Encyclopedia of New Media

Encyclopedia of New Media


Edited by: Steve Jones

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Edited by Steve Jones, one of the leading scholars and founders of this emerging field, and with contributions from an international group of scholars as well as science and technology writers and editors, the Encyclopedia of New Media widens the boundaries of today’s information society through interdisciplinary, historical, and international coverage. With such topics as broadband, content filtering, cyberculture, cyberethics, digital divide, freenet, MP3, privacy, telemedicine, viruses, and wireless networks, the Encyclopedia will be an indispensable resource for anyone interested or working in this field. Unlike many encyclopedias that provide short, fragmented entries, the Encyclopedia of New Media examines each subject in depth in a single, coherent article. Many articles span several pages and are presented in a large, double-column format for easy reading. Each ...

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      List of Entries

      A Reader's Guide

      This list is provided to assist readers in finding articles on related topics. It classifies articles into 12 general thematic categories: Art, Music, and Performance; Business and Commerce; Cyberculture; Hacking; Legal Topics; Networks and Networking; Open-Source Software; Organizations and Labs; People; Social Issues; Technology; and Writing. Some article titles appear in more than one category.


      What is new media? There is no single answer to be given. Even old media were once new, to borrow Carolyn Marvin's observation, and new media are constantly changing and evolving. In truth, the question itself is a shorthand way of asking more than one thing (one might call it “multi-asking”). Those who pose it usually want to know the history of new media, its present outlines, and perhaps most importantly, what it will be like in the future.

      The Encyclopedia of New Media is the first attempt to comprehensively map the current terrain. Taken together, the encyclopedia's entries constitute an attempt to map the constellation of new media. Particular technologies and artifacts are important; compact discs, the World Wide Web, streaming media, for instance, are of enormous importance to the way new media have developed and have had enormous impacts. At least as important as the “things” of new media is the context in which they are invented and used. A significant portion of the encyclopedia, therefore, examines concepts, contexts, and trends. What is the history of virtual reality? Where did MP3 come from? Who is Douglas Engelbart? Why do these topics matter, what significance do they have in this day and age? Those are the kinds of questions the encyclopedia answers, in clear, jargonfree language.

      Taken as a whole, the entries in the Encyclopedia of New Media tell us much about where we have been, where we are, and where we are going with new media. The encyclopedia collects information about numerous people, places, ideas, and things that connect to new media. Of course, as is always the case, some information has been left out. The selection criteria were necessarily subjective but deliberately broad, careful but not definitive. The goal was to provide a useful reference source for those interested in specific topics related to new media. One may also view the encyclopedia as a chronicle, in broad strokes, of the past and present state of new media developments. To read it through, cover-to-cover, is to immerse oneself in the world of new media and gain an understanding of its history and significance in everyday life.

      The Old and the New

      To some degree it may seem odd that the encyclopedia covers a good deal of ground when it comes to the history of new media. After all, one might think, what's new about new forms of media is that they are new. However, history is critically important if we are to understand what makes them new. Simply put, new media do not come to us full-blown from the heads of engineers, marketers, programmers, and artists. They come from media before them, from the experiences we and others have had with old and new media that inform our thinking about the artifacts and relationships we build and, most importantly, imagine building. Marshall McLuhan noted that the content of a medium is usually taken from another medium, and in the case of new media, content typically comes from old media before it. Our understanding of new media comes largely from looking into the “rear-view mirror,” as McLuhan observed. We are hard pressed to know new media in any way but by comparing it to the media that preceded it, and therefore our understanding of what we might term “not-so-new” media, of new media's precursors, matters a great deal (hence an entry for ARPANET as well as for Internet).

      We will continue to use “old” media as we develop the new, as this encyclopedia itself proves. Handing someone a book when they ask me “What is ‘new media’?” seems unlikely to entirely satisfy their curiosity but I believe it is a start. If they open the pages and begin reading it, as you have, it will be immediately clear that the only good answer to the question derives from an understanding of history, technology, and society in combination. To ask, “What is new media?” and to expect a succinct answer is akin to asking, “What is television?” and expecting to be able to read a summary of television's myriad technological and social impacts on the side of a box of cereal. Is new media television, or is it a computer? Is it a telephone line, a fiber-optic cable, or a wireless data link? It is all of these, and more.

      The future, to paraphrase William Gibson, is here; it just is not widely distributed yet. As we were completing this encyclopedia, I ran out of shelf space for the ten years' worth of Wired magazines I have in my office. It was an astonishing thing—the one periodical that had defined a popular vision of new media has continued its run for ten years, from thin issues to thick ones and back again to skinny, from new media to old. Like the old adage about the ups and downs of Wall Street correlating with hemlines, I suspect we could chart the interest in, and dissemination of, information about new media by looking at the number of pages in each issue of Wired.

      What we would also find is, in a manner of speaking, the future as we thought it would be. The cover of volume one, issue one of Wired, for example, touts as its feature story “Bruce Sterling Has Seen the Future of War.” In the story Sterling describes the U.S. military's technological preparations based on its experiences during the Gulf War. Still, Sterling's description is not of the future, it is of the present, of 1992 and the engineering and technology being imagined for the future. What we do not find in the story, or from leafing through back issues of Wired, is perspective. While Sterling may have known what types of scenarios were being imagined by the military, he could not have known that the United States would be fighting a war in Afghanistan ten years later and what the outcome of using technology might be—and the U.S. military did not know it either.

      In contrast, the Encyclopedia of New Media considers the connections between new media developments over a lengthy history, to explain the origins of ideas and technologies. New media may well grow old, but media of the past 200 years have not died, and in a sense have not grown old. They have been recreated, reengineered, revised and re-mediated. Like artists and musicians who cannot escape some form of influence by those before them, new media perpetuate the old.

      Indeed, an encyclopedia is itself not a very new medium. While the ancient Greeks are known to have originated the concept of an encyclopedia, a comprehensive study or “circle of knowledge” (from the Greek Enkylios-paideia), it is generally agreed that the first printed encyclopedias appeared in the 16th century (the first possibly being Paul Scalic's Encyclopaedia: seu orbis disciplinarium, tum sacrarum quam prophanum epistemon, printed in 1559). Diderot's famed Encyclopedie dates to the age of the Enlightenment, and the Encyclopedia Britannica came into being in 18th-century Scotland.

      However, it was not until the early 1900s that standards—such as alphabetization, bibliographies, indices, cross-referencing, and illustrations—became the norm. Perhaps coincidentally, that is the time that we began to see the spread of media into everyday life in the United States and Europe. It is fitting that we have made another turn in the circle of knowledge with publication of the Encyclopedia of New Media, assessing the state of our newest media through use of one of our most venerable and deeprooted media, the encyclopedia.

      In closing, I wish to acknowledge the people whose lives, work, and ideas are represented herein. It is they who keep the circle of knowledge revolving. And I wish to thank the contributors whose effort, knowledge and patience made my task an easy one. What made it easiest was the help of Jodi White who, as assistant editor, kept work on-track and organized. Hilary Poole, Valerie Tomaselli, and Sonja Matanovic at the Moschovitis Group shepherded the encyclopedia and provided guidance and inspiration. Margaret Seawell is a terrific editor and colleague who helped put the encyclopedia into perspective and into motion. Jack Drag and Mick Black provided additional perspective—and respite. Many members of the Association of Internet Researchers have been most generous with their advice, with information, and with their time. Finally, my students and colleagues at the University of Illinois at Chicago, particularly those in the Department of Communication and in the Electronic Visualization Lab, have helped me understand how new media work, where they come from, and how they are developing, for which I am most grateful.

      Steve Jones
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      MARK ANDREJEVIC is an assistant professor in the Department of Communication at Fairfield University. His research interests include new media, online surveillance, and digital aesthetics.

      ANDREA BAKER, Ohio University–Lancaster, is an associate professor of sociology, who researches the relationships of people who met online, teaches online and offline, and hosts conferences at two online communities.

      JACK BRATICH is assistant professor in the Department of Communication, University of New Hampshire.

      CHARLIE BREINDAHL is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Film and Media Studies, University of Copenhagen, where he studies computer games and other rich media.

      KATHY BRONECK is a Ph.D. student and research associate in the University of Arizona Department of Management Information Systems.

      JUDITH R. BROWN is the president of ACM SIGGRAPH and recently retired manager of Advanced Research Computing at the University of Iowa.

      HEIDI MARIE BRUSH is working towards her doctorate at the Institute of Communications Research, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests address the convergences between Internet insurgencies, cellular organizations, and the governance of the Internet.

      SHING-LING SARINA CHEN is a faculty member in the Department of Communication Studies, University of Northern Iowa.

      NORMAN CLARK, Department of Communication, Appalachian State University, is co-author of The Internet: Effective Online Communication.

      MIA CONSALVO, Ohio University, studies popular culture, new media, and gender from a critical and cultural standpoint, and her current research examines video games and video game players.

      NOSHIR CONTRACTOR is a professor of speech communication and psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he teaches and conducts research on the emergence of communication and knowledge networks in organizations.

      NICOLE ELLISON'S research focuses on telework and the ways in which individuals and organizations design, use, and reinterpret new information and communication technologies.

      KEVIN FEATHERLY is Minneapolis-based managing editor at Newsbytes, a Washington Post–Newsweek Interactive technology-news site; and a contributing writer for numerous print publications, Web sites, and books.

      IAN FOSTER is associate division director at Argonne National Laboratory, professor of computer science at the University of Chicago, and co-leader of the open source Globus Project, which forms the basis for the emerging grid computing industry.

      KEN FRIEDMAN is associate professor of leadership and strategic design in the Department of Technology and Knowledge Management, Norwegian School of Management.

      TED FRIEDMAN, assistant professor, Department of Communication, Georgia State University, is currently completing Electric Dreams: Cyberculture and the Utopian Sphere.

      ALEXANDER HALAVAIS, School of Informatics, State University of New York–Buffalo, researches the role of communication technologies in the organization of large-scale collective problem-solving.

      PHILIP E. N. HOWARD, assistant professor, Department of Communication, University of Washington, studies the role of new media in political communication, and has done field work with presidential campaigns, lobbyists, and grassroots activists in the United States.

      JEREMY HUNSINGER, Center for Digital Discourse and Culture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), is an active member of the community of scholars studying the relationship between the Internet and information technology.

      NICHOLAS JANKOWSKI is associate professor in the Department of Communication, University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

      STEVE JONES is professor and head of communication, University of Illinois at Chicago. He is founder and president of the Association of Internet Researchers.

      LORI KENDALL is on the faculty of Purchase College, State University of New York, and has written a book and several articles regarding identity and relationships online.

      EDWARD LEE LAMOUREUX (Ph.D., University of Oregon, 1985) is associate professor of speech communication and multimedia at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois. He is editor of the Journal of Communication and Religion (1997-2003) and is completing Rhetoric in the Background of 21st Century Digital Communication.

      GARY W. LARSON is an assistant professor of media Studies at the Greenspun School of Communication, University of Nevada–Las Vegas, writing about mediated constructions of reality, and about the history and practice of broadcast journalism.

      REBECCA ANN LIND (Ph.D. 1992, University of Minnesota) is associate professor of communication at the University of Illinois at Chicago; her research interests are race and gender in the media, journalism, audience studies, new media, and ethics.

      SALLY MCMILLAN is assistant professor, Department of Advertising, University of Tennessee.

      SHAWN MIKLAUCIC is a doctoral student in the Institute of Communications Research at the University of Illinois.

      CHRIS NELSON is a winner of the National Journalism Award whose work has appeared in Mojo, Rolling Stone, and on http://sonicnet.com.

      KATE O'RIORDAN is a research student at the University of Brighton, United Kingdom

      JAMES PYFER is a graduate student in the Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Chicago.

      ART RAMIREZ is assistant professor in the Department of Communication, University of Minnesota–Duluth.

      THERESA M. SENFT, doctoral candidate at New York University, Department of Performance Studies, is author of Homecam Heroines: Autobiography, Celebrity and the Web, forthcoming from Peter Lang Publishers.

      LESLIE REGAN SHADE, assistant professor, University of Ottawa, focuses on social, policy, and ethical aspects of new media.

      DAVID SILVER is an assistant professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Washington and the founder/director of the Resource Center for Cyberculture Studies.

      JONATHAN STERNE, Department of Communication, University of Pittsburgh, has written widely on the history and philosophy of communication technology and is author of The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction (Duke University Press, 2002).

      GATES MATTHEW STONER, M.A., is assistant specialist of interactive learning at the University of Arizona, College of Medicine.

      YVONNE WAERN, professor of communication studies, Linköping University, Sweden, focuses on studies of ICT from a cognitive and communicative perspective.

      JODI WHITE, MPA, is director of advancement, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Chicago.

      DIANE WITMER is associate professor of communications at California State University–Fullerton.

      CHRIS WOODFORD is a freelance science and technology writer based in England.

      Name Index

      Note: Page numbers in bold refer to main discussion of a topic; page numbers in italic refer to illustrations

      • Fanning, Shawn, 150, 335
      • Fano, Robert M., 288, 380
      • Farmer, Randall, 211, 212, 297
      • Fawcett, Neil, 413–14, 414
      • Featheringham, Gail, 193
      • Feigenbaum, Edward A., 187
      • Fenello, Jay, 158
      • Ferris, Nancy, 484
      • Fidler, Roger, 227, 383, 384
      • Filliou, Robert, 245
      • Filo, David, 402
      • Finkel, Raphael, 345, 346
      • Fischer, Claude, 434
      • Fisher, Scott, 282
      • Fitzsimmons, Frank, 253
      • Flynt, Henry, 246
      • Forrester, Jay, 87
      • Foster, Matt, 296
      • Franke, George R., 220
      • Freed, Ken, 240, 383
      • Freeman, Greydon, 31
      • Freudenrich, Craig C., 371
      • Fripp, Robert, 186
      • Froehlich, Bernd, 391–92
      • Froomkin, Michael, 254
      • Fuchs, Ira H., 31
      • Fuller, Buckminster, 97
      • O'Connor, Sandra Day, 73
      • Oikarinen, Jarkko, 70, 256
      • Olafsson, Olaf, 330–31
      • Oldenburg, Claes, 246
      • Omidyar, Pierre, 480
      • Ono, Yoko, 246
      • O'Reilly, Tim, 358
      • Orlan, 117
      • Ozzie, Ray, 368
      • Quittner, Joshua, 27
      • Uhrick, Sherri, 477
      • Ullrich, Lars, 336
      • Uzelac, Tomislav, 323
      • Wacjman, Judy, 108
      • Wagner, Richard, 330
      • Waldrop, M. Mitchell, 380–81
      • Walker, Janet, 229
      • Wallace, Andrew, 240
      • Wallace, Jonathan, 77, 354
      • Warhol, Andy, 329–30
      • Warren, Samuel, 378
      • Warwick, Kevin, 117
      • Watts, Antony, 180
      • Waytena, Bill, 321
      • Weaver, Warren, 48
      • Wei, Pei, 43
      • Weinberg, Gerald, 59
      • Weiner, Norman, 102, 112
      • Weinstein, Norman, 178
      • Weir, Bob, 23
      • Werbach, Kevin, 404
      • White, Stephen, 328
      • Whitman, Margaret, 479–81
      • Whitney, John, Sr., 86
      • Wiener, Norbert, 116, 438
      • Wiesner, Jerome, 308, 309–10, 338
      • Wilcox, James, 463–64
      • Wildstrom, Stephen H., 410
      • Wilhelm, Maria, 482
      • Williams, Gail, 482
      • Williams, Ken and Roberta, 198
      • Wilson, Linda, 253
      • Winter, Debra, 431
      • Wolfe, Gary, 43
      • Wolfe, Tom, 37
      • Wolfson, Joel Rothstein, 106
      • Wonder, Stevie, 276
      • Wood, Ben, 409, 410
      • Woods, Justin, 47
      • Woolley, David, 375
      • Wozniak, Steve, 172, 212, 262–63
      • Wray, Stefan, 168
      • Wright, Robert, 269, 270
      • Wright, Will, 198
      • Yang, Jerry, 402
      • Yao, Andrew Chi-Chih, 17
      • Yasuda, Hiroshi, 325
      • Yousef, Ramzi, 182
      • Zadeh, Lotfi, 195
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