Luthans, K. (2005). The proposed contagion effect of hopeful leaders on the resiliency of employees and organizations. Journal of Leadership ? Organizational Studies, 12, 55—64.

    Norman and the Luthans build on the work of Fred Luthans and begin to shape the possible implications of positive organizational behavior theory. They suggest that there is a positive correlation between leadership that possesses the skills of hope and confidence and employees that are resilient and content during organizational transition periods. They claim that change is happening so rapidly and constantly now that we must develop new ways to think about coping skills in an institutional setting. They caution against superficial “theories” presented by the new genre of popular psychology management books but stress the need for solid research into ways of defining hope and resiliency in an effort to discover functional methods for creating it in an organizational environment. Their research is a straightforward discussion of new possibilities in the field of organizational management and an excellent starting point for those looking for ways to effectively implement change.

    Service, R. W. (2006). The development of strategic intelligence: A managerial perspective. International Journal of Management, 23, 61–77.

    While there is much discussion of emotional intelligence in modern organizational theory, Service chooses to focus on strategic intelligence. The author asserts that while strategic planning may be commonplace in organizations, strategic thinking requires training and is far rarer. Even strategic thinking is only a stepping-stone on the path to strategic leadership. He argues for a move away from the “mechanical process” of planning and introduces ways to develop it into a more human-focused skill. He describes a lengthy list of strategic commandments followed by a discussion of ways in which one can begin to hone the skills necessary to move from vision to situational success. This article, while not highly accessible, is useful for those who want to take a deeper look at the actual actions of planning and implementing goals within an organization.

    Bibliography

    The insights from the chapter authors in this handbook on nonprofit leadership are supported by generations of insight, research, and experience from scholars and reflective practitioners working to understand and improve both the philanthropic sector and the craft of leadership. You will find these references at the ends of each chapter, and I would encourage the reader to “dig deeper” by going to some of these sources directly. The following lists a few of the key readings mentioned across the chapters that can assist a nonprofit leader in the further understanding of the work of leading a third-sector organization. The list is only a very, very small sampling of the writings of individuals who care deeply and approach thoughtfully the ideas of leadership in the civil society sector. As you complete the readings in this handbook, you may wish to continue your investigation of the sector by delving into these works.

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    Drucker, P. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship: Practices and principles. New York: HarperCollins.
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    Drucker, P. F. (2003). The new realities. New York: Transaction.
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    Etzioni, A. (1993). The spirit of community. New York: Crown.
    Fleishman, J. (2007). The foundation: A great American secret. New York: Public Affairs.
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    Friedman, T. (2008). Hot, flat and crowded. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
    Fromm, E. (1955). Man for himself. New York: Rinehart.
    Frumkin, P. (2002). Civic and political engagement. In P.Frumkin, On being nonprofit: A conceptual and policy primer (pp. 29–63). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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    Gardner, J. W.Self-renewalFuturist3069–121996
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    Greenleaf, R. K. (1978). Servant, leader, & follower. New York: Paulist Press.
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    Greiner, L. (1998, May). Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. Harvard Business Review, 37–46.
    Hammack, D. C. (Ed). (1998). Making the nonprofit sector in the United States. Bloomfield: Indiana University Press.
    Heifetz, R. A., Grashow, A., & Linsky, M. (2009). The practice of adaptive leadership. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
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    3rd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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    Josephson, M. (1992). Ethics in grantmaking & grantseeking: Making philanthropy better. Marina Del Rey, CA: Joseph & Edna Josephson Institute of Ethics.
    Josephson, M. (2002). Making ethical decisions. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://josephsoninstitute.org/MED/index.html
    Josephson, M. (2002). The six pillars of character. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://josephsoninstitute.org/MED/MED-2sixpillars.html
    Karl, B. D.Katz, S.The American philanthropic foundation and the public sphere: 1890–1930Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy19236–2701981
    Katz, D., & Khan, R. L. (1966). Organizations and the system concept: The social psychology of organizations (pp. 14–20). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Kidder, R. M. (2009). How good people make tough choices: Resolving the dilemmas of ethical living (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Harper.
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    Light, P. C. (2002). Pathways to nonprofit excellence. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
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    Appendix B: Online Resources in the Nonprofit and Philanthropic Sector

    Journals and Publications

    Chronicle of Philanthropy (http://www.philanthropy.com)

    The Chronicle is published every other week and is a news source for people involved in the philanthropic enterprise. The website offers a summary of the contents of the current issue, a list of forthcoming conferences and workshops, job opportunities in the nonprofit world, and other relevant philanthropic information.

    Contributions Magazine (http://www.contributionsmagazine.com)

    This magazine is designed for those working or volunteering at charitable organizations in the United States. Its mission is to give helpful resources on all the sides of fundraising and organizational management. This magazine is published bimonthly (once every 2 months); however, users can find archived copies of past issues on the magazine website.

    Don Kramer's Nonprofit Issues (http://www.nonprofitissues.com)

    Nonprofit Issues is a national electronic newsletter of “Nonprofit Law You Need to Know.” It uses current federal and state cases to show readers the issues of critical importance to nonprofit executives and their advisers. Topics can range from federal tax, employment law, volunteer law, and board liability to corporate governance, foundation rules, charitable giving, insurance, and copyright and trademark.

    Foundation Review (http://www.foundationreview.org)

    The Foundation Review is the first peer-reviewed journal of philanthropy, written for and by foundation staff and boards. The mission is to “share evaluation results, tools, and knowledge about the philanthropic sector in order to improve the practice of grantmaking, yielding greater impact and innovation.” The Foundation Review is published quarterly and is a product of The Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University.

    International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/110481870/home)

    This journal is designed to be an international forum for peer-reviewed papers and case studies on the latest techniques, thinking, and best practices in marketing for the not-for-profit sector. The main sectors covered in this publication are the marketing of goods and services, fundraising, advertising and promotion, branding and positioning, campaigns and lobbying, ethics and fundraising, information technology and database management, sponsorship, public relations, and events management.

    Leader to Leader (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/73505673/home)

    This quarterly report is published on behalf of the Leader to Leader Institute (formerly the Drucker Foundation) and Jossey-Bass. Their purpose is to provide insight into what top executives and thought leaders are planning for, what they see as the major challenges ahead, and how they are dealing with current changes.

    Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly (http://nvs.sagepub.com)

    The Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly is an international, interdisciplinary journal dedicated to the study of nonprofit organizations, philanthropy, and voluntary action. This journal works to enrich the knowledge of nonprofit organizations, philanthropy, and voluntarism. It is published by Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA).

    Nonprofit Quarterly (http://www.nonprofitquarterly.org)

    This journal is designed to strengthen the role of nonprofit organizations to promote democratic values. The journal publishes management information and proven practices for nonprofits. Users can receive the quarterly journal report or can also sign up for a free e-newsletter.

    Nonprofit Times (http://www.nptimes.com)

    This publication is designed to be an online newspaper for people working in nonprofit management. It is a monthly publication that targets all issues of nonprofit management along with global current events and how they relate back to the nonprofit world.

    Nonprofit World Magazine (http://www.snpo.org)

    This magazine is published six times a year by the Society for Nonprofit Organizations. Its target is to provide hard-working nonprofit leaders with concise and practical articles that can be easily implemented into any nonprofit organization. In addition to current issues, members also have access to an online archive of over 700 printable articles.

    Philanthropy Journal (http://www.philanthropyjournal.org)

    The Philanthropy Journal is designed to help people understand, support, and work in the nonprofit and philanthropic world, while also assisting them to recognize and solve social problems. The journal offers a daily website and a free, weekly e-mail bulletin, which contains nonprofit news, resources, announcements, and job listings. The Philanthropy Journal is a program of the Institute for Nonprofits at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

    Philanthropy Journal Online (http://www.pnnonline.org)

    This online journal delivers news, information, and resources to all segments of the nonprofit world to help staff members better achieve their organization's goals. New content is featured each day on the website, along with a highly active job postings service.

    Stanford Social Innovation (http://www.ssireview.org)

    The journal's mission is to frontier the search for new and better ways of improving the world as a whole. The goal is to share substantive insights and practical experiences that will help those whose mission it is to improve society to perform even better.

    Third Sector (http://www.thirdsector.co.uk)

    This publication is for all people who like to be aware of all the changes in the voluntary and not-for-profit sector throughout the United Kingdom. The publication offers a weekly print version and an online newspaper for UK charities.

    VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.springerlink.com/content/104985)

    This is the official interdisciplinary international journal of the International Society for Third-Sector Research. It aims to be the central forum for worldwide research in the area between the state market and household sectors by presenting leading-edge academic arguments in a style that is accessible to both practitioners and policymakers. VOLUNTAS is essential reading for all those engaged in research into the Third Sector (voluntary and nonprofit organizations).

    Blogs and Forums and Wikis Discussing Volunteer Leadership

    Blogs are, by their nature, personal musings by the individuals who start them, but they can be excellent sources of useful information and new perspectives. This is particularly true if the person writing the blog has significant experience in the field and/or works in a position where he or she has an unusual opportunity to observe and reflect. Wikis are sites that engage visitors in collaborative writing and exchange, while Forums provide a more organized and often linear sharing of ideas among participants who sign on to be a part of the forum discussion.

    From the American Society of Association Management, “a veritable alphabet soup of ideas for the association community.”

    AL!VE: Association for Leaders in Volunteer Engagement (http://www.volunteeralive.org)

    This forum serves to enhance the character of volunteer meetings in America by promoting collaboration and networking and professional development and by providing advocacy for leaders involved in community engagement. The website features numerous updates and reports published by AL!VE.

    Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA) (http://www.arnova.org)

    This forum is dedicated to strengthening the research community in the emerging field of nonprofit and philanthropic studies. The organization brings together both theoretical and applied interests while providing access to research that professionals can use to improve the quality of life for their communities. Major activities of this organization include an annual conference, publications, electronic discussions, and special interest groups.

    The forum was founded in 1916. Today, it serves 47,000 Chicagoland association professionals whose efforts serve 37 million members and 9 million donors. This forum is designed to advance the professional practice of association management.

    Association of Volunteer Managers (http://www.volunteermanagers.org.uk/blog)

    This blog is maintained by the Association of Volunteer Managers (AVM). This association is an independent body that aims to support and represent people who manage volunteers in England regardless of field, discipline, or sector.

    This website contains blogs that are posted by different volunteers who engage in green causes throughout the world. The website has over 10 million contributing members.

    Chronicle of Philanthropy—“Give and Take” (http://philanthropy.com/giveandtake)

    This newspaper is a popular news source for nonprofit leaders, fundraisers, grantmakers, and other people involved in the philanthropic enterprise. The paper is available in print form and an online form. The online blog section of the online form, or e-newspaper, includes a lengthy list of blogs about the nonprofit world, many of which include volunteer-related issues.

    “Conversations from the Field of Volunteer Management” (http://www.volunteermaine.org/blog)

    This blog is written by various contributors from the VolunteerMaine Partnership and Maine Commission for Community Service. The Partnership was created to be an important vehicle in solving challenges faced by Maine's volunteer sector.

    Energize Book Blog (http://www.energizeinc.com/blog)

    This book blog was coordinated to give colleagues in the volunteer sector the opportunity to learn about and suggest management books.

    This blog is for organizations that wish to recruit and partner with volunteers to reach their organizations’ missions. The blog contains many articles that help organizations more effectively recruit and manage volunteers.

    Everyday Giving Blog (http://everydaygiving.typepad.com)

    This blog is all about different ways of giving to help others and impacting the world to make it a better place. The blog is published and maintained by Roger Carr.

    Have Fun—Do Good Blogspot (http://havefundogood.blogspot.com)

    This blog is a resource for people who want to give back and “do good” in their communities and throughout the world while also having fun.

    This blog is a free “social news” service for nonprofits. Users can vote on news links to decide which links are the most relevant and important for nonprofit organizations.

    This blog is a place for employees, interns, volunteers, and donors of nonprofit organizations. Users can rate their experiences working with, or donating to, nonprofits. The blog also discusses the trends in ratings of nonprofits, expert opinions, and more.

    This was one of the nonprofit field's first blogs. It is run by Jayne Cravens, who is an expert in online volunteering. The blog offers information on volunteerism, as well as nonprofit technological issues.

    This blog is written by Jill Fixler and others in her firm. The main focus is to help nonprofit organizations achieve excellence in volunteer engagement, strategic planning, and board and organizational assessment and development.

    New York Nonprofit Press—Volunteer Management Blog (http://www.nynp.biz/index.php/community-forums/234-alexandra-collier)

    This blog is written by experienced volunteer administration practitioner Alexandra Collier to explore challenges to the field and new program ideas.

    Nonprofit Commons Project (http://npsl.wikispaces.com)

    This is a virtual place of practice for nonprofits to explore the opportunities and benefits of using Second Life. This wiki provides documentation and other information not only for NP Commons tenants, but also for any nonprofit that is interested in learning about the different uses of Second Life.

    Nonprofit News and Comment (http://hausercenter.org/npnews)

    This blog from the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations at Harvard University surveys major newspapers and periodicals for important stories and links to a wide range of nonprofit news.

    Points of Light Blog (http://www.pointsoflight.org/blog)

    This blog is maintained by the Points of Light Institute and focuses on blogging about service and civic engagement.

    Realizing Your Worth (http://realizedworth.blogspot.com)

    This site is about helping business and nonprofits create and implement volunteer programs. The blog specifically focuses on corporate social responsibility and corporate volunteering.

    This tool from Youth Service America is for accessing current news, information, and grant opportunities from the service-learning and youth service fields.

    Social Citizens Blog (http://www.socialcitizens.org/blog)

    This blog is for people who consider themselves to be “social citizens,” which are those people who use technology as a gateway to make changes in and throughout their communities.

    Tactical Philanthropy (http://tacticalphilanthropy.com)

    This is the blog of Sean Stannard-Stockton, director of Tactical Philanthropy at Ensemble Capital Management. It is an open space for discussion of philanthropy and a chronicle of “The Second Great Wave of Philanthropy,” including some volunteer issues.

    This blog focuses on social networking to achieve a socially beneficial outcome while also charting the journey of a social idea from conception to reality.

    This is a blog for “all volunteers and volunteer managers” started in September 2006 by Greg Colby. It is a place where people can come to blog about issues or opinions and receive advice from others in the sector.

    Volunteer's Guide to Changing the World (http://how-torelay.blogspot.com)

    This blog is maintained by Mark Horoszowski and is based out of Seattle. It is a blogspot for volunteers to visit and receive assistance throughout the volunteer sector.

    Wendy Biro-Pollard's Volunteer Management Blog (http://wendybiro-pollard.com/category/volunteer-management)

    This website contains articles and insights from Wendy Biro-Pollard, a trainer and certified volunteer administrator with over 25 years of experience. The blog section focuses on helping those within the volunteer management field.

    Part of the excellent World Volunteer Web website, this blog offers a forum for both volunteers and managers. It contains information and resources linked to volunteerism that can be used for campaigning, advocacy, and networking.

    Appendix C: Nonprofit Organizations

    National Organizations
    Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Actions (http://www.arnova.org)

    The Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Actions is involved in advancing research and research practices in nonprofit and philanthropic studies. The mission of ARNOVA is to foster, through research and education, the creation, application, and dissemination of knowledge on nonprofit organizations, philanthropy, civil society, and voluntary action. Its website features its publications, the Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly and ARNOVA News, as well as a discussion forum.

    Association of Fund-Raising Professionals (http://www.afpnet.org)

    The Association of Fund-Raising Professionals embodies more than 30,000 members in 206 chapters throughout the world. The association works to evolve the philanthropy field. It works to do this through advocacy, research, education, and certification programs.

    GuideStar collects and maintains records of nonprofits to facilitate engagement among nonprofits and the public, as well as collects vital information that is matched with other sources to form comprehensive nonprofit information. Participating organizations are able to use its website to update organizational information that is reflected in its reviews and publications. In addition to data collection and analysis tools, the website contains publications on the nonprofit sector, as well as current news and trusted blogs.

    Independent Sector is composed of nearly 600 organizations that seek to fulfill the mission of advancing the common good by leading, strengthening, and mobilizing the charitable community. Its website features independent work that highlights major areas within the nonprofit sector such as giving and volunteering, annual reporting and auditing, financial responsibility, ethics, and bylaws. Member organizations can use Independent Sector's resources to further their advocacy missions, collaborate on key issues facing the nonprofit sector, and inform their organizations’ work.

    National Association of Volunteer Programs in Local Government (NAVPLG) (http://www.navplg.org)

    NAVPLG focuses primarily on the unique needs of volunteer programs within the structure of local, city, and county governments. The organization strives to provide resources and promote ways in which volunteerism can strengthen government programs at the local, city, and county levels.

    National Council of Nonprofits (http://www.nycon.org)

    The National Council of Nonprofits is a network of state and regional nonprofit associations working together to initiate greater change with a more unified voice. Local organizations not only have easier access to national audiences, but also are aided in management, policy, and many other areas through this collaborative, nonprofit sector council. The website features links to individual states’ nonprofit associations, as well as links to nonprofit resources representing the best practices in key areas, such as administration and management, marketing, fundraising, governance, and policy.

    National Organizations Volunteerism Network (NOVN) (http://www.nassembly.org/nassembly/novn.htm)

    This is an online network for volunteer management professionals that are part of the nation's nonprofits in the fields of health, human and community development, and human services. The network is an opportunity for users to share knowledge and expertise about their work in the nonprofit health sector.

    Nonprofit Technology Network (NTen) (http://www.nten.org)

    This organization is a membership organization for nonprofit technology professionals. Its mission is to help all nonprofits use technology more efficiently and effectively in their organizations. NTen networks nonprofits with one another and facilitates programs and discussions for nonprofit technology professionals.

    Urban Institute (http://www.urban.org)

    The Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to improve social, civic, and economic well-being. The Urban Institute's main webpage provides information on current projects, recent publications, and special events and provides research resources to foster sound public policy and effective government. In addition, the Urban Institute provides in-depth state, regional, and national reports and statistics on advocacy, charity, community, service, and faith-based nonprofits.

    State Associations

    Alliance of Arizona Nonprofits (http://www.arizonanonprofits.org)

    Arkansas Coalition for Excellence (http://www.acenonprofit.org)

    California Association of Nonprofits (http://www.canonprofits.org)

    Center for Non-Profit Corporations (New Jersey) (http://www.njnonprofits.org)

    Colorado Nonprofit Association (http://www.coloradononprofits.org)

    Connecticut Association of Nonprofits (http://www.ctnonprofits.org)

    Delaware Association of Nonprofit Agencies (http://www.delawarenonprofit.org)

    Donors Forum (http://www.donorsforum.org)

    Hawai'i Alliance of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.hano-hawaii.org)

    Idaho Nonprofit Center (http://www.idahononprofits.org)

    Iowa Nonprofit Resource Center (nonprofit.law.uiowa.edu)

    Louisiana Association of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.lano.org)

    Maine Association of Nonprofits (http://www.nonprofitmaine.org)

    Maryland Association of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.marylandnonprofitsorg)

    Massachusetts Council of Human Service Providers (http://www.providers.org)

    Michigan Nonprofit Association (http://www.mnaonline.org)

    Minnesota Council of Nonprofits (http://www.mncn.org)

    Mississippi Center for Nonprofits (http://www.msnonprofits.org)

    Montana Nonprofit Association (http://www.mtnonprofit.org)

    New Hampshire Center for Nonprofits (http://www.nhnonprofits.org)

    New York Council of Nonprofits (http://www.nycon.org)

    Nonprofit Association of Oregon (http://www.nonprofitoregon.org)

    Nonprofit Association of the Midlands (http://www.nonprofitam.org)

    Nonprofit Coordinating Committee of New York (http://www.npccny.org)

    Nonprofit Leadership Initiative (http://www.kynonprofits.org)

    Nonprofit Resource Center of Alabama (http://www.nrca.info)

    North Carolina Center for Nonprofits (http://www.ncnonprofits.org)

    North Dakota Association of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.ndano.org)

    Northwest Nonprofit Resources (http://www.nnr.org)

    Oklahoma Center for Nonprofits (http://www.oklahomacenterfornonprofits.org)

    Pennsylvania Association of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.pano.org)

    South Carolina Association of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.scanpo.org)

    Texas Association of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.tano.org)

    Utah Nonprofits Association (http://www.utahnonprofits.org)

    Virginia Network of Nonprofit Organizations (http://www.vanno.org)

    Wisconsin Nonprofits Association (http://www.wisconsinnonprofits.org)

    Grantmaking Foundations: National Organizations and Resources
    Association of Small Foundations (http://www.smallfoundations.org)

    The Association of Small Foundations (ASF) serves the needs of foundations and grantmaking organizations with few or no staff. As a membership organization, the association provides its constituents with targeted resources, trainings, peer-learning opportunities, and ongoing support. With over 3,000 foundation members, they are currently the largest foundation-support organization in the country.

    Council on Foundations (http://www.cof.org)

    The Council on Foundations (COF) is a national nonprofit association comprised of grantmaking foundations and corporations. COF provides its members with services, publications, and resources related to all aspects of foundation management on a national and international level. The council operates on principles of stewardship, accountability, transparency, diversity and inclusiveness, governance, and respect.

    Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University (http://www.gvsu.edu/jcp/)

    The Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University (GVSU) (JCP) is a university-based academic center on philanthropy with programs in undergraduate and graduate education in nonprofit leadership, nonprofit professional development, applied social research and mapping, and professional resources for grantmakers. The professional grantmaker resources include the Grantmaking School (a series of professional development workshops), the Foundation Review (a national peer-reviewed journal for grantmakers), and the Frey Chair in Family Foundations and Philanthropy.

    Forum of Regional Association of Grantmakers (http://www.givingforum.org/s_forum/index.asp)

    The Forum of Regional Association of Grantmakers is a national network of regional associations from across the United States. The forum provides support and resources to regional associations of grantmakers to ensure that they fulfill their missions and promote their growth and effectiveness. Additionally, the forum provides training and workshops for its members, as well as identifying giving trends in the sector.

    Foundation Center (http://foundationcenter.org)

    The Foundation Center was founded in 1956 and is a leading authority in the philanthropic and nonprofit sector. Its audiences include grant seekers, grantmakers, researchers, policymakers, the media, and the general public. The center maintains a comprehensive database on U.S. grantmaking organizations and their grants; issues a wide variety of print, electronic, and online information resources; conducts and publishes research on trends in foundation growth, giving, and practice; and offers an array of training and educational programs.

    A project of the Ford Foundation, GrantCraft has been providing grantmakers with resources and publications since 2001. Drawing on the expertise, opinions, and experiences of hundreds of grantmakers, GrantCraft has developed a series of materials around topics such as evaluation, equity and social change, personal strategy, and much more. GrantCraft resources are available as online downloads, printed guides, videos, and workshops.

    Grantmakers for Effective Organizations (http://www.geofunders.org)

    Grantmakers for Effective Organizations (GEO) promotes grantmaking practices that help to build stronger nonprofits and improve results. Based in Washington, D.C., this membership-based coalition of over 350 grantmakers provides resources, publications, professional development opportunities, and a biennial national conference. GEO's priorities include learning strategies, leadership development, financial sustain-ability, and stakeholder engagement.

    The Grantamaking School is the first university-based, professional development program for advanced grant-makers. Offerings include Advanced Proposal Analysis and Advanced Grant Portfolio Management courses focused on developing and improving on key skill sets in grantmaking. The Grantmaking School's courses are designed to address the complex work of foundation grantmaking professionals who are central to their organization's effectiveness. The Grantmaking School is a program of the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University.

    National Center for Family Philanthropy (http://www.ncfp.org)

    The mission of the National Center for Family Philanthropy is to promote philanthropic values, vision, and excellence across generations of philanthropists and their families. The center's work is based on the fundamental belief in the value of philanthropy and the ongoing participation of the donor and the donor's family. The National Center was founded in response to the need for a full-time national resource dedicated to serving the needs of families in philanthropy. The center's staff has expertise in governance, grantmaking, planning, evaluation, and more.

    Grantmaking Foundations: State and Regional Associations

    Arizona Grantmakers Forum (http://www.azgrantmakers.org)

    Associated Grant Makers (http://www.agmconnect.org)

    Association of Baltimore Area Grantmakers (http://www.abagmd.org)

    Colorado Association of Funders (http://www.coloradofunders.org)

    Conference of Southwest Foundations (http://www.c-s-f.org)

    Connecticut Council for Philanthropy (http://www.ctphilanthropy.org)

    Council of Michigan Foundations (http://www.michiganfoundations.org)

    Council of New Jersey Grantmakers (http://www.cnjg.org)

    Delaware Valley Grantmakers (http://www.dvg.org)

    Donors Forum (http://www.donorsforum.org)

    Donors Forum of South Florida (http://www.donorsforumsf.org)

    Donors Forum of Wisconsin (http://www.dfwonline.org)

    Florida Philanthropic Network (http://www.fpnetwork.org)

    Grantmakers Forum of New York—Rochester (http://www.grantmakers.org)

    Grantmakers of Oregon and Southwest Washington (http://www.gosw.org)

    Grantmakers of Western Pennsylvania (http://www.gwpa.org)

    Indiana Grantmakers Alliance (http://www.indianagrantmakers.org)

    Iowa Council of Foundations (http://www.iowacounciloffoundations.org)

    Maine Philanthropy Center (http://www.mainephilanthropy.org)

    Minnesota Council on Foundations (http://www.mcf.org)

    New Mexico Association of Grantmakers (http://www.nmag.org)

    Northern California Grantmakers (http://www.ncg.org)

    Ohio Grantmakers Forum (http://www.ohiograntmakers.org)

    Philanthropy New York—New York City (http://www.philanthropynewyork.org)

    Philanthropy Northwest (http://www.philanthropynw.org)

    San Diego Grantmakers (http://www.sdgrantmakers.org)

    Southeastern Council on Foundations (http://www.secf.org)

    Southern California Grantmakers (http://www.socalgrantmakers.org)

    Washington Regional Association of Grantmakers (http://www.washingtongrantmakers.org)

    Western New York Grantmakers Association—Buffalo (http://www.wnygrantmakers.org)

    Council on Foundations: Grantmaker Affinity Groups Africa Grantmakers’ Affinity Group

    Phone: 540—878—5015 Fax: 540—347—3405 http://www.africagrantmakers.orginfo@africagrantmakers.org

    Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy

    Phone: 415—273—2760 Fax: 415—273—2765 http://www.aapip.orgaapip@aapip.org

    Association of Black Foundation Executives

    Phone: 646—230—0306 Fax: 212—747—9320 http://www.abfe.orgstoomer@abfe.org

    CFLeads (Community Foundations Leading Change)

    Phone: 800—292—6149 Fax: 816—468—1698 http://www.cfleads.orgmartha@cfleads.org

    Communications Network

    Phone: 630—328—2857 Fax: 917—677—4769 http://www.comnetwork.orginfo@comnetwork.org

    Consortium of Foundation Libraries (CFL)

    Phone: 317—278—2329 http://www.foundationlibraries.org/bburk@iupui.edu

    Disabilities Funders Network

    Phone: 703—795—9646 Fax: 804—794—7852 http://www.disabilityfunders.orgkhutchinson@disabilityfunders.org

    Environmental Grantmakers Association

    Phone: 646—747—2655 Fax: 646—747—2656 http://www.ega.orgega@ega.org

    Funders’ Committee for Civic Participation

    Phone: 503—724—2922 http://www.funderscommittee.orgdross@publicinterestprojects.org

    Funders Concerned about AIDS

    Phone: 718—875—0251 http://www.fcaaids.orginfo@fcaaids.org

    Funders for Lesbian and Gay Issues

    Phone: 212—475—2930 Fax: 212—475—2532 http://www.lgbtfunders.orginfo@lgbtfunders.org

    Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities

    Phone: 305—667—6350 Fax: 305—667—6355 http://www.fundersnetwork.orginfo@fundersnetwork.org

    Funders Network on Population, Reproductive Health & Rights

    Phone: 301—294—4157 Fax: 301—294—4158 http://www.fundersnet.orginfo@fundersnet.org

    Funders Together to End Homelessness

    Phone: 617—236—2244 http://www.funderstogether.orgjason@melvilletrust.org

    Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees

    Phone: 707—824—4374 http://www.gcir.orginfo@gcir.org

    Grantmakers for Children, Youth & Families

    Phone: 301—589—4293 Fax: 301—589—4289 http://www.gcyf.orginfo@gcyf.org

    Grantmakers for Education

    Phone: 503—595—2100 Fax: 503—595—2102 http://www.edfunders.orginformation@edfunders.org

    Grantmakers in Aging

    Phone: 937—435—3156 Fax: 937—435—3733 http://www.giaging.orgcfarquhar@giaging.org

    Grantmakers in Film + Electronic Media

    Phone: 410—675—4024 http://www.gfem.orginfo@gfem.org

    Grantmakers in Health

    Phone: 202—452—8331 Fax: 202—452—8340 http://www.gih.orginfo@gih.org

    Grantmakers in the Arts

    Phone: 206—624—2312 Fax: 206—624—5568 http://www.giarts.orggia@giarts.org

    Grants Managers Network

    Phone: 202—329—7670 Fax: 504—837—4274 http://www.gmnetwork.orginfo@gmnetwork.org

    Grassroots Grantmakers

    Phone: 361—798—1808 http://www.grassrootsgrantmakers.orginfo@grassrootsgrantmakers.org

    Hispanics in Philanthropy

    Phone: 415—837—0427 Fax: 415—837—1074 http://www.hiponline.orginfo@hiponline.org

    International Funders for Indigenous People

    Phone: 518—358—9500 Fax: 518—358—9544 http://www.internationalfunders.orgifip@internationalfunders.org

    International Human Rights Funders Group

    Phone: 212—609—2631 Fax: 212—609—2633 http://www.ihrfg.orginfo@ihrfg.org

    Jewish Funders Network

    Phone: 212—726—0177 Fax: 212—594—4292 http://www.jfunders.orgjfn@jfunders.org

    Native Americans in Philanthropy

    Phone: 612—724—8798 Fax: 612—879—0613 http://www.nativephilanthropy.orginfo@nativephilanthropy.org

    Neighborhood Funders Group

    Phone: 202—833—4690 Fax: 202—833—4694 http://www.nfg.orgnfg@nfg.org

    Peace and Security Funders Group

    Phone: 434—989—1514 http://www.peaceandsecurity.org/kmagraw@peaceandsecurity.org

    Philanthropy for Active Civic Engagement

    Phone: 303—765—3411 http://www.pacefunders.org/cgates@pacefunders.org

    Technology Affinity Group

    Phone: 610—688—6832 http://www.tagtech.orginfo@tagtech.org

    Women's Funding Network

    Phone: 415—441—0706 Fax: 415—441—0827 http://www.wfnet.orginfo@wfnet.org

    Nonprofit Academic Centers Council (http://www.naccouncil.org)

    “The Nonprofit Academic Centers Council is a membership association comprised of academic centers or programs at accredited colleges and universities that focus on the study of nonprofit organizations, voluntarism and/or philanthropy. Established in 1991, NACC is the first group entirely dedicated to the promotion and networking of centers that provide research and education in philanthropy and the nonprofit sector” (NACC website).

    Available on the website are the Curricular Guidelines for Graduate and Undergraduate Study in Nonprofit Leadership, the Nonprofit Sector and Philanthropy. Also available is Indicators of Quality in Nonprofit Academic Centers. The public portion of the site also lists the member academic centers with links to their home pages.

    University Nonprofit Academic Centers

    Arizona State University, ASU Lodestar Center for Philanthropy and Nonprofit Innovation

    Baruch College, City University of New York, Center for Nonprofit Strategy and Management

    Boston College, Center on Wealth and Philanthropy

    Case Western Reserve University, Mandel Center for Nonprofit Organizations

    DePaul University, School of Public Service

    George Mason University, Nonprofit Management Studies

    Georgetown University, Center for Public and Nonprofit Leadership—Georgetown Public Policy Institute

    Georgia State University, Nonprofit Studies Program—Andrew Young School of Public Policy Studies

    Grand Valley State University, Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy

    Harvard University, Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations

    Indiana University, The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University

    Johns Hopkins University, Center for Civil Society Studies

    Louisiana State University—Shreveport, Institute for Human Services and Public Policy—College of Liberal Arts

    New School, Graduate Management Programs—Nonprofit Management Program

    New York University, Public and Nonprofit Management & Policy Program—Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service

    New York University School of Law, National Center on Philanthropy and the Law

    North Park University, Axelson Center for Nonprofit Management

    Northwestern University, Center for Nonprofit

    Management—Kellogg School of Management

    Portland State University, Institute for Nonprofit Management, Mark O. Hatfield School of Government

    Regis University, Nonprofit Management Program

    Seattle University, Center for Nonprofit and Social Enterprise Management

    Seton Hall University, Center for Public Service

    Texas A&M University, Program in Nonprofit Management—Bush School of Government and Public Service

    University at Albany-SUNY, Center for Women in Government & Civil Society—Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy

    University of California-Berkeley, Center for Nonprofit and Public Leadership

    University of California-Los Angeles, Center for Civil Society

    University of Delaware, Center for Community Research & Service

    University of Michigan, Nonprofit and Public Management Center, School of Social Work

    University of Minnesota, The Public and Nonprofit Leadership Center, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs

    University of Missouri-Kansas City, Midwest Center for Nonprofit Leadership—Henry W. Bloch School of Business and Public Administration

    University of Missouri-St. Louis, Nonprofit Management and Leadership Program

    University of Pennsylvania, Center for Community Partnerships—Penn Program for Public Service University of San Diego, Institute for Nonprofit Education and Research

    University of San Francisco, Institute for Nonprofit Organization Management

    University of Southern California, Center on Philanthropy and Public Policy

    University of Texas at Austin, RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service

    University of Washington, Nancy Bell Evans Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy

    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Helen Bader Institute for Nonprofit Management

    Virginia Tech, Institute for Policy and Governance

    Australia

    Queensland University of Technology, Centre of Philanthropy and Nonprofit Studies

    Canada

    Mount Royal College, Institute for Nonprofit Studies York University, Nonprofit Management & Leadership Program—Schulich School of Business

    London, England

    City University London, Centre for Charity Effectiveness—Cass School of Business

    Virgin Islands

    University of St. Thomas, Center for Nonprofit Management

    University Students: Nonprofit and Philanthropic Websites

    American Humanics is a national academic program designed to prepare students for entry-level professional positions in nonprofit organizations. The certificate that the student receives is awarded by American Humanics, Inc., a national organization of over 70 collaborating universities and national nonprofit organizations. On this website, you will find current information on their national nonprofit and affiliated academic partners and student information. From the main page, you can link to subsections including the NextGen scholarship program, the Management Institute, the listing of affiliated campus programs, and the listing of academic campus directors.

    AmeriCorps/VISTA (http://www.americorps.gov)

    See Federal Support for Volunteer Service.

    Campus Compact (http://www.compact.org)

    Campus Compact is a national coalition of over a 1,000 college and university presidents. The main intent of the organization is to use school heads to promote public and community service by incorporating community-based learning into college curricula. The website provides many faculty and student resources that help facilitate implementation and ensure successful relationship ties with local communities. Campus Compact also supports affiliated groups on university campuses to further their work at the state level. State Campus Compacts work with colleges and universities in their states to promote community service and community-based learning among students.

    Emerging Practitioners in Philanthropy (http://www.epip.org/index.php)

    Emerging Practitioners in Philanthropy (EPIP) strives to strengthen the next generation of grantmakers, with an emphasis in advancing social justice philanthropy. EPIP members primarily consist of foundation staff and trustees, donors, philanthropic support organizations, and graduate students in philanthropy under the age of 40. The organization provides opportunities for its members through networking, leadership, and advocacy programs. EPIP has chapters in the San Francisco Bay Area, Boston, Indiana, Los Angeles, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Philadelphia, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. and is a recognized affinity group of the Council on Foundations.

    http://Idealist.org not only offers a fast and easy way to locate volunteer and employment opportunities, but it also offers a variety of resources for individuals, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies. The site offers information on various topics ranging from volunteer management to planning and assessing programs to human resource management. Individuals interested in learning more about the nonprofit sector, how to obtain a graduate degree, and transitioning mid-career will also find this website useful. It also provides tips and advice on volunteering internationally. Additionally, it answers questions about nonprofit organizations and connects people around the world through their interactive capabilities. Idealist is a unique website that offers opportunities for individuals and organizations to become better versions of themselves through the various resources, advice, and materials that they offer.

    See Federal Support for Volunteer Service.

    Young Nonprofit Professionals Network (http://www.ynpn.org/s/936/start.aspx)

    The Young Nonprofit Professionals Network is dedicated to helping young nonprofit professionals gain entrance into, and be successful within, the nonprofit sector. YNPN aims to fulfill its mission of promoting an efficient, viable, and inclusive nonprofit sector through strengthening career support and professional development, advocating on behalf of young professionals, and by building organizational capacity. Its website features more information about getting involved in YNPN, as well as resources on the sector's best practices.

    Federal Support for Volunteer Service AmeriCorps/VISTA (http://www.americorps.gov)

    AmeriCorps VISTA is the national service program designed specifically to fight poverty. It was founded as Volunteers in Service to America in 1965 and incorporated into the AmeriCorps network of programs in 1993. VISTA has been on the front lines in the fight against poverty in America for more than 40 years helping to establish important programs such as Head Start, Upward Bound, and the American system of credit unions. The VISTA website includes state-specific information about how to get involved, as well as information about other AmeriCorps programs. VISTA is a program of the Corporation for National and Community Service, a federal agency created to connect Americans of all ages and backgrounds with opportunities to give back to their communities and their nation.

    Corporation for National and Community Service (http://www.nationalservice.org)

    The Corporation for National and Community Service is the federal umbrella for a large number of volunteer and service programs supported with government funding. These include AmeriCorps; Learn & Serve America; VISTA; older Americans’ programs, such as ACTION, RSVP, Foster Grandparents, and Senior Companion. Information is also available from 1201 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20525. Tel: (202) 606—5000. TTY: (202) 606—3472. Email: info@cns.gov

    Originally established in 1960 under President John F. Kennedy, the Peace Corps challenges everyday Americans to serve their country in the cause of peace by living and working in developing countries. Since that time, Peace Corps has had over 200,000 Peace Corps volunteers serve in 139 host countries across the globe. The website includes information about the Peace Corps, its history and current operations, instructions for applying, and resources for Peace Corps members and their families.

    Points of Light Institute (http://www.pointsoflight.org)

    In 2007, the Points of Light Foundation and the HandsOn Network merged to become the Points of Light Institute, an organization supporting the work of volunteerism and community and civic engagement across the nation. On the website, you will find information about its major programs including the HandsOn Network, MissionFish, and The Civic Incubator. The site also includes information about how to get involved, access to its blog, service-related media, and other resources for Americans who want to be more civically engaged.

    Along with programs of interest to college students, the Corporation for National and Community Service offers support to older Americans. New nonprofit leaders may want to tap into these resources. Senior Corps is a national service program specifically designed for Americans over 55 with a lifetime of experience to share and the desire to make a real difference in their world. Senior Corps connects its members with people and organizations that need them most. Senior Corps members serve as mentors, coaches, or companions to people in need, or contribute their job skills and expertise to community projects and organizations. The Senior Corps website includes information about how to become involved as a Senior Corps member, history and background about the program, information for local nonprofit organizations who want Senior Corps members as part of their working staff, as well as information on other national service programs.

    Appendix D: Civic Ideals and the Giving Society: Connecting Social Studies and Philanthropy for Grades 9—12

    Introduction to Philanthropy

    People often ask questions when they begin a journey. What will I see? Who will I visit? What should I pack? How will we travel? Those questions help us to prepare for new and different things.

    People also ask questions when they discover new ideas in their lives. Is it a good idea? What makes it good for me? Is it good for other people? Is it good for my future and the future of others?

    In this book you will take a journey of discovery about philanthropy, an old idea, but new to many people. It is one of those ideas that people ask questions about. In this book, you will learn about how philanthropy works. You will have the chance to look at philanthropy in several different ways. You will look at the history, geography, and economics of philanthropy, as well as philanthropy's role in democracy.

    What is Philanthropy?

    But first, what is philanthropy? Figure D.1 helps to answer that question. The definition of philanthropy is: giving, serving, and private citizen action intended for the common good. The common good (also called the public good) refers to the improved condition of society in general. For example, a society that is able to improve the care and education of children has improved its general condition. A society that is able to provide adequate housing for its people has improved its general condition. Improving the conditions that make up the common good is philanthropy's goal.

    What kinds of activities does philanthropy include? The three columns of Figure D.1 address this question. Listed are the three general activities, with specific examples, included in philanthropy: giving money, giving goods, or giving service. For example, giving service could involve repairing someone's home or serving as a monitor in a five-mile walk to raise funds to aid cancer patients. It might involve a person using their special skills as a doctor, carpenter, or teacher, to help others. Giving involves individuals and organizations.

    Figure D.1: What is Philanthropy?

    Look at some of the specific volunteer actions shown in the first column. How do these actions help promote the public good? Let's consider two examples. People volunteer to deliver “meals on wheels” to elderly people. This act of service helps the common good by making certain that the elderly have proper and adequate diets. Student organizations volunteer to plant flowers on the school grounds. Flowers growing at school make the school grounds look nice, and people enjoy viewing them. Students take pride in their school. The more attractive school grounds improve the common good.

    Philanthropy begins when a person or group of people recognize a need. If a person is ill, then people may join together to help that person. If a new community center needs to be constructed, people may volunteer to work together to build and equip it. If a family loses their home to fire, then people may help them repair and refurnish items that were lost in the fire. Each is an act of philanthropy.

    Who Participates in Philanthropy?

    Individuals have been giving for the common good for a very long time. Giving is evident across the ages and among all cultural groups. Individuals living at different times in history have participated in philanthropy. People who volunteer to improve the common good live in many different places. They usually do not know one another. They have different types of jobs or careers. However, all of them are connected by the shared commitment to voluntary giving. They believe in giving to others.

    Figure D.1 Philanthropy Is Giving, Serving, and Private Citizen Action Intended for the Common Good

    People around the world give to assist others. They give special types of skills, from cooking and reading to helping inspire others to succeed in their lives. They sometimes give money, but often they volunteer their time and talents. In each case, they are people who help people so that their community, region, and world become better places. They believe that society is improved when people give to help one another.

    Who are some of those people who have volunteered for the public good? Sarah Jones is a high school student who volunteers at a community center. She helps children learn to express their feelings through art. Benjamin Franklin gave money to begin a technical school in Boston. The city and its people greatly benefited from this gift. Matel Dawson worked hard and saved money during his life. He left his money for scholarships that would help high school graduates attend a university. Sojourner Truth devoted her life to helping African Americans escape to freedom before the Civil War. After the Civil War, she fought for civil rights for African Americans.

    Jackie Joyner-Kersee is one of the world's greatest athletes. She uses her fame and skills to help others improve their lives. Eleanor Roosevelt gave time and money to improve the lives of people in many parts of the world. As First Lady, she was able to encourage many others to give. Russell Mawby became President of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. The founder of the breakfast cereal company started the Foundation, which has many resources to use to help others. Dr. Mawby was responsible for helping make wise choices for philanthropy.

    What Needs Do Volunteers Meet?

    Millions of people across the world volunteer to help others. They may volunteer as part of a group. They may volunteer for individual tasks. They may volunteer in their community. They may volunteer to work in other parts of the country or the world. Each believes there is a need for their volunteer giving. None expect to receive payment for their work. What are some of the needs they observe that encourage people to take action to improve the public good? Here are several examples.

    Giving to improve the common good often begins in the community where a person lives. Communities are where people spend most of their time. Communities may also include diverse populations. They may have buildings that were once new, but have aged and need repairs. Often community groups volunteer to help repair a house. It will then look better from the outside, and provide a better home for the people who live there.

    People also volunteer their time across the United States. Nationwide programs connect people with specific needs to people and organizations that have resources. When a natural disaster, such as a hurricane, tornado, or earthquake occurs, volunteers respond. They help people recover from the damage. The help may be in the form of money, food, or time spent rebuilding damaged homes and buildings. People of all ages will assist in the clean up and rebuilding.

    Philanthropy reaches great distances. For example, students in the United States participate in money-raising activities. They may include school programs, trips, and other special school events. Those same students may also partner with a community and its school in another part of the world. They collect money, books, and other goods and donate them to meet the needs in another school. They are taking action to improve the common good by helping that faraway community improve its school. Sometimes there is no school, and students have to attend class without desks or other materials. Philanthropy may provide a means for the students in those places to have a school. Donating time, money, and special skills may play a big part to improve the common good for students and their community.

    Philanthropy is a way to improve the common good. Recognizing the need is the first, very important step.

    Providing the volunteer giving to meet the need is the next big step.

    How will We Learn More about Philanthropy?

    Using this book, you will be taking the perspective of several subjects that you study in school. They are civics, geography, history, and economics. Each of those subjects brings a special point of view to philanthropy. Each demonstrates how individuals can participate in philanthropy. Each provides some examples of how we might include giving in our everyday lives. Each provides an example of how philanthropy extends from the decisions we make in our local communities to the rest of the United States and to the world.

    Philanthropy is similar to a journey. As the journey unfolds, you will observe the needs of people and communities. You will also develop ideas about how to meet those needs. You can apply those ideas now as well as later in your life as you participate in philanthropy.

    Joseph P.Stoltman
    1. Philanthropy, Civil Society, and Democracy in America

    After America was attacked, it was as if our entire country looked into a mirror and saw our better selves. We were reminded that we are citizens, with obligations to each other, to our country, and to history. We began to think less of the goods we can accumulate and more about the good we can do…. In the sacrifice of soldiers, the fierce brotherhood of firefighters, and the bravery and generosity of ordinary citizens, we have glimpsed what a new culture of responsibility could look like. We want to be a nation that serves goals larger than self. We have been offered a unique opportunity, and we must not let this moment pass.

    In his 2002 State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush praised Americans for their charitable behavior following the terrorist attack against the United States on September 11, 2001. Like leaders throughout history, the President recognized philanthropy as civic duty.

    Philanthropy includes three types of charitable behavior: giving money; donating goods, such as food, clothing, shelter, and blood; and giving time, such as volunteering to help others. In response to the tragedy of 9/11/01, Americans donated huge amounts of money, time, and services. The emotion-packed response involved people, concerned about helping others. It involved taking action for the common good. On a daily basis, Americans give in many ways to help others.

    Americans give as a way of taking action for the common good. They support relief during natural disasters, carry out community projects, and help meet individuals’ needs. Philanthropy has greatly contributed to a healthy democracy in America, and it continues to do so.

    This chapter examines the important relationship between philanthropy and civil society. It includes the topics of (a) philanthropy and civil society within American democracy; (b) trends and patterns of philanthropy and civil society in American democracy; (c) promising programs and practices for strengthening connections between philanthropy, civil society, and democracy, and (d) reflections on education for philanthropy, civil society, and democracy in America.

    Philanthropy and Civil Society within American Democracy

    Philanthropy—giving, serving, and private citizen action intended for the common good—is strongly related to the traditional American understanding of democracy. What is that relationship? Before answering this question, let's explore American democracy.

    In America there is a simple way to judge whether people practice democracy. That is, do the people regularly select their representatives in government in free, fair, open, and contested elections? If they do, then government is by the consent of the governed, and the people's representatives are accountable to them. Government in the United States, the world's oldest existing democracy, has more and more fit this definition throughout its history.

    John J. Patrick is Professor of Education and Director of the Social Studies Development Center at Indiana University. 922

    Yet a full democracy does more than meet this minimal standard. It also provides constitutional guarantees for the rights that are enjoyed equally by all individuals. Such a democracy has, in the words of Abraham Lincoln, “government of the people, by the people, for the people.”

    This democratic government both gets its power from and is limited by the Constitution. The Constitution protects people's rights to think, speak, and assemble with others. It protects their rights to influence the policies and actions of government. It provides the rights needed to act for the common good of the community. Yet it also protects the rights of a minority of persons who disagree with the policies and actions of the majority.

    Is democracy practiced perfectly in America? Perhaps not, but it does fit James Madison's observation, “No government of human device and human administration can be perfect…. That which is the least imperfect is therefore the best government.”

    The long success of constitutional democracy in America is the result of reasonable decisions and actions by citizens. Citizens make decisions and take action on elections, public policy issues, and serious social problems. Citizens must balance their own private interests, as well as public interests, for democracy to thrive. The freely made choices of citizens in a democracy start civic virtue in motion. Civic virtue requires putting the common good of the community ahead of immediate, personal concerns.

    What does civic virtue look like? For a high school student, practicing civic virtue might mean volunteering at a local day care center rather than hanging out with friends after school. It might also mean trying to change an attendance policy that is unpopular but will, in your opinion, be better for your school. Or it might mean donating your hard-earned savings to a food bank rather than spending it on a new pair of shoes.

    At its best, being a virtuous citizen in a democracy involves philanthropy. Philanthropy includes voluntary service, where citizens give freely to promote the well-being of people and the community. A huge financial donation by wealthy persons is a characteristic of philanthropy in the United States. But most philanthropy involves small-scale civic giving by ordinary people through regular participation in civil society.

    Civil society is the network of voluntary groups that act on their own or as partners with state agencies. This independent sector is not part of the government and must obey the laws. The independent sector, created and operated by private individuals, is an important part of civil society. Examples of organizations that are a part of civil society are labor unions, faith-based groups, human-rights groups, environmental-protection organizations, support groups providing social welfare services to needy people, independent newspaper and magazine publishers, independent and private schools, community service clubs, and professional associations. A person may belong to many independent sector organizations during a lifetime. Americans, for example, have a long tradition of numerous memberships in voluntary, nongovernmental organizations.

    Participating in charitable nongovernmental organizations opens up opportunities for philanthropy. In America, citizens who participate in the groups that are part of civil society are much more likely to give time, goods, and money to worthy causes than those who are not.

    Citizen participation in civil society builds social capital. Social capital is the ability of people to act together to meet community needs, solve public problems, and improve community life. The information network that brings a group of volunteers together to perform a community service is an example of social capital. Without the network, the service work might never occur. The network owns no buildings or equipment, but has value because it helps people to organize and do the work.

    In doing philanthropic work, people need civic skills. They include the skills to organize others, become informed, vote, petition, discuss, write persuasive letters, and identify goals that are possible to achieve. Those skills are critical to social capital.

    Social capital provides benefits in many ways. It results in improved neighborhoods, better schools, and services to people in need. Social capital benefits government as well. Civic participation by citizens makes government officials accountable. Citizens become responsible for activities, such as a community food bank, and government is able to focus on other community needs. Giving money, services, and time to the community adds to the common good for all citizens.

    Philanthropy by citizens for the common good is a key element of a vibrant civil society. Without it, the chance of building and maintaining democracy and freedom are not good. By contrast, in totalitarian or despotic systems, citizens depend upon the government to solve all social and economic problems. Philanthropy is largely missing; if practiced, it must be hidden from governmental officials.

    In contrast, constitutional democracy enables the people to protect individual rights to speech, assembly, and association. Those rights are necessary for philanthropy to be useful. Thus, a constitution protects civil society by guaranteeing the rights of individuals to join and operate nongovernmental or private sector organizations.

    Democracy in America also receives bottom-up (“grassroots”) support from community nongovernmental organizations acting for the public good. Civil society organizations are public guardians through which citizens take responsibility for their rights and hold public officials responsible. Through participation in organizational activities, members also acquire the knowledge, skills, and virtues that keep philanthropy and democracy going. Thus, community-based, independent sector organizations are places where citizens learn how to practice philanthropy and democracy in America.

    Trends and Patterns of Philanthropy and Civil Society in American Democracy

    Imagine traveling through another country noticing how its citizens participate in civil society. Then imagine that your observations are read and reread for nearly 200 years because they provided such thoughtful insights on civil society and government. This may seem far-fetched, but that is how the observations of Alexis de Tocqueville, a French visitor to the United States, have been seen since the 1830s. Tocqueville observed and praised Americans’ philanthropic and democratic participation in civil society organizations, in his book Democracy in America.

    Tocqueville saw civil society as the collection of voluntary groups of citizens that assisted individuals in interactions with their government. He saw that this network of groups cooperated among themselves to achieve worthy public purposes. He emphasized the public good achieved by people acting together in a lawful and civic manner in voluntary, community-based organizations. Americans, he believed, showed the world how to make democracy work for both the community and the individual through the interactions of civil society and government.

    Tocqueville noted the fundamental place of philanthropy in American life through the voluntary associations. In 1831—1832, he observed,

    Americans of all ages, all conditions, and all dispositions constantly form associations. They have not only commercial and manufacturing companies in which all take part, but associations of a thousand other kinds, religious, moral, serious, futile, general or restricted, enormous or diminutive. The Americans make associations to give entertainments, to found seminaries, to build inns, to construct churches, to diffuse books, to send missionaries to the antipodes; in this manner they found hospitals, prisons, and schools. If it is proposed to inculcate some truths or to foster some example, they form a society. Wherever at the head of some new undertaking you see the government of France, or a man of rank in England, in the United States you will be sure to find an association.

    Figure D.2 Households and Philanthropy, 2009
    SOURCE: From Giving USA Foundation Annual Report, 2010, Washington, DC.

    According to Alexis de Tocqueville, citizens in the American democracy readily used their constitutionally protected rights to participate in and contribute to the political and civic life of the community. He called this “self-interest rightly understood.” It was through freely made, voluntary contributions to the good of the community that citizens helped one another to maintain the public well-being needed to pursue personal and private interests. Tocqueville wrote, “The principle of self-interest rightly understood is not a lofty one, but it is clear and sure…. Each American knows when to sacrifice some of his private interests to save the rest.”

    According to Tocqueville, the success of American democracy was due to the “enlightened self-interest” of citizens who regularly and freely contributed to the common good.

    Civic giving certainly has been a long-time tradition in America. Throughout the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, philanthropy was much greater in America than in any other country. In recent years, more than two thirds of households in the United States annually made financial contributions for the welfare of their community; the average contribution in 2009 was %2,000. Types of contributions and percentages of households contributing to them are shown in Figure D.2.

    More than 65 percent of adult Americans contribute voluntary service annually. The total value of this volunteered time is estimated to be %225.9 billion.

    As in Tocqueville's time, philanthropy in America today is strongly related to participation in civil society. There are more than 1.4 million independent sector organizations in America, including faith-based institutions; clubs, such as Rotary International, and service organizations, such as Food Bank. More than 80 percent of the members of those organizations give to their communities each year. By contrast, fewer than 40 percent of people who do not belong to independent sector organizations give to community causes. Further, members of civil society or independent sector organizations are ten times more likely to give to community causes than nonmembers. Social capital is very strongly reflected by community service, even more so than is financial capital.

    Long ago, Tocqueville noticed the connection between faith-based organizations and philanthropy. Today, persons who attend faith-based institutions regularly are more likely to give to community causes than those who do not. For example, among those who attend faith-based services regularly, 54 percent volunteer, in contrast to only 32 percent of those who do not attend regularly. Further, those who attend faith-based institutions contribute 70 percent of the hours given each month to voluntary community service. This illustrates social capital. People in social networks, such as faith-based organizations, are more likely to be asked to give.

    Persons involved in faith-based organizations more often give to community causes (see Figure D.3). This supports Tocqueville's claim that the success of civil society depends upon a high level of morality among the people. So democracy in America requires civic morality.

    Other factors related to civic giving are education, income, and age. Persons with higher levels of education and income give more. As Figure D.4 shows, people in their middle years, 35 to 54 years of age, are more likely to volunteer through associations and be philanthropic than persons in younger or older age groups.

    Although giving in America remains high compared to other countries, it has decreased during the past 40 years. Giving has declined gradually among members of both faith-based and secular organizations. Volunteer service by young Americans (18—25 years of age) is strong. Young people are more likely to volunteer, but they avoid government and political issues to a greater degree than older Americans. Yet they tended to be disinterested in politics, government, and civic affairs.

    During the past ten years, civic leaders have expressed great concern about civic and political apathy in the United States, especially among young Americans. A report of the National Commission on Civic Renewal, for example, warned, “In a time that cries out for civic action, we are in danger of becoming a nation of spectators.” Others have agreed that the civic condition of the United States is weaker than it was and needs to be improved. Participation of citizens in their civil society and government has steadily declined.

    Robert D. Putnam's book, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, makes a convincing case about the decline of civic and political participation in the United States. Putnam concludes, “Americans are playing virtually every aspect of the civic game less frequently today than we did two decades ago.”

    Figure D.3 Philanthropy and Membership in Religious Organizations
    SOURCE: Adapted from Faith and Philanthropy: The Connection Between Charitable Behavior and Giving to Religion, by Christopher Toppe et al., 2002, p. 9, http://www.Independentsector.org.
    Figure D.4 Relationship of Age Group to Voluntary Community Service
    SOURCE: From Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009, Washington, DC: U.S. Government.

    The continuing strength of democracy in America depends upon involving citizens in both political and civic life. Community service without commitment to and participation in government is not sufficient to maintain democracy. The political alternatives to democracy, as we know it, are not likely to encourage a free and open society in which individuals join together to solve their problems. Civic engagement and philanthropy go together in a healthy democracy. What can be done to strengthen the connections of philanthropy, civil society, and democracy in 21st century America? The next section of this chapter looks at some promising ideas.

    Promising Approaches for Strengthening Philanthropy and Democracy in 21st-Century America

    In recent years, the U.S. government has established programs for civic renewal through voluntary public service. In various public statements, Presidents William J. Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama have called upon the American people to be civically involved and philanthropically committed to community service and the common good. President Bush, for example, challenged all Americans to give at least two years or 4,000 hours, during their lifetimes, in service to others.

    The federal government has several programs that promote civic involvement and community service. These programs are AmeriCorps, Senior Corps, and Learn and Serve America. The programs are run by the Corporation for National and Community Service.

    AmeriCorps programs support more than 75,000 persons each year in service to meet needs in education, the environment, public safety, homeland security, and other areas of public concern. In return for a year of fulltime service, AmeriCorps members receive living expenses and a %4,725 education award to help pay for post-high school education.

    An example of AmeriCorps voluntary service is provided by Justin Ceniceros of Texas. He worked to restore meadows in Fairfax, Virginia; to rehabilitate and repair a broken-down neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and to tutor children in Washington, D.C. Thinking about his experiences, he wrote,

    AmeriCorps gave me the initiative to do things I never thought I could do, to be the person I always wanted to be. It's made me realize that life is what you make of it. When you take responsibility and grab initiative, you can make things happen.

    Senior Corps is a set of three federal programs that use the skills of Americans age 55 or older to handle community problems and needs. Older citizens volunteer from a few hours a week to nearly full time. RSVP (Retired and Senior Volunteer Program), the largest of the three Senior Corps programs, connects older volunteers to various opportunities for service in their own communities, such as delivering hot meals to others, tending neighborhood gardens, or teaching English to immigrants. The Foster Grandparent Program involves older volunteers in one-on-one work with needy children, while the Senior Companion Program provides opportunities for older volunteers to help home-bound seniors meet their daily needs. Foster Grandparents and Senior Companions volunteer 15 to 40 hours a week and receive a small stipend for their service; RSVP volunteers can serve from just a few hours a week to nearly full time, depending on their preference.

    Learn and Service America supports service-learning programs in schools, universities, and communities. Opportunities are provided for more than a million young Americans to connect community service with academic learning in schools. They build feelings of responsible citizenship. Community service includes education, public safety, human welfare services, and the environment.

    The three major domestic programs—AmeriCorps, Senior Corps, and Learn and Serve America—are conducted in the spirit of an older international service program, the Peace Corps. Launched by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, the Peace Corps has sent American volunteers to more than 139 countries in all parts of the world. These volunteers have served teaching children, providing health care, digging wells, working on farms, and doing many other necessary jobs that help people improve their lives.

    Shortly after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, President George W. Bush called upon every American to get involved in strengthening America's communities and sharing America's compassion around the world. He called on every American to dedicate at least two years over the course of their lives to the service of others. He created the USA Freedom Corps to help Americans to answer his call. As a Coordinating Council housed at the White House, USA Freedom Corps is working to strengthen our culture of service and help find opportunities for every American to start volunteering.

    While the national programs in civic involvement and service are large and well publicized, most philanthropy in the United States goes on in local communities. Organizations like the Rotary Club, Kiwanis Club, Lions Club, and the League of Women Voters are engaged. Extensive and various services are provided through faith-based organizations. The United Way provides opportunities for philanthropy in communities across the country.

    Much philanthropy involves ordinary people providing service to improve their communities. The efforts of such people are described in a book titled Local Heroes Changing America. Photographers and interviewers for The Indivisible Project fanned out across the country to find and tell the stories of people working together to improve their communities. For example, the project reported on volunteer anticrime patrols in Delray Beach, Florida. These patrols have changed a crime-ridden and depressed community into a haven of safety, security, and prosperity. Farm workers in San Juan, Texas, founded a community association to help low-income families move from substandard housing to higher quality houses. The project's cameras also recorded the civic renewal achieved by voluntary civil associations in a rural community, Marshall, North Carolina, and in an inner-city neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The common theme captured in those pictures is volunteers acting philanthropically to contribute to the common good.

    School-based programs throughout the United States are important sources of community service.

    More than 50 percent of the country's public and private schools provide community service opportunities for students from grades 6 through 12. In many public school districts across the nation, community service is an integral part of the curriculum. In the state of Maryland, students must perform approved community service to meet high school graduation requirements.

    In many public and private schools, lessons on philanthropy and citizenship in a democracy are included in the curriculum. Some students may experience a few lessons on philanthropy while others take part in multi-lesson units or entire courses of instruction.

    The Council of Michigan Foundations has produced another highly regarded philanthropy education program. The program for kindergarten through grade 12 is called Learning to Give. It includes lessons on the relationships between philanthropy, responsible citizenship, civil society, and democracy in America (see sample materials below). According to its program developers, Learning to Give is “designed to encourage young people to take positive action in their own lives, become involved in community initiatives, embrace ownership of their democratic society, and aspire to do good.”

    Learning to Give stresses learning by doing. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes about the connections of philanthropy, civil society, and democracy in America are taught through lessons that combine knowledge with experience of civic education.

    Conclusion

    Civic education that stresses philanthropy is key to a strong democracy in the United States. If the United States is to have a healthy constitutional democracy in the 21st century, then young people must learn how to practice philanthropy in civil society. Students must learn what philanthropy and civil society are, why they are important in a democracy, and how they depend upon civic participation by citizens. Further, they need to increase their knowledge and skills by working successfully with others in civil associations and volunteering to improve society. Finally, students in schools must develop civic attitudes favoring philanthropy in order to maintain and improve democracy.

    Education about philanthropy in civil society should not end in the 12th grade. If democracy is to be strengthened, then adults must also participate in learning about the connections between philanthropy, civil society, and democracy. Adult education for democracy is most easily and practically experienced through participation in the voluntary associations of civil society, such as labor unions, professional associations, community service clubs, and faith-based organizations.

    Alexis de Tocqueville noted the importance of formal and informal education of Americans for responsible citizenship in democracy. He identified the important role of civic knowledge and skills. However, he viewed civic morality, or commitment to do what is “right and just,” as the most important characteristic to be learned by citizens. Tocqueville wrote,

    It cannot be doubted that in the United States the instruction of the people powerfully contributes to the support of the democratic republic; and such must always be the case, I believe, where the instruction which enlightens the understanding is not separated from the moral education which amends the heart.

    Tocqueville stressed that a good constitution, good institutions of government, and good laws are necessary. However, they are not enough for a healthy democracy. Tocqueville concluded that strong moral qualities or “habits of the heart” were essential for citizens to practice philanthropy. Let us, then, resolve to revitalize and renew democratic citizenship in America through life-long civic education that stresses the morality of public action for the common good. Public action for the common good, Tocqueville's “habits of the heart,” is the solid foundation for philanthropy in a free and open society that will nourish democracy and freedom in the United States.

    John J.Patrick
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    The New Nonprofit Almanac and Desk Reference (2003). Washington, DC: Independent Sector. Retrieved July 28, 2003, from http://www.independentsector.org/media/NA01PR.html
    Putnam, Robert D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Putnam, Robert D.Bowling alone: America's declining social capitalJournal of Democracy665–781995, January
    Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Rankin, Tom, Ed. (2000). Local Heroes: Changing America. New York: W. W. Norton. Retrieved July 28, 2003, from http://www.wwnorton.com/catalog/fall00/005028.htm
    Tocqueville, Alexis de. (1835/1945). Democracy in America, Vol. 1 (PhillipsBradley, Ed. and Trans.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Tocqueville, Alexis de/1945). Democracy in America, VolPhillipsBradley2 Ed. and Trans.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf 1839
    Toppe, Christopher, et al. (2002). Faith and Philanthropy: The Connections Between Charitable Behavior and Giving to Religion. Washington, DC: Independent Sector. Retrieved July 28, 2003, from http://www.independentsector.org/programs/research/faithphilanthropy.html
    2. Civic and Philanthropic Action on a Global Scale

    Philanthropy has developed into a global activity. Regions of the world that knew very little of organized giving have developed deep commitments to supporting nonprofit and philanthropic organizations. They have had to develop a national philanthropic “habit of mind.” Some countries lacked a philanthropic “habit of mind” because the government wanted to provide all the necessities of living. In other countries the government did little, and nonprofit and volunteer organizations took on great influence, becoming more important than local and national government in the process. International philanthropy is an interesting balance of too much versus too little. This chapter uses several case studies to explore both the emergence and the growth of philanthropy as a social and civic responsibility, which is the ability and means among individuals and groups to take action in a positive manner for the common good.

    Philanthropy in a Global Society

    Will the civic/philanthropic sector continue to find a place in the new global society in spite of national economic issues and the emergence of the global economy? One expert who believes so is Lester Salamon, a leader in the study of international philanthropy. He says that the death of this sector has “been greatly exaggerated.” Salamon claims the international philanthropic sector “remains a major presence in virtually every country of the world. Whether measured by what it does, or in more traditional economic terms, this set of institutions is a major force in our social and economic life” (Salamon and Anheier, 1997, p. 23).

    How are global changes reflected in 21st-century economics and civic forces? Paul Cantor has studied the changes and concludes:

    In the face of global economic forces, individual nation[s] are increasingly compelled to allow markets to dictate their policies, rather than dictating policies to markets…. As economic organization progressively takes the form of globalized free markets, nation[s] begin to lose much of their reason for existence and also find the scope of their authority greatly reduced. (Cantor, 2001, p. 197)

    Thus, during the 20th century attention was focused on independence for former colonies in Africa and Asia. Great efforts were made to help these governments function for their citizens and to increase their citizens’ feelings of social responsibility. The 21st century began with the focus on global mega-corporations rather than national governments. National governments have often been challenged with problems of divisions in the country and cultural conflicts (Barber, 1996). Solving those conflicts and building social responsibility presents challenges to international philanthropy.

    Jon Van Til is Professor of Urban Studies and Community Planning at Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey.

    Philanthropy for a civil society is the work of individuals, families, corporations, and governments in every country of the world. Civil society is the network of voluntary groups. They act on their own or as partners with state agencies. Civil society is a public domain or independent sector created and operated by private individuals. In some countries, philanthropy is mainly the result of individuals giving time and resources. In other countries, large businesses and individuals are giving. Governments that encourage philanthropy also gain from it through public participation. In this chapter we look closely at two cases: Northern Ireland and Hungary. Recent experiences in these two places show us the ways in which national and global societies have changed.

    Northern Ireland (1968—1998): Weak Government and Strong Civic Sector

    If Americans have heard of Northern Ireland, chances are they have an image of violence between Catholics and Protestants. To be sure, in the 30 years from 1969 through 1998, a time the Northern Irish recall as “The Troubles,” more than 3,000 individuals were killed in political violence (O'Leary and McGarry, 1996, p. 36).

    Northern Ireland, despite its name, is not a part of the Republic of Ireland, though it is located on the northeastern corner of the island of Ireland (Eire). Northern Ireland is a province of the United Kingdom, which also includes Wales, Scotland, and England.

    The conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland goes back well over 400 years. While it would take a book in itself to explain that conflict, the issue is this: Northern Ireland's 1.5 million people include a large group who believe strongly that they should be part of the Republic of Ireland. The Republic of Ireland gained independence from Britain in the 1920s. Most of these protesters are Catholics. They call themselves “Nationalists” or “Republicans” (that is, loyal to the Republic of Ireland, which is mainly Catholic). Most Protestants, on the other hand, consider themselves “Unionists” or “Loyalists” and wish to remain united to Britain and loyal to the Queen of England.

    Confusing? Well, just imagine that a large minority group in the United States made it clear that its members did not want to vote in American elections or even consider themselves Americans. Moreover, some of them felt so strongly about their views that they were willing to organize themselves into paramilitary forces. They revolted against those who disagreed with them, including the police and the army. Such problems clearly would give rise to “Troubles,” and so it was in Northern Ireland.

    After years of violence, the two sides agreed in 1998 to settle their grievances peacefully. The “Good Friday” agreement reduced the level of violence in Northern Ireland. A major effort at civic cooperation has led to a shared power arrangement within government. The result has been a greater sense of peace and security. Yet there is still much work to do.

    A look at the four sectors of society in Northern Ireland—families, businesses, government, and voluntary organizations—provides an interesting picture. We see a society in which family life has been strong and businesses have allowed a decent standard of living. But it is a society that has failed to build a government under whose rule the greatest number of citizens are willing to live. When governments fail, much of the responsibility falls on the shoulders of organizations and people participating in civic and philanthropic activity. This is the case in Northern Ireland.

    The lives and work of many individuals in Northern Ireland show the power of civic and philanthropic activity. They have helped reshape Northern Ireland for the benefit of its people.

    Dr. Arthur P. Williamson is one such individual. Born to Protestant parents in the Northern Irish City of Armagh, Williamson is a historian who has studied civic organizations in Northern Ireland. He also established the Centre for Voluntary Action Studies at the University of Coleraine.

    Dr. Williamson has demonstrated that research can bring people of differing backgrounds together. He has made detailed notes of people's actions. Studying civic and voluntary action in its many forms, he observes that in Northern Ireland the separate groups have performed many of the functions that government would normally provide. Since Northern Ireland's government has often been challenged by the very different views of its Protestant and Catholic leaders, finding ways to live and work together has frequently become the task of civic and philanthropic organizations.

    In his community life, Arthur Williamson has also shown how local organizations can meet important human needs. He is a cofounder of the Sandel Community Association. This association brings persons of different backgrounds together for nondenominational worship, socializing, and service to the broader community.

    Karen Johnston is a generation younger than Williamson. She grew up in Derry, a lovely walled city that has often been a battleground for opposing forces. The River Foyle divides the city into Waterside, a largely Protestant area, and Cityside, the historical city center.

    Like Karen Johnston, Glen Barr was born in the Waterside area of Derry, and he still works there as the Chief Executive Officer of the Ebrington Maydown Corporation. Glen did well in high school, but his family lacked the resources to send him to college. He became an electrician and an active member in the labor union at a large power plant. One day the managers of the plant were to hold a meeting and they needed a room. The workers’ break room was taken for the meeting. The tables normally used for the morning tea break were placed in the men's restroom. That was more than Glen and his colleagues could take, and they organized a strike to protest their working conditions.

    As union influence grew and complaints about management increased, the union became powerful enough to shut down electrical power to all of Northern Ireland. As a result of his union leadership, Glen assumed an advisory role with a paramilitary organization called the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). The UVF members armed themselves. They believed they had to defend their community from an armed Catholic paramilitary group in a nearby community.

    As the conflict between groups in Northern Ireland grew more serious, Glen realized that violence was not the answer to solve deep-seated social problems. His ability to be persuasive is shown in his group leadership. Working with a number of supporters, he founded what has become a major social agency to provide jobs, job training, and hope to the Waterside community. The Ebrington Centre now has a theater, a health club, a restaurant and pub, and other facilities to serve the needs of residents. Over the years, hundreds of Derry youth, both Protestant and Catholic, have learned useful construction and office skills at the Ebrington Centre.

    Paddy Doherty, another Derry citizen, was an outstanding elementary school student. But his family did not have enough money to buy the books and uniforms required for high school attendance. While still a teenager, Paddy had to leave school. He became a carpenter. After he married, he was informed by local officials that a young Catholic father like him would have to wait many years for a housing unit. At that news, Paddy joined with other people to set up Derry's first credit union. When conflict between Catholics and Protestants increased, Paddy became the principal spokesperson for what became known as “Free Derry.”

    The Free Derry movement intended to provide the community with social responsibility. Bogside neighborhood declared itself an independent political entity. Derry police units were not permitted to enter. Free Derry helped the neighborhood develop its own civic structure, including government, police, and court systems. Few other civic enterprises have been so bold. The net effect was to win the attention and finally the support of the British government, which was responsible for developing a civil society in Northern Ireland. Though just one neighborhood, Free Derry, had accomplished that goal with the leadership of Paddy and others.

    Like Glen Barr and his union's triumph, Paddy Doherty recognized that his long-term contribution would come from building programs rather than protesting governmental policy. After a few years abroad, Paddy returned to Derry and found the city had been burned by protest fires and bomb explosions during the Troubles. Paddy would not give up. He developed the Inner City Trust, a nonprofit civic and philanthropic organization that he now directs. The trust has rebuilt dozens of historic buildings, created a thriving tourist and shopping area, and recently opened a magnificent new hotel. Of Paddy Doherty it can truly be said, “If you seek his monument, just walk around his city.”

    Arthur Williamson, Karen Johnston, Glen Barr, and Paddy Doherty are examples of citizens taking responsibility for their own peace and tranquility. In most countries, government provides those services. Citizen action cannot accomplish everything that governments can provide. Citizens who organize into paramilitary forces are not providing a civil solution. Citizens who separate their communities from the larger civil society do not provide a civil solution. Long-lasting solutions that allow people to live together peaceably and productively are needed.

    Arthur Williamson has several recommendations for voluntary organizations in Northern Ireland:

    It is also essential that the many voluntary and community organizations that constitute the sector continue vigorously to represent disadvantaged sections of the population, provide appropriate and effective services, assist with building social infrastructure and community relations, and contribute to the social and economic development of the region. (Birrell and Williamson, 2001, pp. 217—218)

    Dr. Derick Wilson (2001) is a leading figure in Northern Irish youth development. He is former director of the Corrymeela, a cross-community rural-based organization. Corrymeela permitted him to observe that conversations usually focused on sports or the weather rather than real issues. Real issues are job opportunity, equal rights, and social justice.

    Progress occurs when positive and lasting relationships between individuals, families, and groups develop. This requires safe spaces that promote confidence between persons of differing backgrounds. Trust is the main ingredient for social progress in Northern Ireland. Building trust requires a vision of fairness, diversity, and interdependence. The civic and voluntary sectors can play a key role in achieving such a vision.

    Hungary (1949—1989): Strong Government and Weak Civic Sector

    Hungary throughout much of the 20th century faced just the opposite problem from the one that faced Northern

    Ireland. Totalitarian governments ruled Hungary during the 1930s and 1940s, and from 1949 to 1989 it had a Communist government. Leaders in those governments were in complete control of society, and civic action and philanthropy were not permitted. Several generations of Hungarians were born and raised with no knowledge of philanthropy—the organized giving of time, resources, and money. The government provided everything.

    Democratic government returned to Hungary in 1989. Since then, individuals in the country have developed a civil society through civic and philanthropic action. One person in particular has taken a leading role: George Soros. Soros made a career for himself in financial investment, becoming one of the richest people in the world. His real passion, however, involved giving, and he became one of the world's most famous philanthropists.

    According to a story in a Budapest newspaper, from December 23, 1939, young George, then a fourth-grader, showed up at the newspaper offices due to its appeal for donations for people in Finland. At the time, the Finns were resisting invasion by the Soviet Union. George opened his pencil case and retrieved two ten-pengo notes from among his belongings. When the editor questioned where George had gotten the money, he explained that he earned it by publishing a newspaper while on summer vacation and wished to donate it to the Finnish people (Kaufman, 2002, pp. 25—26). Thus, Soros began practicing philanthropy early.

    Much later in his life, Soros founded the Open Society Institute. He has supported dozens of valuable individual and community programs in many countries of the world. One of the most imaginative programs involved sending several hundred photocopy machines to Hungary for use by students, researchers, writers, and scientists. Government officials had previously been able to prevent people from obtaining research papers, letters, and newspaper clippings. After the introduction of the machines, information moved much more swiftly among individuals and organizations. Soros's act of philanthropy changed one of the prime laws under totalitarianism, the control of information. Philanthropy made it possible for Hungarian society to create a more open government (Kaufman, 2002, p. 197).

    Gabor Hegyesi was born in 1949, the year the Communists took control of Hungary. A sociologist by training, he joined his colleagues in the 1980s to found a voluntary organization to provide help for families in desperate need. The organization was called “Laresh,” and its services were made available when a parent or child was hospitalized or otherwise disabled. Hegyesi believed it was foolish to believe the government could solve all of a country's problems.

    The government was critical of the work by Gabor and his colleagues. Under communism, government officials declared that all needs were met. Convincing the government to license their civic work was difficult.

    Being able to provide voluntary service to families, however, did not create all the change Gabor Hegyesi desired. He publicly supported the growth of democratic rights and practices in Hungary. After the fall of the Communist government, Gabor became the leading force in support of voluntary and civic action in Hungary. Today he directs an important university program that educates and trains people to become leaders of civic and philanthropic organizations.

    Another leading Hungarian civic activist, Nilda Bullain, was a high school student when the Communist government fell in 1989. Nilda's parents and grandparents were all active politically. As a teenager, Nilda campaigned in Hungary's elections following the fall of communism. Strongly motivated to spread social justice, she knew that Hungary's future would require strong civic and philanthropic action. As a young adult, she entered law school and became active in a number of feminist and community organizations. Her present position is as Executive Director of the International Center for Nonprofit Law.

    Giving by individuals is the major source of philanthropy. Private companies and governmental agencies support philanthropic organizations. Civil societies, in order to grow and function properly, need a balanced approach to philanthropy. The goal is to meet more fully the needs of the country. In Hungary, balancing nongovernmental with governmental action in support of the civil society did that.

    Working for a Civil Society in other Places

    Philanthropy occurs in other parts of the world as well. It exists in almost every culture and often in very advanced forms. Among the Yoruba peoples of southwestern Nigeria, for instance, giving involves a complex set of obligations. If a Yoruba receives a gift from someone, the recipient is obliged to give something back in return. The act of giving not only helps someone in need, but it also links the receiving person more closely to the giver. The person receiving is also a giving person. The individuals are then on equal terms, since both have given and both have received. Similar traditions of giving are widely observed among many ethnic and cultural groups.

    Just as faith-based beliefs are important to philanthropy in Northern Ireland, they are also important in Africa. In Islamic regions of West Africa, the religious leader, or imam, usually directs philanthropy. The imam receives gifts in the form of a tax from all Muslims and then redistributes the gifts (Feierman, 1998).

    Archbishop Desmond Tutu provides another African example of philanthropy. Reverend Tutu has given considerably to promote a civil society, devoting his life to helping others. First, he served as a teacher in a Bantu school in South Africa. He next studied to be a minister and rose through the church ranks to become Archbishop and later the Secretary General of the South African Council of Churches. Through his opposition to apartheid and his efforts to promote a civil society in South Africa, he gained national and international fame.

    In 1995, South African President Nelson Mandela gave Archbishop Tutu a major assignment: heading the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The Commission examined the large number of human rights violations committed in South Africa between 1960 and the election of the black majority government. Service on the Commission required Archbishop Tutu to call on his years of service to others, his commitment to social justice, and his commitment to the civil society (Desmond Tutu Peace Foundation USA, 2002).

    Philanthropy is equally important in Asia, which provides two outstanding 20th-century examples. The first was Mohandas Gandhi as leader of the Indian independence movement. He took traditional Hindu religious concepts and transformed them into social and political ideas. Giving by all Indians to help build a democratic society based on participation was one of the building blocks of independence.

    The second example of giving in India was the result of cultural pluralism, the mixing of traditions from several different cultural and ethnic groups. Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu was born in Skopje, Macedonia, in 1910. At the age of 18, she joined the Sisters of Loretto, a Catholic order. She took the name “Teresa” after St. Teresa of Lesiux, patroness of the Missionaries. She became known as Sister Teresa and became one of the world's most revered women for her personal gifts and sacrifices to help the poor and ill of India and other countries.

    In Calcutta in 1950, she formed a Catholic order of nuns called the Missionaries of Charity. This order began with 12 Catholic sisters in India. It has grown to include more than 3,000 sisters in 517 missions throughout 100 countries worldwide. In 1979 the woman known worldwide as Mother Teresa received the Nobel Peace Prize for her lifetime of giving to others (Catholic.net, 2004).

    Meeting the Challenges of Global Society

    George Soros, the Hungarian-born philanthropist, believes that global society can work effectively if it is an “open” society. What would that involve? He recommends:

    • An informed and active citizenry comes first. All of us should vote intelligently, express our thoughtful opinions, and join with others in organizations and actions.
    • When we act together, civic/philanthropic/voluntary associations will be formed. These organizations will be able to give a voice to many groups in society.
    • These organizations are not enough to build the civil society. Government and business must also play their roles—assuring justice, a fair distribution of work and resources, and peace among persons, groups, and countries.

    Increasingly, countries like Northern Ireland and Hungary are linked in a variety of ways with other countries. Hungary is part of the European Union (EU), which spans the European continent. Northern Ireland is also a member of the EU. Programs supported by the EU are designed to address social justice and peace. The EU focus on civil society allows philanthropy to assume an important role.

    Contacts between community and philanthropic organizations that cross national borders have also increased. Philanthropic organizations like Habitat for Humanity, Heifer International, and Amnesty International operate on a global, rather than a national level. Individuals in many countries join in such international activity. Together, their philanthropic activity permits people to learn from each other and to work together to improve the world. It also enables them to build on special resources and experiences that people in various parts of the world may have.

    One doesn't have to be rich or well connected to participate actively and effectively in global philanthropic activity. For example, students at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, participate in a ten-day study course in Northern Ireland. They listen to lectures from academic and organizational leaders, visit with community organizations, and share ideas with people in other places on how to improve the world.

    Each year several guests who have developed important programs of community and philanthropic action in the United States join the Rutgers group. Among these individuals have been the leaders of the Center for Youth as Resources (CYR), an organization that supports more than 90 organizations in three countries. CYR enables young people to play full and important roles in developing their own programs of philanthropic action. The young people create activities to make their communities better places. But that is not all they do: they also serve as members of the board of directors of the program; they join with adults to raise funds to pay for programs they develop; and they select proposals for projects that seem most worthy of support.

    When Rutgers students travel to Northern Ireland, they visit with young people to work actively on problems that trouble their communities. In 2003, for instance, one group of students met with leaders of youth-serving organizations. The goal was to provide opportunities for youth to leave paramilitary organizations that rule many of their ghetto communities. Those conversations among students will someday soon allow Northern Irish youths caught up in gangs to experience new ways to address issues. Some will visit the United States to observe community philanthropy.

    Many people help with international philanthropy. Student groups, members of faith-based organizations, members of service organizations, and individuals all participate. Philanthropy involves changing the world on a person-to-person basis. As the old expression goes: Try it, you will like it!

    Conclusion

    This chapter illustrated some important ideas by people who have sought to enhance civic action and philanthropy in other countries. In brief, the lessons are:

    • Civic action and philanthropy are not just American ideas. The actions and organizations represented by civic action and philanthropy are found in every culture. In Northern Ireland and Hungary, they have proven to be critically important.
    • Civic action and philanthropy do not substitute for the workings of government. Instead, a strong commitment to civic participation is necessary. Democratic institutions are needed for a balanced and effective “open society.” Too much government prevents civic participation, but civic action alone cannot guarantee stability and peace.
    • What is true for the relationship between civic action and government is also true for relations with economic and family organizations. “Free market capitalism” needs a thriving democratic government and vital civic activity if the needs of citizens are to be met. Families can only support their members if opportunities exist for each to grow and develop, find employment, and actively participate in governmental and civic life.

    A modern society resembles a table with four legs. Each of the legs is necessary to support the entire table, but each leg must have enough strength to support its role, or the table will topple. Think of each leg as one of the following: family, government, civic/philanthropy, and business. Each leg needs to be the right size for the society to be able to support its population. All are necessary, and none by itself is sufficient (Van Til, 2000). There is no escape from the necessity of balanced social development in our global society. Philanthropy has a critical role to play as the future unfolds for people in many regions of the world.

    JonVan Til
    References
    Barber, B. R. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How globalism and tribalism are reshaping the world. New York: Ballantine.
    Birrell, D.Williamson, A.The voluntary-community sector and political development in Northern Ireland, since 1972Voluntas123217–2182001
    Cantor, P. (2001). Gilligan unbound: Pop culture in the age of globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    http://Catholic.net. (2004). Mother Teresa of Calcutta. New Haven, CT: http://Catholic.net. Retrieved January 22, 2004, from http://www.catholic.net/hopehealing/templatechannel.phtml?.channelid=22
    Desmond Tutu Peace Foundation USA. (2002). Archbishop Tutu profile. New York: Desmond Tutu Peace Foundation USA. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://www.tutufoundationusa.org/about.html
    Feierman, S. (1998). Reciprocity and assistance in precolonial Africa. In W.Ilchman, S.Katz, & E.Queen (Eds.), Philanthropy in the world's traditions. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Kaufman, M. T. (2002). Soros. New York: Knopf.
    O'Leary, B. & McGarry, J. (1996). Politics of antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland. London: Athlone Press.
    Salamon, L., & Anheier, H. (1997). Defining the nonprofit Sector: A cross-national analysis (Johns Hopkins Non-Profit Sector Series 3). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Van Til, J. (2000). Growing civil society: From nonprofit sector to third space. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Wilson, D. (2001, March). Presentation to Rutgers University Study Group, Portstewart, Northern Ireland.
    3. Geography of Philanthropy in the United States

    Philanthropy and geography are connected. Philanthropy is the voluntary giving of money, services, and time. Philanthropy is provided by many nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations. Those organizations may work with government, but they are not a part of local, state, or national governments.

    The local community is a place where philanthropy begins. The community's geography is based on its cultural groups, economic activities, and environment. Many examples of philanthropy can be found in almost all places. Every community that has a United Way is a location with philanthropy. Every community that has a service club, such as Rotary or Kiwanis, is a site for philanthropy.

    Some communities get much attention for their philanthropic activities. Santa Barbara, California, for example, is a place where philanthropy makes front-page headlines because of who participates in philanthropic activities in that city. A newspaper report about an event to raise funds for philanthropy highlighted an appearance by Oprah Winfrey, the television talk show host, author, and Hollywood celebrity (Overend, 2003).

    While Santa Barbara is home to many rich and famous people, it also is home to many people whose families have lived there for several generations. It is a small city located on the California coast about 90 miles north of Los Angeles. It has museums and a symphony orchestra, both supported by donations. It has homeless shelters, groups that work to protect the environment, and community education programs that offer lifelong learning opportunities to residents. Those programs are also supported by donations. While the rich and famous attract the headlines, most residents of Santa Barbara give money, services, and time as a way to develop civic pride and responsibility within the community.

    Not all communities are exactly like Santa Barbara in terms of the people who live there or its location along the Pacific Ocean. However, people in most communities recognize the importance of philanthropy and participate in giving time, services, and money. They view philanthropy as a way to improve civic life in the place where they live.

    Local philanthropy affects the daily lives of most people. You may not recognize it in your own community, but nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations help make most communities function successfully. Nonprofit organizations obtain funds through donations and the services they are paid to provide. Many nonprofit organizations invest their money and earn interest or dividends. As we think about it, the name nonprofit may seem incorrect. However, for-profit and nonprofit organizations are quite different. The nonprofit must spend its earnings on the programs it offers. For-profit organizations can spend their income in many ways. Nongovernmental organizations are not a part of local, state, or national government. Sometimes they work with governmental agencies, and at other times they are entirely separate.

    Mark Wilson is Associate Professor of Urban Planning and Geography at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.

    When people are considering visiting a museum, they usually want to know “where” it is located and “what” is there. For example, people from all over the world visit the Field Museum in Chicago. The museum was a gift from Marshall Field, a businessperson and philanthropist during the early 20th century. Visitors need to know “where” the museum is and “what” they will find there. Think about museums, sports facilities, medical centers, or recreational or school programs you have visited. Some may have been close to where you live. Visiting others may have required you to travel across town or to another city or state. In each case you were interested in knowing “where” the facility was located and “what” was there.

    Geographers are interested in philanthropy for some of the same reasons. For example, geographers can discover much about a place by studying the “where” and “what” of the philanthropy at that place. Place refers to the human and physical features at a location that makes it different from all other places. Characteristics of place include culture, climate, land use, and natural hazards, among other features. The name of a place (e.g., Chicago, Michigan, or the Southwest United States) is also an important characteristic of the place.

    Think about Santa Barbara as an example. The city has characteristics, such as museums, homeless shelters, and symphony orchestras, that give it civic qualities. Of course, not every place is like Santa Barbara. Towns and cities across the United States have differences. But they also have some similarities. While not every place has Oprah Winfrey, the people in most places practice philanthropy. They give to help others.

    Another reason geographers study philanthropy is to determine what giving occurs in a county, a state, and a country. Some places have large amounts of philanthropic benefits and others have fewer. Mapping and analyzing the patterns of giving in the United States helps explain where and why giving occurs and who benefits.

    Geographers use maps in the study of philanthropy. Maps are useful tools for presenting the “where” and “what” information. When geographers study philanthropy, they

    • use maps that show nonprofit activity at the national, state, city, and local levels;
    • observe patterns of philanthropic and nonprofit activity that reveal the importance of location;
    • compare the activities of nonprofit organizations with other parts of the economy; and
    • apply methods of geographic analysis to explain the patterns of philanthropy and nonprofit activities.
    A Geographic Perspective on Philanthropic and Nonprofit Activities Philanthropy at the National Scale

    Philanthropic giving and nonprofit action occur in many forms, from one person helping another to large organizations contributing money, supplies, and services in many places in the United States. Much of the giving that occurs is not measured or widely publicized. Only those persons or organizations involved and the people receiving the benefits know they have made a difference. Yet this type of giving is good for society because it builds on the civility between individuals and groups that a democratic society requires. Civility means treating others with respect, as persons worthy of regard whether or not you agree with their positions on issues. What is the effect of giving money, services, and time on the common good?

    Geographers use several ways to study the philanthropic and nonprofit sector in the United States. One approach is to study the reports of nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit organizations are registered with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). IRS data tells where the nonprofit organizations are located, but the list is very long, so analyzing it would take a long time.

    A map is a better way to show the information. Figure D.5 shows nonprofit organizations by state. By looking closely at the map, you can identify whether nonprofits are distributed evenly across the United States and, if not, which places have more nonprofits than others.

    As you look at the map, imagine that you are looking for a job with a nonprofit organization. Are some states likely to have more jobs in the nonprofit sector than other states? How would the map help you make a decision about where to look for work? The job search could be in a specific state or in a region of the country, such as the northeast, southeast, west, etc.

    You prefer living in Idaho to living in New York. Based on the map, what are the opportunities going to be in these two states? In frustration, you throw up your hands and ask: “Why are nonprofits more concentrated in some states and regions than in others?” What might the answer be? How could you investigate this question?

    To answer such questions, researchers often look for another geographic distribution that they think may provide the reason. For example, population distribution may be important. You could ask: “Is there a relationship between the distribution of nonprofits and the population of the states?” A map showing the population distribution by state may provide the answer (Figure D.6).

    How does the distribution of nonprofit organizations compare with population by state? The states and regions with the most nonprofit organizations also have higher population densities. The patterns on the maps suggest that there are more nonprofit organizations where there are more people. This is a positive relationship between population density and nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit organizations are located where there is a larger population to be served, as well as a larger number of people who give.

    Figure D.5 Nonprofit Organizations by State, 2008
    SOURCE: Map created by Jeremy Pyne from ESRI data, National Center for Charitable Statistics.

    We now have some general information about the geography of philanthropy for the United States. We might ask how much money is spent per person per year in each state by nonprofit organizations? This is called expenditure per capita, which means per person. The total amount spent in a state is divided by the number of people in the state to develop this measure, expenditure per capita. The pattern on the map presenting this data (Figure D.7) is different from the two prior maps.

    Figure D.7 is useful because it tells how much, on average, was spent on philanthropy for each person in your class and in your school. No, not everyone received that amount of money. Some people received more and others less. The per capita figure provides an easy way to compare the common good provided by philanthropy in each state. It states the value in dollars; people can compare %100 with %1,000 per capita and recognize the difference.

    Philanthropy at the State Scale

    The United States has 50 states, as shown on the prior maps. Geographers often change the scale of their analysis to focus on a single state. Changing the scale permits studying a particular state in greater detail. Small-scale maps show little detail, and usually show the world or a country. Large-scale maps show more detail. The neighborhood or community is shown with streets and buildings.

    Using Michigan as a case study, Figure D.8 shows that nonprofit and philanthropic organizations are located in many cities and counties in the state. The map shows the locations of nonprofit organizations by county in the state. Counties are a useful political unit for mapping information.

    In Grand Rapids, nonprofit and philanthropic organizations are concentrated near the center of the city, also referred to as the downtown. Organizations often choose a downtown location because it allows them to serve the entire city from one central location. The map also shows that some parts of the city have very few organizations. Nonprofit and philanthropic organizations in an urban area like Grand Rapids serve many people and other organizations. They often decide on their location in the city based on the services they provide. A homeless shelter will most likely be located within easy walking distance of locations where homeless people gather. The League of Women Voters may have their offices in a suburb since they rely on telephone, mail, and community meeting centers to provide services. For someone in high school, would it matter where nonprofit and philanthropic organizations are located? Should nonprofit organizations serving young adults, such as the YMCA or YWCA, be located downtown or in the suburbs?

    Figure D.6 Estimated Population of United States, by State in 2008
    SOURCE: Map created by Jeremy Pyne from ESRI data, National Center for Charitable Statistics.
    Philanthropy at the Local Community Scale

    The information at the scale of the state provided more detailed information than the national scale. A map at the scale of the city provides even more. Grand Rapids, the second largest city in Michigan, provides an example of philanthropy at the city scale. Figure D.9 shows in great detail the location and distribution of nonprofit and philanthropic organizations in Grand Rapids.

    At the scale of the neighborhood, nonprofit and philanthropic organizations are often located on major streets, in commercial districts such as mini-malls, and at community centers. The locations at the neighborhood scale reflect two things.

    Figure D.7 Nonprofit Spending per Person in 1999
    SOURCE: Map created by Jeremy Pyne from ESRI data, National Center for Charitable Statistics.

    First, the history of the neighborhood as it relates to the nonprofit organizations is important. Were the nonprofits at that location for a long time? In the southeast region of Grand Rapids, organizations that operate from faith-based institutions and their properties are most common. In most instances, urban faith-based institutions have been located there for many years. In addition, they are often located near one another. A cluster of such institutions is not uncommon. Second, local zoning regulations set up by the city government help decide where nonprofits will be located. Decisions about zoning and land use should result in a common good. For example, educational and health services located where people can reach them easily contribute to the common good.

    Philanthropy at the Neighborhood Scale

    We have mapped the geography of nonprofit and philanthropic organizations at the national, state, and city levels and seen how changes in scale increase the information. One important map remains. For most people, the geographic scale they use most often is the neighborhood. Nonprofits and philanthropic organizations also operate at the neighborhood scale. Neighborhood residents see and can visit them each day; neighborhood nonprofits and philanthropic organizations may be where parents, relatives, and people in the neighborhood work.

    Let's look into a Grand Rapids neighborhood. It is the southeast region of Grand Rapids, shown by Figure D.10. The map shows the distribution of religious, education, arts, and environmental organizations that provide services to this neighborhood. The services they provide may also be offered to people in other neighborhoods in the city.

    The map of Michigan shows us that nonprofit and philanthropic organizations are found in every county of the state. However, they are not evenly distributed. Instead, they are concentrated mainly in the southern part of the Lower Peninsula, where the population is greatest.

    Figure D.8 Nonprofit and Philanthropic Organizations by County in Michigan in 2008
    SOURCE: Map created by Jeremy Pyne from ESRI data, National Center for Charitable Statistics.

    The number of nonprofit or philanthropic organizations is positively related to overall population, as is seen by examining the locations of cities. As the city size increases, so does the number of nonprofit organizations. There are several explanations for this. First, more resources are available in areas with more people. For example, there are more volunteers to provide services and more financial resources to pay for programs that organizations sponsor. Second, a larger population means greater demand for the services that are provided. For example, larger numbers of homebound people require more “meals on wheels” delivered, home cleaning and repairing services, and visiting health care workers.

    Figure D.9 Nonprofit and Philanthropic Organizations in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 2006
    SOURCE: Map created by Jeremy Pyne from ESRI data, National Center for Charitable Statistics.

    The relationship between urban regions and philanthropy is usually clear. In other cases, zip code regions outside cities have quite a large number of nonprofit organizations. Think about the state where you live. What patterns would you expect to find? The

    National Center for Charitable Statistics provides information about the number of organizations by county for every state. It is an excellent data source for researching philanthropy in your state and local area (http://www.nccs.urban.org). People who work in philanthropy (such as directors of planned giving, United Way officials, etc.) and those who study philanthropy (geographers, historians, economists, government officials, etc.) use data and geographic information to draw and analyze maps such as those in this book.

    Figure D.10 Nonprofit and Philanthropic Organizations in Southeast Region of Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 2006
    SOURCE: Map created by Jeremy Pyne from ESRI data, National Center for Charitable Statistics.
    Summarizing the Patterns on the Maps

    The information presented on the maps allowed us to make some generalizations about philanthropy in the country, the state, the city, and the neighborhood. We concluded that nonprofit and philanthropic organizations tend to cluster in populated areas. This is called the spatial relationship between organizations and population density.

    Knowing where nonprofits are located is important. Imagine that a Goodwill Industries store is located in a neighborhood with high unemployment. A map of employment patterns and the location of the store may be mapped. A geographic analysis of the map will indicate where Goodwill can find people looking for work. Maps provide a way for nonprofit and philanthropic organizations to analyze the characteristics of the local area. By doing so, they learn who may need their services. Maps will also inform them of where they may obtain volunteers to donate time, people with special services, and the ability of the local population to give money to support civic projects.

    Figure D.11 Population Pyramid of Kalamazoo County, Michigan, in 2000
    SOURCE: U.S Bureau of Census, 2000.
    Exploring a Community's Population

    Nonprofit and philanthropic organizations need information about the populations they are serving. Are there many elderly people in the community? How many children are there and what are their ages? How many people in the community are able to volunteer time and services?

    Those questions may be answered in part by examining a population pyramid of a community. Figure D.11 shows population data for Kalamazoo County, Michigan. This population pyramid shows the population of females and males in each age group from birth (0) to 90 plus years.

    The population pyramid provides information about a community, the needs it may have, and the resources it may provide. Nonprofit and philanthropic organizations rely on such information to inform them about the population geography of the communities they serve. The population pyramid also informs those organizations about the giving and volunteering they might expect from a community. Knowing the number of people who live there and their age and gender is important in planning and providing services. For example, a large number of young people ages 15 to 24 live in Kalamazoo County. Many of these young people are students attending Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo College, and Kalamazoo Valley Community College; others are high school students and young adults not in college. This group is usually not able to donate large amounts of money to nonprofit and philanthropic organizations. However, they do have time. Volunteer time to help others is important social capital for the community. Nonprofit organizations may invite that large population of young adults to volunteer.

    Employment by Nonprofit and Philanthropic Organizations

    Employment opportunities and where they are located are both important geographic questions. In the United States in 2001, total employment of 129.6 million workers was divided between for-profit firms (98.4 million workers), government (20.3 million workers), and nonprofit organizations (10.9 million workers). In other words, for-profit firms employed 75.6% of the workforce, followed by government with 15.6%, and the nonprofit sector with 8.4%.

    Figure D.12 Employment by Sector in Selected States in 2001
    SOURCE: Created by Jeremy Pyne from ESRI data, National Center for Charitable Statistics.

    All 50 states can be compared in a table or graph. However, it is sometimes more revealing to examine a smaller number of states that have major differences. The sampled states can also represent different regions of the country. The sample of states may then be used to determine why differences occur. The pattern of employment in nonprofit organizations in the sample of states may then be compared to other states or to other regions.

    Figure D.12 provides data on a sample of eight states in different regions of the United States. Looking at this data will allow us to see if the pattern of employment in nonprofits is the same or different from state to state.

    The graph shows that the percentage of employment in the nonprofit sector is larger than the national average in Connecticut, Maryland, and West Virginia. Nonprofit employment is lower than the national average in California, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Texas.

    Reasons for the Locations of NonProfit and Philanthropic Organizations

    The location of nonprofit and philanthropic organizations in the United States is the result of many influences over the past two centuries. The major forces that have decided where nonprofits are located include (1) the early presence of the philanthropic organization at an ideal location, (2) resources, and (3) leadership.

    Initial Presence

    The presence of nonprofit and philanthropic organizations can often be traced to historic advantages at the place they were founded. Organizations that were started many years ago—some in the 1800s—are well established today. These organizations had the advantage of being first and were able to meet local needs. For example, Pittsburgh was the home of Andrew Carnegie, and the Carnegie Foundation had an early interest in improving life in Pennsylvania. The Kellogg Foundation was started in Battle Creek, Michigan, in 1934. One of its initial projects was the Michigan Community Health Project. The Kellogg Foundation set up health programs in rural southwestern Michigan counties. Public health departments were opened in locations that other organizations, including the government, believed were too small in population. The Kellogg Foundation proved that the common good was served by providing health services in those communities.

    When a large philanthropic organization gave attention to a local area, other organizations that might have considered offering similar goods and services at that location were discouraged because needs were already being met. The early nonprofit and philanthropic organizations could meet local needs. For example, during the 18th and 19th centuries, education was not a government concern. The most likely source of education was through faith-based schools. Beginning in the latter part of the 19th and early 20th centuries, government took on increased responsibility for education since it served the common good. Today, some regions of the United States, such as the Northeast, have both public and faith-based school systems. The faith-based system operates on donations and fees for service instead of taxes.

    Resources

    Nonprofit and philanthropic organizations need resources to provide services. Resources may come from donations or fees for services. Places that lack donors or have many low-income residents may not be able to support those organizations. Even though the need may be great, the organizations lack the resources needed to carry out their nonprofit and philanthropic missions. Some regions of the United States, therefore, have difficulty creating new nonprofit organizations. They are unable to obtain local resources or attract donations from other parts of the United States. Without these resources, it is impossible to begin helping people. In the South there is a high proportion of giving among the population. However, much of the giving is directed to faith-based programs. New nonprofit organizations receive less compared to the faith-based programs, which often have a local focus and involve local people. The philanthropy, both giving and receiving, occurs only within their clearly defined group.

    When nonprofit and philanthropic organizations are well established, but the need is greater than can be met, the government may provide resources directly to those organizations rather than providing the service itself.

    Leadership

    An important element of nonprofit and philanthropic success is entrepreneurship—the leadership skills necessary to attract resources and allow production. If there are few persons with the talent or willingness to build organizations, then organizations will not be created. Without organizations, production of goods and services by the nonprofit and philanthropic sector will not occur, or will occur at a slower rate. Also, in some parts of the country with a strong governmental sector, public-spirited persons may work for government rather than for nonprofit and philanthropic organizations. In Santa Barbara they rely on people whose families have lived there for generations as well as the new rich and famous residents. Most communities do not rely on celebrities. They rely on local leaders to improve philanthropic “habits of mind” among the residents. Such leadership may come from a school principal, a teacher, a well-known business person, a community son or daughter, or a committee of dedicated, hard-working local people. Their common efforts usually result in amazing successes as they build civic participation and the common good.

    Conclusion

    The landscape of nonprofit and philanthropic activities is not the same across the United States. It is different in different places. Santa Barbara, California, is quite different from Kalamazoo, Michigan. However, both places have strong community foundations. Different people have been involved during different periods of time, but both places share a common vision for a civil society involved in giving to help others.

    What about the nonprofit organizations in your community? The locations and spatial distribution of nonprofit organizations and the goods and services they provide are a good indicator of the “geography of giving” in a community. Giving involves not only money or other resources, but also volunteering time to assist someone in need. The spatial distribution of nonprofit and philanthropic organizations in a community is usually explained by the combination of three factors:

    • What organizations were first to provide those services at a location?
    • What resources are available at the location?
    • What leadership was available to get the organizations working successfully?

    Those are the important parts of the “philanthropic landscape” in a community. Each informs us about people giving money, services, and time to help others.

    Acknowledgments

    The Nonprofit Michigan Project at Michigan State University and the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University generously provided data for this chapter. Jeremy Pyne of the Johnson Center and Fitria Wahid, Western Michigan University, prepared the maps.

    MarkWilson
    References
    Bielefeld, W.Metropolitan nonprofit sectors: Findings from NCCS dataNonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly292297–3142000
    Overend, W. (2003, September). Charity must be in the water. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 28,2004, from http://www.sbrm.org/LATimes.html.
    Weisbrod, B. A. (1988). The nonprofit economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Wolpert, J. (1993). Patterns of generosity in America: Who's holding the safety net?. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press.
    4. Geography and International Philanthropy
    Introduction

    A recent high school graduating class decided to leave a lasting legacy to their school. No, it was not brightly painted goal posts on the football field. It was not a flower garden that future students could care for and cultivate. The class raised a significant amount of money and donated it to build and equip an elementary school in a developing country. Is it a lasting legacy? Yes, it is, and from two points of view. First, many students in the developing country will attend the new school. Some who attend may become teachers, public health workers, or business people. The education they receive will enable them to become productive members of a civil society.

    Second, the legacy does not stop with the students who raised the money They have challenged the next graduating class from the high school to match or exceed the contribution they made. Each new senior class will elect a committee to decide on their project, which can be in any country in the world. The plan is for each future class to make the same challenge to the students who follow. Thus, this year's high school class has left a legacy of giving to everyone who will graduate from their high school in the future.

    What BIG idea is the senior class passing along to students in the future? It is “international philanthropy.” The legacy has two benefits. One benefit is to the recipients of a new school in a developing country. The other is to the students who are giving. The intended outcome is to promote a civil society among people in both places.

    International philanthropy occurs in many different ways. It occurs at different times, in different places, and in different political situations. In some places, local families and villages provide philanthropy for their own people. In other places philanthropy comes from outside the country, as with the example of the high school students presented above. This chapter will enable you to find out what “international philanthropy” does and how it happens in different places.

    Geographers and Philanthropy

    In their professional work, geographers are interested in the study of international philanthropy for two reasons. First, cultural geography (also called human geography) focuses on the distinct traditions that people have developed in particular places and regions. The traditions include social systems, such as the family, and economic systems, such as food production. Cultural traditions also include people's commitment to such ideas as the common good and helping one another, which are both important in philanthropy. Thus, study of philanthropy is a comfortable subject in cultural geography.

    Where are things located? Why are they there? These are two questions that geographers ask. They use maps to show where things are located. They research the way things, such as money, services, and ideas, move from one location to another. International philanthropy is the movement of money, services, and ideas from one place or country to another. The purpose is to provide assistance so people can improve their condition of life. The assistance may include health services, food, basic education, or skills for jobs.

    Joseph P. Stoltman is Professor of Geography at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. 950

    Where are volunteer resources available? Where are resources needed? How do we get resources from the location where they are available to where they are needed? The high school graduating class described earlier moved resources from where they were available to where they were needed. In geography, that process is called spatial analysis, or studying where things are on the Earth's surface, why they are there, and the ways they move from one location to another. Geographers’ interest in spatial analysis is the second reason that they find philanthropy an interesting topic of study.

    In this chapter, we examine international philanthropy as geographers do, using cultural geography and spatial analysis questions.

    Philanthropy and Culture

    Soccer, often referred to as the world's most popular team sport, is played in many countries. People in South America, Asia, Africa, and Europe follow soccer clubs and teams, becoming devoted supporters of “their team.” Aldo Panfichi is a supporter of the Alianza Lima soccer club in Lima, Peru. His account of attending a soccer match with some of his friends appears below.

    Mr. Panfichi's experience led him to think about the actions of the young soccer fans he encountered that day. The crowd used up a huge amount of energy, but not in a positive manner. He found that soccer is often linked to violence in places where it is played. His own experience playing soccer was that the sport is generally nonviolent. Players are seldom injured seriously as a result of the game. Soccer follows basic rules of democracy, and the authority of the referees and the rules of fair play are widely respected. People of all economic, ethnic, social, and national groups either play or are spectators. Soccer is played in parks, stadiums, and other public places, even in the streets. In Latin America, soccer is so much a part of the culture that soccer clubs are an important part of their society. The clubs are geographically linked with specific cities, barrios, or ethnic or social groups (Panfichi, 2002). How, he wondered, could the vibrant cultural and social energies he observed that day be put to good use?

    Aldo Panfichi faced a dilemma. What could be done to capture the motivation and energy of soccer fans in Lima and redirect them to positive purposes?

    Mr. Panfichi recognized that the “solidarity between individuals of different social classes organized around a given club” was a valuable resource. He and his co-workers at a local university decided to take action. With the help of the AVINA Foundation, a Swiss philanthropic organization, they started a program to build youth leadership in the communities (barrios) that were geographically and culturally linked with soccer clubs and teams. It was called “Soccer and Barrios: Youth as Promoters of Local Development” (Futboly Barrios: Jóvenes Gestores de Desarollo Local). The leadership program has four main activities.

    • Learning a trade or technical occupation that will allow the youths to be better prepared to join the labor market.
    • A civic training workshop that seeks to make the youths conscious of their natural leadership skills, but also of their rights and obligations as citizens.
    • Communications training to help these youths develop a voice of their own that can be heard by society.
    • Local community development, in which the barristas, or neighborhood organizations, propose projects that benefit their neighborhoods. (Panfichi, 2002, p. 4)

    This example from Lima, Peru, shows how a person who observes a need in the community can take action. Local human resources were combined with funds from a Swiss foundation. Will the youth leadership program stop all the problems associated with the energy of soccer fans? Probably not, but it has prompted a large number of rowdy fans to consider their rights and responsibilities as citizens of their barrio, the city of Lima, and Peru. From a geographic perspective, the program developers relied on soccer as the common cultural tradition. The neighborhood, city, and country will all be positively affected by the successes of Futbol y Barrios.

    Philanthropy and International Borders

    Globalization means looking at economic and human topics from a worldwide viewpoint rather than that of a single country. At one time economic and humanitarian ideas traveled at the speed of sailing ships and camel caravans. That is no longer the case. A newly released popular music recording from the Philippines is heard across the globe instantly via satellite radio, television, cell phone, and Internet. The moment it is created, the newest hairstyle can be viewed on the World Wide Web, satellite television, or digital photography in other parts of the world. Early morning or late night editions of big city newspapers no longer require a walk to the newsstand or a wait for paper delivery. They can be viewed in electronic form the moment they are printed.

    As globalization has continued to change the cultures and geography of places, another change has been occurring in many countries of the world: the rise of democratic government. Like globalization, democracy has been here for a very long time. It was practiced in early Greece and Rome, but probably occurred in other ancient locations as well. In the 20th century, and especially in the 1990s, progress toward a civil society and full participation by citizens in democratic government were characteristics of that time.

    Democracy requires hard work and positive results. Newly emerging democracies give people a far greater voice in how and where they live, where they work, and how their government is run. Citizen participation is necessary for a democratic form of government to survive and thrive. In a democracy, people must make choices, and they must interact with each other in order to make informed choices.

    How have globalization and democracy affected international philanthropy? Newly formed democratic governments often recognize that the task ahead of them is huge. The government may need to provide such public services as schools, hospitals, and public utilities (e.g., water and electricity). They sometimes cannot do all of this work on their own (Hodgkinson, 2001). When that happens, governments turn to international philanthropic organizations for assistance.

    This assistance often requires citizen involvement to meet needs. The process builds mutual trust and a positive working relationship between the citizens and those donating time and resources. Trust and working relationships are part of the social capital that philanthropy tries to develop. Social capital, as defined by Robert Putnam, refers to features of social life-norms and trust that enable people to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives.

    The Geography of International Philanthropic Organizations

    Many international organizations operate philanthropic and nonprofit activities. Figure D.13 is a partial listing of philanthropic, nonprofit, and nongovernmental organizations that span the globe with their activities. The figure includes organizations that provide various kinds of services.

    Many of the organizations listed in Figure D.13 have outreach programs that cross international borders. They usually accomplish three missions.

    • They provide aid and lend support to groups of people and countries that are in need.
    • They work with the local people and their government to begin projects that enable those people and governments to help themselves.
    • They empower the population to bring about positive changes in the future that will help them in the long-run.

    Let's take a closer look at several international philanthropic organizations.

    Case Study 1: The Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    Among the best-known organizations is the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Founded in 1919, the Federation is the world's largest humanitarian organization and provides international assistance without regard to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class, or political opinions. In 2009, the Federation had 186 member Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. There were 60 field offices and delegations to support activities around the world.

    The Red Crescent is the symbol of the Federation in Islamic countries; the Red Cross is used in other member countries. While not yet a Federation member, Israel has asked to use the Star of David to designate its humanitarian missions once it becomes a member.

    While “giving blood” may be the only contact most people have with the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Federation's philanthropic activity is truly international. Each of the member societies also has a national or regional relief program. In the United States, it is the American Red Cross; states, counties, and cities may each have a Red Cross chapter.

    From its main office in Geneva, Switzerland, the Federation has responded to appeals from the regions of the world shown in Figure D.14. Those appeals have been for different types of relief (Figure D.15). The figures list the “where?” and the “why?” of international calls for help.

    The Federation has responded to approximately 22 appeals per year since it was founded in 1919. The appeals have come from every region of the world in response to humanitarian needs ranging from disaster relief to food and nutrition. The appeals resulted in money, hospital supplies, clothing, medical equipment, vaccinations, and seeds for crops, to name a few. Volunteers willing to donate their time were available. The immediate results have been the rebuilding of communities and people's lives. The long-term goal is to build a civil society in which members of the global community respect and care for one another.

    Case Study 2: Oxfam Philanthropy and Civic Principles

    Oxfam, an organization started in Oxford, England, during the 20th century, is recognized internationally for its work in famine relief. When the two words, Oxford and famine, are placed side by side, a shortened, combined version of both becomes Oxfam. People in many countries of the world recognize Oxfam for its philanthropic and nonprofit activities. Oxfam International is made up of affiliated organizations that support the overall mission. Figure D.16 shows where Oxfam works around the world.

    Figure D.13 International Philanthropic Organizations
    Figure D.14 Donor Response to Programs/Appeals 2006 to 2010
    SOURCE: Adapted from Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2010, http://www.ifrc.org.

    The mission of Oxfam is to help people become empowered through greater knowledge and information about economic and social justice. In order to achieve its mission, Oxfam performs many other activities. It provides financial and material support to communities, individuals, schools, hospitals, and in-country volunteer groups, as well as its own volunteers. It also promotes ideas, values, and sustainable methods of producing food and other goods to improve the lives of people.

    Figure D.15 Donor Response by Sector, 2006 to 2010
    SOURCE: Adapted from Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010, http://www.ifrc.org.

    Oxfam has based its philanthropic program on the ideas of global citizenship and economic justice. It focuses on human rights, women's rights, international debt relief for poor countries, banning of landmines, and holding those who commit genocide legally responsible. It is the philanthropy of ideals and human values that Oxfam has supported most directly. Nearly every philanthropic organization has those values in its mission. For Oxfam, it is a major part of the mission. Oxfam's view of global citizenship has a very practical meaning. People should know how their daily activities and choices affect other people, whether geographically far or near.

    Figure D.16 The Global Geographic Distribution and Percent Expenditures of Oxfam's Activities
    SOURCE: From p. 17 of Oxfam International Annual Report 2008—2009, Oxford, UK: Oxfam, 2009.

    Oxfam believes that global citizens have the responsibility to examine:

    • How we learn about other peoples and their cultures.
    • The daily choices we make as shoppers, vacationers, and investors.
    • How we welcome strangers and refugees and question stereotypes.
    • How we react to humanitarian crises in countries far away from our own.
    • The attitudes we communicate to our children, colleagues, neighbors, and friends.
    • The political choices we make as citizens. (Oxfam, 2009)

    Does a civil society result when people are able to discuss issues and exchange ideas? In a civil society, do people need the freedom to openly support the plan or person they think will help solve the issues or problems they face? If you believe these actions are important to a civil society, then you must also recognize that other people will feel quite different about the same issues. These differing views will cause tension within society. Some citizens support one idea, while others are opposed to it. That tension is part of the culture that geographers look for in a place. It is the political and social culture that allows people to disagree with one another, but still be civil toward each other. It is that level of civility that volunteers and supporters of organizations like Oxfam believe is important to global citizenship and democratic government.

    Expenditures by Oxfam reflect the underlying values of the organization (Figure D.17). The two categories with the largest funding are life and security, and livelihoods. Life and security refers to food, medical treatment, and sanitation. Livelihood activities help people earn a living and include job training. Basic social services, which are third, include hospitals, schools, and public health. Everyone agrees those are very important to a civil society.

    The two remaining categories, the right to be heard and gender and diversity, are also important, but are very different. They focus on ideals rather than services or material goods. They are values supported by democratic societies. Countries should be helped to build a society based on civility, trust, and giving. The acceptance of both material assistance and values of a civil society are cultural considerations. The way those values are viewed will vary from place to place as the cultural geography varies.

    Figure D.17 Percentage of Oxfam Funding Going by Category of Support
    SOURCE: From p. 17 of Oxfam International Annual Report 2008—2009, Oxford, UK: Oxfam, 2009.
    Geographic Analysis of International Philanthropic Organizations

    The importance of culture in philanthropy is clearly seen in the questions asked during a geographic analysis: What are the cultural practices of the people in a place? How will they react to the services, material goods, and volunteers from our organization? Will they accept the ideas of civility, women's rights, and ethnic diversity that our organization supports? The answers to those geographic questions are important to the long-term success of international philanthropy. The answers depend on information about locations, people, and environments on Earth.

    The map and tables showing the activities of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and Oxfam are also important in geographic analysis of international philanthropy. Those data provide information about the locations where assistance has been provided, such as the country or world region; the kind of philanthropic assistance that has been provided, such as education, health, water supplies, etc.; and how much has been provided, such as the percentage of total assistance that has gone to a country or region.

    A geographic analysis of Figure D.14 informs us that the Asia/Pacific region has had the greatest number of responses to programs and appeals for assistance since 2006. We would next ask the questions: What type of assistance was provided and what percentage of the total appeals for assistance has gone to the Asian/Pacific region? With that information, a comparison may be made with other regions, such as Africa, which is second in total number of appeals, or Europe, which is third. Important geographic questions must be asked in order to determine the problems and the changes in the number of problems over time in a region. If, for example, the problem of food security is worsening, then increased food production may require more funding. A geographic analysis of the data tells philanthropic organizations about changes so they may develop effective policies and plans.

    A geographic analysis of the information in the two case studies supports these conclusions. First, knowledge of cultural geography informs us that the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies will have programs in Africa south of the Sahara. There are Islamic, Christian, and traditional societies in the region. While both Red Cross and Red Crescent would respond to needs, there is an important cultural tie to the symbolism of the Cross and Crescent, based on religion.

    Oxfam International is also active in the region, providing approximately one-third of its available resources for Africa. Why is Africa in such great need?

    In recent decades, Africa has been a region of warfare and conflict. It is also a region where the population suffers from malaria, AIDS, and polio. Serious droughts have caused crops to fail. The result has been large migrations of rural people to look for work in urban centers.

    The presence of philanthropic organizations provides several ways to bring about change. One alternative is to enable people in the region to solve the conflicts, perhaps drawing on philanthropic help that is made available. Another is to wait for military conflict to end. Then social, economic, and political order may be reestablished and the door will be opened for help from international organizations. Philanthropic organizations will be ready to assist in rebuilding people's lives and their property. The problems that caused regions of Africa to have conflicts, human suffering, and economic problems must also be addressed. Giving food, medicine, and sending medical teams provides relief. It often does not, however, solve the larger problems countries in the region face. Those include governmental corruption, dictatorial governments, and lack of economic opportunity for the people. Philanthropy must address the urgent concerns, but it also must promote a civil society based on democratic ideals and human rights.

    Purchasing Crafts from other Countries: Is it International Philanthropy?

    Can people be philanthropic when they buy material goods that they enjoy? Let's consider a group of people living in a country or region of a country who produce some interesting crafts. However, they have no way to market the products; even if they were able to do so, they have little information about the international consumers who would purchase them. They have the option to sell their crafts to a local trader, who would then resell them to a larger export company. Eventually the products would reach boutiques and shops in London, Chicago, Paris, Tokyo, and other large cities. If they were popular with consumers, then they would be purchased quickly at quite a high price. However, the people who handcrafted the products received a very low price. They have no way of knowing that the products sold for a high price in the international market. When this happens, the artists or crafts persons are left with little profit. Most of the profit goes to persons and companies who exported, imported, and retailed the crafts.

    Does it always have to work this way? No, it does not, but a change requires both organizations willing to help and awareness from consumers who eventually purchase such handcrafted items. The consumers may display a philanthropic habit of mind by buying from a store or organization that returns a fair market price to the person who produced the item.

    One organization that addresses this problem is Ten Thousand Villages. In 1946, the Mennonites, a faith-based group, began working with people in several countries to give them a “fair price” place to sell their products. Fair price means that the person who produced the craft is paid an amount that fairly rewards the time, materials, and skills invested. The project has grown to include nearly 100 Ten Thousand Villages stores in the United States and Canada. Crafts and cultural products are imported mainly from countries in four regions—Africa, Latin America/Caribbean, Southeast Asia, and South Asia (Figure D.18).

    Artisans who are unemployed or find it difficult to market their crafts in their country make most of the products. They live in locations that are difficult to reach, they have little capital to pay for exporting their products, or they do not have the marketing skill necessary to obtain the best price. The local artist who sells products to Ten Thousand Villages gets a “fair market” price and receives the money promptly to help pay for food, education, health care, and housing. To keep the cost of operating the Ten Thousand Villages stores low, the nonprofit organization relies on thousands of people in Canada and the United States volunteering at stores in their home communities.

    Ten Thousand Villages, a nonprofit organization, has several values, principles, and goals that guide their activities. Among them are the following:

    • Handicrafts reflect and reinforce rich cultural traditions; they are environmentally sensitive.
    • Honor the value of seeking to bring justice and hope to the poor.
    • Make payments promptly and consistently for handicrafts and artistic work at a fair trade price.
    • Use resources carefully and value the volunteers who work in the North American operations. (Ten Thousand Villages, 2009)

    Most people agree with the values, principles, and goals of the organization. But not all people agree that shopping at Ten Thousand Villages is a form of philanthropy. They argue that consumers are receiving material goods through their purchases and, thus, this is not philanthropy at all.

    Does this value issue (donation versus purchase) create a tension regarding the way that international philanthropy is viewed? Can philanthropy be both direct and indirect? Direct philanthropy is a donation of time or other resources. Indirect philanthropy occurs when there is a positive benefit, but not as a donation of time and resources. Are organizations being philanthropic when they provide “fair market” outlets for crafts from poor regions of the world? Is the consumer who pays a slightly higher “fair market” price at such a store compared to the cost of a similar product at another store being a philanthropist?

    The issue goes beyond crafts. For example, the more developed countries are a very large market for coffee. Much of the coffee is grown in less developed countries. On some farms the tropical forest is removed so coffee trees can be planted. On other farms the coffee is grown in the shade of large tropical forest trees. Shade-grown coffee does not require all the tropical forest to be cleared and helps save the environment. Is drinking only shade-grown coffee a means to show environmental philanthropy?

    These are some of the questions we should think about as socially and economically conscious consumers. Where would you buy crafts? What kind of coffee would you buy? How would you justify your decision regarding those decisions?

    Some Geographic Reasons in Support of International Philanthropy

    International philanthropy is successful. Important knowledge and ideas spread from one geographic region to another. During the 20th and 21st centuries, global improvements in the quality of life were caused by philanthropy. They included the end of smallpox, fewer cases of polio, increased food production due to the Green Revolution, the introduction of democratic ideals to many countries, environmental stewardship and protection, and better nutrition for children.

    Is international philanthropy always successful? Success is measured in different ways, but warning signs indicate when problems exist. For example, if a group of people becomes dependent on international philanthropy, then overall success has not occurred. International philanthropy is usually concerned with “teaching people to provide for themselves so they someday will not require assistance.” Corrupt governments and international philanthropy often work in the same places. Supplies, medicine, food, and equipment are sometimes stolen and resold before they get to the people who need them. When that happens, the success of international philanthropy is greatly reduced.

    Philanthropy pursues investment to improve the capacity of people to achieve long-term benefits. There are great differences geographically between poor and rich regions of the world. Philanthropy makes social and cultural investments in people and organizations in poor regions to improve the quality of life. Their successes often benefit other people in the region and the world. The rise of civil societies that share democratic ideas has long-term benefits to the international community.

    Philanthropy is a powerful globalforce socially, economically, and politically. Cooperation is most successful when international borders are ignored. The combined efforts of international philanthropic organizations to collaborate on issues such as human rights, hunger, poverty, the environment, and population are enormous. As a group, philanthropic organizations have great influence in countries and regions of the world. They not only provide time, services, and money, but they plant ideas that support the growth of civil societies.

    Figure D.18 2009 Purchases by Region
    SOURCE: Adapted from Ten Thousand Villages U.S. Annual Report, New Hamburg, ON: Ten Thousand Villages, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2010, http://www.villages.ca.

    International philanthropy increases contacts between individuals and groups. The cultural differences between the group that is giving and the group that is receiving sometimes creates tensions. Does the donor group expect the receiving group to change some part of their cultural tradition? Being informed about public health or vaccinations is change at one level. Converting to a different faith belief is quite a different expectation. International philanthropy can exert great pressure for changes that the receiving group may not want to accept. How do you think tensions could be avoided?

    International philanthropy promotes democratic ideals.

    The geographic spread of ideas about democracy is important. Newly emerging democratic governments are fragile. Tensions both within countries and with neighboring countries test the will of democracies. International philanthropy provides resources and volunteers to help strengthen civic ideals and participation.

    International philanthropy enables people from diverse backgrounds and regions of the world to participate in global development. The world's cultural geography is diverse. Philanthropic organizations have shown that there is more than one way to enable people to improve their quality of life. Culture has a strong influence on how natural landscapes and resources are seen. One culture views a forest as a source of seeds and fruit; another perceives it as lumber for buildings. Philanthropic organizations use their skills in resolving those different views of the same environment. The results are often a healthy environment and a sustainable quality of life for both groups of people despite their conflicting views.

    International philanthropy benefits everyone, both donors and recipients. Because of the geography of Earth most people live on a relatively small percentage of the land surface. Thus, people are more and more in contact with others. Many people consider giving of time, services, and money as the most rewarding activities they carry out during their lives. Local faith-based organization members may volunteer to help build homes in a community in Belize. A newly graduated student may volunteer for the Peace Corps and spend time in Africa teaching children to read, teaching young mothers about childhood nutrition, or digging wells to provide a safe water supply. Whatever the activity, in doing the work, each person builds a bond with others that is based on respect, giving, and civility. Perhaps without realizing it, that person is also growing in global citizenship.

    Geography of Philanthropy: The Spread of Giving and Civic Ideals

    At the beginning of this chapter we explained that a geographic point of view includes two parts: cultural geography and spatial analysis (where things are located and why they are there). The geographer uses maps and information to study the culture of human groups and to show distributions, or where things are located. We stated that a geographic perspective is important to knowing about and participating in international philanthropy.

    You began by reading about Aldo Panfichi, an avid soccer fan in Peru. The culture of soccer presented a conflict for society. On the one hand, it was a terrific social and sporting event that demonstrated many strong elements of civic participation. On the other hand, the poor social behavior caused by fans of opposing teams presented difficult problems. Capturing the fans’ energy and converting it into meaningful civic action was the issue that Mr. Panfichi faced.

    You then examined two international philanthropic organizations, The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and Oxfam. Both organizations are international, providing aid to similar regions of the world. The Federation responds to needs and serves largely to provide disaster relief, but also works on social and economic needs. Oxfam works in many of the same areas, providing social and economic assistance. However, Oxfam takes a proactive role in promoting social justice, equity, women's rights, and the rights of ethnic groups. The Federation and Oxfam are both engaged in philanthropy in the same regions of the world, but meet different needs and have different goals. Both organizations demonstrate that philanthropy includes giving material goods and financial assistance. They also believe civic ideals and democratic values are important to the quality of life.

    The third example you studied, Ten Thousand Villages, presented a value question for those in the developed countries. As consumers, they can purchase from an entire range of goods, from crafts to mass-produced items. People working for low wages make some products in sweatshops; the consumer can buy them for low purchase prices. Other products are produced in places where a fair wage is paid, and a fair price is asked of the consumer. What are the civic issues a consumer faces as a member of the global society when confronted with such choices?

    The patterns of giving and the flow of funds and assistance from donor to recipient can be geographically analyzed. Geography enables you to inform yourself about other peoples and their cultures so that you can make informed decisions about the world beyond your community. More importantly, it allows you to consider what you can do individually to promote civility in society, both at home and in other parts of the world.

    Joseph P.Stoltman
    References
    Hodgkinson, V. (2001). The roles and contributions of volunteers globally: Passing on the tradition to future generations. Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Voluntary Organizations and Service. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.democracycollaborative.org/publications/hodgkinson.pdf
    International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2009). Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.ifrc.org
    Oxfam (2009). Annual report. Oxford, UK: Oxfam. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.oxfam.org
    Panfichi, A. (2002). Soccer and youth leadership in Peru. Harvard Review of Latin America. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~drclas/publications/revista/Volunteering/tcontent.html
    Ten Thousand Villages. (2009). Ten Thousand Villages U.S. annual report. New Hamburg, ON: Ten Thousand Villages. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.villages.ca
    5. The History of Philanthropy in the United States: 1620 to 2010

    Leisure is time for doing something useful.

    Benjamin Franklin

    The story of philanthropy in the United States includes both continuity and change. There was philanthropy in what is now the United States before European settlers arrived. Other giving traditions came with those settlers. Thus, the existence of philanthropy provides continuity to the story.

    Philanthropy has changed over time, however. Social changes have created new needs to be addressed. For example, huge numbers of immigrants came to the United States in the late 1800s. At the same time, more and more people were living in cities. Both of these factors created new needs that philanthropic groups tried to meet. Philanthropy also changed during the Great Depression, a time when needs were high. The New Deal, a government effort to deal with these enormous needs, changed the way people think about the role of government in solving social problems. Thus, it changed how philanthropy and government worked together.

    This chapter examines philanthropy throughout U.S. history. As you read, look for examples of continuity and change in the history of philanthropy. Try to identify periods in history when American philanthropy changed in important ways.

    The Colonial Period: Social Advancement in a New Land

    As sailing ships approached the shores of North America in the 1600s, the passengers were about to find two things: hard work and opportunity. Often the immigrants arriving had no housing, no ready or reliable source of food, and no sponsorship. How were they to survive?

    From the very early periods, the people in the colonies relied upon philanthropy On November 11, 1620, the adult passengers of the Mayflower agreed to certain principles of civic responsibility and signed the following Social Compact:

    … covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. The Mayflower Compact, 1620.

    Joel J. Orosz is a Distinguished Professor of Philanthropic Studies and Director, Philanthropic and Nonprofit Knowledge Management Initiative at the Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy at Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

    Underlying the social compact was the belief that those who gave time and services to help others might benefit themselves another day. There was no telling when someone might need help. Life in the colonies was often difficult, and philanthropy was both welcome and necessary. People worked together in quilting bees and house and barn raisings; they pitched in to help neighbors with harvests and heavy jobs.

    As Europeans settled North America, they encountered many groups of Native Americans who had an established tradition of philanthropy (Berry, 1999). The Puritans met Squanto, whose Native American name was Tisquantuminn. Squanto served as a friend and interpreter for the Puritans as they made contact with Native American groups. He arranged for other Native Americans to help the Puritans learn skills and find resources necessary to live in New England.

    Squanto's gifts to the Puritans were important. He helped the Puritans plant corn, showed them the best fishing grounds, and helped them trade with other American natives. If not for his help, it is believed that many more Puritans would have died from the harsh life in the colonies. It is also believed that Squanto used his connections with the Puritans to his own benefit. He is accused of taking bribes and requiring a payment for trade agreements he arranged. His final service to the Puritans was as the guide and interpreter on William Bradford's expedition around Cape Cod. He contracted smallpox and died in 1622.

    The help and giving demonstrated by Squanto was practiced among other Native American groups as well. The celebration of giving in the Pacific Northwest, called the potlatch, was a form of philanthropy. Social status and sharing one's wealth were important ideas among many Native American groups. Gift giving was common, and the person receiving the gift was often expected to pass it along to another person. Giving helped create harmony within the Native American group. However, traditional giving among Native Americans was quite different from what the European settlers practiced. It is described as sharing the wealth provided by nature, compared to the European idea of redistributing wealth from rich to poor to improve living conditions.

    Philanthropy in all its early forms had a common mission: social advancement, that is, the improvement of quality of life including social, economic, psychological, spiritual, and physical well-being for people. Early philanthropy aimed to advance or improve the quality of life (Bremner, 1988). That goal was not just an idea in the minds of colonists: it was an everyday reality. Two indicators reflected the philanthropic spirit in the early colonies. First was the establishment of faith-based institutions. These institutions provide a means of religious expression, an important core value for the English colonies. They provided a way to gather resources and give them to people most in need in the congregation or community.

    The establishment of schools was a second important indicator of philanthropy. Schools made it possible for young people to read and write. For philanthropy to grow and succeed, the public must be informed of how philanthropy improves the quality of life. Literacy is thus important to the growth of philanthropy. Both are needed to develop a civil society.

    Such early colonial leaders as John Winthrop in New England and William Penn in Pennsylvania believed that giving was essential. They combined faith-based beliefs and personal beliefs to form a philanthropic tradition. Another colonial leader was Cotton Mather. He became a major supporter of philanthropy. He arranged for parcels of land to be given to immigrants, helped build faith-based institutions in new communities, and organized people to give their time for important causes. He called the attention of the rich in Massachusetts Colony to the poor, encouraging the rich to share their wealth. He said, “Let us try to do good with as much application of mind as wicked men employ in doing evil” (Bremner, 1988, p. 14). Mather's role in the Salem Witch Trials often gets the greatest attention in history books. Yet Mather's ideas about service continue to form the basis for philanthropy in the United States to the present.

    A New Country and Expanded Philanthropy

    The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States are the nation's founding documents. Both have become living documents forming the basis for civic behavior. For example, statements in the Constitution are reinterpreted and reflected upon by the Supreme Court. Thus, the documents, especially the Constitution, come to life as the law of the land. Evidence of philanthropy in either document is scanty and open to interpretation. For example, the Declaration refers to the “public good” in its first grievances against the King of England. The Preamble to the Constitution includes the phrase “promote the general welfare.” Both statements are open to interpretation but seem to suggest that the writers and signers of both documents supported the idea of one's responsibility to the community.

    Even if philanthropy was not on the minds of the nation's early leaders, they made it possible in Amendments I and X of the Constitution. Amendment I protects the freedom of religion; the freedom to uphold personal faith-based beliefs. The organizations that have sprung as a result of these beliefs have, and continue to play, a major role in philanthropy. The Amendment also protects the right to assemble, which is important to the existence of nonprofit groups. Amendment X reserves certain rights of government to the states. Most philanthropic organizations in the United States are chartered and operate within a state, either at the community, county, or statewide level. The founding documents made philanthropy possible within the governmental structure of the newly established United States.

    Philanthropy: Emerging Patterns in the Independent United States

    The early 19th century saw many changes in the United States. The population began to increase rapidly. This growth was mainly the result of the arrival of thousands of new immigrants. Many of these immigrants settled in Eastern cities: Savannah, Charleston, Baltimore, New York, and Boston. Other immigrants moved to rural farmlands, since land held a promise of security many did not experience in Europe. Forced immigration of enslaved Africans and an agricultural system based on slave labor, while morally unacceptable to many, also contributed to population growth.

    Faith-based organizations were important and financially strong. Their members, as well as businesses donated to these organizations. Remember, at the time the government provided little or no assistance to those in need. Social security, welfare, and governmental assistance did not exist. People relied on private help, such as that given by faith-based organizations. These organizations offered programs to assist people with food, housing, and medical care. Churches ran Sunday schools, elementary and high schools, and social clubs for making clothing, serving food, and job training. Religious organizations believed their philanthropy carried moral and spiritual messages.

    People experiencing poverty also received assistance from women's organizations, a trend that began in the center for Quaker beliefs, Philadelphia. For example, the Female Society for the Relief of the Distressed offered food, clothing, bedding, medicine, and firewood. The New York Free School Society was funded by the city to run schools for the poor (Gross, 2003).

    Philanthropy was widely performed within African American communities at the time. The philanthropy of both free and enslaved African Americans came from religious and social organizations as well as from each other. The tradition of giving was as old as African civilization. It was brought to the New World just as music, language, and traditional religious beliefs were. Despite the immoral and inhuman conditions of slavery, African Americans found ways to help each other.

    David Walker, an African American abolitionist, founded the Massachusetts General Colored Association, which became a forceful voice for all abolitionists. Walker's Appeal was circulated to African Americans and whites in both the North and the South. It spoke out strongly against slavery and its injustices. Possession of Walker's book, by those held in slavery, led to some states enacting stronger laws against teaching slaves to read and the distribution of inflammatory written materials (Walker, 1820). The educational benefits that philanthropy provided became a threat within the slave-holding regions of the country.

    Controversy arose around philanthropy's aims with another philanthropic organization in the early 1800s. The American Colonization Society was founded in 1817 and was supported by many of the moral reform groups of the time. The Society collected funds in both the North and South to buy land in Africa where returning and freed slaves could settle. A delegation of officials and 88 black emigrants traveled to the west coast of Africa in 1820. The officials concluded:

    The surpassing fertility of the African soil, the mildness of the climate during a great part of the year, the numerous commercial advantages, the stores offish and herds of animals to be found here, invite her scattered children home. (Afro American Almanac, 2004)

    A large parcel of land in West Africa was purchased and a colony was started. Between 1822 and 1860, nearly 11,000 freed slaves emigrated to Africa. The colony developed with philanthropy became the country of Liberia in 1847.

    There was much disagreement about the colonization plan. Some people from the southern states saw it as a way to return those who were freed from slavery to Africa. Once out of the United States, they would not be able to influence people still held as slaves. Northern donors saw the plan as a means to return African people who were being held as slaves in the South to their homeland. One side saw an opportunity to strengthen slavery by removing the opposition of freed slaves, and the other saw an opportunity to free slaves in the South by permitting them to return to Africa. Others concluded it was a plan to decrease the number of African Americans in the United States. As a result, some people who had supported the American Colonization Society withdrew their support.

    Various philanthropic organizations helped African Americans prepare for citizenship through free education. Others helped freed black people and those fleeing from slavery to establish new lives in the North and in Canada. By the mid-1800s, these relatively modest beginnings led to the much larger abolitionist movement.

    Colleges received large financial gifts during the Age of Benevolence in the early 1800s. Private colleges such as Oberlin, Amherst, Williams, Andover, and Harvard received large endowments and gifts. Those colleges and universities continue to benefit from these gifts nearly 200 years later.

    Philanthropy for education extended beyond formal schooling. People of wealth became interested in the public understanding of science. Money was directed to museums and other public education activities during that time. One such gift to establish a national, landmark museum was quite unexpected.

    James Smithson, a British chemist, died in 1829 and left approximately %500,000 to a relative. He stated that if the relative died childless, the entire estate should be given to the U.S. government. That occurred in 1835. The will required that an educational institution be built and equipped in Washington, D.C. Former President John Quincy Adams was in favor of the federal government becoming active in education and research, and Congress voted to accept the gift in 1836. After much political debate and financial difficulties in preserving the gift, the Smithsonian Institution was begun in 1846. It is called the Smithsonian Institution in honor of James Smithson. Without the philanthropy of this British chemist, the United States might not now have one of the world's most popular scientific and educational museums.

    Philanthropy during the Civil War

    Women in the United States were involved in a wide range of philanthropic activities during the Age of Benevolence. Their contributions were often overlooked, however. The Civil War changed that situation. As the war began, the need for supplies, medical aid, and attention to disabled veterans increased rapidly. People in both the North and South responded to the need, but women especially rose to the challenge.

    Dorothea Dix organized more than three thousand nurses to serve with the Union Army. Almost every town and city in the North began an aid society to help soldiers and their families. Women ran the aid societies. Volunteers during the war included Louisa May Alcott, a nurse who later became a widely read American author. Harriet Tubman was a nurse and served as a spy behind enemy lines. She was African American, knew the lay of the land as a result of her work on the Underground Railroad, and was skilled at avoiding capture. Clara Barton was not a nurse, but she excelled at organizing relief supplies and getting them to where they were needed. After the Civil War, Barton organized the American Red Cross. Women in the South also organized aid societies to help the families of soldiers. They provided medical care near the battlefields and took the wounded into their homes. Giving and caring during wartime influenced the way that relief would be administered in later conflicts, especially World War I. Those wartime lessons carried over to relief from earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, and other natural disasters. Philanthropy was meeting more needs than ever before.

    Philanthropy, the Rise of Industrial America, and the Progressive Response

    The Civil War resulted in a major increase in industry in the United States. The Industrial Revolution was taking place.

    Industry needed labor, and labor was located in cities. The result was a rapid growth in urban centers. The major cities, mainly in the North, became home to waves of immigrants. Many of those arriving in the United States were poor and faced wretched conditions in American cities.

    Within those economic and social conditions, a new type of philanthropy began. It was called scientific philanthropy. The aim of scientific philanthropy was to improve the quality of life by addressing the root causes of poverty and developing preventive measures and self-help programs to eradicate it. It was scientific because it had well-established rules. It required visitation, inspection, and advice to those receiving relief services. Charities and aid associations applied the scientific rules. Orphanages, schools, mental hospitals, and shelters for the homeless were inspected. Children in homeless shelters were to be placed in foster homes and sent to public schools. The scientific check list of what to look for and how to respond became part of a larger progressive movement in society. The needs of each person were decided in a scientific manner. Philanthropy was given out in a more efficient manner using the scientific approach. If the rules were followed, then there would be positive results. Critics of scientific philanthropy, though, said that it was “all head and no heart”—that the scientific philanthropists were so efficient that they sometimes lost sympathy for human suffering.

    The latter years of the 19th century also saw American tycoons emerge. Andrew Carnegie became rich beyond belief, in part from the toil of workers in iron ore mines, steel mills, and coal mines. He was ruthless in both business and labor management. In his later years, however, he became one of the country's best-known philanthropists. His wealth was used to start universities and build public libraries, concert halls, and museums. Carnegie believed that only a few people should accumulate wealth, which should then be redistributed to the needy. He believed that in “bestowing charity, the main consideration should be to help those who will help themselves” (Carnegie, 1889). That philosophy of giving was published in a small booklet, “Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth,” which was widely discussed among people working in philanthropy.

    Carnegie's was not the only philosophy regarding how philanthropy should be handled. Other people believed in ending poverty and suffering for every individual, not just “those who will help themselves.” They were followers of the Progressive Movement.

    The Progressive Movement lasted from 1900 to about 1920. Progressives believed that irresponsible actions by the rich were corrupting both public and private life. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson were supporters of the Progressive Movement. Jane Addams, a noted Progressive, believed that making direct connections between the wealthy and the poor was an important step. She began a series of settlement houses in poor sections of cities. Hull House in Chicago became the best known. The settlement houses enabled educated young people to experience the poor living conditions and needs of their neighbors. The benefits would be twofold. First, the conditions of the urban poor would be recognized. Second, progressive methods for helping the urban poor would be identified and tried.

    Increased Philanthropy in the New Century

    The 20th century saw a rapid increase in philanthropic opportunities, especially for people who did not have great wealth but did have some money available. The tradition of volunteering and lending a helping hand in times of need continued. However, a new, more distant philanthropy also developed. Old and new organizations entered into what became known as retail philanthropy. Retail philanthropy was the new practice of asking donors for funds—any amount was accepted—through magazine and newspaper ads and through the U.S. mail. Donations were sent to locations distant from the local community and were often used in places even farther away. Many new organizations, as well as established groups, asked for donations on a national basis. Figure D.19 lists several of the new organizations, but there were hundreds more. Philanthropy in the Progressive Era was a growing industry.

    World War I brought attention to the American Red Cross. Medical and hospital supplies were sent to Europe. While many organizations provided relief, President Woodrow Wilson officially recognized the American Red Cross. He worked to increase funds for the Red Cross and to widen its mission to assist the U.S. military. The Red Cross provided ambulance crews, nurses, and health officials. The military depended on the Red Cross to distribute supplies and get information and aid to families. The Red Cross also provided food, clothing, and medical aid to civilians in Europe, as they suffered greatly during the war.

    The war and its aftermath increased the need for international philanthropy. In 1920—1921 schoolchildren, community chest organizations, and religious groups raised funds for European relief. Europe faced many difficulties, but the United States was about to enjoy nearly a decade of economic prosperity.

    Philanthropy increased during the 1920s. Wealthy people continued to give money. The middle class gave money, service, and time to their favorite philanthropic activities while poorer people often contributed service and time. The choices were many. African Americans and whites contributed to educational funds for minority students. Community-chest organizations collected money and provided help to people within the community and for local projects. Giving became more organized. Mail requests became the favored way to ask for funds. Professional fundraisers worked with and for many organizations. It was a decade of philanthropy on a grand scale. Despite increased amounts given, the amount needed to help the needy was even greater. States began programs of public assistance using tax money. These programs helped educate blind and deaf children and provided public health, public hospitals, and family welfare.

    Figure D.19 New Organizations in U.S. Philanthropy in the Early 20th Century

    The Great Depression of the 1930s created immense needs across the country. Tension developed between those who believed people with money should meet the needs of the homeless, unemployed, and hungry and those who believed the government must play a role in providing widespread assistance. President Herbert Hoover believed local people should contribute to local community chest campaigns to raise money to help those in need. In 1931, he endorsed a major effort through the Unemployment Relief Organization. Its members included the leaders of major corporations and businesses. The Association of Community Chests and Councils carried out the fundraising. While considerable money was raised, the amount fell far short of what was needed for relief. The policy of depending on private donors rather than government to solve major national problems was about to change.

    Government Philanthropy and World War II

    The social welfare problems during the Great Depression were so large that only government could address them. When President Franklin Roosevelt took office in 1933, he had a very different approach from President Hoover. President Roosevelt's programs allowed government to provide assistance. This was a new type of philanthropy—government philanthropy. The federal government used

    New Deal programs to lessen unemployment through public works such as the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Work Progress Administration (WPA).

    Would private philanthropy survive the Great Depression and the New Deal? Government programs were replacing smaller community programs. While the government contributed major funding, private philanthropy continued to provide aid. At times, private and governmental programs cooperated. In 1937, for example, the Red Cross and the federal government joined to help flood victims along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The federal government also encouraged private philanthropy. The Revenue Act of 1935 permitted corporations to deduct 5 percent of their charitable giving from their taxable income. The federal government was thus granting a tax incentive for giving. Yes, philanthropy would survive. There was plenty of work for both government and private philanthropy.

    World War II philanthropy dealt with military conflict and its outcomes. In 1941, the Red Cross established its blood donation program, which continues today. Many relief groups organized to assist military personnel, their families, and war refugees, and to make preparations for rebuilding after the war ended. Due to the war, giving was so great that it was very difficult to coordinate successfully. Every community in the country wanted to help with the war effort. A major coordination effort was necessary to collect items of clothing or food from several thousand towns and cities. The items then needed to be sorted, packaged, shipped to another country, and delivered into the hands of the people who needed them. Programs during the war needed approval from governmental agencies. The philanthropic spirit was at work, but the difficulties were great. Despite the problems, philanthropic organizations in the United States sent huge amounts of money and goods to the war zones (Bremner, 1988).

    The need did not end with the war. Beginning in 1946, packages from the Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe (CARE) were sent to Europe in large numbers. They were prepared and sent by American schoolchildren, factory workers, and faith-based groups.

    During the Depression and World War II, philanthropy had gone through a change. From a mainly private activity, philanthropy had also become a major activity of federal and state governments. The federal government worked at two levels—within the United States and internationally. In the United States there were major public works projects and social programs in education and health care. Outside the United States there was the Marshall Plan in Europe and international assistance to developing countries. The United States was a founding member of the United Nations (UN), which supported educational, social, and cultural programs in countries around the world. Developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America needed agriculture, health, and social services. The United States assisted directly and indirectly through the UN and other international organizations. The U.S. government had become a major donor at home and in other countries.

    Late 20th-Century Philanthropy

    In his 1961 inaugural address, John F. Kennedy stated, “that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans.” Government at the state and federal levels reassessed the needs of the country. Not since the New Deal had there been such an increase in programs to assist people at home and abroad. One of President Kennedy's programs, the Peace Corps, was begun in 1961. Thousands of volunteers went to Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Pacific Islands to assist local people in improving their lives. They taught in schools, dug wells for drinking water, introduced new methods of farming, and improved public health. The Peace Corps continues today (Peace Corps, 2003).

    Government programs during Lyndon Johnson's presidency continued to grow, with a strong focus on needs in the United States. The War on Poverty allowed federal and state governments to address social and economic issues. Tax dollars poured into government programs. The amount of money collected and distributed by philanthropic organizations was less than that spent by governmental agencies. Was traditional philanthropy, as it had developed since the time of Cotton Mather and Benjamin Franklin, still needed? Although the great increase in direct government funding for social and economic assistance created tension between philanthropic organizations and the government, several public policy changes provided support for philanthropy. First, government agencies gave money to community service organizations to provide services and assistance. Voluntary agencies began using government funds to carry out their work. The result was a new policy in which private resources supplemented public funds to improve the quality of life.

    Second, tax policies were changed to encourage philanthropy. The 1969 Tax Reform Act included major changes in how foundations were managed and increased tax benefits to individuals who gave to charitable organizations. The new tax law rewarded individuals who gave money. Individuals gave 80 percent of the funds donated in the 1960s. About half of those funds went to faith-based institutions (Bremner, 1988).

    Yet another important change was occurring in the United States during this period. Wealth was increasing. People earned higher wages and had more money to spend. Investment and retirement funds grew. Would that be reflected in giving by individuals? Despite concerns that governmental programs would end philanthropy, the total amount of funding has increased steadily from 1962 to the present. The total giving in current dollars has increased in every year except 1987 and 2009. Adjusted for inflation, giving typically increases in non-recession years and stays flat or falls in recession years. During the 1973—1975 recession, inflation-adjusted giving declined 9.2%. In 1987, it declined 4.8%. For 2009, the inflation-adjusted estimate of decline in giving was 3.2%.

    How is the donated money distributed and used? The pattern has not changed very much over the past forty years. Faith-based organizations receive the most contributions, but contributed funds meet many needs. According to Giving USA, religious organizations received 33% of the contributions in 2009. The next largest funding recipients in 2009 were education (13%), grantmaking private, community, and operating foundations (10%), and human services (9%). Other recipient types include arts, culture, and humanities (4%), environment/animal-related organizations (2%), health organizations (7%), international affairs organizations (3%), gifts to foundations (10%), unallocated giving (10%), and public-society benefit such as United Ways, Jewish federations, and free-standing donor-advised funds (8%). Individuals received an estimated 1% of the dollar value of charitable contributions, mainly in the form of medicines supplied by the operating foundations sponsored by pharmaceutical companies.

    Political Leaders’ Views of Philanthropy

    The final two decades of the 20th century saw many political leaders in the United States focus the country on philanthropy. President Jimmy Carter and Mrs. Rosalynn Carter began working with Habitat for Humanity in 1984. Habitat builds houses for people who are poor in the United States and in other countries of the world. Observing a past president and his wife volunteer their time and labor inspired many others to participate.

    President George H. W. Bush used the phrase a “thousand points of light” in his speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention. He was referring to the thousands of volunteers and organizations in the United States that give to help others. During his presidency, the Points of Light Foundation was formed. It coordinates community service through a partnership with the Volunteer Center National Network.

    President Bill Clinton gave personal support to volunteer action. In numerous public speeches he stressed the importance of people helping people. In January 2001, an earthquake in India killed more than 20,000 people. President Clinton asked India's Prime Minister how he might use his influence to address the crisis. The result was the America India Foundation, which organized relief for victims of the earthquake, assisted in reconstruction of houses and community buildings, and helped with food and health care. Since the earthquake, the Foundation continues to provide funds and volunteers to assist with projects in India (Global Giving Matters, 2002). In this case, one phone call from the president resulted in many people joining the effort to help.

    A major government-sponsored project to increase and focus the efforts of millions of volunteers in the United States was approved in 1993. Called the Corporation for National and Community Service, its mission is to

    provide opportunities for Americans of all ages and backgrounds to engage in service that addresses the nation's educational, public safety, environmental, and other human needs to achieve direct and demonstrable results and to encourage all Americans to engage in such service. In doing so, the Corporation will foster civic responsibility, strengthen the ties that bind us together as a people, and provide educational opportunity for those who make a substantial commitment to service. (Corporation for National and Community Service, 2003, p. 1)

    The Corporation operates three main programs. Senior Corps was designed to use the skills, talents, and experience of more than 500,000 Americans age 55 and older. These Americans serve as foster grandparents, offer companionship to homebound adults, and perform such other services as conducting safety patrols for local police, participating in environmental projects, and responding to natural disasters.

    Through the second program, AmeriCorps, fifty thousand Americans serve their communities 20 to 40 hours a week. Most AmeriCorps members work through local and national nonprofit organizations such as Habitat for Humanity, the American Red Cross, City Year, Teach for America, and Boys and Girls Clubs of America, and small community organizations, both secular and faith-based. Volunteers can be paid living expenses and receive an education award after completing two years of service.

    The third program, Learn and Serve America, provides grants to schools, colleges, and nonprofit groups. These grants support efforts to engage students in community service linked to academic achievement and development of civic skills. This type of learning, called service-learning, improves communities while preparing young people for responsible citizenship.

    In 2002, President George W. Bush placed the Corporation for National and Community Service and Peace Corps under the umbrella of the USA Freedom Corps, continuing the tradition of presidential leadership for service. Of course, the support of Congress for such programs is also necessary.

    Issues related to philanthropy can still cause controversy. One of the tensions within American government has been the separation of church and state. During the presidency of George W. Bush, this tension arose in the context of philanthropy. President Bush proposed that faith-based organizations be given greater opportunities to gain governmental funding. This proposal was referred to in the media as the Faith-Based Initiative, and debates, discussions, and both organized support and protests followed. Whether this idea violated the First Amendment's prohibition of government-established religion was the question.

    One of the important achievements of democratic government was realized. A compromise was reached. In 2003 the Congress passed The Charitable Tax Act of 2003 (Congressional Budget Office, 2003). The act increased the tax benefits for individuals who donate money to philanthropic organizations. We can be sure, however, that the debates regarding the relationship between government and philanthropy will continue.

    Looking to the Future

    Just as philanthropy has carved a major place in American society in the past, its importance is expected to increase in the future. Two reasons are given for this prediction. First, future trends are often related to the past. The growth of giving between 1962 and 2002 may be used to predict giving in future years. While the exact amount cannot be predicted, the general trend of increased giving will probably continue.

    Second, each generation of Americans—whether the Great Depression Generation, the Baby Boom Generation, or Generation X—has its own personal and social history. Members of the generation that were involved in World War II, sometimes called the “Greatest Generation” because of their sacrifices during the war, are now 75 years or older. More and more of them are dying each year. With their passing, the wealth they accumulated is passed to a new generation. The children of the “Greatest Generation” are the “Baby Boomers.” The oldest members of that generation are in their 60s. Part of the wealth of those two generations will be left to children and other family members. However, the trend over the past several decades has been that more and more people are leaving all or part of their wealth to philanthropy. Predictions are that total giving will increase with the passing of the Baby Boom Generation.

    Conclusions

    Philanthropy and giving were among the core values that immigrants practiced in Colonial America. With the founding of an independent country, the principles of giving became increasingly important. The young United States was viewed as a country of helpers and givers. Communities responded to the needs of others in very basic and practical ways. In the African American community, giving was based on African traditions and was an important way to withstand the brutal institution of slavery. Across the country, people helped one another in many different ways. That tradition continues today.

    In the 21st century, giving is organized differently. Organizations like the United Way, St. Jude's Children's Research Hospital, Toys for Tots, and hundreds more pursue different goals. However, they represent an umbrella of giving that permeates all of American society. Giving money, services, and time to participate in improving the quality of life has been and continues to be a core value of American society.

    Note

    Giving USA is a public outreach initiative of Giving USA Foundation—. The foundation, established by Giving Institute: Leading Consultants to Non-Profits, endeavors to advance philanthropy through research and education. The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University is a leading academic center dedicated to increasing the understanding of philanthropy and improving its practice worldwide through research, teaching, training, and public affairs programs in philanthropy, fundraising, and management of nonprofit organizations. The complete Giving USA 2010 report, with data covering 2009 giving, is available at http://www.givingusa2010.org, at http://www.givingusa.org, and at http://www.philanthropy.iupui.edu.

    Joel J.Orosz
    References
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    American Association of Fund Raising Counsel. (2003). Giving USA: 2008. Indianapolis, IN: American Association of Fund Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy.
    Berry, M. L. (1999). Native American philanthropy: Expanding social participation and self determination. Council on Foundations. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from http://www.cof.org/files/Documents/Publications/CulturesofCaring/nativeamerican.pdf
    Bremner, R. H. (1988). American philanthropy (
    2nd Ed.
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Carnegie, A. (1889). Gospel of wealth. Retrieved November 20, 2003, from http://wps.prenhalI.com/wps/media/objects/107/109902/ch17_a2_d1.pdf
    Congressional Budget Office. (2003). The Charitable Giving Act of2003. Retrieved November 25, 2003, from http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?.index=4555&sequence=0
    Corporation for National and Community Service. (2003). Mission statement. Retrieved November 25, 2003, from http://www.nationalservice.org
    Global Giving Matters. (2002). American India Foundation long distance philanthropy brings donors closer to home. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from http://www.synergos.org/globalgivingmatters/features/0201aif.htm
    Grimm, R. T., Jr. (2002). Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790). In R. T.Grimm Jr. (Ed.), Notable American philanthropists: Biographies of giving and volunteering. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Gross, R. A. (2003). Giving in America: From charity to philanthropy. In L.Friedman & M.McGarvie (Eds.), Charity, philanthropy, and civility in American history (pp. 29–48). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    The Mayflower Compact. (1620). Society of Mayflower Descendants in the State of North Carolina. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from http://www.law.ou.edu/hist/mayflow.html
    Peace Corps. (2003). Peace Corps history. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from http://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/messages/2629/3988.html
    Smithsonian Institution. (2003). James Smithson's gift. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from http://www.150.si.edu/smithexb/start.htm
    Walker, D. (1829). David Walker's appeal. S. Railton and the University of Virginia. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.iath.virginia.edu/utc/abolitn/walkerhp.html
    6. Philanthropy in World History and Culture

    World history, even when limited to the period after human beings arrived on the scene, covers a vast amount of time. Thus, in writing about a topic within world history, such as philanthropy, a clear focus is needed. To select a focus for this chapter, we asked the question: What were the major relationships providing knowledge about philanthropy throughout history? Two influences are especially important. One is language, which holds the record of philanthropic deeds or patterns among a group of people. The second is religion, the source of many ideas and concepts that have become part of various groups’ cultures. Therefore, in this chapter we first examine the role of language in studying philanthropy. We then focus on the role of philanthropy within major religions.

    Using Language as a Clue to Study Philanthropy

    Imagine that you have been asked to reconstruct a period of history that occurred before there were written records. What would you do?

    Consider the many groups of people in East Africa who developed civilizations before there were written records. They were known as Bantu peoples because most of them spoke a similar language. The language developed in Central Africa and spread east and south as people migrated to new agricultural and hunting grounds. The language of those early peoples has been reconstructed. It is called proto-Bantu because it is a model of what the language was probably like several thousand years ago. It is based on evidence found in the languages of people across the region today (Feierman, 1998).

    You are researching whether the early Bantu-speaking peoples had the practice of giving to one another Today, we call this practice philanthropy, giving to improve others’ quality of life. As you review words in the proto-Bantu language, you discover the word gab. It has several different meanings (Figure D.20). What would you conclude if you were researching the idea of “giving” and discovered the word gab?

    A second ancient word, -kúmú (Figure D.20), refers to a person who is rich, has honor, and is a leader. If the two proto-Bantu words are used together, then it suggests a very old pattern of giving as a means to build leadership. While no written accounts are available, the language handed down across the centuries reveals patterns of giving very early in African history.

    The language of a group of early North Americans also reveals the concept of giving. The Ojibway lived in the Great Lakes Region around 500 years ago. They moved regularly, spreading their influence along the Mississippi Valley and west of the Great Lakes Region. They left no written record of their culture. However, they did leave evidence of their presence in mounds that they constructed. The mounds were large piles of earth that had religious importance to the Ojibway. Scientists examining the mounds have found such artifacts as tools, carvings, and trade items from distant locations.

    Kathryn Ann Agard is founder and served as Executive Director of Learning to Give from 1996 to 2004.

    Two words from the Ojibway language suggest that giving was a part of religious ceremonies. The term mide means “the sound of the drums.” The word wiwin is translated to mean “doings.” The midewiwin was a story of the migration of the Ojibway people. It told of the strong sense of community among the people. It also told of the redistribution of goods given as gifts. Those who have studied the language of the Ojibway suggest the “common good” was an important value (Grim, 1998).

    In Southwest Asia about 4,000 years ago, Hammurabi ruled as King of Babylonia. His empire extended from the Persian Gulf through the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys (Mesopotamia and present-day Iraq) and westward to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. He was very successful at protecting his lands from enemies and fostering prosperity. Throughout his long reign, he personally supervised many projects to improve the “common good.” These included navigation on the rivers, irrigation, agriculture, and tax collection.

    Figure D.20 The Proto-Bantu Language and Philanthropy

    Hammurabi is remembered for establishing codes, or laws, that he expected would result in a civil society. Hammurabi's “civil society” must be considered in historical context. There were enslaved people, a class system, and harsh penalties for breaking the codes. However, many of the codes were directed toward the “common good.” For example, arrangements were made to protect widows and children. The codes did not specify giving money, services, or time to assist others, but did present a philosophy of helping others (Hammurabi, c. 1700 BCE).

    Most cultures that have been researched include the concept of generosity. Across the sweep of world history, that generosity reveals itself in various forms because of the cultural and historical conditions in which it occurred. Cultures having few material goods may have given encouragement or time. Cultures that developed considerable wealth may have given huge monuments and buildings as gifts to a society. However, the underlying desire to give was present across time and place (Anderson, 1998).

    The most common word in English that describes this pattern of giving and serving is “philanthropy.” The word is rooted in the Latin language from the Greek-based words philanthropos meaning loving people combined with anthropos meaning human being. In Western civilization the word for giving and serving, philanthropy, means quite literally the love of human beings (Merriam-Webster, 2009).

    The Connections between Religion and Philanthropy

    Generosity, giving, and service to others have often sprung from a religious system or philosophy. The love of human beings, philanthropy, describes the religious beliefs in a higher being's love for people. For example, the Ojibway concept of common good was a result of that group's religious practices. The Ojibway religion, while not one of the world's major belief systems, provided a means to focus on the well-being of others in the community.

    The world's current major religions have been the basis for much individual and group philanthropy throughout world history. Secular, or nonreligious, organizations emerge in the 19th century as participants in philanthropy and individuals began to be noted for philanthropy not tied to any religion. Thus, the world's religions hold much of the early historical record of giving. In order to examine the role of religion, we will look at the importance of philanthropy within several religious perspectives.

    Hinduism and Philanthropy

    Hinduism is believed to be among the oldest of the world's religions. It differs from other religions in several ways. First, it does not have a known founder. Second, it does not have one main religious organization. Hinduism consists of hundreds of religious groups that have developed in India over approximately 4,000 years.

    The precise year in which Hinduism began is not known. Historians have found evidence that it dates to about 6800 BCE. Much of the early information about the religion was passed from person to person by the spoken word. Some things are known about Hinduism's early period. For example, Greek historians in about 300 BCE wrote that the Hindu people of western India had a record of past kings and events that can be dated to about 6800 BCE. In 6000 BCE people in settlements in Rajasthan, in present-day western India, were growing barley and raising animals. The evidence suggests that Hinduism as a belief system has existed in South Asia for a very long time.

    Much of the Hindu belief system is recorded in an ancient written language called Sanskrit. Sanskrit was the basis for many of the world's present languages in the Indo-European family of languages, including English. Today the written form is used for research and the spoken form mainly for religious and scholarly activities. One term in the Sanskrit texts is däna. No English word has exactly the same meaning, but several are close (Figure D.21).

    The language provides evidence that generosity and philanthropy had important roles in early Hinduism. The däna has been an important part of Hindu belief. Hindu books such as the Bhagavad Gita also provide evidence of generosity.

    Philanthropy is deeply embedded within the Hindu religion. However, there is a tension. On the one hand, it is the individual's duty to give. On the other hand, one must decide who is needy and deserves support.

    The teachings to humanity about the principles of däna state:

    Give. Give with faith. Do not give without faith. Give with sensitivity. Give with a feeling of abundance. Give with right understanding.

    The Bhagavad-Gita teachings dwell on the ethical and moral imperatives of practicing philanthropy: “The meaning of giving is that which is given without any expectations of return and without any strings attached.” Datavyamiti yaddaram diyate anupakarine (däna.).

    Kabir (c.1398—1470), one of the great mystics and critics of religion and morality, challenges human beings saying:

    “You came into this world with fists closed and you go away with open palms. So even while living stretch your hand open and give liberally.” Mutti bandhe aye jagat me hat phasare jaoge bhai.

    Historically, giving within Hinduism has many aspects. The caste system (which is no longer legal) decided the role of people in society. The Brahmin was the highest level in the Hindu caste system. The Brahmins’ special role in society was to pass along knowledge and learning. The Brahmins were given gifts by people in the lower castes.

    India is often described as a country that makes guests feel welcome. In earlier times the welcoming of guests was a duty and responsibility. It was a part of the Hindu act of giving. That act of giving to strangers remains a part of Indian culture. The philosophy that the individual is responsible for the well-being of others has been the basis for generosity within Hinduism.

    Buddhism and Philanthropy

    Buddhism is both a religion and a philosophy of life. It provides a guide to a caring and nonviolent life. It is one of the world's oldest religious faiths, beginning in India about 2,500 years ago. Studying Buddhism is somewhat like studying philanthropy. An individual who gave up wealth and status in order to serve others started the religion. Today more than 500 million people in the world follow Buddhism.

    A son named Siddhartha was born to a wealthy ruler of a small kingdom in northern India. The year was 563 BCE. The Guatama family was able to give their son all of the fine things in life. He married at age 16. Siddhartha's father wanted him to become King and rule the kingdom. The family's wealth protected Siddhartha from the daily problems earning a living.

    Siddhartha's life from this time forward is not well recorded. Legend and historical record have been woven together to explain Guatama's role in the development of Buddhism. After living a rather lavish life, the young Guatama reportedly decided to leave the palace, his wife, young son, parents, and servants. He decided to search for the cause of suffering and do something to overcome it. He gave up his way of life to help others.

    Figure D.21 Translations From Sanskrit

    Guatama developed his belief system through personal suffering and sacrifice. He starved himself until near death. During one close call with starvation, Guatama saw an image of a lute, a three-stringed instrument. If the strings were too loose, they made no sound. If they were too tight, they broke. The strings must be just right to produce a musical sound. That vision led Guatama to a period of meditation, or deep, quiet thought. In meditation he saw his true nature and the nature of all living things. At the conclusion of this meditation, he became known as Buddha.

    Buddha and the monks and nuns who followed him were traveling teachers of the religion. They relied upon gifts of food and shelter, on the faith that people would welcome and take care of a stranger. Each carried a begging bowl. Food given to the monks and nuns in the streets was also shared with poor people. Almsgiving, or giving food to poor people, thus developed as an important shared belief within the religion. Donations were also used to build rest houses for travelers and monasteries.

    Buddhism in modern society involves generosity and giving. Buddhism exercises three strong influences on people's desire to give. First, Buddhism expects that followers will participate in socially important acts of charity, including almsgiving of food and money. It also includes voluntary service as gifts of time and energy in service to the poor.

    Second, Buddhism expects its followers to perform acts of mercy. The goal is to recognize suffering among all living things and provide relief. Third, Buddhism provides the gift of education to all who want to learn. Learning, the highest gift, enables the mind to expand, meditate, and reflect in the very way that Buddha did 2,500 years ago (Guruge et al., 1998).

    During the past 2,500 years, Buddhism has spread across the world. Every inhabited continent has followers of Buddhism. The largest numbers of followers are in Asia in a wide arc stretching from Myanmar to Sri Lanka to Japan. Northern India, where Buddhism began, is no longer a major center for Buddhism, and the Buddhist population is a minority. The region does retain its importance as the historical site where the religion began. One of the most prominent followers of Buddhism is the Dalai Lama. He is the spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists (Tucci, 1980).

    Buddhist societies have organized in all parts of the world to encourage charitable and philanthropic activities among followers. The religion has been important in the philanthropic history of the world. Buddha laid down the philosophy for generosity and giving that has influenced and assisted others.

    Judaism and Philanthropy

    There are many references to philanthropy within Judaism from its early-recorded history. The Torah, the Jewish holy written word, contains many indications of charitable deeds and giving. The Talmud, scholarly writings about the religion, represents more than 2,000 years of recorded Jewish history. Judaic scholars believe that, while philanthropy was part of the religion, it was also necessary for survival (Penslar, 1998). Jewish philanthropy focused largely on the family and the Jewish community. Judaic scriptures make reference to the gabbai, people similar to social workers who worked to help poor people in the Jewish community.

    In Genesis, the Jewish people are guided by the words: “I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.”

    Moses Maimonides (1135—1204) is one of Judaism's most revered rabbis (teachers). “He speaks of eight levels of tzedakah, a term often translated as “charity” but perhaps better translated as “righteousness” or “equity” (Kass, 2002). In the Mishneh Torah he noted eight levels of giving, each more virtuous than the previous. These are giving

    • reluctantly;
    • less than one should, but cheerfully;
    • enough, but only after being asked directly;
    • before being asked;
    • in a way so the giver doesn't know who receives the tzedakah;
    • in a way so the receiver doesn't know who gave the tzedakah;
    • in a way that neither knows who the other was; and
    • in the form of providing work or money so the receiver will not need tzedakah again.

    The Middle Ages began in about 500 CE and extended to 1500 CE. This era began with the decline of the Roman Empire. It ended with the period of enlightenment, in which European developments in science and technology emerged.

    Jewish people in the Middle Ages lived mainly in the growing cities of Europe and Southwest Asia. They lived within sections of the cities called the Jewish ghetto. Often Jews were forced to live in certain areas of the city by the governing authorities. During the Middle Ages, Jews were not permitted to belong to guilds. Guilds were organizations of merchants and skilled workers who decided who could and could not belong. The guilds and the Christian communities were the major providers of charity, and Jews belonged to neither. The ruling authorities expected that Jewish people with more financial resources would care for the poor in their community. A sense of obligation to giving thus developed within the Jewish communities and later became a part of the religion.

    The first Jewish orphanage was started in Amsterdam in 1648 (Penslar, 1998). Philanthropy to aid the Jewish community included many of the same services provided by philanthropy in other religious communities. Another important philanthropic activity for Jews was sending funds to the Holy Land. The funds were to help Jews who were preserving the Jewish presence and culture in the region.

    During this period, disputes occurred between the two major European religions of the time—the Roman Catholics and the Protestants. The disputes reached their peak in the “Thirty Years War” (1618—1648), which destroyed much of Europe. People lost their homes. Armies occupied regions and people were forced to migrate. Jews became scapegoats based on poverty and their country of origin. Jews from Germany and Poland were especially affected and fled to communities in other parts of Europe. The Jewish community reacted by helping immigrants learn trades and find employment.

    The 200 years between the end of the Thirty Years War and the mid-1800s witnessed a steady increase in both the need for and the response by philanthropy within the Jewish community (Penslar, 1998). B'nai B'rith was established in 1843 as an international philanthropic organization. The organization was founded on the religious obligation to give. It provides relief largely, but not exclusively, to Jewish communities and individuals. It continues to be very active and has become a powerful voice for Jewish philanthropy throughout the world. In the second half of the 20th century it assisted in many countries, providing disaster relief, senior housing, and community projects such as health and education.

    An organization called the Duetsch-Israelitischer Gemeindebund (DIGB) was started in Germany in 1872 to help homeless and poor Jews. DIGB built and ran hospitals, retirement homes, orphanages, schools for girls, and workers’ dormitories.

    The growth of Jewish philanthropy during the 20th century was affected by the Jewish diaspora. A diaspora is the settling of national or ethnic groups far from their homelands. The migration of Jews from the Holy Land and Eastern Europe was a diaspora. It was the result of persecution of Jews over the centuries culminating in the Holocaust during World War II.

    Throughout history, Jewish philanthropy has focused on three aspects of giving. First, in Hebrew, giving is called Tzedakah and is believed to be the necessary and right thing to do. While there is a long history of Jews giving within their communities, giving now extends to other communities.

    Second, giving is focused on strengthening the cultural, ethnic, and religious identity of the Jewish community worldwide. Education, Jewish holidays, Hebrew language, and synagogues are supported to assure that the religion and culture continue.

    Third, Jews have suffered greatly as a result of persecution during the 20th century. Entire families and communities of people were exterminated during the Holocaust. Philanthropy has been used to help Jews in unsafe situations. An example is the rescue of Jews from the former Soviet Union in the 1980s and 1990s. At the same time, Jews in Ethiopia were experiencing discrimination and extreme poverty as civil war engulfed that country. Major programs were undertaken to deliver Jews in life-threatening situations to safety in Israel or another welcoming country.

    Christianity and Philanthropy

    The practice of giving was an early part of the beliefs of Christianity. Three main divisions of Christianity are: Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox. In turn, there are subdivisions within each of the three groups. For example, Protestants include Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, and many more.

    As a written document, the Bible provides much information about philanthropy and its beginnings in Christianity. The story of the “Good Samaritan” has been repeated many times; present-day headlines often refer to someone who has done a good deed as a Samaritan. While the Bible contains many references to “giving,” several are widely recognized:

    2 Corinthians 9:7—God loves a cheerful giver.

    Acts 20:35—It is more blessed to give than to receive.

    Luke 12:33—Sell your possessions and give to the poor.

    Provide purses for yourselves that will not wear out, a treasure in heaven that will not be exhausted, where no thief comes near and no moth destroys.

    The biblical references to philanthropy have undoubtedly influenced many individuals to participate in giving. Giving of one's personal time and services in direct ways came to be viewed as the most meaningful act of Christian

    philanthropy (Oates, 2003).

    Philanthropy among Christians was both institutional and individual. It was institutional because Christian communities actively encouraged charity for the poor. In Christian Europe during medieval times, the churches and monasteries were economic as well as religious organizations. They owned and controlled large areas of land and natural resources, allowing them to provide help to the poor, the homeless, the sick, and the pilgrims who sought shelter during their journeys to holy sites in Jerusalem.

    The Christian church relied on tithes, or donations of money, from people who lived nearby or who attended the church. Tithes were given freely by individuals, but were expected by the church if one was to show true Christianity. Rich landlords and noblemen also funded the building of shelters, hospitals, and the care of orphans. Alms boxes were also common inside churches where gifts could be left for the poor.

    Giving to the church in Medieval times did have some advantages for the donor. Those receiving aid often were required to pray for the donor's soul! When the Black Death (The Plague) struck in the 1340s, the poor and homeless were affected most. They, therefore, were seen as less desirable residents of communities. The charity they once received from the church was discouraged in hopes they would move.

    The increasing population in Europe in the late 1500s, especially in such urban areas as London, Paris, and Amsterdam, raised many concerns about how to care for people in need. The main economic practice was mercantilism, a system based on accumulating valuable metals, creating colonies, and building industry to make products for export. European governments believed they should export goods and build up reserves of precious metals, mainly gold and silver. The workers who produced the goods were often poor. The result was an increase in philanthropic activity to provide services such as schools, hospitals, and housing for the poor. Fortunately, the rise of mercantilism increased the food and supplies available to churches to assist the poor.

    Population growth in cities put faith-based philanthropy at a disadvantage in the 1700s. Cities like Amsterdam, Paris, London, and Nuremberg attracted more people than the churches could assist. This resulted in an important change in European philanthropy. City authorities took responsibility for providing assistance. People were taxed to provide for the sick and the poor. Government care for the poor through both donations and taxes became common.

    The Age of Exploration that began around 1500 and the colonies that resulted from the explorations made it possible for the idea of Christian charity to be exported to other parts of the world. Members of the Christian churches joined or followed the explorers to North and South America, Africa, and East Asia. In Central and South America, the major force was the Catholic Church. In Africa it was a mix of Protestant and Catholic, depending upon whether the colonizers were French, Belgian, Portuguese, and Spanish Catholics, or English and Dutch Protestants. In Asia, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and the teachings of Confucius in China met the Christian religious groups.

    While there were conversions to Christianity among the local people, most continued to follow their traditional religion. The major exceptions were French Indo-China (present-day Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia), where the Catholic Church gained a foothold during the colonial period. In China, Hong Kong was the exception, with the Church of England becoming prominent. In North America, the French Catholics settled in Quebec, and the American colonies included Puritans, Quakers, Catholics, and Church of England (which later became the Episcopal Church in the United States).

    One of the most active Christian philanthropic organizations was the Sisterhood of Holy Charity, begun in 1727 in Latin America. Rich landholders provided money and land. The Catholic Church provided people to run the charities. The charities provided food, housing, medical assistance, and education to the poor. The Sisters of Charity provided an opportunity for women to enter the public world. The Sisters served as nurses, social workers, and public health teachers. For most women, there were barriers to entering the workforce. Those who did work did so out of economic necessity and were restricted to jobs as domestic servants. The Sisters returned the philanthropic gifts of wealthy landowners by assuring a steady supply of healthy workers. In an economic system based largely on plantation agriculture, healthy workers were critical (Thompson et al., 1998).

    Beginning in 1776 in North America, in the 1820s in South America, and during the 20th century in Africa and Asia, there was a movement away from colonialism. While the end of the colonial era still continues today, earlier changes had a major impact on philanthropy. Welfare, social services, health care, and education were often viewed as the responsibilities of the newly formed governments that emerged from the former colonies. Taxes or other government revenues were used to provide support for people who could not support themselves.

    Often faith-based institutions were the only organizations that had experience with philanthropy. Organizations that could manage funds, services, and time from volunteers to help people in need were set up in a number of different ways. Sometimes immigrants from a particular region formed an ethnic association, such as the Polish American Society. In some cases philanthropy was based on trade unions, with each member of the union expected to donate a certain amount from each paycheck. The donations went to support health care, job training, schools, holiday camps, and other services.

    Many of the early Christian traditions of philanthropy remain strong today. Christian societies and organizations operate in many countries of the world. They are built on long traditions of service.

    Islam and Philanthropy

    The Islamic religion was founded in the seventh century. Its followers are referred to as Muslims. The term Muslim means that a follower of Islam has submitted to the will of Allah (God) and is a believer. Muhammed was the central figure in the rise and spread of Islam. Following his death in 632 CE, the followers of Islam collected Muhammed's philosophical statements and beliefs in a book called the Koran (Qur'an). The Koran became the holy book for followers of Islam.

    Muhammed was born in Mecca in 570. Mecca was a great trade city in what is now Saudi Arabia. It was an important crossroads for camel caravans linking Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe. The busy trade of the city drew people of all races and religions, from many different countries. The people of Mecca had a commitment to provide for the “common good” among the city's many residents and visitors.

    The religious belief system for Islam is based on five pillars that guide individuals. The first pillar insists that all Muslims recite the profession of faith, “There is but one God and Muhammed is His prophet. Allah is great and Muhammed is His prophet.” The second pillar is participation in the public prayers that occur five times a day. The third pillar is the payment of the zakat, a tax to help the poor. The fourth pillar requires fasting from daybreak until sunset during the month of Ramadan. The fifth pillar requires a hajj, or pilgrimage, to the holy city of Mecca.

    An important idea in Islam is altruism, concern for the welfare of others. Islam, within its basic beliefs, stresses altruism. The Qur'an makes many references to service to humanity, philanthropy, and charity. Muhammed displayed altruism on many occasions. In one instance he nursed an elderly woman who was a non-Muslim. Muslims are encouraged to follow the path of altruism (Bhuiya et al., 2003, p. 18). The widely respected books of Islamic Law (fiqh) also describe the obligations to giving and the common good.

    Know that whatever of a thing you acquire, a fifth is for Allah, for the Messenger, for the near relatives, the orphans, the needy, and the way-farer.

    Qur'an 8:41

    Islam has more than one billion followers, living in a large number of the world's countries. In some countries, like Saudi Arabia and Iraq, the people have followed Islam since it spread from the region where it began. Other countries, such as Germany and the United States, have seen large numbers of Muslims immigrate and become citizens. Other individuals have converted to Islam, such as the Black Muslims in the United States. Each group is a religious society based on Islam, but its members are also German, American, Egyptian, Turkish, etc., depending on the larger society in which they live.

    Islamic philanthropic traditions mainly involve giving to support social welfare within the Muslim community. Donations are traditionally made either directly to persons in need or through Islamic social welfare institutions. Within Islam, the goal for philanthropy is to achieve social justice. Social justice is defined as the protection of universal human rights. Those include civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. In addressing social justice issues, there should be no discrimination on such grounds as religion, sex or gender, race or ethnicity. The goal of social justice in the broadest context is similar to the philanthropic goals of other religions.

    The Qur'an states that the most important direction in which the (free choice of mankind) can lead is to free the oppressed, relieve the hunger of the uncared for and those who are so destitute as to be reduced to grinding poverty. Those who choose this path, embody the highest values of compassion and caring (Nanji, 1995).

    Yet Islamic philanthropy reflects the diversity of Muslim societies around the world. Some employ a rigid interpretation and application of Islamic teachings in philanthropic activities. Others believe that philanthropy should be a nonpublic activity, known only to the person giving. Still others believe that designated public organizations should be responsible for philanthropy (Center for Languages and Culture, 2002).

    In spite of differences within Islamic societies about how giving is carried out, several basic principles guide Islamic philanthropy:

    • Charity has to be from lawfully earned money; no concept of Robin Hood-like acts exists in Islam.
    • The concept of ownership of wealth in Islam is that all wealth, after necessary personal and family expenses, belongs to Allah. It is up to the individual to decide how much of this excess wealth he should give back to the cause of Allah; if none is given, it is claimed by Satan.
    • All philanthropy should be for the pleasure of Allah alone. (Shahid, 1997)

    Islamic law defines traditional charity that is expected of Muslims. The first type is zakah, a required tax. Every Muslim is obliged to give. Within Islamic law, zakah is the legal right of the poor to the wealth of the rich. The zakah must amount to 2.5 percent of the year's savings. Zakah means purification, and the purpose of giving is to purify a person's wealth.

    Another form of charity is sadaqah. This is voluntary giving that depends on both the need to give as well as the amount of excess wealth one owns. Within Islamic beliefs, philanthropy should not be used as a tax shelter or to win personal recognition. It is to be used strictly for the love of Allah.

    Recent History of Global Philanthropy

    Three important changes have recently occurred in the history of world philanthropy. First, in 1945, delegates of 51 countries meeting in San Francisco established the United Nations. Its Charter provides for the UN to monitor human rights, to provide relief and assistance, and to create programs to improve the human condition. Second, the number of nongovernmental organizations has increased rapidly as well as the donations of money and volunteer time they receive. These organizations provide a variety of assistance to people in many countries. Third, since the 1980s there has been a steady increase in the number of wealthy individuals who have given large amounts of wealth for international philanthropy. Those gifts make headline news, but are only a small part of overall contributions, mostly made by people who do not have great wealth.

    The United Nations

    The United Nations (UN) was established to preserve peace through international cooperation and collective security. At the beginning of 2004, 191 countries belonged to the UN. Figure D.22 lists UN agencies providing aid to people in various parts of the world. These agencies give money, services, or time in ways that will help people worldwide.

    UNICEF, the first agency in Figure D.22, has a major role in meeting the needs of children worldwide. For example, within 48 hours of a major earthquake in Iran in 2003, UNICEF flew in “40 tons of much-needed medical supplies, blankets, water tanks, and material for building makeshift shelters” (UNICEF, 2003). The agency also provided experts to assist local authorities with their efforts to recover from such events.

    Figure D.22 United Nations Philanthropic Agencies

    Member nations contribute funds to the United Nations. UN agencies then redistribute the funds through programs. The contributions are examples of philanthropy by countries to help other countries.

    Nongovernmental Organizations

    A nongovernmental organization (NGO) is any nonprofit, voluntary citizens’ group. It may be organized on a local, national, or international level. NGOs are supported by individuals, corporations, international organizations such as the World Bank, and governmental agencies that provide international aid.

    A large number of important philanthropic projects are undertaken by NGOs. Some address specific issues, such as health or the environment. Others focus on the establishment of community gardens in poor neighborhoods. Many work with agencies of the United Nations. Since the end of the colonial period in Africa and Asia, NGOs have increased their role in providing international philanthropy (Knickerbocker, 2001).

    The Internet and World Wide Web have aided the development of NGOs. They have enabled NGOs to coordinate their activities more effectively and efficiently. Money can be donated electronically, large numbers of members can be alerted to lobby governments and corporations, and information about their work can be sent to many people. People from different places can be recruited to volunteer time and skills. More people are able to communicate and take an active part in decision making.

    The 1992 United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (the “Earth Summit”) in Brazil was an example of the power of NGOs. Their views on the environment were often opposed to the views of the 100 governmental delegations at the conference. Because of pressure from volunteers, the NGOs were able to participate in the debates.

    NGOs from 23 countries greatly influenced an international treaty banning the manufacture, distribution, and use of landmines. In 1997, Jody Williams, a leader in the U.S.- based International Committee to Ban Landmines, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their accomplishments. In receiving her award, she stated her main resource in bringing pressure to ban landmines was e-mail from the millions of people who supported the ban.

    Finally, NGOs have had an impact on the thinking of international business leaders. Nike, the maker of sporting equipment, was convinced to improve working conditions for its workers in many countries. Home Depot was convinced to consider the effects of deforestation and now certifies its lumber products as harvested “sustainably.” The World Wildlife Fund has influenced Chevron Oil Company in its worldwide program to protect the environment.

    Wealthy Individuals as International Philanthropists

    At the beginning of and during the 20th century a number of wealthy persons gave their fortunes to philanthropy. They included Andrew Carnegie, W. K. Kellogg, Eli Lilly, John D. Rockefeller, Charles Stewart Mott, Henry Ford, Madame C. J. Walker, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur, as well as others.

    At the end of the 20th century, a new group of wealthy individuals entered international philanthropy. Ted Turner, the head of Turner Broadcasting, pledged one billion dollars to the United Nations. George Soros, an investment entrepreneur, founded the Open Society Institute. Bill and Melinda Gates of Microsoft started the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

    The Soros-funded Open Society Institute has been very effective in starting programs to improve democratic government and civil society in Eastern Europe and Russia. The Turner grant to the United Nations will be used for a number of international programs. The Gates Foundation is supporting projects mainly in health and education. One example is a project to develop a vaccine against malaria. Thus, these large sums of money donated by wealthy individuals are having an impact on specific problems.

    Conclusion

    As far as we know, philanthropy, or giving to help others, has been present for all of human history. Philanthropy is often viewed as one thing that makes people uniquely human. There is satisfaction in helping others, and in some cultures it is an expected part of traditions. Families, villages, extended families, cultural groups, and even complete strangers give willingly of their money, services, and time.

    Individuals of modest or little means give most of the world's philanthropy. Most of the philanthropy given is time and service. People provide service to their communities and to each other each no matter where they live. Religious traditions inform us that this has been going on for at least three millennia.

    Religious faith brought people together who focused on their right to exist beyond the power of the state or crown to control. “Such groups insisted, in the name of all that was holy, that no one could prevent them from joining together ‘for religious and charitable purposes.’ In the name of God, they claimed the right to be, to organize, to care for the neighbor, and to set forth their views publicly” (Stackhouse, 1990).

    This organization around principles of faith has carved out a “social space” in many nations that has become the philanthropic sector. Philanthropy continues to playan important role in the civil society of the newest millennium.

    Kathryn AnnAgard
    References
    Anderson, L. (1998). Contextualizing philanthropy in South Asia: A textual analysis of Sanskrit sources. In W.Ilchman, S.Katz, & E.Queen (Eds.), Philanthropy in the world's traditions (pp. 57–78). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Bhuiya, K. W. (2003). Islam on philanthropy. The Independent. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.independent-bangladesh.com/news/oct/24/24102003lt.htm#A3
    Center for Languages and Culture. (2002). Penelitian tentang philantropi Islam (Islamic philanthropy). Jakarta, Indonesia: Author. Retrieved January 2, 2004, from http://www.pbb-iainjakarta.or.id/newsDetail.cfm?.News=7
    Feierman, S. (1998). Reciprocity and assistance in precolonial Africa. In W.Ilchman, S.Katz, & E.Queen (Eds.), Philanthropy in the world's traditions (pp. 3–24). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Grim, J. (1998). A comparative study in Native American philanthropy. In W.Ilchman, S.Katz, & E.Queen (Eds.), Philanthropy in the world's traditions (pp. 25–53). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Guruge, A., & Bond, G. (1998). Generosity and service in Theravada Buddhism. In W.Ilchman, S.Katz, & E.Queen (Eds.), Philanthropy in the world's traditions (pp. 79–96). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Hammurabi. (c. 1780 BCE). Hammurabi's Code of Laws. Exploring Ancient World cultures. Retrieved December 1, 2003, from http://www.eawc.evansville.edu/anthology/hammurabi.htm
    Knickerbocker, B. (2000). Non-governmental organizations are fighting-and winning-social, political battles. Christian Science Monitor Service. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.scj.org/scj_homp/conference-generale-2000/monitor-12022000.html
    Oates, M. J. (2003). Faith and good works: Catholic giving and taking. In L.Friedman & M.McGarvie (Eds.), Charity, philanthropy, and civility in American history (pp. 281–299). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Penslar, D. (1998). The origins of modern Jewish philanthropy. In W.Ilchman, S.Katz, & E.Queen (Eds.), Philanthropy in the world's traditions (pp. 197–214). Bloomington: Indiana University.
    Shahid, A. (1997). Islamic philanthropy: For the love of Allah. Islamic horizons: Islam in America. Retrieved January 2, 2004, from http://www.islamusa.com/e90.htm
    Sicherman, H. (2003). Victory over terrorism: Strategies for donors. The philanthropy roundtable. Retrieved January 3, 2004, from http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/magazines/2003/current/victory.html
    Thompson, A., & Landim, L. (1998). Civil society and philanthropy in Latin America: From religious charity to the search for citizenship. In W.Ilchman, S.Katz, & E.Queen (Eds.), Philanthropy in the world's traditions. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Tucci, G. (1980). The religions of Tibet (G.Samuel, Trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    UNICEF. (2003). Iran-country in crisis. New York: Author. Retrieved January 7, 2004, from http://www.unicef.org/emerg/iran/indexemergencysupplies.html
    7. The Economics of Philanthropy: Do We Give Until it Hurts, or Does it Hurt until We Give?
    Economics as Decision Making

    People often think of giving to charity strictly in terms of sacrifice; of course, giving does mean sacrificing something. However, the explanation is more complicated than that. Donors give because they want to contribute, and their motives are varied. Economists assume that people are rational, which means that they make decisions that improve their lives, rather than making themselves worse off. That doesn't mean that the gain has to be financial or even that people are selfish. It means that philanthropy occurs because people are happier giving than not giving—and there are many reasons why being charitable makes people happy.

    Economics is the study of how individuals and societies make choices regarding the use of scarce resources. Economics helps us understand why people choose to share their resources (wealth, time, products) with others.

    Economics concerns the difficulty of making choices when resources are scarce. Philanthropy fits squarely in economics because there are more worthy causes than there are resources to address them. Donors and volunteers must choose who to help first and how far down their list they want to go.

    Types of Economic Systems

    Every economic system faces the same basic economic question: How do we satisfy the most wants with our limited resources? Some societies depend on a command economy, or government control, to make their decisions. Others follow tradition, making decisions because “that's the way we have always done it.” The most common economic system today uses the market to make decisions. However, all real-world economic systems use a mix of command, tradition, and market principles.

    A command economy is an economic system in which the basic economic questions (what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom it is produced) are answered primarily by government. North Korea is an example of a largely command economy.

    A traditional economy is an economic system in which decisions about the use of resources are made primarily through reliance on tradition or culture. For example, some isolated rural areas in Vietnam and China are still largely traditional economic systems.

    A market economy is an economic system in which the basic economic questions are answered through buyers and sellers interacting in the marketplace. In many ways, the 19th century United States was primarily a market economy with little interference by government.

    Even the United States, which is considered by many to be a free enterprise or market system, is actually a mixed economic system, relying on a combination of markets, government, and tradition.

    Robert B. Harris is Professor of Economics and Director, Center for Economic Education, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Richard Steinberg is Professor of Economics, Philanthropic Studies, and Public Affairs, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Consider farming, which is often used as an example of free enterprise. The decision to become a farmer is influenced by many things. We know that market influences are important; for more than a century, low farm prices have pushed most of those in agriculture into other jobs. However, tradition remains strong in agriculture. Many people continue to farm rather than move to the city for higher pay because farming is more than a job. It is a way of life. Government uses command powers to slow the movement of people out of farming. Government price supports for farm products have made it easier for some people to remain in farming.

    The story is similar in other countries. The People's Republic of China has had a command economy since 1949. In recent times it has become more of a market economy. Government policy was changed to permit capitalists (those who supply financial resources to businesses) to join the Communist Party. That important change showed a willingness to accept the role of markets in this supposedly command economy.

    There are also modern and market-driven sides to China's economy (for example, Shanghai). One of the most rapidly growing parts of the city is Pudong, a highly modern urban landscape that thrives on a market economy.

    In some isolated rural areas in China, economic activity is decided mainly by tradition. One such place is Luobo, in northern Sichuan Province. This mountaintop village has little to do with the outside world. Consequently, laws and regulations from a distant government have little to do with daily life. There is little trade with the outside world, so nearly all economic decisions are based on traditions in the village. People use barter, shared ownership, and a village market square to sell surplus crops. It is hard to imagine the great distance geographically, culturally, and economically between this village and Pudong, Shanghai.

    The Central Asian country Kyrgyzstan is another largely traditional economy, somewhat like Luobo. Economic activities are determined mainly by culture and tradition. However, changes are occurring quite rapidly. When Kyrgyzstan gained independence in 1991, the economy officially changed from a command system to a market economy. Still, for people living a nomadic life as herders of cattle, sheep, and goats, the economic system changed very little. Tradition directed the economy, along with some market activity and command decisions by government. Kyrgyzstan is strongly influenced by tradition. The yurt, or traditional tent, is still used by Kyrgyz nomads. These rural nomads must be able to follow their herds of livestock to new pastures and their yurts are moved easily. This yurt, however, has found a useful role in the growing market economy in the capital city of Bishkek. Shop owners locate them where business is good, such as near a city square. They may also move them to another location later that day or on another day if business appears to be better elsewhere.

    The examples from China and Kyrgyzstan demonstrate that, in practice, economies are generally a mix of the three main economic systems: market, command, and traditional. If we examine agricultural subsidies (financial aid) in the United States and France (as well as other countries), then we find a combination of command and market systems. Even in countries that have a strict command economy, there is nearly always a strong underground economic system that operates on the principles of supply and demand. Therefore, modern economic systems are hybrids, or combinations of economic systems that are successful.

    The Significance of Economics for Nonprofit Organizations

    People often believe that economics is less important for nonprofit organizations than it is in the business world. Nothing could be further from the truth. Resources are scarce, and so nonprofit organizations have to decide how to use them to best further their mission. Some of these resources are unpriced (volunteer time and services are provided at no charge). Economics provides tools that aid decision making even for unpriced resources.

    Let's look at an example. Imagine a %75/hour professional person taking time off work to volunteer cleaning up trash in a local park. The city could have hired someone for %5/hour, but now they can have the park cleaned for “free.” Or is it? Surely it is cheaper for society to have professionals work where they are most valuable. In economic terms, we would say that the professional persons have a comparative (relative) advantage at doing their own work, and a less-skilled worker has a comparative advantage at cleaning the park. People tend to understand this instinctively, which is why professional people are more likely to donate money than time.

    It's the Thought that Counts

    Is it really the thought that counts? Have you ever received a gift that you didn't really like? People tend to buy things they like, but other people do not necessarily care for the same things.

    Holiday gift-giving is a major economic activity. It is estimated that there is a “remorse loss” to the economy. When people receive items they do not want or need, this “remorse loss” is known more formally as a social loss. Social loss is measured as the excess that gift givers paid compared to the value that recipients placed on their gifts. Think about it for a moment. The giver pays %100 for the necklace, but the recipient only values it at %20! The %80 difference is the social cost to the economy. Has it ever happened to you as either a giver or a receiver of gifts?

    Perhaps that's why some people have stopped trying to find the ideal gift and settled for gift certificates. Of course, that ignores the old saying, “It's the thought that counts.” People enjoy giving and receiving apart from the value of the gifts themselves. Thus, you sometimes have to keep telling yourself that the ugly sweater was really a sweet thought, and the thought was what counted.

    Why do people give? Is it because they expect something in return? Or is it because they get satisfaction from making others happy? Or perhaps they want to be liked and loved? Is giving rational? Understanding people's motives for giving is crucial to making sense of the role of philanthropy in the economy. Economists think of charitable giving the same way that they treat other activities—people do things that make them feel better.

    Economists argue that people give because it is satisfying for them to contribute. That is especially obvious in the case of gifts within a family, but it is also true of gifts to strangers. Helping the poor may relieve guilt about one's good fortune. It may express sympathy for the less fortunate, or it could reflect a sense of a social contract. Some may think, “If I give to the poor, then I will also receive support if my luck changes.” It's sort of an insurance policy without a formal contract.

    People often recall reading the children's book, The Giving Tree, by Shel Silverstein, or the short story, “The Gift of the Magi,” by O. Henry. Both stories are about giving and receiving. Both demonstrate unselfish love, although in different ways. The Giving Tree follows a young boy from childhood into old age, and a tree gives him support in various ways while he goes through life. “The Gift of the Magi” is about a young couple so poor that they cannot afford to buy each other gifts. Each ultimately gives up his or her most prized possession out of unconditional love for the other—long, beautiful hair for her, and a pocket watch for him. He sells his pocket watch to buy her a lovely clasp for her beautiful long hair. Ironically, she has cut and sold her hair to buy a gold chain for his watch. After the initial shock, they both seem to find a deeper meaning in the gifts—a meaning that goes beyond the materialistic or physical. The stories are entertaining, but they also raise important questions about why people give.

    Economic Concepts and Philanthropy

    Several ideas explain the role of philanthropy within the U.S. economic system. Remember, the economic system in the United States is mainly a free market. However, some elements of both command and traditional economies also play important roles. Following are several basic economic concepts that are important in explaining philanthropy.

    1. Scarcity: Society, as well as individuals, must make choices: we cannot have everything that we want, no matter how rich we are. We sometimes hear people say that the United States “cannot afford” to pay for a public policy such as cleaning up the environment or making highways safer. What those people mean is that we cannot improve the environment and make highways safer and continue doing everything else that we want to do as a country with the funds we have to spend. Funds, or resources, are limited, which is the same as saying they are scarce.

    2.Opportunity cost: Closely related to scarcity is opportunity cost. Every choice requires giving something up. This is called a lost opportunity. This loss is true even when the resources used were donated. In the case of the professional person donating time for community cleanup, the opportunity cost to both the person and to society is the lost output of their professional services. The value of the work was %75 per hour, which is what society was willing to pay for the professional person's work. Volunteer work does have a cost to society. Thinking in economic terms, both the professional person and a nonprofit organization would be better off if the professional donated %75 cash instead of an hour's work. The nonprofit could then hire perhaps five or six hours of a worker's time with the cash contribution.

    3. Efficiency: Efficiency is defined as getting the greatest value from a set of resources. This occurs when resources are not wasted in poor production techniques or in producing the wrong things.

    4. Comparative advantage: Comparative advantage occurs when one person or region can produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another. The professional person in the opportunity cost example has a comparative advantage at their professional work, but not at cleanup tasks. Specializing according to comparative advantage leads to efficiency because it increases production of valued services. The professional person's donation of money, for example, provides more hours of cleanup services than if the professional did the cleanup.

    5. Market failure: Markets do not always perform efficiently. Markets are inefficient when decision-makers do not bear all of the costs, or gain all of the benefits, of their actions. Action by government and nonprofits can sometimes correct for market failures. For example, education has benefits outside the market system for people other than the students (the consumers in economic terms). It is widely accepted that better educated citizens make better political decisions, commit fewer crimes, and contribute in many other ways. Those contributions do not always return financial rewards to the individual. Similarly, a person who imposes costs on others, such as driving a car that gives off oil fumes, does not take those costs into account when oil is regularly added to the engine. The cost of the pollution to society will be realized only when the car's exhaust is monitored and the car's owner is required to repair the car or is fined for pollution.

    6. Public goods: Public goods are an example of market failure. Public goods are those goods for which it is difficult to prevent nonpayers’ use and one person's consumption doesn't interfere with another's. In such cases, the market fails to provide the socially desired level of provision. For example, the benefits one person gets from police protection do not reduce the protection another person receives when the police patrol through the neighborhood.

    Figure D.23 Example of Marginal Thinking

    Therefore, it makes sense for people to share police protection. The question is: How do we pay for this service? If I hire and pay for private security to patrol the street, my neighbors also benefit, even if they refuse to help me pay for it. How can we avoid free riders in such a case? Even though we all benefit, no single consumer is willing to pay the cost without others also paying their share. The group agrees to contribute to the common good. Social services such as public health are provided through taxation even though not everyone pays the same amount in taxes.

    7. Thinking at the margin: This “economic way of thinking” means looking at the marginal cost and marginal benefit in making any decision. Efficiency (getting the most from our scarce resources) requires that we increase production of any good or service whenever marginal benefit exceeds marginal cost, stopping when the two marginal values are equal. This principle is true for individuals, organizations, and societies. Consider the case of a nonprofit fundraising campaign that can spend nothing, %100, or %200 with returns given in Figure D.23.

    Marginal cost is the additional cost associated with the production or consumption of an additional unit of a good or service.

    Marginal benefit is the additional value associated with the production or consumption of an additional unit of a good or service.

    Thinking on the margin will lead you to the correct solution—the charity should spend %200 because the marginal benefit of the second %100 is greater than its marginal cost. This is in contrast to the benefit/cost ratio, which wrongly suggests the charity should only spend %100.

    Nonprofit Organizations Compared with Business and Government

    Economic concepts are used everyday by decision-makers in nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and for-profit businesses. How are the decisions made in those three types of organizations similar? How are those decisions different? Nonprofit organizations make some economic decisions that are similar to those made in government agencies and others that are similar to decisions in for-profit businesses.

    Both nonprofit and for-profit business organizations must do several things. Both must pay their bills for operating, such as rent, employees’ wages, telephone, office equipment, etc. Neither can deficit spend or raise taxes like government. Finally, both are managed by private citizens rather than public officials. However, nonprofits differ from for-profits in two ways. First, for-profit businesses are expected to increase in value over time, unlike nonprofits. Second, nonprofits receive donations and grants, unlike for-profits.

    Like governmental organizations, nonprofits have a public or collective mission. Neither government agencies nor nonprofit organizations can legally distribute any surplus funds or profits to their owners or managers.

    Government treats nonprofit and for-profit organizations differently. Nonprofit organizations are exempt from many taxes that for-profit organizations must pay. Government subsidizes donations to many nonprofit organizations by offering tax breaks to donors.

    The nonprofit part of the economy of the United States provides between 5 and 10 percent of the country's economic output and employment. The exact size of the nonprofit sector is difficult to measure because of the hidden costs. Those costs include the use of volunteers, and the true value of donated time, services, and equipment is difficult to determine. Nonprofits are nearly the only providers of some services (such as houses of worship or symphony orchestras). In other areas (including hospitals and nursing homes), nonprofits provide the majority of services, in competition with for-profit firms and government agencies. In still other areas (day care or higher education), nonprofits provide a substantial minority share of services.

    The degree to which nonprofits interact with other sectors of the economy is striking. Often, nonprofits deliver public services paid for by government. For example, Meals on Wheels delivers cooked food to people who would have trouble cooking for themselves. The program is paid for by government, but nonprofit workers and volunteers do the cooking and deliver the meals.

    For-profit and nonprofit organizations also work together at times. For-profit businesses donate money, products, and expertise to nonprofits. Sometimes they work as partners. For example, for-profit banks and nonprofit charities form partnerships to provide low-income housing opportunities. Nonprofit universities and for-profit firms form partnerships to research, develop, and deliver new medicines or new computing technologies. Finally, for-profits outsource some of the services they provide for their employees to nonprofit organizations. For example, nonprofits may provide employees with training programs, family counseling, and day care services for their children. In short, nonprofits are highly interdependent with the government and business sectors.

    Nonprofits in the U.S. Economy

    Clearly, nonprofits are an important part of the mixed market economy in the United States. Nonprofits serve a valuable role in two ways. First, they are an efficient way to make goods and services available that are under-provided by the market and government. This is the public goods theory of the role of the nonprofit sector. Second, they are more trustworthy than for-profits about some matters that cannot easily be written into a contract, the contract failure theory of nonprofits.

    Government agencies provide public goods whenever there is sufficient political agreement about the amount to spend and the way to spend it. Those who hold a point of view different from the majority opinion can work together through nonprofits to achieve their goals. Thus, the public goods theory asserts that nonprofits are a response to diversity of opinion, to causes that are very important to specific groups but not to a majority of the population. Parochial schools that provide a religious alternative to public schools are a good example of how nonprofits respond to diversity.

    Habitat for Humanity provides another example of public goods theory in action. Habitat uses volunteers to help build housing for low-income people. The volunteers and contributors who support Habitat for Humanity do not think government does enough to provide low-income housing. Because they are unable to persuade voters and lawmakers to spend more public money on this cause, they take matters into their own hands, supporting a private nonprofit alternative. Similarly, contributors to the Nature Conservancy, which buys land to protect it from development, seem to desire more wilderness areas than the typical taxpayer or consumer is willing to pay to protect. In such cases, it is not possible to reach an agreement needed for government to take action. When government does not or cannot address an issue, individuals can work together through nonprofits to achieve their goals.

    Sometimes, an idea is too new to attract widespread public support, and then nonprofits may be the pioneers. This was the case for pre-Kindergarten educational programs for disadvantaged youths. Nonprofits proved the concept, and the government took over later. This is where Head Start programs came from.

    Nonprofits rely mainly on volunteer workers. This fact suggests that there are subgroups of the population in the United States that put a high value on services not provided by the business or government sectors. Staff members at nonprofits tend to work for less than those who do the same job in business and government. This suggests that they work not just for financial gain, but for the satisfaction achieved by working toward the nonprofit's mission.

    Finally, nonprofit community groups can provide a mix of services that varies from community to community. Locally, people may want to choose where they live knowing which community services are available. A new resident may refer to a telephone directory to locate where particular services are available. Maps of health care providers, Goodwill stores, libraries with volunteer reading programs, etc. may be important and helpful to individuals. Knowledge of the location of nonprofit services relative to where one lives in the state, county, community, and neighborhood may prove to be important to individuals who want to give as well as those in need of services. That important relationship is discussed and analyzed in Chapter 3, “Geography of Philanthropy.”

    Contract Failure Theory

    Contract failure theory suggests that nonprofits arise in situations where trust is important, for example where the customer is vulnerable and cannot speak up for himself such as nursing homes or child care. The contract failure theory asserts that for-profit firms have both the motive and the opportunity not to deliver on their contract with the customer. We don't mean to suggest that for-profit firms always fail to deliver quality to their customers. For-profits can be trusted about many things because they care about their reputation, offer guarantees, and can be sued if they mislead customers about the quality of the services they sell. However, if a firm knows it will never get caught shortchanging customers, there exist economic reasons why cost-saving short cuts might be taken in a situation where a company will not suffer a loss of reputation, customers won't ask for their money back, and nobody will sue the firm. Contract failure applies to cases where the quantity or quality of the product cannot be objectively verified so those who cut corners will not be caught. It is called contract failure because one cannot write an enforceable contract regarding matters that can't be observed.

    In a hypothetical example, it is hard to know whether a nursing home is properly administering sedatives to its residents. Some residents genuinely need sedatives for medical reasons, but it is not obvious to the outside observer whether sedatives are needed at any given moment. A facility that administered more sedatives than necessary would need less staff to provide recreational opportunities and to supervise residents’ care. With lower costs, a facility that used more sedatives than necessary would have higher profits than their more trustworthy competitors. The owners of for-profit firms get to keep these profits, and this could tempt them to change how they deliver service. Nonprofit owners do not keep the surplus, so, according to contract failure theory, they may be less likely to cut corners in this way.

    Contract failure matters for private consumers, insurers, and government agencies. When the government pays a private agency to provide foster care and adoption placements for orphans, it would like the children to be well cared for. It wants children placed with the most compatible families. These aspects of quality cannot be written into contracts in any meaningful way, so the government might prefer to work with a nonprofit foster care agency. Similarly, when the government or a private insurer pays for medical care, billing procedures are so complex that it is hard to be sure there is no overbilling. For this reason, governments and private insurance companies may prefer to do business with nonprofit health care providers.

    Contract failure theory is controversial for three reasons. First, nonprofits have other, nonfinancial reasons to cut corners in serving their customers and donors in some cases. Second, it is hard to enforce the nondistribution of profits, so that some organizations pretending to be nonprofit may actually be for-profit. Third, for-profit hospitals, day care centers, and nursing homes continue to prosper despite competition from supposedly more honest nonprofits. Nonetheless, contract failure theory remains a popular explanation of the role that nonprofits actually play (or should play) in our mixed economy.

    The Future of Nonprofits in the United States

    Although fairly small compared to the government and business sectors, the nonprofit sector is growing in importance and is even dominant in some industries. This trend is likely to continue, as businesses and government look for additional ways to increase efficiency. Each of the sectors will continue to specialize according to their comparative advantage. As they specialize, they will have all the more reason to partner with nonprofits that bring a different mix of specialized skills to their projects.

    Economic and financial considerations are important when government and for-profit businesses consider working with nonprofit organizations. In some cases the advantages are obvious. Nonprofits may have expertise in providing home care services; government health agencies may not have the specifically trained professionals required to provide this service. Providing these services through private business would cost more since nonprofits have volunteers to do many of the necessary jobs. The economics of nonprofits enable them to work closely with both government and for-profit organizations in achieving their goal within a community.

    Robert B.Harris and RichardSteinberg
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