Encyclopedia of Motherhood

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Edited by: Andrea O'Reilly

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      About the General Editor

      Andrea O'Reilly, Ph.D., mother of three, is Associate Professor in the School of Women's Studies at York University and is founder and director of the Association for Research on Mothering, founder and editor-in-chief of the Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, and founder and editor of Demeter Press, the first feminist press on motherhood. She is cofounder of the Museum of Motherhood to open in Seneca Falls in 2011 and is cofounder of the International Mothers Network, the first international consortium of motherhood organizations now with 120 plus members worldwide.

      O'Reilly is author of Toni Morrison and Motherhood: A Politics of the Heart (2004) and Rocking the Cradle: Thoughts on Motherhood, Feminism and the Possibility of Empowered Mothering (2006) and is editor/co-editor of 14 books on motherhood including Motherhood at the 21st Century: Experience, Identity, Policy, Agency (2010); Textual Mothers/Maternal Texts: Motherhood in Contemporary Women's Literature (2010); Maternal Thinking: Philosophy, Politics, Practice (2009); Feminist Mothering (2008); Maternal Theory: Essential Readings (2007); Mother Outlaws: Theories and Practices of Empowered Mothering (2004); From Motherhood to Mothering: The Legacy of Adrienne Rich's Of Woman Born (2004) and Mothers and Sons: Feminism, Masculinity and the Struggle to Raise our Sons (2001). She is currently at work on a monograph on “Mothers in the Academe” and completing two edited collections: one on the Motherhood Movement and another on Sarah Palin.

      She has received 16 Social Science Humanities Research Council of Canada grants and is the recipient of several awards and honors including: the Atkinson Deans Award for Research Excellence; the Lillian Robinson Fellowship at Concordia University; York University “Professor of the Year” award (in 1998 and 2009); and the Canadian Association of University Teachers Sarah Shorten Award in recognition of outstanding achievements in the promotion of the advancement of women in Canadian universities and colleges.

      Introduction

      In 1976, author Adrienne Rich wrote, “We know more about the air we breathe, the seas we travel, than about the nature and meaning of motherhood.” By 1998, some 20 years after the publication of Rich's landmark Of Woman Born, many academic disciplines, from anthropology to women's studies, were engaged in some form of motherhood research. And while scholarship on motherhood in some disciplines still struggled for legitimacy and centrality, there was the recognition that motherhood studies was emerging as a distinct field within the larger disciplines of feminist scholarship or women's studies. In the last decade, the topic of motherhood has emerged as a distinct and established field of scholarly inquiry. Indeed, today it would be unthinkable to cite Rich's quote on the dearth of maternal scholarship.

      A cursory review of motherhood research reveals that hundreds of scholarly articles have been published on almost every motherhood theme imaginable. The Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering alone has examined motherhood topics as diverse as sexuality, peace, religion, public policy, literature, work, popular culture, health, carework, young mothers, motherhood and feminism, feminist mothering, mothers and sons, mothers and daughters, lesbian mothering, adoption, the motherhood movement, and mothering, race and ethnicity to name a few. In 2006, the General Editor of this encyclopedia, Andrea O'Reilly, coined the term motherhood studies to acknowledge and demarcate this new scholarship on motherhood as a legitimate and distinctive discipline, one grounded in the theoretical tradition of maternal theory developed by scholars such as Rich, Patricia Hill Collins, Sharon Hays, Paula Caplan, Susan Maushart, Fiona Green, Miriam Johnson, bell hooks, Patrice DiQunizio, Susan Douglas, Meredith Michaels, Alice Walker, Marianne Hirsh, and Sara Ruddick. Indeed, similar to the development of women's studies as an academic field in the 1970s, motherhood studies, while explicitly interdisciplinary, cross-disciplinary and multidisciplinary, has emerged as an autonomous and independent scholarly discipline in the last decade. The publication of this encyclopedia on motherhood—the first ever on the topic—helps to both demarcate motherhood as a scholarly field and an academic discipline and to direct its future development.

      In Of Woman Born, Rich distinguished between two meanings of motherhood, one superimposed on the other: “the potential relationship of any woman to her powers of reproduction and to children,” and “the institution—which aims at ensuring that that potential—and all women—shall remain under male control.” In motherhood studies the term motherhood is used to signify the patriarchal institution of motherhood, while mothering refers to women's lived experiences of mothering as they seek to resist the patriarchal institution of motherhood and its oppressive ideology. An empowered practice/theory of mothering, therefore, functions as a counter-narrative of motherhood: it seeks to interrupt the master narrative of motherhood to imagine and implement a view of mothering that is empowering to women. Empowered mothering may refer to any practice of mothering that seeks to challenge and change various aspects of patriarchal motherhood that cause mothering to be limiting or oppressive to women. Or, to use Rich's terminology, an empowered maternal practice marks a movement from motherhood to mothering, and makes possible a mothering against motherhood.

      In the decades since the publication of Rich's landmark book, motherhood research has focused upon the oppressive and empowering dimensions of mothering and the complex relationship between the two. Stemming from the above distinction, motherhood studies may be divided into four interconnected themes or categories of inquiry: motherhood as institution, motherhood as experience, motherhood as identity or subjectivity, mothering as agency. While scholars who are concerned with the ideology or institution investigate policies, laws, ideologies, and images of patriarchal motherhood, researchers who are interested in experience examine the work women do as mothers, an area of study paved with insights from Sara Ruddick's concept of maternal practice. The third category, identity or subjectivity, looks at the effect that becoming a mother has on a woman's sense of self; in particular, how her sense of self is shaped by the institution of motherhood and the experience of mothering, respectively.

      Since the turn of the millennium, a new theme in motherhood has emerged which scholars have termed agency. Motherhood scholarship, whether its concern is mothering as an institution, experience, or identity, has tended to focus on how motherhood is detrimental to women because of its construction as a patriarchal entity within the said three areas. For example, scholars interested in experience argue that the gender inequities of patriarchal motherhood cause the work of mothering to be both isolating and exhausting for women, while those concerned with ideology call attention to the guilt and depression that is experienced by mothers who fail to live up to the impossible standards of patriarchal motherhood that our popular culture inundates them with. In contrast, little has been written on the possibility or potentiality of mothering as identified by Rich. This point is not lost on Fiona Green who writes, “still largely missing from the increasing dialogue and publication around motherhood is a discussion of Rich's monumental contention that even when restrained by patriarchy, motherhood can be a site of empowerment and political activism.” More recently however, agency has emerged as a prevailing theme in motherhood scholarship. Specifically, the rise of a vibrant and vast motherhood movement in the United States over the last decade has paved the way for more meaningful exploration into the emancipatory potential of motherhood in the 21st century.

      The Encyclopedia

      The intent of the encyclopedia is to introduce readers to and provide information on the central terms, concepts, topics, issues, themes, debates, theories, and texts of this new discipline of motherhood studies as well as to examine the topic of motherhood in various contexts such as history and geography and by academic discipline. As with all scholarly fields, motherhood studies comprises a tradition or canon of theoretical texts that constitutes and directs the scholarship of that discipline. The encyclopedia includes an entry for all the influential theorists of maternal scholarship from the pioneering theories of Nancy Chodorow, Adrienne Rich, and Dorothy Dinnerstein of the 1970s; the leading African American maternal scholars such as bell hooks, Patricia Hill Collins, and Dorothy Roberts; to the more recent writings of Ann Crittenden, Judith Warner, and Ayelet Waldman. Additionally, the central and governing terms and concepts of maternal scholarship, such as daugher-centiricty, matraphopia, matroreform, cultural bearing, maternal thinking, motherline, mask of motherhood, intensive mothering, new momism, empowered mothering, homeplace, othermothering, to name but a few, are all included in the encyclopedia. All the principal motherhood poets and novelists are also likewise referenced in the encyclopedia. As well, this reference work provides an overview of the topic of motherhood in many and diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and philosophy, as well it examines the meaning and experience of motherhood in many time periods from classic civilizations to present day. Finally, as the encyclopedia provides a history of motherhood, it also covers issues and events of our current times to feature entries on the mommy blog, the motherhood memoir, terrorism, reproductive technologies, HIV/AIDS, LGBT families, the 21st-century motherhood movement (including entries for contemporary motherhood organizations).

      One particular highlight of the encyclopedia is its attention to geographical, cultural and ethnic diversity. The encyclopedia includes an entry for almost every country in the world as well as entries on Aboriginal, Latina/Chicana, South Asian, African American, lesbian, queer, immigrant, adoptive, single, nonresidential, young, poor mothers and mothers with disabilities as well as entries on topics such as motherhood and globalization and trans-nationalism. The creative writing entries likewise include authors and poets from numerous nationalities and ethnicities. As well, in recognition of the explicitly interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and cross-disciplinary nature of maternal scholarship the encyclopedia includes entries from a wide range of discipline as well it considers particular themes or issues from several disciplinary perspectives. Finally, while this is an encyclopedia on motherhood, the volumes, in their wide-ranging and far-reaching examination of the topic, cover material central to childhood, family and women's studies, and the larger disciplines of sociology and humanities.

      Reading the entries in the encyclopedia, one could forget that maternal scholarship, as a discipline, is still in its infancy; coming into being in the late 1970s and only being established in the last 10 to 15 years. Returning to the words that close Rich's Of Woman Born: “We need to imagine a world in which every woman is the presiding genius of her own body. In such a world women will truly create new life, bringing forth not only children (if and as we choose) but the visions, the thinking necessary to sustain, console and alter human existence—a new relationship to the universe. Sexuality, politics, intelligence, power, motherhood, work, community, intimacy, will develop new meanings; thinking itself will be transformed. This is where we have to begin.”

      This encyclopedia, in its examination of motherhood from A to Z—from aboriginal mothering to zines—shows that motherhood studies, while still a new discipline, has given new meaning to our usual and familiar understandings of sexuality, work, power, community and the like: indeed it has transformed thinking itself. It is our hope that this encyclopedia will likewise provide a “place to begin” for the study of maternal scholarship.

      Acknowledgments

      In the acknowledgments to my 2004 book Toni Morrison and Motherhood: A Politics of the Heart, I cite the narrator's words from Morrison's novel Song of Solomon when she comments upon the importance of othermothering for the character Hagar Dead: “She needed what most coloured girls needed: a chorus of mamas, grandmamas, aunts, cousins, sister, neighbors, Sunday school teachers, best girl friends and what all to give her the strength life demanded of her … the humor with which to live it.” Scholars likewise, I wrote, need a “chorus of mamas” to think and write well. Fortunately, once again with this encyclopaedia I have been blessed with a symphony in my life. Indeed, as I spend these last few hours on the encyclopaedia, I realize that my “chorus of mamas” have done more than support my scholarship, they have given me the very words and music in which to write, or perhaps more appropriately, sing, it. This encyclopedia, the first ever on motherhood, is thus truly the work of many individuals; the many scholars who pioneered motherhood studies, the authors who wrote entries for the encyclopaedia, the scholars whose research informs this project, the many and diverse researchers on motherhood today, my extended kin of scholars and friends, and the many people at Sage Publications whose labor—in both thought and deed—made possible this encyclopedia of motherhood. So my words of thanks are many and wide-ranging.

      Thanks first to the pioneers of motherhood scholarship without who this encyclopedia and all motherhood research would not exist; most notably Adrienne Rich, Nancy Chodorow, Sara Ruddick, Miriam Johnson, Paula Caplan, Barbara Katz Rothman, and Patricia Hill Collins. My deepest appreciation as well to the more recent scholars on motherhood who have sustained and enriched the intellectual tradition of maternal scholarship that both made possible and created the need for an encyclopedia of motherhood, including Alice Walker, Mary O'Brien, bell hooks, Audre Lorde, Baba Copper, Marianne Hirsch, Shari Thurer, Tuula Gordon, Sharon Hays, Valerie Walkerdine and Helen Lucy, Susan Maushart, Dorothy Roberts, Patrice di Quinzio, Ann Crittenden, Susan Douglas and Meredith Michaels, Daphne de Marneffe, Judith Warner, Chris Bobel, Ariel Gore, Molly Ladd-Taylor, Andrea Doucet, Bonnie Fox, Kim Anderson, Patrizia Albanese, Marilyn Waring, and Lauri Umansky. I owe particular thanks to the many members of the Association for Research on Mothering (ARM): my thinking on mothering, as always, was nourished and sustained by this fine community of scholars. Indeed, it was the knowledge that I had the scholarship of the Association of Research on Motherhood to draw upon that gave me the confidence to do this encyclopedia, and it was the support of ARM members—in both mind and heart—that enabled me to complete it. Particular thanks are due to Enola Aird, Sharon Abbey, Linn Baran, Chris Bobel, Petra Bueskens, Deborah Byrd, Paula Caplan, Deidre Condit, Christina Cudahy, Jeanette Corbiere Lavell, Deborah Davidson, Rishma Dunlop, Regina Edmonds, Linda Ennis, May Friedman, Nancy Gerber, Diana Gustafson, Fiona Green, Lynn Hallstein-O'Brien, Linda Lisi Juergens, Amber Kinser, Kandee Kosior, Dawn Memee Lavell-Harvard, Gayle Letherby, Jenny Jones, Brenda McGadney, Joanne Minaker, Mary Ruth Marotte, Beth Osnes, Elizabeth Podnieks, Marie Porter, Ruth Panofsky, Joy Rose, Sara Ruddick, Lorri Slepian, Lorna Turnbull, Nicole Willey, Judith Stadtman Tucker, Linda Hunter, Serena Patterson, Gail and Sarah Trimble, Jodi Vandenberg-Daves, and Gina Wong-Wylie.

      I am deeply indebted to the Social Science Research Council of Canada and its continued support of my research through various grants, most notably the Standard Research Grant. My deepest appreciation, as always, to Renée Knapp at ARM, whose brilliance, generosity, humor and grit, in work and play, make possible—and survivable—the scholarship I do. Special thanks are due to Geoff Golson and Susan Moskowitz at Golson Media. As someone who earns her income by writing, I am seldom at a loss for words, but in this instance language can not convey the deep appreciation I feel for all that Geoff and Susan have done to deliver this encyclopedia into our hands: tireless, talented, devoted, and diligent are but some of many superlatives that could be used to describe the superb and sustaining support and effort they provided throughout the long labor of this encyclopedia's birth. Finally, my love and gratitude, as always, to my family; in particular my mother Jean O'Reilly, my sister Jennifer O'Reilly, my children Jesse, Erin, and Casey O'Reilly-Conlin, and my life partner Terry Conlin. Thank you for always believing in the importance of my motherhood scholarship. Virginia Woolf once wrote that a woman needs “a room of one's own in order to write.” While I would agree that space and time enables a woman to write; it is, at least for me, the respect and support shown by my family for my need to both think and live that makes my writing possible. So thank you for knocking and for coming in.

      AndreaO'Reilly

      Reader's Guide

      List of Entries

      List of Contributors

      Abbey, Sharon M. Brock University

      Adams, Sarah LaChance University of Oregon

      Adeniran, Adebusuyi Isaac Obafemi Awolowo University

      Aird, Enola Independent Scholar

      Aksit, Elif Ekin Ankara University

      Alban, Gillian M.E. Dogus University

      Albanese, Patrizia Ryerson University

      Al-Botmeh, Fatima Independent Researcher

      Alcalde, M. Cristina University of Kentucky

      Alcalde, M. Gabriela Kentucky Health Justice Network

      Allen, Sonja M. Queen's University

      Allison, Jill Memorial University of Newfoundland & Labrador

      Altinay, Rustem Ertug Bogazici University, Istanbul

      Antolini, Katharine Lane West Virginia Wesleyan College

      Arista, Michele C. Independent Scholar

      Arreola, Veronica I. University of Illinois at Chicago

      Bailey-Fakhoury, Chasity Wayne State University

      Baker, Carrie N. Smith College

      Baraitser, Lisa Birkbeck, University of London

      Barlow, Constance A. University of Calgary

      Barnes, Diana Lynn Center for Postpartum Health

      Barnhill, John H. Independent Scholar

      Barry, Cheryl Leah University of Calgary

      Bastia, Tanja University of Manchester

      Bauer, Deborah L. University of Central Florida

      Bjørnholt, Margunn University of Oslo

      Bobel, Christina University of Massachusetts, Boston

      Bode, Rita Trent University

      Boon, Sonja Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador

      Boslaugh, Sarah E. Washington University School of Medicine

      Bouvard, Marguerite G. Brandeis University

      Bowles-Adarkwa, Linda San Francisco State University

      Boyd, Susan B. University of British Columbia

      Brady, Geraldine Coventry University

      Branch, Nicole T. Howard University

      Brooks, Kinitra D. University of Texas at San Antonio

      Brown, Geraldine Coventry University

      Brown, Ivana Rutgers University

      Bueskens, Petra Deakin University

      Burkett, Jennifer L. University of Central Arkansas

      Burstrem, Jessica B. University of Arizona

      Burton, Wendy E. University of the Fraser Valley

      Busse, Erika University of Minnesota

      Butterfield, Elizabeth Georgia Southern University

      Byrne, Nan Independent Scholar

      Cade, Roshaunda D. Webster University

      Campbell, Arlene York University

      Canelo, Kayla S. California State University, Stanislaus

      Caplan, Paula J. Harvard University

      Caporusso, Catherine University of Illinois at Chicago

      Caron, Sarah W. Independent Scholar

      Carranza, Mirna E. McMaster University

      Cash, Sherri Goldstein Utica College

      Cellio, Jen Northern Kentucky University

      Chaban, Stephanie Independent Scholar

      Chamberlain Froese, Jean Save the Mothers

      Cheney, Emily R. Spelman College

      Chernyayeva, Natalia University of Iowa

      Cohen, Rina York University

      Comerford, Lynn California State University, East Bay

      Condit, Deirdre M. Virginia Commonwealth University

      Corfield, Justin Geelong Grammar School

      Coulter, Myrl University of Alberta

      Craig, Lyn University of New South Wales

      Crawford, B. Scott Radford University

      Cuomo, Amy University of West Georgia

      Daigle, Christine Brock University

      Davidson, Adenike Marie Fisk University

      Davidson, Deborah York University

      Davidson, Diana University of Alberta

      DeLap, Alpha S. University of Washington

      de la Porte, Susan Elizabeth University of KwaZulu-Natal

      Deutsch, James I. Smithsonian Institution

      DeWan, Jennifer K. Independent Scholar

      Dillaway, Heather E. Wayne State University

      Dombroski, Kelly Australian National University

      Doucet, Andrea Carleton University

      Drew, Patricia California State University, East Bay

      Duffy, Donna University of North Carolina, Greensboro

      Duncan, Ann W. University of Virginia

      Dunnewold, Ann Independent Scholar

      Duquaine-Watson, Jillian M. University of Texas at Dallas

      Dymond, Justine Springfield College

      Edmonds, Regina M. Assumption College

      Eichler, Margrit University of Toronto

      Engeman, Cassandra D. University of California, Santa Barbara

      Ennis, Jillian Davina Independent Scholar

      Ennis, Linda R. York University

      Esterberg, Kristin G. Salem State College

      Falvey, Kate New York City College of Technology

      Fancher, Jill B. Washington State University, Vancouver

      Federer, Lisa University of North Texas

      Feng, Yuan ActionAid International China

      Finn, Melissa York University

      Foster, Mira C. San Francisco State University

      Francis, Ara University of California, Davis

      Freiburger, Melissa A. University of Kansas

      French, Sarah W. Washington State University

      Friedman, May York University

      Froese, Jean Chamberlain Independent Scholar

      Froese, Thomas Independent Scholar

      Fumia, Doreen Ryerson University

      Gamber, Cayo George Washington University

      Garrett, Sarah B. University of California, Berkeley

      Gatrell, Caroline Lancaster University

      Gillespie, Gill University of Northumbria

      Goettner-Abendroth, Heide International Academy HAGIA

      Gordon, Kelly Carolyn Brevard College

      Gotlib, Anna State University of New York, Binghamton

      Gott, K.C. East Tennessee State University

      Graham, Natalie Michigan State University

      Green, Fiona Joy University of Winnipeg

      Grewal, Indera Royal Holloway, University of London

      Griffith, Alison I. York University

      Grigorovich, Alisa York University

      Grzyb, Amanda University of Western Ontario

      Guerrina, Roberta University of Surrey

      Gurr, Barbara University of Connecticut

      Gustafson, Diana L. Memorial University of Newfoundland

      Hamil-Luker, Jenifer University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Hant, Myrna University of California, Los Angeles

      Harper, Susan Mountain View College

      Hartsock, Ralph University of North Texas

      Hattery, Angela Wake Forest University

      Heitner, Keri L. University of Phoenix

      Henderson, Heike Boise State University

      Hernandez, Marcia University of the Pacific

      Herrera, Cristina California State University, Fresno

      Herzog, Shawna California State University, Fresno

      Hidalgo, Danielle Antoinette University of California, Santa Barbara

      Hinton Riley, Michele St. Joseph's College of Maine

      Holstine Vander Valk, Donna Independent Scholar

      Hryciuk, Renata Ewa Warsaw University

      Huang, Yu-ling State University of New York, Binghamton

      Hutner, Heidi State University of New York, Stony Brook

      Isgro, Kirsten State University of New York, Plattsburgh

      Jaeckel, Monika Independent Scholar

      Jennings, Miranda E. University of Massachussets Amherst

      Jolly, Natalie University of Washington, Tacoma

      Jones, Rita M. Lehigh University

      Justin, Shaista Independant Scholar

      Kaptan, Senem Sabanci University

      Kauppinen, Kaisa Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

      Kaur Sangha, Jasjit University of Toronto

      Kentlyn, Sue University of Queensland

      Kingston, Anna University College, Cork

      Kinser, Amber E. East Tennessee State University

      Koritko, Andrea Independent Scholar

      Korolczuk, Elzbieta Polish Academy of Sciences

      Kte'pi, Bill Independent Scholar

      Kutz-Flamenbaum, Rachel V. University of Pittsburgh

      Lang, Sharon D. University of Redlands

      Leane, Máire University College Cork

      Lee, Joon Sun Hunter College, City University of New York

      Lengel, Lara Bowling Green State University

      LeSavoy, Barbara State University of New York, Brockport

      Letherby, Gayle University of Plymouth

      Levine, Ronda Lee Independent Scholar

      Lewiecki-Wilson, Cynthia Miami University

      Lewis, Carolyn Herbst Louisiana State University

      Leyser, Ophra University of Kansas

      Li, Ke Indiana University Bloomington

      Little, Christopher A.J.L. University of Toronto

      Liu, Lichun Willa University of Toronto

      Lovett, Laura L. University of Massachusetts

      Lucas, Sheri Queen's University

      Lyons, Nyla P. Howard University

      Maätita, Florence Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

      Mackinlay, Elizabeth University of Queensland

      Magwaza, Thenjiwe University of KwaZulu-Natal

      Maher, JaneMaree Monash University

      Mahoney, Jill Murray State University

      Marksova-Tominova, Michaela Independent Scholar

      Marotta, Marsha V. Westfield State College

      Marotte, Mary Ruth University of Central Arkansas

      Marr, Elisha Ferris State University

      Mayseless, Ofra University of Haifa

      Melis Yelsali Parmaksiz, Pinar Ankara University

      Mennill, Sally University of British Columbia

      Mercado-López, Larissa M. University of Texas, San Antonio

      Miller, Kim Wheaton College

      Milligan, Eleanor Griffith University

      Minaker, Joanne C. Grant MacEwan College

      Monson, Sarah Minnesota State University, Mankato

      Morganroth Gullette, Margaret Brandeis University

      Morolong, Bantu L. University of Botswana

      Mortenson, Joani University of British Columbia, Okanagan

      Muller, Vivienne Queensland University of Technology

      Murphy-Geiss, Gail Colorado College

      Musher, Sharon Ann Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

      Nagakura, Wakasa Columbia University

      Namaba, Edith G. Howard University

      Nemzoff, Ruth Brandeis Women's Studies Research Center

      Nichols, Tracy R. University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Nowlan Suart, Theresa Loyalist College

      Oakley Torres, Shirley University of Memphis

      Oberman, Yael Independent Scholar

      O'Brien Hallstein, D. Lynn Boston University

      Ojong, Vivian Besem University of KwaZulu-Natal

      O'Reilly, Andrea York University

      Ortiz, Christi Marie Aurora Behavioral Health

      Ortiz, Fernando A. Alliant International University

      Osnes, Beth University of Colorado, Boulder

      Panofsky, Ruth Ryerson University

      Pantea, Maria-Carmen Babes Bolyai University

      Pantuso, Terri B. University of Texas, San Antonio

      Parsons, Jacqueline Ciccio St. Mary's University

      Pearson, A. Fiona Central Connecticut State University

      Pernigotti, Elisabetta Université Paris 8 Saint-Denis

      Perry-Samaniego, Lenora University of Texas, San Antonio

      Peters, Carolyn J. University of Manitoba

      Petit, Joan Portland State University

      Plant, Rebecca Jo University of California, San Diego

      Podnieks, Elizabeth Ryerson University

      Polacek, Kelly Myer Fielding Graduate University

      Policek, Nicoletta University of Lincoln

      Porter, Marie University of Queensland

      Powell Wolfe, Andrea Ball State University

      Premo Steele, Cassie University of South Carolina

      Prono, Luca Independent Scholar

      Purdy, Elizabeth Independent Scholar

      Randall, D'Arcy Clare University of Texas at Austin

      Reid-Boyd, Elizabeth Edith Cowan University

      Reuter, Shelley Zipora Concordia University

      Reviere, Rebecca Howard University

      Reznowski, Gabriella Washington State University

      Richards, Amy Independent Scholar

      Richter-Devroe, Sophie University of Exeter

      Robbins-Herring, Kittye Delle Mississippi State University

      Rodgers, Julie National University of Ireland

      Rose, Joy Mamapalooza Inc.

      Rosenzweig, Rosie Brandeis University

      Roth-Johnson, Danielle University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Rottenbrg-Rosler, Biri Haifa University

      Royce, Tracy University of California, Santa Barbara

      Ruah-Midbar, Marianna University of Haifa

      Samblanet, Sarah Kent State University

      Sanchez Walker, Marjorie California State University, Stanislaus

      Sanmiguel-Valderrama, Olga University of Cincinnati

      Sardadvar, Karin University of Vienna

      Schalge, Susan L. Minnesota State University, Mankato

      Schultz, Renée Independent Scholar

      Schwartz-Bechet, Barbara Bowie State University

      Schwartzman, Jayme University of Connecticut

      Shroff, Farah Women's Health Research Institute

      Siddique, Julie Ahmad City University of New York

      Smith Koslowski, Alison University of Edinburgh

      Smith, Earl Wake Forest University

      Smith, Tracy L. Indiana State University

      Sobie, Sherryll Independent Scholar

      Soliday, Elizabeth Washington State University, Vancouver

      Spigel, Sigal University of Cambridge

      Stackman, Valerie R. Howard University

      Stephens, Angela Sojourner-Douglass College

      Stitt, Jocelyn Fenton Minnesota State University

      Sulik, Gayle A. Texas Woman's University

      Sutherland, Jean-Anne University of North Carolina, Wilmington

      Tayeb, Lamia High Institute of Human Sciences in Tunis

      Taylor, Tiffany Kent State University

      Theodor, Ithamar University of Haifa

      Thern Smith, Jessica University of Tennessee

      Thibodeaux, Julianna E. Independent Scholar

      Thomas, Alice K. Howard University

      Thompson, Mary James Madison University

      Tolley-Stokes, Rebecca East Tennessee State University

      Trammel, Juliana Maria Savannah State University

      Trevino, Marcella Bush Barry University

      Turnbull, Lorna A. University of Manitoba

      Turner, Tracy Zollinger Independent Scholar

      Vallance, Denise York University

      Vancour, Michele L. Southern Connecticut State University

      Vaughan, Genevieve Independent Scholar

      Villalobos, Ana University of California, Berkeley

      Villanueva, Karen Nelson California Institute of Integral Studies

      Wadhwa, Vandana Boston University

      Wafula, Edith G. Howard University

      Walker, Susan University of Cambridge

      Walks, Michelle University of British Columbia

      Walls, Lori A. Independent Scholar

      Walters-Kramer, Lori State University of New York, Plattsburgh

      Wansink, Susan Virginia Wesleyan College

      Wasserman, Stephanie Merrimack College

      Watson, Alison M. S. University of St Andrews

      Watson-Franke, Maria-Barbara San Diego State University

      Weinberger, Margaret J. Bowling Green State University

      Wies, Jennifer R. Xavier University

      Wilkins, Agata University of Warsaw

      Willey, Nicole L. Kent State University

      Willey, Tiffany A. Independent Scholar

      Wilson, Corinne Coventry University

      Wilson, Maureen E. University of Massachusetts Amherst

      Wilson Cooper, Camille University of North Carolina, Greensboro

      Wong-Wylie, Gina Athabasca University

      Woods, Laurie E. Vanderbilt University

      Wright Miller, Gill Denison University

      Wright Williams, Dawn Georgia Perimeter College

      Wyatt-Nichol, Heather University of Baltimore

      Xu, Xueqing York University

      Zamir, Sara Ben-Gurion University, Eilat

      Znidarsic Zagar, Sabina University of Primorska, Koper

      Chronology of Motherhood

      1570 B.C.E.—Queen Nefertari of Egypt defies cultural conventions by serving as adviser to her husband, King Ahmose, and co-rules Egypt with her son after her husband's death.

      1473 B.C.E.—Queen Hatsheput, a co-regent of Egypt along with her minor stepson since 1479, declares herself Pharaoh. Her tenure as ruler is the longest in Egyptian history for a female.

      Circa 1250 B.C.E.—The Romans begin celebrating mothers by honoring the Mother Goddess Cybele each March.

      350 B.C.E.—Greek philosopher and empiricist Aristotle generates the theory that a woman's uterus travels throughout her body in response to internal forces that include the woman's own emotional state. Aristotle also posits that women are imperfect men who have never truly developed physically.

      1405—French writer and single mother Christine de Pizan publishes The Book of the City of Ladies in an effort to rebut character attacks on women by presenting them as mothers, wives, and political and social leaders through the eyes of Lady Reason, Lady Rectitude, and Lady Justice.

      1533—Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, becomes Queen of England. Later the same year she gives birth to Elizabeth I, who becomes one of the best-loved English monarchs of all time. Three years after Elizabeth's birth, Boleyn is beheaded for high treason. In reality, her only crime is that she fails to provide the king with a male heir.

      1568—The first incidence of planned family colonization in North America begins with the arrival of 225 Spanish settlers in what is modern-day South Carolina.

      1587—One day after her arrival at Roanoke Island, British immigrant Eleanor White Dare gives birth to daughter Virginia, the first English child born in America.

      1607—Twelve-year-old Pocahontas, the daughter of Chief Powhattan, saves the life of Englishman John Smith. In 1614, Pocahontas marries Englishman John Rolfe and gives birth to a son.

      1608—Anne Forrest and her maid, Anne Burras, are the first Englishwomen to arrive in Jamestown, Virginia. Forrest's fate is unknown, but Burras marries John Laydon and bears four daughters.

      1620—Arriving on the Mayflower, 13-year-old Mary Chilton is the first English female to set foot on Plymouth Rock. Her arrival is depicted in the painting The Landing of the Pilgrims. Chilton marries fellow Pilgrim John Winslow and gives birth to 10 children.

      1630—Nurse and midwife Tryntje Jones immigrates to the United States from the Netherlands and becomes the first female to practice medicine in America.

      1632—Commonly known as “The Woman's Lawyer,” The Lawes and Resolutions of Women's Rights: A Methodical Collection of Such Statutes and Customes, With the Cases, Opinions, Arguments and Points of Learning in the Law, as Do Properly Concerne Women becomes the first English-language book to be published on the rights of women. The author, who is known only as T. E., offers a detailed summary of marriage, divorce, courtship, and custody laws.

      1637—A pregnant Anne Hutchinson, who ultimately gives birth to 15 children, is convicted of sedition in Boston because of her religious beliefs. She and her family are banished to Rhode Island.

      1650—The poems of Anne Dudley Bradstreet, the mother of eight, are published without her knowledge in London, earning her a place in history as the first American female poet to be published in England.

      1680—Robert Filmer's Patriarcha defends the divine right of kings and the patriarchal system, which withholds political rights from women and prevents mothers from having authority over themselves and their children.

      1689—John Locke's Two Treatises of Government is published posthumously, refuting Robert Filmer's arguments. Locke contends that mothers have equal authority with fathers over the children they have created.

      1692—The Salem Witch Trials begin in Massachusetts. Mary Easty, the mother of seven, is among the victims. She and seven other accused witches are hanged on September 22.

      1702—After the death of her brother William III, Queen Anne succeeds to the English throne. None of her 17 children survive her, and her German nephew, George III, becomes the king of England when she dies in 1714. His subsequent actions lead the American colonies to rebel against the Mother Country in 1776, creating the United States of America.

      1704—On February 29, mothers in the settlement of Deerfield, Massachusetts, watch in horror as French and Abenaki attackers kill 25 children. Many victims are infants who are killed by bashing their heads against hard objects.

      1716—The State of New York issues its first licenses to midwives.

      1773—After helping to disguise the men who take part in the Boston Tea Party as Mohawk Indians, Sarah Bradlee Fulton becomes known as the Mother of the Boston Tea Party. During the Revolution, Fulton serves as a courier for American troops.

      1776—On March 31, as the Continental Congress considers the ramifications of creating a nation, Abigail Adams writes to her husband John, a delegate and future president, chiding him to “remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors.” Four of the Adams's six children live to adulthood, and John Quincy became the sixth president of the United States in 1824.

      1776—Although she never has children of her own, Mother Ann Lee becomes the matriarch and founder of the Shaker Colony in New York's Albany County.

      1776–1777—During the desolate winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, when American troops are starving, Catherine Littlefield Greene remains with her husband, Major General Nathanael Greene. Over the next eight years, Greene bears five children, naming the first two after George and Martha Washington.

      1784—Midwife Martha Ballard, who gave birth to nine children, dies at the age of 77. She leaves a diary chronicling her lengthy career and depicting the daily lives of women in 18th-century America.

      1789—Known as “Lady Washington,” Martha Washington, who has survived both of the children from her first marriage, moves into presidential headquarters with her husband and two grandchildren when George Washington becomes the first president of the United States.

      1790—Along with other women, mothers who meet suffrage requirements are enfranchised in New Jersey. Woman suffrage is rescinded in the state in 1807.

      1792—Mary Wollstonecraft, a British writer living in France, publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Women to refute the patriarchal argument that women do not deserve political rights because they are inherently incapable of rationality. Five years later Wollstonecraft gives birth to daughter Mary who pens the classic Frankenstein in 1818.

      1793—Catherine Littlefield Greene, the widow of General Nathanael Greene and the mother of five children, proposes that her boarder Eli Whitney invent the cotton gin. Whitney's invention revolutionizes the cotton industry and inadvertently increases the demand for slaves in the American South.

      1797—Mother and daughter philanthropists Isabella Graham and Joanna Graham Bethune establish the Society for the Relief of Poor Widows and Small Children in New York City.

      1800—Abigail Adams becomes the first in a succession of First Ladies to live in the White House. Her husband John loses the election to his friend and nemesis Thomas Jefferson, and the Adams family returns to Massachusetts after only a few months in Washington, D.C.

      1805—Weeks after giving birth, Sacajawea, a Sho-shone, begins serving as an unofficial guide for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The nursing mother leads the explorers across thousands of miles from the Dakotas to the Rocky Mountains.

      1811—During a 3,500-mile trek from Missouri to Oregon, Marie Dorian, gives birth to her third child while serving as a guide to fur-trading magnate John Jacob Astor.

      1812—American missionary Ann Hasseltine Judson gives birth to two children while serving in Burma. Neither child survives.

      1819—Kaahumanu, the favorite wife of King Kamehameha of Hawaii, inherits his throne, along with their son Liholiho (Kamehameha II). She establishes the first legal code of the islands, which include the right to trial by jury.

      1821—Lucretia Mott, the mother of six children, is officially recognized as a minister by the Society of Friends. An active abolitionist, Mott soon realizes that women are discriminated against within the movement.

      1821—A strong supporter of British writer Mary Wollstonecraft, Hannah Mather Crocker, a Bostonian mother of ten, publishes Observations on the Real Rights of Women.

      1824—Mary Randolph, a member of the Virginia elite, publishes the first American cookbook. Of her eight children, only four survive to adulthood.

      1826—Thomas Jefferson dies at Monticello after using his prodigious legal skills to write a will leaving his estate directly to his daughter Martha, bypassing the existing mandate that married women's inheritances become the property of their husbands.

      1827—Former slave Sojourner Truth convinces a court of law that her son Peter has illegally been transported to Alabama as a slave in violation of New York's 1810 law ensuring gradual emancipation.

      1828—Sarah Buell Hale, the widowed mother of five young children, begins publishing Ladies' Magazine.

      1832—The Boston Lying-In Hospital is founded as a training ground for physicians. Unlike the poor women who become patients, the city's more affluent women continue to give birth at home.

      1836—Angelina Grimké, who has relocated from Charleston, South Carolina, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, issues An Appeal to the Christian Women of the South in which she draws attention to the fact that large numbers of black children are sired by white slave owners. Southerners are so incensed by her accusations that postmasters ban the book throughout the South.

      1837—Queen Victoria of England succeeds to the British throne at the age of 18. The mother of nine children, Victoria's reign of 64 years is the longest in British history.

      1838—In Alexandria, Virginia, a slave woman strangles two of her four children to prevent their being sold into slavery. The other children are rescued before they suffer a similar fate.

      1843—Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes generates heated debate by arguing that many new mothers are dying from puerperal fever because physicians spread germs by not washing their hands between seeing patients.

      1847—Scottish physician James Simpson is the first to use anesthesia to mitigate the pain of childbirth.

      1847—In Vienna, a study is released indicating that the death rate in male-operated maternity rates is 437 percent higher than in a similar ward run by midwives.

      1847—A daughter is born to abolitionists Abby Kelly and Stephen Symonds Foster. The couple agrees that she will continue to lecture on slavery and women's rights while he remains at home with baby daughter Alla.

      1848—After meeting at the London Anti Slavery Convention where women are hidden behind a curtain and prohibited from voting, Americans Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott make plans to hold a women's rights convention. The Seneca Falls Convention has significant impact on the life of mothers, demanding that public attention be paid to women's issues ranging from suffrage to the right of married women to control their own property.

      1848—New York becomes the first state to pass a comprehensive Married Women's Property Act. The act is motivated not by a desire to extend the scope of women rights but by the desire of fathers to see daughters rather than sons-in-law inherit property.

      1849—Elizabeth Blackwell, a graduate of New York's Geneva Medical College, is forced to attend classes for midwives and nurses when she arrives in Paris to begin postgraduate studies. In England, Blackwell is greeted cordially by the medical community with the exception of both males and females who work in the department of female diseases.

      1850—Oregon passes the Land Donation Act, permitting a married woman to hold one-half of a couple's allotted 640 acreage in her own name. Single women are also allowed to hold 320 acres.

      1851—British philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor, who later becomes his wife, publish “The Enfranchisement of Women.” Mill is a strong advocate of birth control and insists that men do themselves a disservice by subjugating women and depriving society of all that women have to offer.

      1852—Abolitionist and mother of six, Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes the antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin. The book is credited with being a direct cause of the Civil War.

      1852—Feminist Amelia Bloomer launches a campaign to win the right for wives of abusive husbands to obtain divorces.

      1854—Elizabeth Cady Stanton testifies before the New York legislature about the need for married women to gain additional control of inheritances and any wages they earn.

      1855—Known as “Jennie June,” Jane Cunningham Croly, a New York Tribune reporter and the mother of five, becomes the first American woman to work behind the desk of a major newspaper.

      1855—Physicians Margaret and Emily Blackwell open the New York Infirmary for Women and Children with an all-female staff. Located in the Eleventh Ward, their clients are mostly immigrants. Throughout its history, the infirmary serves as a significant training ground for female physicians.

      1862—German-born Dr. Marie Zakrzewska opens the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston. As in the New York Infirmary for Women and Children, the staff of the Boston hospital is composed entirely of females.

      1867—After losing her husband and four children in a yellow fever epidemic, Mary Harris Jones, who becomes known as Mother Jones, devotes her life to improving working conditions in the United States.

      1870—Louisa May Alcott publishes Little Women in two parts. Volume I follows the lives of Jo March and her sisters Meg, Beth, and Amy through the trials of growing up without their father, who is serving as a Union chaplain during the Civil War. Volume II depicts the lives of the surviving sisters as the eldest marries and gives birth to twins. Two sequels further chronicle the adventures of the March family.

      1870—On December 10, the Wyoming Territory grants women legal equality, giving females the right to vote, own property, sign contracts, sue and be sued, and serve on juries. The Utah Territory follows suit, and Eliza A. Swain becomes the first women in the entire world to cast her vote in a general election.

      1872—Jane Wells invents the baby jumper, providing mothers with a means of entertaining babies who are not yet walking.

      1874—Jennie Jerome, a member of New York's elite, marries Lord Randolph Churchill. Later that year, she gives birth to a son, whom she names Winston. He grows up to be one of the foremost statesmen of the 20th century.

      1879—In Copenhagen, Denmark, Henrik Ibsen publishes the play, A Doll's House, in which his protagonist Nora Helmer challenges her husband's contention that her most important role in life is that of wife and mother by insisting that her chief purpose is to be “a reasonable human being, just as you are.”

      1880—Based on the rationale that mothers have a serious stake in the education of their children, the women of New York are granted the right to vote in school board elections.

      1881—The first birth control clinic in the world opens in the Netherlands. Interested parties flock to the Netherlands to observe the clinic, which becomes the model for clinics in other countries.

      1881—At Harvard, Williamina Fleming, a single mother, becomes the first female hired to do mathematical calculations. She is subsequently able to identify and classify some 10,000 celestial bodies.

      1889—Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr open Hull House in Chicago to serve the needs of immigrant mothers and their children.

      1891—Impressionist painter Mary Cassatt, an American, holds a one-woman show in Paris. Although she never became a mother, Cassatt's favorite subjects are mothers and children.

      1892—Charlotte Perkins Stetson (Gilman) publishes the short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper,” which is ostensibly based on her own experiences with postpartum depression.

      1897—Led by Alice McLellan Birney and Phoebe Apperson Hearst, the National Congress of Mothers is held in Washington, D.C. Although the two women expect a turnout of only 500 or so, more than 2,000 people attend the conference. This group forms the foundation for the Parent-Teachers Association.

      1900—According to government reports, one-half of all babies born in the United States at the turn of the century are delivered by midwives.

      1902—Britain establishes a licensing and oversight board for midwives with the passage of the English Midwives Act.

      1905—Dancer Isadora Duncan flaunts social mores by giving birth to a child out of wedlock. In 1913, she refuses to marry the father of her second child. Both children are later killed in an accident, and Duncan is killed in a freak accident in France in 1926 when her fashionably long scarf becomes entangled in an automobile wheel.

      1906—New York public health official Dr. Josephine Baker encourages new mothers to breastfeed their babies in order to avoid exposing them to milk that may be contaminated.

      1907—Women's rights advocates in Austria launch a campaign to win six weeks' maternity leave for new mothers and 10 weeks' leave for nursing mothers.

      1907—After the death of her financier husband, Russell Sage, Margaret Slocum Sage, establishes the Russell Sage Foundation and spends the rest of her life being active in philanthropic causes and documenting the history of women.

      1908—Julia Ward Howe, the mother of six and the author of “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” becomes the first woman to be inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

      1909—Writer Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes Herland, a female utopian novel in which the burdens of motherhood are ostensibly lifted by instituting communal nurseries and kitchens.

      1910—Writer Kathleen Norris chronicles the living and working condition of Irish immigrants to the United States in Mother.

      1911—The new social insurance program in Great Britain provides for maternity allowances in a limited number of cases.

      1912—After 10,000 female mill employees join a strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, 35 mothers are charged with “child neglect.” Charges are later dropped, and the women are instrumental in the strike's success. Widowed mother Mary Heaton Vorse uses the strike to launch a career as an American labor journalist.

      1912—Throughout the United States, debates rage concerning the rights of mothers to maintain custody in divorce cases, and legislators begin addressing the issue of government aid for mothers who are impoverished in cases of divorce and desertion.

      1912—Although she never gives birth to a single child, Juliet Gordon Low finds a way to mother generations of young girls by founding the Girl Scouts in Savannah, Georgia.

      1914—Congress establishes the second Sunday in May of each year as Mother's Day.

      1914—Birth control activist Margaret Sanger, whose mother had experienced 18 pregnancies, is arrested for including information on birth control in The Woman Rebel.

      1914—Katharine Anthony, a niece of suffragist Susan B. Anthony, reveals in her study of the impact of harsh working conditions on Philadelphia mothers that 370 mothers have experienced the deaths of 437 babies.

      1915—Norway passes the Castberg Law, which provides for children born to “unmarried parents” to carry the father's name and inherit his property as long as paternity is not disputed.

      1916—Margaret Sanger and her sister, Ethel Byrne, open a birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York. After ten days in which they see more than 500 women, most of them poor immigrants, officials shut down the clinic.

      1916—Russian-American anarchist Emma Goldman argues that her free speech rights have been violated when she is arrested for publicly advocating birth control.

      1917—Government officials actively recruit American women to fill a variety of jobs necessary to the war effort when the United States enters World War I on April 6.

      1917—The Delaware legislature creates the Mother's Pension Fund.

      1918—The name of Margaret Sanger's organization is changed from the National Birth Control League to the Voluntary Parenthood League.

      1918—The Maternity Center Association is founded to promote better maternity care in the United States.

      1919—Divorce rates soar, and the number of single mothers in the United States rises drastically in response to incidences of soldiers infecting their wives with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), which they have contracted abroad during World War I.

      1919—World War I ends with an Allied victory, and acknowledgment of the numerous contributions of women during the war leads Austria, Canada, Ireland, Poland, and the United Kingdom to grant woman suffrage.

      1920—The United States Congress passes the Nineteenth Amendment, guaranteeing American women the right to vote. Women in Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands are also enfranchised.

      1921—In an effort to reduce American infant mortality rates, Congress passes the Sheppard Towner Act, which appropriates matching funds for states to establish maternity clinics. The act is repealed six years later, but Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal includes programs that continue this battle.

      1921—General Mills creates Betty Crocker, an idealized homemaker, as a marketing tool.

      1923—Suffragist Alice Paul's proposal for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the United States Constitution, which would mandate equal rights for women, is introduced in Congress. The ERA is revived during the women's movement of the 1960s, but opponents manage to block ratification.

      1924—The mother of four sons, Nellie Tayloe Ross, a Democrat from Wyoming, becomes the first female governor in the United States after her husband, Governor William Ross, dies of complications from an appendectomy.

      1925—Studies indicate that high infant mortality rates in immigrant sections of Pennsylvania and in poor areas of the Deep South are often the result of expectant mothers being overworked, malnourished, and neglected by the medical profession.

      1929—In October, the beginning of the Great Depression ushers in a period of intense stress for American mothers who are sometimes unable to feed their children and who are often separated from family members who hit the road to find work.

      1932—Twenty-month-old Charles Lindbergh, the child of aviator Charles Lindbergh and writer Anne Morrow Lindbergh, is kidnapped and subsequently murdered, leading the United States government to make kidnapping a federal crime.

      1932–1945—Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin Roosevelt and the mother of five children, assumes unprecedented duties as First Lady because of her husband's physical frailties that resulted from a bout with polio in 1921.

      1933—Dr. Gracie Langdon becomes the Child Care Director of Franklin Roosevelt's Works Project Administration, undertaking the responsibility for establishing 2,000 government-funded childcare centers.

      1934—A distinctly different kind of mother-daughter relationship is depicted when Fannie Hurt's Imitation of Life becomes a movie. The film focuses on a young biracial woman who rejects her African American mother in order to pass as white in a society that discriminates against those whose African American ancestry is discernible.

      1935—The notorious criminal “Ma” Barker, who has formed a bank-robbing gang with her three sons, is gunned down in a shootout in Florida.

      1936—Clare Booth Luce's play, The Women, addresses the issue of single mothers displaced in their husband's affections by younger women.

      1938—Maria von Trapp escapes from occupied Austria with her husband, Captain Georg von Trapp, and seven stepchildren. Maria gives birth to three children after the escape. In 1959, a fictionalized version of their story is turned into a play, The Sound of Music, which in turn becomes an award-winning movie in 1965.

      1939—Anna Mary Robertson Moses, better known as Grandma Moses, begins painting at the age of 80. Over the course of the next 20 years, she completes 1,500 works.

      1940—In New York, Mary Margaret McBride begins hosting a radio show that targets mothers and other homemakers.

      1941—Grieving mothers respond with outrage when the Japanese attack the American Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, killing 2,403 people. Congress declares war on Japan on December 11, and the lives of American mothers change as their sons and husbands join the military, and American women enter the work world in droves.

      1942—Rationing begins in May, and mothers lead the patriotic campaign to conserve essential war materials.

      1942—The government begins actively recruiting nurses to serve in the military and intensifies efforts to identify women who chose to remain at home and raise families after graduating from nursing schools.

      1943—Mothers who lose sons in World War II become known as Gold Star Mothers. Alleta Sullivan loses five sons at once when the USS Juneau is sunk during a naval battle in Guadalcanal. The following year, their story receives national attention with the releases of the movie, The Sullivans. The United States subsequently institutes a Sole Survivor Policy to protect surviving siblings after a family member is lost in war.

      1943—Susan B. Anthony II, a journalist and niece of the noted suffragist, publishes Out of the Kitchen—Into the Wars chronicling the participation of American women, many of them mothers, during World War II.

      1945—For the first time in American history, Congress holds debates on drafting women to serve as military nurses. The Nurses Selective Service Act passes Congress but becomes moot when the war ends in April.

      1946—In order to reunite families, Congress passes the War Brides Act, allowing the foreign wives of American military personnel to enter the country.

      1950—French feminist philosopher Simone de Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex in which she argues that women are always defined as “the other” because males are considered “the norm.” During the following decades, this work continues to have significant impact on the emerging women's movement.

      1952—Elizabeth II becomes Queen of England. She gives birth to Prince Charles, the heir apparent and the eldest of her four children, in 1948.

      1952—Marion Donovan invents the disposable diaper. Her initial diaper is made from a folded-up shower curtain and absorbent padding.

      1952—The Voluntary Parenthood Leagues changes its named to Planned Parenthood Association and continues to be a major force in family planning.

      1953—On January 19, actress Lucille Ball becomes the most famous mother in television history by giving birth to Little Ricky on the popular sitcom I Love Lucy. The show garners a 72-percent audience share. That same night, Ball gives birth to her real-life son, Desi Arnaz, Jr.

      1953—Ethel Rosenberg, the mother of two small children, is executed for espionage along with her husband Julius. The case continues to arouse controversy for decades, and many people believe Ethel, unlike her husband, was innocent of the crime.

      1955—In August, 14-year-old Emmett Till is brutally murdered by segregationists while visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi. His mother, Mamie Till Mobley, allows Jet to publish photographs of her son's mutilated body so that Americans can understand the impact of violence against innocent African American children. Two men confess to the murder, but they are never brought to justice.

      1956—In Illinois, a group of seven nursing mothers found the La Leche League to promote breastfeeding. The group, which evolves into an international organization, continues to promote the health benefits of nursing and provides advice to nursing mothers.

      1957—Writer Better Friedan polls her former classmates from Smith College to determine whether or not they are fulfilled as mothers and wives. She finds widespread dissatisfaction, and identifies this phenomenon as “the problem that has no name.”

      1957—In Little Rock, Arkansas, Daisy Bates, a newspaper publisher, serves as a mentor for the nine African American students who integrate Central High School. Her civil rights activities earn her numerous awards and the eternal gratitude of African American mothers who dream that their children will be able to live in a more equal society.

      1958—The Childbirth Without Pain Association introduces the Lamaze method of childbirth to the United States, encouraging American mothers to experience childbirth naturally.

      1959—Lorraine Hansberry's play, A Raisin in the Sun, a tale of transitioning family life in the African American community, wins the New York Drama Critics Circle Award.

      1959—At age 41, Phyllis Diller, the mother of five, launches a career as a stand-up comic and becomes one of the best loved American comediennes.

      1960—The birth control pill is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Since the pill is the most effective birth control method available to date, it promotes more efficient family planning.

      1962—The publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring helps to launch the environmentalist movement in the United States, geared in large part toward making life safer for future generations.

      1962—Europe experiences an outbreak of birth defects caused by pregnant women taking thalidomide to control morning sickness. In the United States, Dr. Frances Oldham Kelsey of the Federal Drug Administration manages to keep the drug off the market.

      1963—Jackie Kennedy becomes the only First Lady in American history to be pregnant in the White House. She gives birth on August 7, but Patrick Bouvier Kennedy dies two days later.

      1963—Betty Friedan launches the Second Wave of the women's movement with the publication of The Feminine Mystique, arguing that women are dissatisfied with their lives because their individual identities have been submerged by their roles as wives and mothers.

      1963—President John F. Kennedy establishes the President's Commission on the Status of Women. States. The commission identifies major issues and concerns that affect the lives of American women.

      1963—On Sunday, September 15, four African American mothers lose daughters to civil rights violence when a bomb explodes at a Birmingham, Alabama, church.

      1965—Based on the grounds of privacy within marriage, the Supreme Court holds in Griswold v. Connecticut that married couples have a constitutional right to obtain birth control.

      1967—Anne Moore invents the Snugli, which allows parents to carry infants close to their bodies while leaving their arms free. The young mother becomes a multimillionaire as sales soar.

      1968—In Boston, Massachusetts, members of Mothers for Adequate Welfare campaign for increased aid to mothers of small children by chaining themselves to furniture inside a welfare office.

      1968—On April 4, Coretta Scott King, the mother of four children, becomes a widow when civil rights leader the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

      1968—Pope Paul VI announces that the only method of birth control supported by the Catholic Church is the rhythm method, which involves abstaining from sexual intercourse on days when women are fertile. Determined to engage in responsible family planning, many Catholic women ignore the dictates of the Church.

      1968—Singer and actress Diahann Carroll, who plays a single mother on the sitcom Julia, becomes the first African American to headline a regular series on American television.

      1970—Affectionately known as “the grandmother of the Jewish people,” Russian-born Golda Meir, who grew up in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, becomes the prime minister of Israel.

      1971—Congress passes new legislation that awards federal subsidies for both public and private childcare centers.

      1972—In Reed v. Reed, the Supreme Court determines that fathers should no longer be given precedence over mothers when managing estates of minor children. The case clears the way for a new examination of legal discrimination on the basis of sex according to the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

      1973—In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court holds that the right of privacy guarantees pregnant women a constitutional right to obtain an abortion within the first three months of a pregnancy. Roe proves to be one of the most controversial cases in the Court's history, and so-called pro-life advocates launch a campaign to have the decision overturned.

      1975—The year is proclaimed the International Year of the Woman, and international and national groups launch a series of programs aimed at improving the quality of life for women and their children.

      1975—The first World Conference on Women is held in Mexico City, Mexico, aimed at improving the lives and status of women around the world. Future conferences are held at five-year intervals in a number of other cities.

      1976—In Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth, the Supreme Court decides that a married woman does not have to obtain her husband's consent to obtain an abortion.

      1976—In General Electric v. Gilbert, the Supreme Court upholds the right of employers to exclude pregnancy from benefit plans, legitimizing the practice of employers paying benefits for the pregnant wives of male employees but not for pregnant female employees.

      1976—Congress passes the Hyde Amendment, stipulating that poor women cannot use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions except in cases of rape and endangerment to the life of the mother.

      1976—The publication of Adrienne Rich's Of Woman Born opens debates on the differences between motherhood as experience and motherhood as an ideal espoused by the institution of patriarchy.

      1977—The inauguration of Georgian Jimmy Carter draws public attention to his colorful mother, “Miss Lillian.” At the same time, Carter's wife Rosalynn proves to be a hands-on mother to their young daughter Amy.

      1978—Congress passes the Pregnancy Discrimination Act as an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, banning workplace discrimination against pregnant women and essentially overturning the Supreme Court's actions two years earlier in General Electric v. Gilbert.

      1979—The United Nations General Assembly sponsors the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which produces an international bill of rights for women, specifying behavior that constitutes discrimination and offering solutions for dealing with violations.

      1979—In the wake of a scandal over advertising of prepared infant formulas in developing countries, the International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) is created to force the manufacturers of baby food formulas to cease unethical practices.

      1979—The groundbreaking film, Kramer v. Kramer, highlights changing perceptions of the roles of both mothers and fathers.

      1979—China establishes a one-child-per-couple policy designed to limit population growth. The policy proves to be detrimental to female infants who become the victims of infanticide. Other girl babies are abandoned or put up for adoption.

      1980—After her daughter is killed by an inebriated driver with three prior convictions, Candy Lightner founds Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD), which becomes Mothers Against Drunk Driving in 1984. The group is devoted to keeping drunk drivers off the road and educating the public about the dangers of drinking and driving.

      1980—The first in vitro fertilization clinic opens in Norfolk, Virginia.

      1981—Republican Sandra Day O'Connor, the mother of three sons, becomes the first woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. She finds her niche by becoming the important swing vote in a number of cases dealing with women and children.

      1981–1988—The elections of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush are marked by a period of strong conservatism in the United States. “Reagan-ism” results in significant cuts to programs designed to help poor women and their minor children, and views on abortion become a litmus test for federal judicial appointments.

      1984—Running with Minnesota Democrat Walter Mondale, Geraldine Ferraro, a Democratic Congresswoman from New York and the mother of three children, becomes the first women in American history to be considered a viable candidate on a major party ticket.

      1984—A group of Canadian feminists establish Mothers Are Women to celebrate a mother's right to decide to serve as the primary caregiver for her child.

      1985—Congress passes legislation mandating the creation of state programs to collect child support from delinquent fathers.

      1985—Divorced mother of two, Wilma Mankiller becomes the first female Chief of the Cherokee Nation.

      1986—Teacher Christa McAuliffe, the mother of two young children, is killed when the space shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after liftoff.

      1986—The issue of surrogate motherhood receives national attention when Mary Beth Whitehead, who has received $10,000 to serve as a surrogate for William and Elizabeth Stern, reneges on the agreement. Ultimately, a judge places “Baby M” with Stern, who is her biological father, and Elizabeth Stern adopts her.

      1987—The World Health Organization launches the Safe Motherhood Initiative designed to slash maternal mortality in half by the year 2000.

      1988—The State of California passes legislation guaranteeing job security for mothers who take maternity leave.

      1988—Toni Morrison's Beloved wins the Pulitzer Prize. Based on a true story, the novel tells the story of Sethe, a slave woman who kills her daughter to prevent her from becoming a slave.

      1989—In Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, the conservative Supreme Court allots states greater control over access to abortions without overturning Roe v. Wade, as had been predicted.

      1990—For the first time, the term “mommy track” is used to describe professional women who choose a slower career track that allows them more time with their families over an ambitious fast-track to success.

      1991—To celebrate and encourage the contributions of midwives to maternal and child health, the first International Day of the Midwife is held on May 5 and becomes an annual tradition.

      1991—In Rust v. Sullivan, the Supreme Court upholds the Reagan/Bush policy of forbidding health care professionals receiving federal funds to inform clients about abortion rights. This so-called “gag rule” is one of the first conservative policies overturned by Democrat Bill Clinton when he assumes office in January 1993.

      1992—The year is designated the Year of the Woman in the United States as women are elected to political office at all levels of government and begin using that power to fight for the rights of women and children.

      1992—The first Take Our Daughters to Work Day is held on April 28 in the United States to encourage young girls to recognize that their career possibilities are limitless.

      1993—Congress passes the Family and Medical Leave Act, which allows both parents to take time off to care for a new or adopted baby or a sick child.

      1993—Ruth Bader Ginsburg, the mother of two, becomes the second woman to serve on the Supreme Court. A Democrat, Ginsburg tends to be supportive of women's issues.

      1994—Abortion provider Dr. John Byard Britton and clinic escort Lieutenant Colonel James Barrett are murdered at a family planning clinic by radical pro-lifer Paul Hill.

      1994—Congress passes the Violence Against Women Act, making it a federal offense to travel across state lines to commit violent acts against a spouse or domestic partner.

      1995—The Fourth World Conference on Women is held in Beijing, China, generating the Platform for Action designed to empower women throughout the world.

      1996—Democrat Madeleine Albright, the mother of three daughters, becomes the first female Secretary of State in American history.

      1996—First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton publishes It Takes a Village in which she argues that raising children should be a societal responsibility.

      1998—The Association for Research on Mothering is established as the first feminist international organization exclusively devoted to motherhood.

      2001—Former First Lady and popular grandmother figure Barbara Bush becomes only the second woman in American history to become both the wife and mother of a president.

      2002—The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) opens an investigation into the possibility of establishing a national policy on paid maternity leave.

      2002—A group of mothers in New York found Mothers Ought To Have Equal Rights (MOTHERS) designed to promote economic security and political clout for mothers and others who serve as primary caregivers for children.

      2004—Australia passes the lump sum Maternity Allowance and Baby Bonus to assist new parents at the time of a child's birth.

      2005—The Save the Mothers Program establishes a Master's Degree Program in Public Health Leadership in Uganda under the leadership of the Intersave Canada Board in an effort to improve the experience of motherhood in developing countries.

      2006—Author Leslie Morgan Steiner publishes the Mommy Wars, which includes interviews with 26 mothers who discuss their personal perceptions of motherhood in the 21st century.

      2007—The World Health Organization celebrates the 20th anniversary of its Safe Motherhood Initiative as part of an ongoing effort to improve the health of pregnant women and decrease maternal mortality levels.

      2007—Former First Lady and current Senator from New York Hillary Rodham Clinton announces her bid for the presidency and becomes the most viable female candidate for high elected office in American history.

      2008—Governor of Alaska and the mother of five, Sarah Palin becomes the first Republican female to be considered a viable candidate for the office of Vice President.

      2009—Michelle Obama, the mother of two young daughters, becomes the first African American First Lady of the United States.

      2009—Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton, the mother of an adult daughter, is sworn in as the third female Secretary of State in American history.

      ElizabethPurdyIndependent Scholar
    • Glossary

      Abortion

      The method by which a fetus is removed from a woman's womb. An abortion may be either voluntary as in the case of a medical or surgical pregnancy termination, or it may be involuntary as in the case of a spontaneous abortion (miscarriage).

      Adoption

      The process by which a minor legally becomes the child of nonbiological parent or parents. The adopted child has the same legal rights as children born to adoptive parents.

      AIDS

      The final and potentially fatal stage of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome destroys the body's immune system, making it susceptible to illnesses and infections. It can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. A lack of understanding of the disease and limited access to medical care in developing countries has resulted in the deaths of millions of children from AIDS in the world's poorest nations.

      Amniocentesis

      Amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the abdominal wall of a pregnant woman using ultrasound techniques, and the fluid is used to test for fetal development and identify possible birth abnormalities.

      Aid to Families with Dependent Children

      An American welfare program designed to provide financial assistance to low-income families, particularly to poor single mothers. The program originated in 1935 as part of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal but was discarded in 1997 when the Republican-controlled Congress pushed through welfare reform, replacing AFDC with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).

      Androgyny

      Possessing characteristics that are neither identifiably male nor female. Androgyny was popular in the 1970s in response to the second wave of the women's movement, and unisex clothing and hairstyles became fashionable.

      Antenatal Care

      Maternal medical care that follows childbirth. Due to intense global efforts, women in developing countries are now receiving follow-up care at least once after the birth of each child, and maternal mortality rates have begun to decline in some areas.

      Artificial Insemination

      A nonsexual process in which semen is injected into the vagina or uterus in order to increase the chance of pregnancy in women who are having difficulty conceiving or in cases of infertility or low fertility of sexual partners.

      Assisted Reproductive Technology

      Methods by which eggs and sperm are combined in a laboratory before being implanted in the body of a prospective mother.

      Attention Deficit Disorder

      A condition frequently associated with excessive impulsiveness, a short attention span, and hyper-activity. Studies on ADD suggest possible links to genetics, brain injuries, and environmental and nutritional causes.

      Autism

      A group of neurodevelopmental disabilities that emerge during the prenatal period. These disabilities are generally associated with a limited ability to engage in meaningful social interaction. Autism may range in form from mild to severely dysfunctional.

      Biological Mother

      A term used to differentiate a woman who gives birth to a child from an adoptive mother. The term is used interchangeably with “birth mother.”

      Birth Control

      Contraceptive methods used to prevent pregnancy with varying degrees of effectiveness. Contraceptives include the rhythm method, coitus interruptus, the pill, the condom, intrauterine devices, injections, and patches.

      Bisexuality

      The sexual orientation in which persons are attracted to potential partners of both sexes. Bisexuals may marry and produce offspring.

      Breastfeeding

      The process by which new mothers provide nourishment for babies through lactation following delivery of a child. Numerous health benefits are associated with nursing, and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) officials contend that one and one-half million babies in developing countries die each year because mothers do not breastfeed.

      Caesarean Section

      The procedure, commonly referred to as a C-section, in which a child is delivered through an incision in the mother's stomach and uterus rather than through the vagina. Ideally, caesarean sections are performed only when the mother is unable to deliver in the normal way, or when physicians intervene in response to situations that threaten the life of the mother and/or the unborn child.

      Child Abuse

      The physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect or exploitation of anyone under the age of 18. Child abuse is legally identified according to the dictates of particular cultures, but most laws protect the physical and emotional health of minors.

      Childbirth

      The act of delivering children varies from culture to culture. In modern times, most deliveries are monitored by health care professionals such as physicians, midwives, or nurse midwives. While childbirth may occur naturally without drugs, some mothers opt for anesthetics or epidurals to ease the pain associated with labor. In the case of caesarean Sections, a baby is surgically removed from the mother.

      Child Custody

      The legal right to make decisions concerning the physical residence, care, and maintenance of a minor child after a divorce, separation, or successful challenge to parental custody. In most instances of divorce and separation, parents agree on, or a court designates, one parent as the primary custodial parent while the other has a specific schedule of visitations and a voice in the child's upbringing. In other cases, parents agree to joint custody, and the child lives with each parent on a rotating schedule and parents have an equal voice in major decisions affecting the child's life.

      Childhood

      The term generally refers to the years between birth and puberty, the period when individuals are dependent on parents or other adults for their daily survival.

      Chromosomal Abnormality

      Condition in which the cells of an embryo do not have the 23 pairs of chromosomes that are necessary for normal fetal development. In the United States, this condition occurs in one out of every 150 births, resulting in a range of mental and physical deformities.

      Chromosomes

      Rod-like cell elements comprised of DNA and proteins that contain genetic instructions to other cells and to embryos during pregnancy. Normally, each individual has 23 pairs of chromosomes. When an egg and sperm unite, the resulting embryo contains 23 chromosomes from each parent. Each pair of chromosomes contains genes from both parents that determine hereditary characteristics such as eye and skin color and physical stature.

      Cloning

      A method of reproduction resulting from scientific manipulation of DNA that is designed to reproduce exact replicas of a living organism. Because of its ethical implications, cloning remains a hotly debated topic around the world; and the cloning of humans is illegal in most countries.

      Colic

      A condition characterized by an infant's uncontrollable crying, sleeplessness, and general fussiness and irritability. Colic frequently occurs in infants who are otherwise healthy, and its cause is not always easily identifiable. Treatment includes comforting the infant by rocking, swaddling, stroking, or singing.

      Coverture

      A legal practice evolved from English common law in which a married woman ceased to have a separate identity from her husband. Until the mid-19th century when the first wave of the women's movement successfully lobbied for changes to existing laws, a father maintained custody of all children and could even assign legal responsibility for a child away from the mother upon his death.

      Crisis Pregnancy

      From a medical standpoint, situations that do not follow the normal progression of pregnancy and which may pose potential threats to the life of the mother and/or unborn child. From a social viewpoint, the term sometimes refers to any unplanned pregnancy, particularly among unwed teenage mothers. Anti-abortion opponents have established Crisis Resource Centers to encourage clients to seek other means of handling unwanted pregnancies.

      Daycare

      Any arrangement designed to care for children while their parent(s) work during the daylight hours. Such arrangements range from a relative or neighbor caring for a child to a nanny hired to live in the child's home to public and private facilities established solely for the purpose of childcare.

      Depression

      A mental state generally characterized by sadness, listlessness, and a general feeling of hopelessness and/or inadequacy. Pregnant women and new mothers are particularly vulnerable to depression. (See postpartum depression)

      Diarrhea

      A medical condition characterized by excessively frequent or loose bowel movements that may quickly drain the body of essential liquids and lead to dehydration. If left untreated, dehydration can cause death; and dehydration is the leading cause of death among children in the developing world.

      Dilation and Curettage

      A diagnostic medical procedure in which a woman's uterus is temporarily enlarged and scraped. The D&C is often used to stem the flow of abnormal bleeding, or it may be used after an incomplete miscarriage.

      DNA

      A nucleic acid that transmits genetic instructions that control the development and functioning of all living organisms. Because deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is unique to each individual, scientists have been able to use it for everything from cloning to identifying criminal perpetrators.

      Eclampsia

      A life-threatening medical condition in which pregnant women with uncontrolled hypertension may experience seizures or lapse into comas. The condition may be a result of preeclampsia, or it may occur as an isolated incident. Treatment includes anticonvulsant drugs, and an early delivery to protect the life of the mother and child.

      Ectogenesis

      A cutting-edge technology that could provide a means of transferring a fetus from a mother's womb to an “artificial womb,” where development would continue until birth. The technology has significant implications for premature infants, and it could potentially provide an alternative to abortion.

      Ectopic Pregnancy

      A situation that occurs when a fertilized egg attaches itself outside of a woman's uterus. In 95 percent of ectopic pregnancies, the fertilized egg is found inside a fallopian tube. In other cases, it may be found in the abdomen or the cervix. Because a fetus cannot thrive outside the uterus, such pregnancies do not yield live births. In women who have experienced one ectopic pregnancy, there is a 15 percent chance that a second pregnancy will have the same result.

      Empty Nest Syndrome

      Feelings of loneliness, grief, and depression sometimes experienced by parents, particularly mothers, after their youngest child leaves home. This syndrome is particularly strong in mothers who define their identities according to their roles as mothers. Divorce rates increase significantly among couples who experience the empty nest syndrome because one or both parents may begin to feel that they no longer have anything in common with a spouse after the children leave home.

      Epidural

      A procedure in which medication is inserted into the spinal column of a mother to dull the sensation of pain during childbirth.

      Eugenics

      The human control of reproduction through such methods as genetic manipulation. The term eugenics is associated with tactics used by Nazi Germany to weed out the Jewish people and other “undesirables” during World War II and with the attempt in the first decades of the 20th century to prevent those with serious physical and mental disabilities from reproducing themselves.

      European Union

      A voluntary political and economic confederation of countries in Europe, which has served to enhance the status of European countries around the world. In order to improve the lives of children, new mothers in EU nations have more than three months of paid maternity leave; but pay levels vary greatly among individual nations.

      Family Leave

      The policy of granting time off work to care for newborns, newly adopted or foster children, or in the case of serious illness of the employee or of a closely related family member.

      Father's Rights Movement

      A movement that emerged in the 1960s and is designed to counter the alleged tendency of courts to favor mothers' rights by winning child custody cases for fathers, increasing visitation rights, ensuring equitable child support payments, and encouraging joint custody arrangements.

      Female Suffrage

      The right of women to cast ballots and have a voice in who makes political decisions, which have a significant impact on their lives and those of their children.

      Feminism

      The notion that women are rational beings who have an inherent right to be treated equally with males before the law and society and to exercise control over their own lives and those of their children

      Femme Covert

      The legal assumption that until the late 19th century married women in Great Britain and the British colonies were “covered” by their husbands and, therefore, ceased to have a separate legal identity upon marriage.

      Femme Sole

      The legal policy prevalent in Great Britain and in British colonies until the late 19th century that allowed unmarried women, including those who were widowed or divorced, to have some control of themselves, their property, and their children.

      Fertility Drugs

      A class of medications used to promote enhanced hormone levels in prospective mothers with ovulation problems, which have made it difficult for them to become pregnant.

      Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

      A set of mental and physical disabilities that are believed to be the result of alcohol consumption by pregnant women. Disabilities associated with FAS range from facial and growth abnormalities to learning, communication, and social problems.

      First Wave

      The first period of the organized women's movement in which advocates originated the fight for women's rights. In the United States, this period began in 1848 with the Seneca Falls Convention and ended with ratification of the 19th Amendment of 1920, which gave women the right to vote.

      Foster Parenting

      The system by which nonrelated adults accept physical responsibility for the upbringing of other people's children. While placement in a foster home is generally considered temporary, many foster parents do go on to adopt children. Foster parents, who must be approved by social welfare agencies, receive money for the child's upkeep, but the government usually subsidizes the child's health care.

      Genetic Counseling

      The practice of providing prospective parents with information and advice after prenatal testing has confirmed that a child may be born with genetic abnormalities or has inherited genetic markers for diseases such as Tay-Sachs or sickle cell anemia.

      Genetic Engineering

      The process by which the genetic makeup of living organisms is manipulated to achieve a desired result. Supporters of genetic engineering see it as a means of wiping out a host of genetic diseases, but ethical debates over its use continue to be heated.

      Genetics

      The study of heredity and how it affects living organisms. Researchers have used findings on genetics to enhance human understanding of diseases and to develop treatment and cures.

      Gestation

      The period required for the embryo of a mammal to develop to term. In human mothers, the gestational period is generally determined by identifying the date of the last menstrual period and counting forward to an expected birth 9 to 10 months later.

      Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

      A medical condition that occurs in expectant mothers who develop glucose intolerance. The condition, which affects some seven percent of all pregnant women, may be treated with diet or insulin treatment. Unlike other forms of diabetes, GDM generally disappears when the pregnancy ends, although the chance of developing Type 2 diabetes may be increased in some mothers. If left untreated, GDM may cause complications with the pregnancy, including threats to the lives of the mother and the developing fetus. It may also be responsible for birth defects in an unborn child.

      HIV

      A class of retroviruses that attack the immune system, rendering victims susceptible to a host of life-threatening infections. Before researchers understood that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was transmitted through bodily fluids such as blood and breastmilk, many mothers unknowingly affected newborns during pregnancy, the delivery process, or breastfeeding.

      Home Schooling

      Practice of educating children in the home. Home-school teachers are usually parents who are required by state laws to meet specific guidelines such as hours spent in school per day, subjects covered, and students' acquiring the ability to pass gradelevel testing.

      Homosexuality

      Sexual attraction to one's own sex. Homosexuality is distinct from bisexuality, which involves attraction to both sexes, and from transgenderism in which individuals perceive of themselves as the opposite sex.

      Hyperactivity

      A medical condition characterized by constant and impulsive behavior that interferes with the ability to concentrate and adhere to behavioral and social norms.

      Hysterectomy

      Surgical removal of the uterus, which may also involve removal of the cervix, ovaries, or fallopian tubes. Hysterectomies are generally performed for medical reasons such as cancer, the removal of fibroids, severe endometriosis, or a prolapsed uterus. Surgical menopause commences immediately in women who have their ovaries removed. In all cases, the woman is rendered infertile.

      Immunization

      A vaccination of living agents that have been modified to offer protection from communicable diseases such as polio, diphtheria, measles, and hepatitis. Infants are immunized according to a designated schedule, with boosters given at selected intervals. The entire community benefits when diseases such as polio and smallpox are eradicated through immunization campaigns.

      Incest

      Mutually consensual sexual intercourse or marriage between closely related individuals such as siblings and extended family members. The prohibition against incest is sometimes extended to exclude marriage and sexual intercourse between step relatives. Legal statutes forbid incest out of considerations for the negative genetic consequences of human inbreeding.

      Infanticide

      The practice of slaughtering infants. This crime has often been directed at females in societies where male babies are considered more valuable than females and at mentally and physically handicapped infants who are viewed as being incapable of contributing to society.

      Infant Mortality Rate

      The number of children who die between birth and 1 year of age as a percentage of 1,000 live births. The infant mortality rate is a major indicator of the quality of life, and rates are predictably higher in the world's poorest countries where infants may lack proper nutrition and where a host of vector and waterborne diseases and an insufficiency of potable water pose a constant threat to human survival. It is believed that breastfeeding may increase an infant's chances of survival because of nutritional and health benefits that include maternal immunities to disease.

      Infertility

      In females, a condition in which the woman is unable to conceive or has difficulty in becoming pregnant after one year of unprotected sex during periods of ovulation. Modern technology offers a range of treatments for infertility that range from treating conditions in either partner that may diminish fertility to in vitro fertilization and surrogate motherhood.

      Intensive Mothering

      A concept coined by sociologist Sharon Hays in 1996, referring to a phenomenon that surfaced in the 1980s that demanded that mothers, even those who work outside the home, are obligated to be engaged in every aspect of their children's lives in school and at home.

      Intrauterine Device

      A contraceptive device inserted directly into a woman's uterus to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The IUD, which is made of plastic or metal, may be a coil, a loop, a triangle, or T-shape.

      In Vitro Fertilization

      The process by which eggs are gathered from a woman in order to combine them with sperm in a laboratory to prepare them for implantation in a uterus. In order to optimize the chance of pregnancy, several eggs may be implanted, resulting in multiple births.

      Jewish Mother

      A stereotype used to describe any mother who is overbearing, controlling, and manipulative because of an entrenched conviction that she is the ultimate authority on how her children should live their lives.

      Lactation

      The secretion of milk from the mammary glands pursuant to giving birth. Mothers who do not choose to nurse are given drugs to prevent lactation. In order to encourage breastfeeding because of perceived health benefits, many American hospitals now arrange for lactation coaches to help new mothers.

      Lamaze System

      A birthing system in which mothers learn breathing and relaxation techniques to prepare them for delivery without drugs. Fathers may also attend classes and serve as coaches during the birthing process. The system was created in 1951 by French physician Fernand Lamaze.

      Maternal Mortality

      The death of women from pregnancy-related causes during pregnancy or shortly after the birth of a child. Maternal mortality rates are considered a significant factor in judging the quality of life for women around the globe. In developing countries, where women may lack access to medical care or do not understand the importance of prenatal and antenatal care, maternal death rates are predictably high.

      Maternity Leave

      A designated period of time that a mother may be absent from work to care for a newborn or recently adopted child without jeopardizing her job. Maternity leave may be paid or unpaid, and leave time may vary from a few weeks to a few months.

      Matraphobia

      Alternately defined as metrophobia, the fear of becoming like one's own mother. The term is derived from feminist literature that deals with the tension between the daughters of the second wave of the women's movement and their mothers who were brought up to believe that motherhood was the major role in shaping a woman's identity.

      Matriarchy

      A formal or informal system in which females are the dominant figures. The matriarch may be a single female at the head of a family line, or a group of matriarchs may serve as governmental leaders by way of a council.

      Menopause

      The cessation of the menses, which marks the end of a female's fertility. Historically, menopause was considered a time when women grew markedly older, and many menopausal women were institutionalized with a variety of symptoms. Since the latter part of the 20th century and the rise of the baby boom generation, postmenopausal women have been considered healthy, vibrant, and well adjusted.

      Menstruation

      The shedding of the lining of the uterus that causes regular intervals of natural bleeding in females. The onset of menstruation is a signal that a young girl is becoming fertile. Menstruation ceases throughout pregnancy and may be delayed in nursing mothers.

      Midwife

      A person who assists at the birth of a child. Traditionally, midwives have been female, but since the late 1970s, some midwives have been male. Mid-wives are trained in birthing techniques and must be licensed by individual states and nations. It is common practice in many areas for physicians and midwives to work together in delivery rooms.

      Miscarriage

      The spontaneous expulsion of an embryo before the 24th week of pregnancy. It is estimated that a fifth of all pregnancies end in miscarriage, and a majority takes place within the first three months of pregnancy. The condition is most often the result of a genetic abnormality in the fetus, but it can also signal medical problems that need to be addressed before a woman attempts additional pregnancies.

      Modernism

      A genre of art, literature, and the performing arts that rejected the past by embracing progressive thought and expression. Many advocates of modernism consciously eschewed the link between motherhood and passive domesticity.

      Mommy Brain

      Partially humorous notion that the brains of mothers who remain at home with small children begin to atrophy as a consequence of having limited contact with other adults.

      Mommy Myth

      Term coined by authors Susan Douglas and Meredith Michaels to explain the unrealistic ideal of the perfect mother that surfaced during the third wave of the women's movement.

      Mommy Track

      A term used to designate a slower-than-normal career track for mothers who opt to place their families ahead of their professions. Elements of the mommy track may include flexible working hours, job sharing, telecommuting, or home-based businesses.

      Mommy Wars

      A post-second wave debate between working mothers and those who opt to stay at home with young children. Those who oppose the use of the term argue that it has been contrived by the media to create controversy among mothers and incite criticism of feminism.

      Mother Blaming

      The belief that mothers are responsible for whether their children turn out to be good or bad. The concept was promulgated by psychoanalysts who faulted mothers for all problems their patients experienced in adulthood.

      Motherhood and Apple Pie

      A term that originated in the United States to symbolize all that is good about America and life in the United States.

      Nationalism

      A strong sense of affiliation with one's country. In its extreme form, nationalism becomes egocentrism, the tendency to believe that one's own country is the center of the universe. Feminists argue that advocates of nationalism have frequently used this loyalty to withhold political rights from women in order to promote the notion of the Mother Country, which deserves both protection and unswerving loyalty from her subjects

      Natural Childbirth

      A method of childbirth in which mothers deliver without using drugs. In most cases, both the prospective mother and father have attended birthing classes to help them prepare for the delivery.

      New Momism

      The notion that mothers are expected to live up to an unrealistic idealization of modern motherhood, which demands that they be perfect mothers who produce perfect children who grow up to be well-rounded and psychologically sound adults with a strong desire to contribute to society.

      Oral Rehydration Solution

      A solution of salt, sugar, and water that is used to prevent dehydration, a leading cause of death among young children who are ill. The solution is typically composed of one teaspoon of salt and eight teaspoons of sugar mixed with five cups of water. Other formulas include breastmilk, rice water, carrot soup, and a thin gruel made from diluted cereal. There are also prepared oral rehydration solutions on the market that serve the same purpose.

      Parental Consent

      A legal provision requiring the consent of one or both parents before a female under the age of 18 is allowed to obtain an abortion except in cases of medical emergency. A minor may be allowed to bypass the requirement by receiving permission for the procedure from a court of law or from a grandparent or other close relative.

      Paternity Leave

      A designated time away from the job that allows fathers to care for a newborn, a newly adopted child, or a seriously ill family member.

      Patriarchy

      A formal or informal system in which males become the dominant members of society and in which all inheritance follows the patrilineal line. Historically, patriarchy refers to the practice of subjugating women and assigning them to the private world of the domestic sphere while males inhabit the public world of politics, economics, and work.

      Postpartum Depression

      A clinical form of depression marked by sadness, inadequacy, crying, and insomnia that is believed to be a result of declining hormone levels after the birth of a child. The condition may also surface during pregnancy. Postpartum depression may be mild, or it may be so severe that it requires hospitalization. It is estimated that between 10 and 26 percent of mothers develop post-partum depression, and new fathers occasionally experience the condition.

      Poverty

      The condition experienced by those who lack the resources essential for survival, including the means of providing food, clothing, and shelter. Because living standards vary greatly around the world, poverty levels are relevant to particular areas. Single mothers, particularly those with small children, tend to be among the most poverty-stricken groups in all countries.

      Pregnancy

      The period that begins with conception and ends with birth. During the controversy over abortion that surfaced during the last half of the 20th century, attempts were made to develop legal classifications of pregnancy according to a trimester system based on the development of the fetus. Access to abortions became more restricted as the pregnancy progressed.

      Pregnancy Complications

      Adverse medical conditions that occur during or after pregnancy that are directly related to the state of being pregnant. These complications range from the morning sickness that attacks almost all pregnant women in the early stages of pregnancy to diseases and conditions that affect the life of the mother and/or the fetus. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 529,000 die each year from pregnancy complications, and most of these are in the developing world.

      Premature Birth

      A birth that occurs less than 37 weeks after the mother's last menstrual cycle. Depending on the gestational age of the infant at birth, premature births may be accompanied by a host of medical problems that range from low birth weight to serious birth defects.

      Prenatal Care

      Medical attention for pregnant women designed to monitor the growth of the fetus and identify potential problems with either the mother or the fetus.

      Puberty

      The initial stage of sexual maturity, which generally occurs in girls from 10 to 14 and in boys from 12 to 16, precipitating the physical changes necessary for fertility.

      Quickening

      The first, barely perceptible movements of a fetus during pregnancy. These fluttery movements generally take place between the 14th and 22nd week of pregnancy and are distinct from the more pronounced movements of the latter stages of pregnancy.

      Reproductive Health

      Health issues relating to mothers and children, beginning with the right of access to safe and effective methods of family planning and ending with the delivery of healthy babies and the receipt of proper postnatal care for new mothers.

      Republican Motherhood

      A concept that surfaced during the American Revolution to describe the responsibility of mothers to educate their sons to be loyal citizens who embraced democracy and the social norms of the new American way of life.

      Rituals of Childbirth

      Formal and informal traditions of childbirth that vary among cultures and are often handed down from one generation to the next. Examples include the “groaning parties” of colonial America in which a woman hosted social occasions to thank the women who attended her delivery and the burning of fires during childbirth in certain countries of Asia to ward off evil spirits.

      RU-486

      Also known as mifipristone, or by a trade name derivative, a noninvasive medical abortifacient drug that blocks the progesterone needed for pregnancy to occur. In order to completely expel the fetus from the uterus, the patient receives a dose of prostaglandin 48 hours after taking RU-486. The drug became available in Europe in the late 20th century but was initially blocked in the United States by antiabortionists.

      Second Wave

      The period of the women's movement that began in the United States in 1963 with the publication of Betty Friedan's The Feminist Mystique, which brought public attention to the fact that all women were not fulfilled by their roles as wives and mothers, and ended with the so-called post-feminism of the 1990s.

      Sexually Transmitted Diseases

      The more than 20 types of venereal diseases generally transmitted through sexual contact. Some types, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), may be also transmitted through contact with blood and other bodily fluids. Most strains respond to modern antibiotics, but infected pregnant women who do not receive treatment may give birth to infants with birth defects.

      Sonogram

      A computerized image derived from sound waves bouncing off internal organs and body parts. The sonogram is used with pregnant women to identify potential problems such as tubal pregnancies or birth defects and can also detect multiple births. The sonogram, which can identify the sex of an unborn baby with considerable accuracy, is also used to measure gestational age.

      Sterilization

      A surgical method used to render a human infertile. For women, the most commonly used methods of sterilization are the tubal ligation and the hysterectomy. For males, it is the vasectomy. While there has been some success at reversing tubal ligations and vasectomies, there are both considered permanent methods of sterilization.

      Stillbirth

      The death of an embryo after the 20th week of gestation. Conditions that are considered to be factors in stillbirths are maternal illness, being over the age of 35, malnutrition, a lack of prenatal care, smoking, and alcohol and drug abuse.

      Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

      A fatal condition that may strike a seemingly healthy infant without warning. Most infants who die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are between the ages of 2 weeks and 6 months, and most deaths occur while the infant is sleeping. Placing infants on their backs to sleep cuts the chance of SIDS by one-third, and there is some evidence that operating a fan in a room with a sleeping child may cut the chance of SIDS by maintaining the circulation of air around the sleeping infant.

      Surrogate Motherhood

      The process of bearing a child for another woman through artificial insemination or through surgical implantation of a previously fertilized egg. Surrogacy is most often used when a woman has trouble conceiving. The surrogate may be a relative or friend, but in most cases it is a stranger who signs a contract and accepts pay for providing the service.

      Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

      An American welfare program created in 1996 as part of a massive welfare reform movement. In 2006, the program became the TANF Bureau, which operates under the auspices of the Office of Family Assistance. The Bureau provides short-term financial aid to needy families while focusing on providing work training and job opportunities to enable families to become self-sufficient.

      Test Tube Baby

      A baby that is created by fertilizing an egg and a sperm in a laboratory. After the newly created cell reaches maturity, it is placed within the womb of a surrogate mother. The first successful test tube baby was Louise Brown who was born in Great Britain in 1978.

      Third Wave

      The post-feminist period of the women's movement that arose in the 1990s. The third wave has criticised second wave feminists, who have been accused of ignoring the needs of women who were not white, middle-class, and heterosexual.

      Toxemia

      Also known as preeclampsia, a life-threatening medical condition that occurs in pregnant women who experience excessive hypertension and fluid retention. Treatment is dependent upon the stage at which toxemia is diagnosed, but it generally includes prolonged bed rest, medication, salt restriction, and vitamin therapy. Toxemia has been linked to birth defects, but many women with the condition deliver healthy, full-term infants.

      Transgenderism

      A condition in which an individual is born with one sex but views him/herself as a member of the opposite sex. Transgender individuals range from those who consciously practice androgyny to those who change their sex through surgery and/or hormones. Transgender individuals are not necessarily homosexual, and many of them marry and have children.

      Tubal Ligation

      A form of voluntary surgical sterilization in which a woman's fallopian tubes are permanently blocked in order to prevent an egg from being fertilized.

      Vasectomy

      A voluntary surgical procedure in which the tubes that transmit sperm to the semen are blocked through cutting, tying, or cauterizing, rendering a male infertile.

      Viability

      The stage at which a fetus is considered capable of surviving outside the mother's womb. Viability is determined on a case-by-case basis by attending physicians, and it has historically been used as a means of determining the point at which abortions are no longer wholly the decision of the mother and her medical care provider.

      Welfare

      Financial and other forms of assistance provided by governments to individuals and families whose earnings fall below a designated poverty level. Poor mothers and their minor children make up a large portion of the welfare rolls in most countries.

      Wet Nursing

      The practice of breastfeeding another woman's child. The debate over the advisability of wet nursing began in the 11th century and has never been out of the public consciousness since. In its modern form, wet nursing may involve the sharing of breastmilk among a group of mothers or the establishment of milk banks that offer breastmilk as a healthy alternative to prepared infant formulas.

      XX Chromosome

      The genetic marker that produces females. The female's egg carries only X chromosomes.

      XY Chromosome

      The genetic marker that produces males. A male's sperm can carry either the X or the Y chromosome; therefore, it is the sperm and not the egg that determines the sex of an embryo.

      ElizabethPurdyIndependent Scholar

      Resource Guide

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      Greenfield, Susan C., and CarolBarash (eds.). Inventing Maternity: Politics, Science, and Literature, 1650–1865. Louisville: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.
      Guzman Bouvard, Marguerite. Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. Lanham, MD: SR Books, 2002.
      Handel, Gerald, et al.Children and Society: The Sociology of Children and Childhood Socialization. New York: Roxbury Publishing, 2007.
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      James, Allison, ChrisJenks, and AlanProut. Theorizing Childhood. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1998.
      Katz Rothman, Barbara. Recreating Motherhood. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000.
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      Kitzinger, Sheila. The Politics of Birth. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier, 2005.
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      Ladd-Taylor, Molly. Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare, and the State, 1890–1930. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
      Ladd-Taylor, Molly, and LaurieUmansky. “Bad” Mothers: The Politics of Blame in Twentieth-Century America. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Lareau, Annette. Unequal Childhoods. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
      Larson, Reed, and Maryse H.Richards. Divergent Realities: The Emotional Lives of Mothers, Fathers, and Adolescent. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
      Lee, Nick. Childhood and Society: Growing Up in an Age of Uncertainty. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, 2001.
      Lewin, Ellen. Lesbian Mothers: Accounts of Gender in American Culture. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993.
      Lorentzen, Lois Ann, and JenniferTurpin (eds.). The Women & War Reader. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Maushart, Susan. The Mask of Motherhood: How Becoming a Mother Changes Everything and Why We Pretend It Doesn't. New York: New Press, 1999.
      McCartin Wearn, Mary. Negotiating Motherhood in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. New York: Routledge, 2008.
      McKnight, Natalie J.Suffering Mothers in Mid-Victorian Novels. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.
      Meaney, Geraldine. (Un)Like Subjects. Women, Theory, Fiction. New York: Routledge, 1993.
      Memee Lavell-Harvard, Dawn, and Jeannette CorbiereLavell (eds.). Until Our Hearts Are on the Ground: Aboriginal Mothering, Oppression, Resistance and Rebirth. Toronto, Canada: Demeter Press, 2006.
      Mintz, S., and S.Kellogg. Domestic Revolutions: A Social History of American Family Life. New York: Free Press, 1998.
      Moncrief, Kathryn M., and Kathryn R.McPherson (eds.). Performing Maternity in Early Modern England. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2007.
      Naples, Nancy. Grassroots Warriors. New York: Routledge, 1998.
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      Oakley, Ann. Becoming a Mother. New York: Schocken, 1980.
      Oakley, Ann. From Here to Maternity: Becoming a Mother. New York: Penguin Books, 1981.
      O'Reilly, Andrea. Rocking the Cradle: Thoughts on Motherhood, Feminism and the Possibility of Empowered Mothering. Toronto, Canada: Demeter Press, 2006.
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      O'Reilly, Andrea, and SharonAbbey. Mothers and Daughters: Connection, Empowerment, & Transformation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.
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      Peppers, L. G., and R. J.KnappMotherhood and Mourning: Perinatal Death. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1980.
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      Reardon, Betty. Women and Peace. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.
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      Ruddick, Sara. Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of Peace. Boston: Beacon, 1989.
      Seager, Joni. The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World. New York: Penguin, 2008.
      Staub, Susan C., ed. The Literary Mother: Essays on Representations of Maternity and Child Care. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2007.
      Stearns, Peter. Childhood in World History. New York: Routledge, 2006.
      Swift, Karen. Manufacturing ‘Bad Mothers’: A Critical Perspective on Child Neglect. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2008.
      Taylor Allen, Ann. Feminism and Motherhood in Western Europe, 1890–1970: The Maternal Dilemma. New York: Palgrave, 2007.
      Thompson, Traci. The Ghost in the House: Motherhood Raising Children and Struggling With Depression. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2006.
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      Vasta, Ross Haith, et al.Child Psychology: The Modern Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 1999.
      Warner, Judith. Perfect Madness: Motherhood in the Age of Anxiety. New York: Riverhead Books, 2005.
      Williams, Joan. Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
      Wyness, Michael. Childhood and Society: An Introduction to the Sociology of Childhood. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
      Articles
      Baca Zinn, Maxine“Family, Feminism and Race in America,”Gender and Society, v.4 (1990).
      Baumrind, Diana“Current Patterns of Parental Authority,”Developmental Psychology Monograph, v.4 (1971).
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      Budig, Michelle J., and PaulaEngland“The Wage Penalty for Motherhood,”American Sociological Review, v.66 (2001).
      Caldwell, John C.“Fertility Control in the Classical World: Was There an Ancient Fertility Transition?”Journal of Population Research, v.21/1 (2004).
      Cranford, Cynthia J.“Constructing Union Motherhood,”Qualitative Sociology, v.30 (@2007).
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      Davis, Martha, and RoslynPowell“The International Convention on the Rights of the Child: A Catalyst for Innovative Childcare Policies,”Human Rights Quarterly, v.25 (2003).
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      Dewsbury, D. A.“Animal Parental Behavior,” In The Encyclopedia of Psychology, RaymondCorsini, ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
      Epstein, Rachel“Queer Parenting in the New Millennium: Resisting Normal,”Canadian Woman Studies, v.24/2–3 (2005).
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      Hequembourg, A. L. et al.“Lesbian Motherhood: Negotiating Marginal-Mainstream Identities,”Gender and Society, v.13/4 (1999).
      Hodder, Ian, and CraigCessford“Daily Practice and Social Memory at Catalhöyük,”American Antiquity, v.69/1 (2004).
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      Jenson, Jane“Changing the Paradigm: Family Responsibility or Investing in Children,”Canadian Journal of Sociology, v.29/2 (2004).
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      Stewart, Michel, et al.“Dark Side of the Mothering Role: Abuse of Mothers by Adolescent and Adult Children,”Sex Roles, v.56 (2007).
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      Internet

      AMomsLove

      http://www.amomslove.com

      Association for Research on Mothering

      http://www.yorku.ca/arm

      Baby Center

      http://www.babycenter.com

      Blue Suit Mom

      http://www.bluesuitmom.com

      Brain, Child

      http://www.brainchildmag.com

      Cafemom

      http://www.cafemom.com

      Demeter Press

      http://www.yorku.ca/arm/demeterpress.html

      DES Mothers

      http://www.desaction.org/desmothers.htm

      Hip Mama

      http://www.hipmama.com

      International Mothers Network

      (http://www.internationalmothersnetwork.org)

      La Leche League

      http://www.laleche.org

      Literary Mama

      http://www.literarymama.com

      Mainstreet Moms

      http://www.themmob.org

      Mamapalooza

      http://www.mamapalooza.com

      Mother Centers International Network for Empowerment

      http://www.mine.cc

      Mother-Daughter Project

      http://www.themother-daughterproject.com

      Mothers Acting Up (MAU)

      http://www.mothersactingup.org

      Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)

      http://www.madd.org

      Mothers and More (MAM)

      http://www.mothersandmore.org

      Mothers Are Women (MAW)

      http://www.mothersarewomen.com

      Mothers Ought To Have

      Equal Rights (MOTHERS)

      http://www.mothersoughttohaveequalrights.org

      Museum of Motherhood

      http://www.museumofmotherhood.org

      National Association of Mother Centres

      http://www.motherscenter.org

      National Organization for Women

      http://www.now.org

      Planned Parenthood

      http://www.plannedparenthood.org

      UNICEF

      http://www.unicef.org

      Appendix: Motherhood Statistics around the World

      Afghanistan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 28,396,000 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.629 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 45.46 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 19.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female; total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 151.95 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 156.01 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 147.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 44.64 years; male: 44.47 years; female: 44.81 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 6.53 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 11 years; female: 4 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Albania

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 41 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 3,639,453 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.546 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 15.29 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female; total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 18.62 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 19.05 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 18.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.96 years; male: 75.28 years; female: 80.89 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 11 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: 2.9 percent of GDP (2002)

      Algeria

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 44 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 34,178,188

      Population growth rate: 1.196 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 16.9 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.64 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 27.73 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 30.86 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 24.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.02 years; male: 72.35 years; female: 75.77 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 13 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 5.1 percent of GDP (1999)

      American Samoa

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 65,628 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.222 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 23.31 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 10.18 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 6.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.72 years; male: 70.8 years; female: 76.82 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.29 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Andorra

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 83,888 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.135 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.35 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female; total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 3.78 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 82.51 years; male: 80.33 years; female: 84.84 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.33 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 11 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.3 percent of GDP (2006)

      Angola

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 28 “among least developed countries

      Population: 12,799,293 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.095 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 43.69 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 24.08 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 180.21 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 192.24 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 167.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 38.2 years; male: 37.24 years; female: 39.22 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 6.12 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 2.4 percent of GDP (2005)

      Anguilla

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 14,436 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.272 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 13.02 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.36 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female; total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 3.97 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.65 years; male: 78.11 years; female: 83.26 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 11 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4 percent of GDP (2005)

      Argentina

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 2 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 40,913,584 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.053 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 17.94 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.41 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 11.44 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 12.76 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 10.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.56 years; male: 73.32 years; female: 73.32 years

      Total fertility rate: 2.35 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 14 years; female: 16 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 3.8 percent of GDP (2004)

      Aruba

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 103,065

      Population growth rate: 1.478 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 12.79 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.71 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female; total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 13.79 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 18.28 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 9.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.28 years; male: 72.25 years; female: 78.38 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.8 percent of GDP (2005)

      Australia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 5 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 21,262,641 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.195 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 12.47 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.75 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 81.63 years; male: 79.25 years; female: 84.14 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 20 years; male: 20 years; female: 21 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Austria

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 17 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 8,210,281 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.052 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.65 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.42 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.39 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.5 years; male: 76.6 years; female: 82.56 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.4 percent of GDP (2005)

      Azerbaijan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 38 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 8,238,672 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.762 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 17.62 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 60.2 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 48.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.66 years; male: 62.53 years; female: 71.34 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 11 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.1 percent of GDP (2006)

      Bahrain

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 29 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 727,785

      Population growth rate: 1.285 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 17.02 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.37 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.34 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female; total population: 1.24 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 15.25 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 17.81 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 12.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.16 years; male: 72.64 years; female: 77.76 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 14 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.9 percent of GDP (1991)

      Bangladesh

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 9 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 156,050,883 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.292 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 24.68 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.23 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female; total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 59.02 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 66.12 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 51.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 60.25 years; male: 57.57 years; female: 63.03 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.74 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 8 years; female: 8 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: 2.7 percent of GDP (2005)

      Belarus

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 30 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 9,648,533 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.378 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.71 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 13.86 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.47 male(s)/female; total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.43 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 7.45 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.63 years; male: 64.95 years; female: 76.67 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.24 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 14 years; female: 15 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6.1 percent of GDP (2006)

      Belgium

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 8 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 10,414,336 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.094 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.15 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.44 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.44 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.22 years; male: 76.06 years; female: 82.53 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 16 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6 percent of GDP (2004)

      Bhutan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 691,141

      Population growth rate: 1.267 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 20.07 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female; total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 49.36 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 50.38 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 48.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.13 years; male: 65.33 years; female: 66.97 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.38 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 11 years; female: 10 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 7 percent of GDP (2005)

      Bolivia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 9,775,246 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.772 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 25.82 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.05 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 44.66 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 48.56 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 40.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.89 years; male: 64.2 years; female: 69.72 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.17 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 6.4 percent of GDP (2003)

      Botswana

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 51 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 1,990,876

      Population growth rate: 1.937 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 22.89 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.52 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 12.59 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 13.43 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 11.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 61.85 years; male: 61.72 years; female: 61.99 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 12 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 8.7 percent of GDP (2007)

      Brazil

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 14 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 198,739,269

      Population growth rate: 1.199 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 18.43 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 22.58 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 26.16 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 18.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.99 years; male: 68.43 years; female: 75.73 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 14 years; female: 15 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 4 percent of GDP (2004)

      Bulgaria

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 35 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 7,204,687 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.79 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.51 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 14.31 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female; total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 17.87 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 21.28 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 14.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.09 years; male: 69.48 years; female: 76.91 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Burma

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 48,137,741

      Population growth rate: 0.783 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 16.97 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.14 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 47.61 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 53.78 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 63.39 years; male: 61.17 years; female: 65.74 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 8 years; female: 8 years (2001)

      Education expenditures: 1.2 percent of GDP (2001)

      Cambodia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 10 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 14,494,293

      Population growth rate: 1.765 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 25.73 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.08 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 54.79 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 61.84 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 47.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 62.1 years; male: 60.03 years; female: 64.27 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 10 years; female: 9 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 1.7 percent of GDP (2004)

      Cameroon

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 59 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 18,879,301

      Population growth rate: 2.19 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 34.1 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 12.2 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 63.34 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 68.08 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 58.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 53.69 years; male: 52.89 years; female: 54.52 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.33 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 years; male: 10 years; female: 8 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.3 percent of GDP (2006)

      Canada

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 15 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 33,487,208 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.817 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.28 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.37 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 81.23 years; male: 78.69 years; female: 83.91 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.58 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 17 years; female: 17 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: 5.2 percent of GDP (2002)

      Central African Republic

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 4,511,488

      Population growth rate: 1.491 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 32.75 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 17.84 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 80.62 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 87.22 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 73.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 44.47 years; male: 44.4 years; female: 44.54 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.14 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 1.4 percent of GDP (2006)

      Chad

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 30 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 10,329,208 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.069 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 40.86 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 16.09 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female; total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 98.69 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 104.72 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 92.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 47.7 years; male: 46.67 years; female: 48.77 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 6 years; male: 7 years; female: 4 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 1.9 percent of GDP (2005)

      Chile

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 11 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 16,601,707 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.881 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 14.64 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.84 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 7.71 deaths/1,000 live birth; male: 7.71 deaths/1,000 live birth; female: 6.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.34 years; male: 74.07 years; female: 80.77 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 14 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.2 percent of GDP (2006)

      China

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 12 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 1,338,612,968 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.655 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female; total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 20.25 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 18.87 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 21.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.47 years; male: 71.61 years; female: 75.52 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 11 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 1.9 percent of GDP (1999)

      Costa Rica

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 8 “among less developed countries”

      Population: 4,253,877 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.356 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 17.43 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.34 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) male; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 8.77 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 9.66 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 7.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.58 years; male: 74.96 years; female: 80.34 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.14 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 12 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 4.9 percent of GDP (2004)

      Colombia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 23 “among less developed countries”

      Population: 45,644,023

      Population growth rate: 1.377 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 1.377 percent (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.54 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 22.53 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 15.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.81 years; male: 68.98 years; female: 76.76 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.46 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 13 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.7 percent of GDP (2006)

      Cote D'Ivoire

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 66 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 20,617,068

      Population growth rate: 2.133 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 32.11 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.78 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) male; 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female; total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 68.06 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 75.17 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 60.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 55.45 years; male: 54.64 years; female: 56.28 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.12 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 4.6 percent of GDP (2001)

      Croatia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 34 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 4,489,409 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.052 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.64 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 11.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female; total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.37 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 6.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.35 years; male: 71.72 years; female: 79.18 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.42 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.5 percent of GDP (2004)

      Cuba

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 11,451,652 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.233 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 11.13 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.24 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5.82 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 6.51 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.45 years; male: 75.19 years; female: 79.85 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 15 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 9.1 percent of GDP (2006)

      Cyprus

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 6 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 796,740 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.519 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 12.57 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 8.14 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.33 years; male: 75.91 years; female: 80.86 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6.3 percent of GDP (2004)

      Czech Republic

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 24 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 10,211,904 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.094 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.83 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.79 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.13 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.81 years; male: 73.54 years; female: 80.28 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.24 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 15 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.4 percent of GDP (2004)

      Denmark

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 6 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 5,500,510 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.28 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.54 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.22 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.34 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.3 years; male: 75.96 years; female: 80.78 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.74 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 16 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 8.3 percent of GDP (2005)

      Dominica

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 72,660 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.208 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 15.73 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 13.65 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 18.34 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 8.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.55 years; male: 72.61 years; female: 78.64 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 5 percent of GDP (1999)

      Dominican Republic

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 20 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 9,650,054 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.489 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 22.39 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.28 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 25.96 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 28 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 23.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.7 years; male: 71.88 years; female: 75.6 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.76 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 13 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: 3.6 percent of GDP (2006)

      Ecuador

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 14,573,101 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.497 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 20.77 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.99 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 24.4 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 17.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.3 years; male: 72.37 years; female: 78.37 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.51 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 1 percent of GDP (2001)

      Egypt

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 83,082,869 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.642 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 21.7 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.08 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 27.26 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 27.26 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 25.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.12 years; male: 69.56 years; female: 74.81 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 4.2 percent of GDP (2006)

      Equatorial Guinea

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 20 among “least developed nations”

      Population: 633,441 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.703 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 36.52 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.49 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 81.58 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 82.68 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 80.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 61.61 years; male: 60.71 years; female: 62.54 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.08 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 10 years; female: 9 years (2000)

      Education expenditures: 0.6 percent of GDP (2003)

      Estonia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 17 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 1,299,371 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.632 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.37 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 13.42 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female; total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 7.32 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 8.48 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 6.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.82 years; male: 67.45 years; female: 78.53 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.42 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 15 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.1 percent of GDP (2004)

      Ethiopia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 26 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 85,237,338

      Population growth rate: 3.208 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 43.66 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 11.55 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 80.8 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 92.06 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 69.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 55.41 years; male: 52.92 years; female: 57.97 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 6.12 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 8 years; female: 7 years (2007)

      Education expenditures: 6 percent of GDP (2006)

      Finland

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 7 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 5,250,275 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.098 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.38 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.07 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.47 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 3.78 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.97 years; male: 75.48 years; female: 82.61 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 17 years; female: 18 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6.4 percent of GDP (2005)

      France

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 13 “among most developed nations”

      Population: 64,057,792

      Population growth rate: 0.549 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 12.57 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.33 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 3.66 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 2.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.98 years; male: 77.79 years; female: 84.33 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 16 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.7 percent of GDP (2005)

      Germany

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 10 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 82,329,758 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.053 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.18 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.99 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.41 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.26 years; male: 76.26 years; female: 82.42 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 16 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.6 percent of GDP (2004)

      Greece

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 23 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 10,737,428 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.127 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.45 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.51 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.68 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.66 years; male: 77.11 years; female: 82.37 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 17 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.4 percent of GDP (2005)

      Greenland

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 57,600 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.062 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 14.76 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.14 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female; total population: 1.12 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 10.72 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 12.26 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.07 years; male: 67.44 years; female: 72.85 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.19 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Guatemala

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 57 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 13,276,517 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.066 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 27.98 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.11 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 27.84 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 30.2 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 25.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.29 years; male: 68.49 years; female: 72.19 years (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 11 years; female: 10 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.6 percent of GDP (2006)

      Guinea

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 16 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 10,057,975 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.572 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 37.52 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 65.22 deaths/1,000 live births; male:; female:

      Life expectancy at birth:total population:; male: 68.7 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 61.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.2 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 10 years; female: 7 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 1.6 percent of GDP (2005)

      Hungary

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 26 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 9,905,596 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.257 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.51 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 12.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female; total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 7.86 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 8.57 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.44 years; male: 69.27 years; female: 77.87 years (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Iceland

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 2 “among most developed nations”

      Population: 306,694 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.741 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 13.43 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.85 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.23 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.67 years; male: 78.53 years; female: 82.9 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 18 years; male: 17 years; female: 19 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 7.6 percent of GDP (2004)

      India

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 61 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.548 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 21.76 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.23 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female; total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 25.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 69.89 years; male: 67.46 years; female: 72.61 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 11 years; female: 9 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 3.2 percent of GDP (2005)

      Indonesia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 50 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 240,271,522 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.136 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 18.84 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 29.97 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 34.93 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 24.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.76 years; male: 68.26 years; female: 73.38 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 12 years; female: 11 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 3.6 percent of GDP (2006)

      Iran

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 42 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 66,429,284 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.883 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 17.17 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 35.78 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 35.98 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 35.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.14 years; male: 69.65 years; female: 72.72 years (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 13 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 5.1 percent of GDP (2006)

      Iraq

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 28,945,657 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.507 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 30.1 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.03 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 43.82 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 49.38 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 37.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 69.94 years; male: 68.6 years; female: 71.34 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.86 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 11 years; female: 8 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Ireland

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 22 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 4,203,200 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.12 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 14.23 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5.05 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.24 years; male: 75.6 years; female: 81.06 years (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 18 years; male: 17 years; female: 18 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.7 percent of GDP (2005)

      Italy

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 19 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 58,126,212 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.047 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.18 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5.51 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 6.07 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.2 years; male: 77.26 years; female: 83.33 years

      Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 16 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Jamaica

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 13 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 2,825,928 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.755 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 19.68 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.43 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 15.22 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 15.81 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 14.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.53 years; male: 71.83 years; female: 75.3 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 11 years; female: 12 years (2003)

      Education expenditures: 5.3 percent of GDP (2005)

      Japan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 29 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 127,078,679 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.191 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 7.64 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.54 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 2.79 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 2.99 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 2.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 82.12 years; male: 78.8 years; female: 85.62 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 15 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Jordan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 34 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 6,342,948 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.264 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 19.55 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 2.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female; total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 14.97 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 17.91 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 11.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.87 years; male: 76.34 years; female: 81.56 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.39 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 13 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.9 percent of GDP (1999)

      Kazakhstan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 9 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 15,399,437 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.392 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 16.6 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.54 male(s)/female; total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 25.73 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 21.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 67.87 years; male: 62.58 years; female: 73.47 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.88 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 16 years (2007)

      Education expenditures: 2.3 percent of GDP (2005)

      Kenya

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 52 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 39,002,772

      Population growth rate: 2.691 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 36.64 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 54.7 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 57.56 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 51.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 57.86 years; male: 57.49 years; female: 58.24 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.56 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 10 years; female: 9 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: 6.9 percent of GDP (2006)

      Kiribati

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 112,850 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.235 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 30.2 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.85 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 43.48 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 48.35 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 38.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 63.22 years; male: 60.14 years; female: 66.45 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.04 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 13 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 17.8 percent of GDP (2002)

      Kuwait

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 14 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 2,691,158

      Population growth rate: 3.547 percent

      Birth rate: 21.81 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 2.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.78 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.66 male(s)/female; total population: 1.54 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 8.96 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 9.94 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 7.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.71 years; male: 76.51 years; female: 78.95 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.76 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 12 years; female: 13 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.8 percent of GDP (2006)

      Kyrgyzstan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 32 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 5,431,747 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.396 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 23.44 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.91 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 31.26 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 36.19 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 26.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 69.43 years; male: 65.43 years; female: 73.64 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.65 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 13 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.9 percent of GDP (2005)

      Laos

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 6,834,942 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.316 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 33.94 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.78 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 77.82 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 86.94 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 68.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 56.68 years; male: 54.56 years; female: 58.9 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.41 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 years; male: 10 years; female: 8 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3 percent of GDP (2006)

      Lebanon

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 30 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 4,017,095 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.107 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 17.1 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.03 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 21.82 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 24.26 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 19.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.66 years; male: 71.15 years; female: 76.31 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 13 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.7 percent of GDP (2006)

      Liberia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 3,441,790 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.665 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 42.25 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 20.73 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 138.24 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 153.55 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 122.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 41.84 years; male: 40.71 years; female: 43 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.79 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 11 years; female: 8 years (2000)

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Libya

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 6,310,434

      Population growth rate: 2.17 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 25.15 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 3.45 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female; total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 21.05 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 23.21 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.26 years; male: 74.98 years; female: 79.65 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.08 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 16 years; female: 17 years (2003)

      Education expenditures: 2.7 percent of GDP (1999)

      Lithuania

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 20 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 3,555,179 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.279 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.11 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 11.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female; total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.47 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 7.73 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.9 years; male: 69.98 years; female: 80.1 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 15 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Macau

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 559,846 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.995 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.88 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 3.5 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female; total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.22 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 3.37 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 84.36 years; male: 81.39 years; female: 87.47 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 0.91 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 16 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.4 percent of GDP (2005)

      Macedonia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 40 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 2,066,718 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.262 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 11.97 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 9.01 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 9.21 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.68 years; male: 72.18 years; female: 77.38 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.58 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 12 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 3.5 percent of GDP (2002)

      Madagascar

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 17 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 20,653,556 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 3 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 38.14 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.14 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 54.2 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 59.12 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 49.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 62.89 years; male: 60.93 years; female: 64.91 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.14 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 years; male: 10 years; female: 9 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.1 percent of GDP (2006)

      Malaysia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 30 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 25,715,819 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.723 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 22.24 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 15.87 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 18.32 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 13.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.29 years; male: 70.56 years; female: 76.21 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.95 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 12 years; female: 13 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 6.2 percent of GDP (2004)

      Maldives

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 396,334 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.168 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 14.55 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 3.65 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) male; 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female; total population: 1.44 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 29.53 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 32.04 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 26.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.97 years; male: 73.97 years; female: 76.28 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 12 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 8 percent of GDP (2006)

      Mali

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 23 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 12,666,987 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.765 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 49.15 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 15.82 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 102.05 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 111.56 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 92.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 50.35 years; male: 48.38 years; female: 52.38 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 7.29 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 7 years; male: 8 years; female: 5 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 4.5 percent of GDP (2006)

      Malta

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 31 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 405,165 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.4 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.36 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.75 deaths/1,000 live births; male:; female:

      Life expectancy at birth:total population:; male:; female:

      Total fertility rate: School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total:; male:; female: Education expenditures

      Marshall Islands

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 64,522 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.08 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 30.7 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.49 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female; total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 25.45 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 28.58 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 22.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.19 years; male: 69.15 years; female: 73.34 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.59 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 13 years (2003)

      Education expenditures: 11.8 percent of GDP (2004)

      Mayotte

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 223,765 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 3.317 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 39.26 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female; total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 56.29 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 61.89 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 50.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 62.91 years; male: 60.65 years; female: 65.24 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Mexico

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 26 among “less developed countries”

      Population: 111,211,789 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.13 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 19.71 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 18.42 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 16.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.06 years; male: 73.25 years; female: 79 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.34 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 14 years; female: 13 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Moldova

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 4,320,748 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.079 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 11.12 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.78 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female; total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 13.13 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 14.57 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.8 years; male: 67.1 years; female: 74.71 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 13 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 7.6 percent of GDP (2006)

      Monaco

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 32,965 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.394 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.1 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 12.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female; total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.77 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.09 years; male: 76.3 years; female: 84.09 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 4.4 percent of GDP (2004)

      Mongolia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 35 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 3,041,142 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.493 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 21.05 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.12 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 39.88 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 42.99 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 36.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 67.65 years; male: 65.23 years; female: 70.19 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 12 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5 percent of GDP (2004)

      Montserrat

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 5,097

      Population growth rate: 0.392 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 12.36 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.44 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.95 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 16.08 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 12.01 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 20.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.76 years; male: 74.74 years; female: 70.68 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 15 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.3 percent of GDP (2004)

      Mozambique

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 7 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 21,669,278

      Population growth rate: 1.791 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 37.98 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 20.07 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 105.8 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 108.57 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 103 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 41.18 years; male: 41.83 years; female: 40.53 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.18 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 9 years; female: 7 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Namibia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 39 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 2,108,665

      Population growth rate: 0.95 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 22.51 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 13.3 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 45.51 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 48.98 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 41.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 51.24 years; male: 51.61 years; female: 50.86 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.69 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 11 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6.9 percent of GDP (2003)

      Nauru

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 14,019 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.748 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 23.9 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.42 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 9.25 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 11.58 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 64.2 years; male: 60.58 years; female: 68.01 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.85 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 8 years; female: 9 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Nepal

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 13 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 28,563,377 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.281 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 23.18 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.97 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 47.46 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 47.4 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 47.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 65.46 years; male: 64.3 years; female: 66.67 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 years; male: 10 years; female: 8 years (2003)

      Education expenditures: 3.4 percent of GDP (2003)

      Netherlands

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 11 among

      “more developed nations”

      Population: 16,715,999 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.412 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.4 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.73 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.4 years; male: 76.8 years; female: 82.14 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 17 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.3 percent of GDP (2005)

      New Caledonia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 227,436 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.136 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 17.04 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) male; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 7.05 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 6.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.98 years; male: 71.99 years; female: 78.12 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.18 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      New Zealand

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 4 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 4,213,418 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.935 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 13.94 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.05 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.36 years; male: 78.43 years; female: 82.39 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 19 years; male: 19 years; female: 20 years (2006

      Education expenditures: 6.2 percent of GDP (2006)

      Nicaragua

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 48 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 5,891,199 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.784 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 23.25 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.3 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 25.02 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 28.09 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 21.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.5 years; male: 69.35 years; female: 73.75 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 11 years (2003

      Education expenditures: 3.1 percent of GDP (2003)

      Niger

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 33 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 15,306,252 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 3.677 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 51.6 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 14.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 116.66 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 121.72 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 111.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 52.6 years; male: 51.39 years; female: 53.85 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 7.75 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 4 years; male: 5 years; female: 3 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.4 percent of GDP (2006)

      Nigeria

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 65 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 149,229,090

      Population growth rate: 1.999 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 36.65 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 16.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female; total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 94.35 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 100.38 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 87.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 46.94 years; male: 46.16 years; female: 47.76 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.91 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 9 years; female: 7 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: 0.9 percent of GDP (1991)

      North Korea

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 22,665,345 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.42 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 14.82 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.52 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 51.34 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 58.64 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 43.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 63.81 years; male: 61.23 years; female: 66.53 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.96 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Norway

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 3 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 4,660,539 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.341 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.99 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 3.58 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 3.92 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.95 years; male: 77.29 years; female: 82.74 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 17 years; female: 18 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 7.2 percent of GDP (2005)

      Oman

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 55 “among less developed countries”

      Population: 3,418,085

      Population growth rate: 3.138 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 34.79 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 3.65 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.38 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.32 male(s)/female; total population: 1.22 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 16.88 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 19.29 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 14.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.16 years; male: 71.87 years; female: 76.55 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.53 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 11 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4 percent of GDP (2006)

      Pakistan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 64 “among less developed countries”

      Population: 176,242,949 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.947 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 27.62 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female; total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 65.14 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 65.24 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 65.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 64.49 years; male: 63.4 years; female: 65.64 years (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 7 years; male: 7 years; female: 6 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.6 percent of GDP (2006)

      Palau

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 20,796 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.428 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 11.2 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.26 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.45 male(s)/female; total population: 1.14 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 13.14 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 14.83 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 11.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.22 years; male: 68.08 years; female: 74.54 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

      total: 15 years; male: 14 years; female: 15 years (2000)

      Education expenditures: 10.3 percent of GDP (2002)

      Panama

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 9 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 3,360,474 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.503 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 20.18 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.66 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 12.67 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 13.53 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 11.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.25 years; male: 74.47 years; female: 80.16 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.53 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.8 percent of GDP (2004)

      Papua New Guinea

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 63 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 6,057,263 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.069 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 27.55 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.86 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 45.23 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 49.17 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 41.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.34 years; male: 64.08 years; female: 68.72 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.62 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Paraguay

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 39 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 6,995,655 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.364 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 28.17 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.46 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 24.68 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 28.77 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 20.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.77 years; male: 73.19 years; female: 78.49 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.75 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 12 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 4 percent of GDP (2004)

      Peru

      Population: 29,546,963 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.229 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 19.38 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 28.62 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 31.07 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 26.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.74 years; male: 68.88 years; female: 72.69 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 14 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.5 percent of GDP (2006)

      Philippines

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 33 “among less developed countries”

      Population: 97,976,603 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.957 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 26.01 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 20.56 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 23.17 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 17.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.09 years; male: 68.17 years; female: 74.15 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.27 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 11 years; female: 12 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Poland

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 32 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 38,482,919 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.047 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.04 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.05 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female; total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 7.52 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 6.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.63 years; male: 71.65 years; female: 79.85 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Portugal

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 21 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 10,707,924 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.275 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.29 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.68 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.78 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.24 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.21 years; male: 74.95 years; female: 81.69 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Puerto Rico

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 3,971,020 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.34 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 12.12 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 8.42 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 9.69 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.53 years; male: 74.85 years; female: 82.39 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Russia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 36 “among more developed countries”

      Population: 140,041,247 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.467 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: −0.467 percent (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 16.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female; total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 10.56 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 12.08 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 8.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.03 years; male: 59.33 years; female: 73.14 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.8 percent of GDP (2005)

      Qatar

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 833,285 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.957 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 15.61 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 2.46 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 2.46 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.38 male(s)/female; total population: 2 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 12.66 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 13.51 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 11.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.35 years; male: 73.66 years; female: 77.14 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.45 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.3 percent of GDP (2005)

      Romania

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 38 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 22,215,421 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.147 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.53 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 11.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 19.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.45 years; male: 68.95 years; female: 76.16 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 14 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.5 percent of GDP (2005)

      Rwanda

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 3 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 10,473,282

      Population growth rate: 2.782 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 39.67 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 14.02 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 81.61 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 86.68 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 76.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 50.52 years; male: 49.25 years; female: 51.83 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.25 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 years; male: 8 years; female: 9 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 3.8 percent of GDP (2005)

      Saint Lucia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 160,267 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.416 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 15.1 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 13.43 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 12.47 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 14.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.45 years; male: 73.78 years; female: 79.27 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6.6 percent of GDP (2006)

      Samoa

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 219,998

      Population growth rate: 1.346 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 28.06 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female; total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 24.22 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 28.61 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.86 years; male: 69.03 years; female: 74.84 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.16 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 12 years; female: 12 years (2001)

      Education expenditures: 4.3 percent of GDP (2002)

      San Marino

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 30,324 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.148 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.63 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5.34 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.76 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 81.97 years; male: 78.53 years; female: 85.72 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.36 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Saudi Arabia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 58 “among less developed countries”

      Population: 28,686,633

      Population growth rate: 1.848 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 28.55 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 2.47 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.29 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female; total population: 1.18 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 11.57 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 13.15 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 9.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.3 years; male: 74.23 years; female: 78.48 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.83 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 6.8 percent of GDP (2004)

      Senegal

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 13,711,597 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.709 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 36.84 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 58.94 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 65.7 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 51.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 59 years; male: 57.12 years; female: 60.93 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.95 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 5 percent of GDP (2006)

      Serbia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 7,379,339

      Population growth rate: −0.468 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.19 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 13.86 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.75 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 7.79 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.9 years; male: 71.09 years; female: 76.89 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Sierra Leone

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 31 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 6,440,053 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.282 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 44.73 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 21.91 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female; total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 154.43 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 171.57 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 136.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 41.24 years; male: 38.92 years; female: 43.64 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 5.88 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 7 years; male: 8 years; female: 6 years (2001)

      Education expenditures: 3.8 percent of GDP (2005)

      Singapore

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 4,657,542 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.998 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.82 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.66 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 2.31 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 2.51 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 2.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 81.98 years; male: 79.37 years; female: 84.78 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.09 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 3.7 percent of GDP (2001)

      Slovakia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 28 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 5,463,046 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.137 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.6 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.53 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female; total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.84 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 7.99 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.4 years; male: 71.47 years; female: 79.53 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 14 years; female: 15 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 3.9 percent of GDP (2005)

      Slovenia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 16 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 2,005,692 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.113 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.97 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.62 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.25 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.92 years; male: 73.25 years; female: 80.84 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 16 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6 percent of GDP (2005)

      Solomon Islands

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 6 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 595,613 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.392 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 27.69 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 3.77 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 19.03 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 21.65 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 16.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.69 years; male: 71.14 years; female: 76.37 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.52 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 years; male: 9 years; female: 8 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 3.3 percent of GDP (1999)

      Somalia

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 9,832,017

      Population growth rate: 2.815 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 43.7 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 15.55 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 109.19 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 118.31 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 99.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 49.63 years; male: 47.78 years; female: 51.53 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 6.52 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      South Africa

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 27 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 49,052,489

      Population growth rate: 0.281 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 19.93 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 16.99 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 44.42 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 48.66 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 40.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 48.98 years; male: 49.81 years; female: 48.13 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.38 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 years; male: 13 years; female: 13 years (2004)

      Education expenditures: 5.4 percent of GDP (2006)

      South Korea

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 5 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 48,508,972 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.266 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.93 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.26 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.49 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.72 years; male: 75.45 years; female: 82.22 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 years; male: 18 years; female: 15 years (2007)

      Education expenditures: 4.6 percent of GDP (2004)

      Spain

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 9 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 40,525,002 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.072 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.72 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.99 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.21 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.05 years; male: 76.74 years; female: 83.57 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 16 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.2 percent of GDP (2005)

      Sri Lanka

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 21,324,791

      Population growth rate: 0.904 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 16.26 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.13 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years:; 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 18.57 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 20.33 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 16.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.14 years; male: 73.08 years; female: 77.28 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Sudan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 41,087,825 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 2.143 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 33.74 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 12.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) male; 65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female; total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 82.43 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 82.48 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 82.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 51.42 years; male: 50.49 years; female: 52.4 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.48 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: 6 percent of GDP (1991)

      Suriname

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 481,267 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.103 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 16.8 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 5.51 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 18.81 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 22.21 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 15.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.73 years; male: 71 years; female: 76.65 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 years; male: 11 years; female: 13 years (2002)

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Swaziland

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 62 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 1,123,913

      Population growth rate: −0.459 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 26.25 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 30.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 68.63 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 71.87 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 65.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 31.99 years; male: 31.69 years; female: 32.3 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.24 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 10 years; female: 10 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 7 percent of GDP (2005)

      Sweden

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 1 “among most developed countries”

      Population: 9,059,651 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.158 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.13 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.21 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 2.75 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 2.91 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 2.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.86 years; male: 78.59 years; female: 83.26 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 15 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 7.1 percent of GDP (2005)

      Switzerland

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 14 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 7,604,467 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.276 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.59 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.59 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.18 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 4.64 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.85 years; male: 78.03 years; female: 83.83 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 15 years; female: 15 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.8 percent of GDP (2005)

      Syria

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 20,178,485

      Population growth rate: 2.129 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 25.9 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 4.61 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female; total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 25.87 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 26.13 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 25.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.19 years; male: 69.8 years; female: 72.68 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total:; male:; female: Education expenditures:

      Taiwan

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: N/A

      Population: 22,974,347 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.227 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 8.99 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.76 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 5.35 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.64 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.96 years; male: 75.12 years; female: 81.05 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): N/A

      Education expenditures: N/A

      Tanzania

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 8 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 41,048,532

      Population growth rate: 2.04 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 34.29 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 12.59 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 69.28 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 76.24 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 62.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 52.01 years; male: 50.56 years; female: 53.51 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 4.46 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

      Education expenditures: 2.2 percent of GDP (1999)

      Thailand

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 17 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 65,905,410

      Population growth rate: 0.615 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 13.4 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 17.63 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.1 years; male: 70.77 years; female: 75.55 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: male: 13 years; female: 14 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4.2 percent of GDP (2005)

      Turkey

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 46 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 76,805,524 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 1.312 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 18.66 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female; total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 25.78 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 26.84 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 24.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.96 years; male: 70.12 years; female: 73.89 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 2.21 children born/woman (2009 est.); male: 12 years; female: 11 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 4 percent of GDP (2004)

      Ukraine

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 37 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 45,700,395 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: −0.632 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 9.6 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 15.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female; total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 8.98 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 11.2 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 6.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 68.25 years; male: 62.37 years; female: 74.5 years (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 years; male: 14 years; female: 15 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 6.3 percent of GDP (2006)

      United Arab Emirates

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 45 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 4,798,491

      Population growth rate: 3.689 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 16.02 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 2.11 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 2.74 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 1.82 male(s)/female; total population: 2.19 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 12.7 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 14.86 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 10.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.11 years; male: 73.56 years; female: 78.78 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.42 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 years; male: 11 years; female: 12 years (2003)

      Education expenditures: 1.3 percent of GDP (2005)

      United Kingdom

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 12 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 61,113,205 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.279 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 10.65 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 10.02 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 4.85 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 4.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.01 years; male: 76.52 years; female: 81.63 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 16 years; female: 17 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.6 percent of GDP (2005)

      United States

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 26 “among more developed nations”

      Population: 307,212,123 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.977 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 13.83 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 8.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 6.22 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 5.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.11 years; male: 75.65 years; female: 80.69 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 2.05 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 years; male: 15 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 5.3 percent of GDP (2005)

      Uruguay

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 3 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 3,494,382 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.466 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 13.91 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 9.09 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female; total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 11.32 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 12.73 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 9.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.35 years; male: 73.1 years; female: 79.72 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 years; male: 14 years; female: 16 years (2006)

      Education expenditures: 2.9 percent of GDP (2006)

      Vietnam

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 20 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 86,967,524 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 0.977 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 16.31 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 6.17 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female; total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 22.88 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 23.27 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 22.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.58 years; male: 68.78 years; female: 74.57 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 years; male: 11 years; female: 10 years (2000)

      Education expenditures: 1.8 percent of GDP (1991)

      Yemen

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 31 “among least developed nations”

      Population: 23,822,783 (July 2009 est.)

      Population growth rate: 3.453 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 42.14 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female; total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 54.7 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 59.12 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 50.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 63.27 years; male: 61.3 years; female: 65.33 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 6.32 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 years; male: 11 years; female: 7 years (2005)

      Education expenditures: 9.6 percent of GDP (2001)

      Zimbabwe

      Save the Children Mothers' Index Rating: 53 “among less developed nations”

      Population: 11,392,629

      Population growth rate: 1.53 percent (2009 est.)

      Birth rate: 31.49 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

      Death rate: 16.19 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

      Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female; total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

      Infant mortality rate:total: 32.31 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 34.9 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 29.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

      Life expectancy at birth:total population: 45.77 years; male: 46.36 years; female: 45.16 years (2009 est.)

      Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (2009 est.)

      School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 years; male: 9 years; female: 9 years (2003)

      Education expenditures: 4.6 percent of GDP (2000)

      Sources:

      CIA World Factbook and Save the Children.

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