American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia

American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Bret E. Carroll

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Abstract

American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia is a first-of-its-kind reference, detailing developments in the growing field of men’s studies. This up-to-date analytical review serves as a marker of how the field has evolved over the last decade, especially since the 1993 publication of Anthony Rotundo’s American Manhood. This seminal book opened new vistas for exploration and research into American History, society, and culture. Weaving the fabric of American history, American Masculinities illustrates how American political leaders have often used the rhetoric of manliness to underscore the presumed moral righteousness and ostensibly protective purposes of their policies. Seeing U.S. history in terms of gender archetypes, readers will gain a richer and deeper understanding of America’s democratic political system, domestic and foreign policies, and capitalist economic system, as ...

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    • Art and Literature
    • Body and Health
    • Class, Ethnic, and Racial Identities
    • Concepts and Theories
    • Family and Fatherhood
    • Historical Events and Processes
    • Icons and Symbols
    • Leisure and Work
    • Media and Popular Culture
    • Movements and Organizations
    • People
    • Political and Social Issues
    • Religion and Spirituality
    • Sexual Identities and Sexuality
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      Reader's Guide

      This list is provided to assist readers in finding articles on related entries. It classifies articles into fourteen general thematic categories: Art and Literature; Body and Health; Class, Ethnic, and Racial Identities; Concepts and Theories; Family and Fatherhood; Historical Events and Processes; Icons and Symbols; Leisure and Work; Media and Popular Culture; Movements and Organizations; People; Political and Social Issues; Religion and Spirituality; Sexual Identities and Sexuality. Some article titles appear in more than one category.

      Foreword

      “Scholarship is a product of the specialization.” This maxim is a cornerstone of the modern research university. Professors advise doctoral students to lay claim to a small piece of turf, the smaller the better. A scholarly monograph, senior scholars inform their charges, is a narrow one. Such folk often dismiss encyclopedias, which embrace the contrary principles of brevity and breadth, as of little importance.

      They are wrong. A well-crafted encyclopedia is an important tool for advancing knowledge. This point was hammered home two and a half centuries ago when Denis Diderot and his bookish friends in France began work on the first great encyclopedia. Having witnessed a flowering of new ideas in science, mathematics, geography, literature, music, architecture, and many other fields, they perceived a need to transform these independent discoveries into the knowledge revolution. New ideas in one branch of knowledge field had implications for all of the others. Diderot conceived of the encyclopedia form as a means of synthesizing specialized knowledge and presenting it in a form readily accessible to diverse readers.

      American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia encompasses another revolution in knowledge. Masculinity studies scarcely existed in the 1970s; it could be discerned, if at all, as a faint echo to the explosion of work on women. But since then, hundreds of scholars in scores of disciplines have been drawn to various specialized aspects of the topic. Issues of masculinity are highlighted at scholarly conferences, and the term pops up in countless book titles and scholarly papers and articles.

      This encyclopedia marks an important step in the evolution of masculinity as a field of historical study. It not only tracks recent scholarship in masculinity studies but also, like all encyclopedias, suggests through its organization new ways of looking at the relation among essays. Diderot observed that the alphabetical arrangement of his encyclopedia produced “burlesque contrasts” by, for example, juxtaposing an article on art with another on artisans. Modern scholars might say instead that the inherent randomness of an encyclopedia format provides a means of “deconstructing” customary topics, thereby facilitating a creative rearrangement of the ideas.

      So, too, the present volume. Consider the early pages. The article on “Adolescence” features Granville Stanley Hall's 1904 book of that title, which contended that the teenage years, for boys especially, were tumultuous. The next entry is “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,” a tale of adolescent boys who chafe at social constraints. The essay on “Alcohol” discusses the enduring centrality of drinking rituals among young males, ranging from the colonial tavern to contemporary frat parties. The article on “Alger, Horatio, Jr.,” details how that hack writer's books encouraged generations of boys to transform their adolescent restlessness into a climb from “rags to riches.”

      These essays, connected through their alphabetical proximity, outline a familiar rendering of boyhood and give it an interesting depth of detail. The essay on Alger also goes beyond the familiar account to show that this apostle of conventional boyhood was himself what we would now describe as gay. Other essays within the same cluster of pages further complicate the conventional picture of American masculinity. The essay on “Abolitionism” shows that many leaders of the movement embraced a masculine ethos of Christian love, as did the author of antebellum advice books, Timothy Shay Arthur (as described in the article about the writer). An essay on the “American Dream” similarly shows the broad range of genderlinked yearnings. Every reader of this volume will approach it from a different perspective, gleaning a host of interesting facts, but also assembling new insights from the wealth of synthesis.

      Encyclopedias do not exist to freeze knowledge within the bound pages of a book, like a bug in amber, but to advance knowledge and push it in new directions. “An Encyclopedia should be begun, carried through, and finished within a certain interval,” Diderot insisted. “Our moment passes and hardly will a great [reference] enterprise be completed before our generation exists no longer.” Bret E. Carroll's encyclopedia synthesizes one generation's rendering of a new body of knowledge. Because of his labors, what will come afterwards will be all the better.

      —Mark C. Carnes Ann Whitney Olin Professor of History, Barnard College, Columbia University

      Introduction

      This is an encyclopedia about American masculinities. Its purpose is to provide a reference guide and an introduction to the many ways in which men have defined, imagined, and experienced male identity in the social, cultural, and political contexts of the United States.

      A work such as this would have been virtually unimaginable in 1980, when men's studies was only beginning to emerge as a field of scholarly inquiry. It would still have been unfeasible as recently as the early 1990s, when the first book-length history of American masculinity—E. Anthony Rotundo's American Manhood (1993)—appeared in the nation's libraries and bookstores. But the study of masculinity, both in and outside the United States, has blossomed and flourished since then, and it has been incorporated increasingly into academic curricula. The publication of American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia, intended to serve professional scholars and students alike, is one sign that the field has reached maturity. This work serves as a marker of how the field has developed in the decade since Rotundo's seminal book used the analytical concept of masculinity to open new vistas for exploration and research into American history, society, and culture.

      Masculinity Studies and the Encyclopedia: Assumptions and Scope

      Scholars in several disciplines—including history, literary studies, anthropology, sociology, religion, and media studies— have cultivated this new field. This encyclopedia has been developed to reflect these diverse foundations, with articles examining men's family lives, work, sexuality, bodies, and behaviors; images of masculinity in literature, film, art, music, television shows, and cultural iconography; social and political ideologies and power structures; controversial issues; the relation between notions of masculinity and historical events, processes, and periods; and group identities in which gender has intersected with race, class, ethnicity, age, religion, and region. The encyclopedia's categories, as listed in the Reader's Guide, are intended to represent the range of exploration in the field as well as to guide users toward those dimensions of American masculinity that most interest them.

      The contributors to this volume share the assumption that men's lives have been grounded fundamentally in gender; that is, in their awareness of themselves as males. Their concern is with men not merely as politicians, scientists, intellectuals, professionals, leaders of social movements, or military officers— the stuff of traditional scholarship—but as men. They owe this approach to the women's studies scholars of the 1970s and 1980s, who revealed the importance of gender as a category of social, cultural, and historical analysis. Some view masculinity studies as a threat to women's studies, fearing that it might be a means by which men can remain at the center of scholarly inquiry, and that the study of masculinity will blur, if not eclipse, the study of women. But because constructions of manhood and womanhood are, and have always been, relational—each necessarily being defined with reference to the other—the two fields are very much interrelated and mutually dependent.

      The contributors also understand that masculinity is not monolithic and not simply dependent on biological sex. Rather, it is historically, socially, and culturally rooted. It is variable across time, and it is conceptualized and lived in ways that shape and are shaped by men's differing self-perceptions, needs, and aspirations. Nowhere is its variability clearer than in the dynamic and multiform culture of the United States. Nor is understanding masculinity simply a matter of examining the images and masculine types conveyed by popular culture and the media. Such images are certainly influential in U.S. society, which is highly dependent on the media, and they are by no means neglected in this book, but these representations often tell us more about what men are supposed to be than about what they actually are. This encyclopedia is informed by a sensitivity to the similarities and differences— and to the complex interrelations—between image and reality, prescription and practice.

      Although, or perhaps because, this encyclopedia aims to convey the state of the art in gender studies, there is much that it cannot do. Since the field of American masculinity studies is continually developing and redeveloping, the encyclopedia necessarily omits topics that have not yet received much scholarly attention. The encyclopedia may also appear to privilege some periods over others, with entries on the Victorian and Progressive eras specifically, but not one on the colonial era. This reflects scholars' conviction that some periods have clearly defining cultural characteristics. Of course, they continue to search for synthetic understandings of other periods or groups whose defining cultural characteristics (if there are any) remain unclear. Finally, limitations of space required selectivity in choosing entry topics. This encyclopedia is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to convey a sense of the scope of the field.

      The encyclopedia, then, is offered to its users as a tool. Each entry offers suggestions for further reading, including academic books and scholarly journal articles, and each directs the user to related entries in the encyclopedia. At the end of the encyclopedia, a comprehensive bibliography provides readers with a list of sources—organized according to important thematic categories in the field—that will provide additional directions for further study. An extensive index offers users an additional means of locating topics of interest. By encapsulating the current state of scholarly interpretation, American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia is intended to help students and scholars advance their studies, develop new questions for research, and stimulate new ways of exploring the history of American life.

      Masculinity and U.S. History

      Perhaps the primary lesson of masculinity studies as applied to U.S. history is that because American history (like all history) has been fundamentally about relations of power (e.g., political, economic, social, cultural), it has also been fundamentally about the social and cultural constructions of gender and masculinity used to support or seek power. In particular, white males of the middle and upper classes virtually monopolized power and public life until well into the twentieth century, and they have continued to dominate them into the early twentyfirst. Thus, concepts and experiences of masculinity, infused with related concepts and experiences of race and class, have been at the heart of American life. They are the proverbial elephant in the closet, figuring prominently, but sometimes so obviously as to be overlooked.

      White men in power have deployed race- and class-based ideologies and rhetorics of manhood in an attempt to justify their hold on power, to maintain their power, and to address challenges to their power. Since the initial establishment of the United States, this group of men associated American citizenship, patriotism, and even national identity itself with white masculinity, using implicitly and explicitly gendered metaphors to describe these associations. At the same time, in a democratic and increasingly multiracial and multicultural society in which existing power arrangements have continually been contested and reconfigured, masculinity has also been contested and reconfigured. Women and nonwhites have challenged or attempted to claim constructions of (white) masculinity in their efforts to attain power, and white males have responded through defensive reactions couched in terms of perceived threats to their manhood. In short, one may view the sweep of U.S. history as, in large part, the establishment and ongoing erosion of the power of white men and white masculinity as an initially preindustrial and agrarian American society became modern and industrial, and then postmodern and postindustrial. Viewing U.S. history through the lens of gender and masculinity—while recognizing and examining the elephant in the closet—has yielded new insights into American culture, called our attention to previously overlooked facets of the American experience, and revealed new dimensions of familiar events, movements, and institutions.

      The lens of gender and masculinity studies has revealed that the founders of the United States were heirs to a European worldview grounded in an agrarian, preindustrial economy and in patriarchal social arrangements that assigned males the responsibilities and privileges of public and domestic power and consigned women to subordination. Viewing this system as an expression of a divinely ordained natural order, the earliest European colonizers sought to re-establish it in colonial America—and, with only a few exceptions, they largely succeeded. Their notions of masculinity shaped not only gender hierarchies but also racial hierarchies. They concluded from the very different gender arrangements of Amerindian and African peoples that the men of these groups were aberrantly masculine, and thus fit for subjugation. Yet colonizing a new environment forced them to adapt European patriarchy to new patterns and perceptions of land availability, and to the relative absence of European institutional infrastructures. Europeans also brought with them developing political, economic, and religious notions, such as the Protestant emphasis on individual experience, the political ideology of republicanism, and the developing economic system of market capitalism, that eventually transformed the patriarchal social and political order.

      The founding of the United States was led by a generation of white male patriot leaders who were both inspired by and fearful of democracy's subversive potential. This dual outlook shaped their conceptions of the new nation's political and social structure, as well as the definitions of manhood upon which they grounded it. Determined to legitimate their own seizure of power and maintain the patriarchal system they deemed essential to order, they confined the exercise of political power to white property-owning males and developed a conception of republican citizenship that privileged the qualities they associated with manhood and whiteness. It is no coincidence that the most well known of the Revolutionary-era patriot organizations called itself the Sons of Liberty, that George Washington quickly became known as the “father of his country,” that later generations of Americans would refer to those who established the nation as “founding fathers,” or that the most prominent personification of the United States became, and remains, the decidedly white male figure of Uncle Sam. At the same time, the American Revolution inspired other men—namely those who did not own property and belonged to what were sometimes called the “lower orders”—to incorporate into their lives different understandings of republicanism and manliness, which helped them press their own claims to power during the political and social upheaval of the Revolutionary period.

      Because the American political system developed amid an exaltation of republican manhood and assumed its modern features as the right to vote was being expanded to include all adult white males, it is hardly surprising that ideologies and rhetorics of masculinity became central to American political culture. The presidential election of 1828 set a key pattern of American electioneering. Andrew Jackson was presented to voters as a frontier-dwelling, Indian-fighting, heroic military general with a decided penchant for physical confrontation and defending his wife's honor. In the elections that followed, every campaign sought to emphasize a candidate's manliness. Similarly, American political leaders seeking to justify domestic and international applications of their power have historically used the rhetoric of manliness to underscore the presumed moral righteousness, and ostensibly protective purposes, of their policies. Beginning in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and continuing into the twentyfirst century, the U.S. government has cast itself in its domestic and foreign policies as a paternal and chivalric protector (often of emasculated dependents) while labeling perceived internal and external enemies as either demasculinized conspirators or as hypermasculine brutes.

      In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, another important pattern emerged: Americans conceptualized in masculine terms the capitalist economic system that was becoming virtually synonymous with national life. This development was hardly surprising, since the national market economy was, like the democratic political system, confined largely to white men. In defining white men alone as possessed of the qualities of self-control, rationality, competitiveness, and ambition necessary to succeed, and thus naturally suited to the amoral roughness of the marketplace, Americans effectively defined the public world of economic exchange as a masculine sphere of activity, and financial success was thus seen as a masculine achievement. In the South, slave-owning southern men grounded their particular brand of capitalist production in an ideology of gender and racial hierarchy that cast white male slave-owners as paternalistic patriarchs presiding over their profitable plantations and enslaved laborers. Even in the twentieth century, as women and nonwhites increasingly enjoyed access to economic opportunity, many Americans continued to gender the nation's economic system male—and to color it white. Most Americans remained less likely to think that the rough-and-tumble world of economic competition had become feminized than to think that successful women had become masculinized. Similarly, economically successful nonwhite men have often been assumed to lose their racial or ethnic identities—to become “white.” Like American national identity itself, the so-called American Dream began, and remains, ideologically linked to white masculinity.

      The social and cultural use of gender to underwrite male power during the nineteenth century was by no means confined to those areas of life called “public.” In domestic life, too, men assumed and usually sought to monopolize family leadership, typically by appealing to the same ideologies of masculinity that they used to justify their public political and economic power. While the market and industrial revolutions of the nineteenth century undermined the household economy on which patriarchy had rested in the preindustrial United States, these transformations also generated new ideologies of the family that preserved, and even enhanced, male domestic power in the “private” sphere of the home. Older patriarchal practices survived among those groups, such as yeoman farmers and the industrial working class, who resisted or were dislocated by the wrenching social and economic changes of the period. But during the early decades of the nineteenth century an emerging middle class produced a “cult of domesticity,” as well as new and more modern ideals of masculinity (the “breadwinner” and the “family man”), which located the father at the apex of the nuclear family. These ideals eventually spread well beyond the white middle class, and they have retained enormous influence into the twenty-first century.

      Although the advent of an urban-industrial society in the nineteenth century benefited white middle-class men, it became clear by midcentury that these men were also troubled by the transformation. They feared that the transition from nature's rhythms and vigorous physical labor to corporate work environments and urban and suburban living alienated them from important foundations of masculine identity. In response, they developed new ideals intended to accommodate the new order. One of them, which found scientific support in Darwinian biology and in contemporary psychological theories of human development, was an emphasis on strenuous exercise, outdoor activity, martial spirit, and the romantic ruggedness of nature (particularly in the West). The growing identification of manliness with physical strength, virility, and prowess was evident throughout American culture by the late nineteenth century, and it remained strong throughout the twentieth. Indeed, the cultural premium on masculine toughness found new sustenance during the twentieth century in the growth of leisure time and a consumer economy, and it acquitted new impetus and urgency as a result of the nation's rise to global power, the two world wars, the Cold War, and growing threats from domestic and global terrorism.

      Other new ideals were intended to empower men for success in the emerging corporate and bureaucratic world. If earlier men had required an inwardly wrought individual “character,” men of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries were increasingly advised to cultivate “personality” and external appearance and to practice teamwork in order to achieve success amid increasingly large organizations and bureaucratic chains of command. Manliness in the twentieth century increasingly meant being a “team player,” a successful businessman, or an effective salesman. It required men to cultivate a winning manner and to “dress for success” by wearing “power” clothes.

      White men in power asserted these new concepts of masculinity with particular urgency, for their power was being increasingly challenged. Waves of immigration—which started in the mid–nineteenth century, accelerated in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and resumed after 1965—began to deprive whites of northern and western European descent of their numerical dominance as the nation became more multiracial and multiethnic. Nativist groups appeared in response, casting racial and ethnic “others” as un-American intruders in a white masculine America, and labeling them as either hypersexualized beasts (as in the case of southern Europeans, Jews, or Latinos) or effeminate (as in the case of Asians and, again, Jews). Even those who did not join nativist organizations often accepted these stereotyped images. During the late nineteenth century, in particular, whites of self-proclaimed Anglo-Saxon ancestry, drawing on theories of social Darwinism, anxiously perceived themselves as losing a competitive struggle for survival among the races. These men placed their hopes in the ideals of manly vigor and strenuous living—and in reproduction by racially responsible white couples. Physicians, psychologists, and other cultural authorities agreed that “normal” male sexuality was oriented toward procreation, and any other form was viewed as deviant.

      The most direct challenges to the power of white males during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries came from organized groups of women and nonwhite men who—with particular intensity and success during the late twentieth century—were seeking power of their own. Women's rights activists and feminists sought to end the identification of citizenship and economic and professional opportunity with masculinity; civil rights activists and ethnic and racial militants sought to end their identification with white masculinity; and gay rights activists sought to end their identification with heterosexual masculinity. These groups were supported by white men of the counterculture and political left who were increasingly critical of American political, economic, and social institutions, and thus sought new ways to distribute power in American society. All of these groups sought to redefine the relation between manliness and American life by offering their own visions of manhood.

      By the end of the twentieth century, these movements had made considerable headway in creating an American nation that was not for white men only, and not so thoroughly grounded in concepts of masculinity and whiteness. Furthermore, traditional male power was increasingly undermined during the late twentieth century by growing divorce rates, economic circumstances that prompted a growing incidence of dual-income families, and postmodern questioning not only of white male power, but of whether masculinity and whiteness had any objective existence or meaning at all. In response, a growing number of white men defensively asserted in film, television, and talk-show radio what they considered to be traditional American values—that is, those ideas that supported the power of white masculinity—and they turned to conservative political and religious groups, and sometimes to right-wing militia and patriot organizations, in an effort to express and defend these values.

      At the dawn of the twenty-first century, then, the meaning of American masculinity—or masculinities—is hotly contested. The masculinity-whiteness-heterosexuality-Americanism complex has eroded, generating a search for new ways to conceptualize the relation between manhood and American life. That search pervades the nation's political and religious life, has infused its popular culture, is powerfully evident in academia, and is at the heart of this encyclopedia.

      —Bret E. Carroll
    • Bibliography

      • Art and Literature 516
      • Body, Emotion, and Health 517
      • Business, Technology, and Work 518
      • Class Identities 519
      • Consumption and Leisure 519
      • Ethnic and Racial Identities 519
      • Family, Fatherhood, and Marriage 521
      • General Anthologies, Histories, and Reference 522
      • Icons and Symbols 523
      • Media and Popular Culture 524
      • Military and War 525
      • Movements and Organizations 525
      • Nationalism and Politics 526
      • People 527
      • Political and Social Issues 528
      • Regional Identities 528
      • Religion and Spirituality 529
      • Sexual Identities and Sexuality 530
      • Sports 532
      • Theoretical Works 532
      Art and Literature
      Auerbach, Jonathan. Male Call: Becoming Jack London. Durham N.C.: Duke University Press, 1996.
      August, Eugene R. “Death of a Salesman: A Men's Studies Approach.” Western Ohio Journal7 (Spring 1986) 53–71
      Balbert, Peter. D. H. Lawrence and the Phallic Imagination. New York: St. Martin's, 1989.
      Baym, Nina. “Melodramas of Beset Manhood: How Theories of American Fiction Exclude Women Authors.” In Feminism and American Literary History: Essays, edited by N. Baym. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992.
      Bertolini, Vincent J. “Fireside Chastity: The Erotics of Sentimental Bachelorhood in the 1850s.” American Literature68 no. 4 (1996) 707–737 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2928135
      Callow, Heather Cook. “Masculine and Feminine in Death of a Salesman.” In ‘The Salesman Has a Birthday’: Essays Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman, edited by Stephen A. Marino. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2000.
      Carew-Miller, Anna. “The Language of Domesticity in Crèvecoeur's Letters from an American Farmer.” Early American Literature28 (1993) 242–254
      Chapman, Mary, and Glenn Hendler, eds. Sentimental Men: Masculinity and Politics of Affect in American Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
      Cheyfitz, Eric. Trans-Parent: Sexual Politics in the Language of Emerson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.
      Clark, Keith. Black Manhood in James Baldwin, Ernest J. Gaines, and August Wilson. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.
      Clifford, Stephen P. Beyond the Heroic “I”: Reading Lawrence, Hemingway, and “Masculinity.” Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1998.
      Crain, Caleb. American Sympathy: Men, Friendship, and Literature in the New Nation. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.
      Dabakis, Melissa. Visualizing Labor in American Sculpture: Monuments, Manliness, and the Work Ethic, 1880–1935. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
      Dawahare, Anthony. “From No Man's Land to Mother-Land: Emasculation and Nationalism in Richard Wright's Depression Era Urban Novels.” African American Review33 no. 3 (1999) 451–466 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2901212
      Derrick, Scott. “Making a Heterosexual Man: Gender, Sexuality, and Narrative in the Fiction of Jack London.” In Rereading Jack London, edited by Leonard Cassuto and Jeanne Campbell Reesman. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.
      Dudley, David L. My Father's Shadow: Intergenerational Conflict in African American Men's Autobiography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.
      Edwards, Justin D. Exotic Journeys: Exploring the Erotics of U.S. Travel Literature, 1840–1930. Hanover: University of New Hampshire, 2001.
      Ellison, Julie. “The Gender of Transparency: Masculinity and the Conduct of Life.” American Literary History4 no. 4 (1992) 584–606 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alh/4.4.584
      Fliegelman, Jay. “Familial Politics, Seduction, and the Novel: The Anxious Agenda of an American Literary Culture.” In The American Revolution: Its Character and Limits, edited by Jack P. Greene. New York: New York University Press, 1987.
      Fone, Byrne R. S. Masculine Landscapes: Walt Whitman and the Homoerotic Text. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.
      Golden, Thelma. Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in Contemporary American Art. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1994.
      Griswold, Jerome. Audacious Kids: Coming of Age in America's Classic Children's Books. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
      Hendershot, Cyndy. The Animal Within: Masculinity and the Gothic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.
      Horner, Carl S. The Boy inside the American Businessman: Corporate Darwinism in Twentieth-Century American Literature. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1992.
      Jacobson, Marcia. Being a Boy Again: Autobiography and the American Boy Book. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994.
      Kelley, Mary. Private Woman, Public Stage: Literary Domesticity in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
      Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. Whitman's Poetry of the Body: Sexuality, Politics, and the Text. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
      Leverenz, David. Manhood and the American Renaissance. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.
      Martin, Robert K. Hero, Captain, Stranger: Male Friendship, Social Critique, and Literary Form in the Sea Novels of Herman Melville. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
      Martin, Stoddard. California Writers: Jack London, John Steinbeck, the Tough Guys. New York: St. Martin's, 1984.
      Melosh, Barabara. Engendering Culture: Manhood and Womanhood in New Deal Public Art and Theater. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
      Motley, Warren. The American Abraham: James Fenimore Cooper and the Frontier Patriarch. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
      Nelson, Robert K.Kenneth M. Price “Debating Manliness: Thomas Wentworth Higginson, William Sloane Kennedy, and the Question of Whitman.” American Literature73 (2001) 497–524 http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/00029831-73-3-497
      Pollak, Vivian R. The Erotic Whitman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
      Radway, Janice A. Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.
      Roskowski, Susan J. Birthing a Nation: Gender, Creativity, and the West in American Literature. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
      Samuels, Shirley, ed. The Culture of Sentiment: Race, Gender and Sentimentality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
      Sattelmeyer, Robert, and J. Donald Crowley, eds. One Hundred Years of Huckleberry Finn: The Boy, His Book, and American Culture. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1985.
      Savran, David. Communists, Cowboys, and Queers: The Politics of Masculinity in the Work of Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.
      Shamir, Milette, and Jennifer Travis, eds. Boys Don't Cry?: Rethinking Narratives of Masculinity and Emotion in the U.S. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
      Shor, Francis. “Power, Gender and Ideological Discourse in The Iron Heel.” In Rereading Jack London, edited by Leonard Cassuto and Jeanne Campbell Reesman. Stanford, Calif. Stanford University Press, 1996.
      Smith, Terry. In Visible Touch: Modernism and Masculinity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
      Snyder, Katherine. Bachelors, Manhood, and the Novel, 1850–1925. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511485312
      Stevenson, Warren. Romanticism and the Androgynous Sublime. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.
      Sweeney, J. Gray. The Columbus of the Woods: Daniel Boone and the Typology of Manifest Destiny. St. Louis, Mo.: Washington University Gallery of Art, 1992.
      Tolchin, Neal L. Mourning, Gender, and Creativity in the Art of Herman Melville. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988.
      Vance, Norman. The Sinews of the Spirit: The Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
      Wadlington, Warwick. The Confidence Man in American Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
      Wallace, Maurice O. Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideality in African American Men's Literature and Culture, 1775–1995. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
      White, G. Edward. The Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience: The West of Frederic Remington, Theodore Roosevelt, and Owen Wister. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1968.
      Body, Emotion, and Health
      Balsamo, Anne. Technologies of the Gendered Body. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1996.
      Berrett, Jesse. “Feeding the Organization Man: Diet and Masculinity in Postwar America.” Journal of Social History30 no. 4 (Summer 1997) 805–826 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/30.4.805
      Bordo, Susan. The Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and Private. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
      Borish, Linda J. “The Robust Woman and the Muscular Christian: Catharine Beecher, Thomas Higginson, and Their Vision of American Society, Health, and Physical Activities.” International Journal of the History of Sport4 (1987) 139–154
      Budd, Michael Anton. The Sculpture Machine: Physical Culture and Body Politics in the Age of Empire. New York: New York University Press, 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230377127
      Burgett, Bruce. Sentimental Bodies: Sex, Gender, and Citizenship in the Early Republic. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.
      Chapman, David L. Adonis: The Male Physique Pin-Up, 1870–1940. Boston: Alyson Publications, 1989.
      Chapman, David L. Sandow the Magnificent: Eugen Sandow and the Beginnings of Bodybuilding. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
      Corrigan, John. Business of the Heart: Religion and Emotion in the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
      Daniels, Christine, and Michael V. Kennedy, eds. Over the Threshold: Intimate Violence in Early America. New York: Routledge, 1999.
      Dutton, Kenneth R. The Perfectible Body: The Western Ideal of Physical Development. New York: Continuum, 1995.
      Dyer, Richard. “The White Man's Muscles.” In The Masculinity Studies Reader, edited by Rachel Adams and David Savran. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
      Engelhardt, H. Tristram. “The Disease of Masturbation: Values and Concepts of Disease.” In Sickness and Health in America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.
      Epstein, Julia, and Kristine Straub, eds. Body Guards: The Cultural Politics of Gender Ambiguity. London: Routledge, 1991.
      Fair, John D. Muscletown USA: Bob Hoffman and the Manly Culture of York Barbell. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.
      Friedman, David M. A Mind of Its Own: A Cultural History of the Penis. New York: Free Press, 2001.
      Hall, Donald E., ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511659331
      Haller, John S., and Robin M. Haller The Physician and Sexuality in Victorian America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974.
      Kasson, John. Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.
      Kimmel, Michael. “Consuming Manhood: The Feminization of American Culture and the Recreation of the Male Body, 1832–1920.” Michigan Quarterly Review33 (1994) 7–36
      Klein, Alan M. Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.
      Krondorfer, Björn. Men's Bodies, Men's Gods: Male Identities in a Post-Christian Culture. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
      Laqueur, Thomas. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.
      Lehman, Peter. Running Scared: Masculinity and the Representation of the Male Body. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.
      Lehman, Peter, ed. Masculinity: Bodies, Movies, Culture. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Lord, Alexandra M. “Models of Masculinity: Sex Education, the United States Public Health Service, and the YMCA, 1919–1924.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences58 no. 2 (2003) 123–152 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhmas/58.2.123
      Lucas, John A. “Thomas Wentworth Higginson: Early Apostle of Health and Fitness.” Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation42 (February 1971) 30–33
      Luciano, Lynne. Looking Good: Male Body Image in Modern America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.
      Money, John. The Destroying Angel: Sex, Fitness and Food in the Legacy of Degeneracy Theory: Graham Crackers, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, and American Health History. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1985.
      Pope, Harrison G., Katharine A. Phillips, and Roberto Olivardia The Adonis Complex: The Secret Crisis of Male Body Obsession. New York: Free Press, 2000.
      Putney, Clifford. Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.
      Shamir, Milette, and Jennifer Travis, eds. Boys Don't Cry?: Rethinking Narratives of Masculinity and Emotion in the U.S. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
      Smith, Geoffrey. “National Security and Personal Isolation: Sex, Gender, and Disease in the Cold-War United States.” International History Review14 (May 1992) 307–337 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07075332.1992.9640616
      Sokolow, Jayme. Eros and Modernization: Sylvester Graham, Health Reform, and the Origins of Victorian Sexuality in America. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1983.
      Stearns, Carol Zisowitz, and Peter N. Stearns Anger: The Struggle for Emotional Control in America's History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
      Stearns, Peter N. “Girls, Boys, and Emotions: Redefinitions and Historical Change.” Journal of American History80 (1993) 36–68 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2079697
      Stearns, Peter N. Battle Ground of Desire: The Struggle for Self-Control in Modern America. New York: New York University Press, 1999.
      Tasker, Yvonne. Spectacular Bodies: Gender, Genre and the Action Cinema. London: Routledge, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203221846
      Toon, ElizabethJanet Golden “‘Live Clean, Think Clean, and Don't Go to Burlesque Shows’: Charles Atlas as Health Advisor.” Journal of the History of Medicine57 (January 2002) 39–60
      Wharton, James C. “Muscular Vegetarianism: The Debate Over Diet and Athletic Performance in the Progressive Era.” Journal of Sport History8 (Spring 1981) 58–75
      Business, Technology, and Work
      Allmendinger, Blake. The Cowboy: Representations of Labor in American Work Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
      Aron, Cindy Sondik. Ladies and Gentlemen of the Civil Service: Middle-Class Workers in Victorian America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
      Baron, Ava, ed. Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991.
      Blewett, Mary H. Men, Women, and Work: Class, Gender, and Protest in the New England Shoe Industry, 1780–1910. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
      Catano, James V. “The Rhetoric of Masculinity: Origins, Institutions, and the Myth of the Self-Made Man.” College English52 no. 4 (1990) 421–436 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/377660
      Cawelti, John. Apostles of the Self-Made Man: Changing Concepts of Success in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
      Cooper, Patricia A. Once a Cigar Maker: Men, Women, and Work Culture in American Cigar Factories, 1900–1919. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
      Dabakis, Melissa. Visualizing Labor in American Sculpture: Monuments, Manliness, and the Work Ethic, 1880–1935. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
      Daniels, Christine. “From Father to Son: Economic Roots of Craft Dynasties in Eighteenth-Century Maryland.” In American Artisans: Crafting Social Identity, 1750–1850, edited by Howard B. Rock, et al. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.
      Davis, Clark. Company Men: White-Collar Life and Corporate Cultures in Los Angeles, 1892–1941. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
      Davis, Clark. “The Corporate Reconstruction of Middle-Class Manhood.” In The Middling Sorts: Explorations in the History of the American Middle Class, edited by Burton Bledstein and Robert Johnson. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      DeVault, Ileen A. “To Sit among Men: Skill, Gender, and Craft Unionism in the Early American Federation of Labor.” In Labor Histories: Class, Politics, and the Working-Class Experience, edited by Eric Arnesen, et al. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
      Ditz, Toby L. “Shipwrecked; or Masculinity Imperiled: Mercantile Representations of Failure and the Gendered Self in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia.” Journal of American History81 (1994) 51–80 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2080993
      Halle, David. America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics among Blue-Collar Property Owners. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
      Hilkey, Judy. Character Is Capital: Success Manuals and Manhood in Gilded Age America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
      Horner, Carl S. The Boy inside the American Businessman: Corporate Darwinism in Twentieth-Century American Literature. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1992.
      Horowitz, Roger, ed. Boys and Their Toys: Masculinity, Class, and Technology in America. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Kessler-Harris, Alice. In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
      Kilmer, Paulette D. The Fear of Sinking: The American Success Formula in the Gilded Age. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996.
      Kwolek-Folland, Angel. Engendering Business: Men and Women in the Corporate Office, 1870–1930. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
      Lewchuk, Wayne A. “Men and Monotony: Fraternalism as a Managerial Strategy at the Ford Motor Company.” Journal of Economic History5 no. 4 (1993) 824–856
      Milkman, Ruth. Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation By Sex During World War II. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
      Oldenziel, Ruth. Making Technology Masculine: Men, Women, and Modern Machines in America, 1870–1945. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789053563816
      Peter, GregoryMichael Mayerfield BellSusan JarnaginDonna Bauer “Coming Back across the Fence: Masculinity and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture.” Rural Sociology65 no. 2 (2000) 215–233 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2000.tb00026.x
      Sandage, Scott A. “Gender and the Economics of the Sentimental Market in Nineteenth-Century America.” Social Politics6 no. 2 (1999) 105–130 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sp/6.2.105
      Class Identities
      Appy, Christian. Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
      Aron, Cindy Sondik. Ladies and Gentlemen of the Civil Service: Middle-Class Workers in Victorian America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
      Blewett, Mary H. Men, Women, and Work: Class, Gender, and Protest in the New England Shoe Industry, 1780–1910. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
      Butsch, Richard. “Class and Gender in Four Decades of Television Situation Comedy: Plus ca Change …” Critical Studies in Mass Communication9 (1992) 387–399 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039209366841
      Carman, Bryan K. A Race of Singers: Whitman's Working-Class Hero from Guthrie to Springsteen. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
      Clawson, Mary Ann. Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender, and Fraternalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
      Daniels, Jessie. White Lies: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in White Supremacist Discourse. New York: Routledge, 1997.
      Davis, Clark. “The Corporate Reconstruction of Middle-Class Manhood.” In The Middling Sorts: Explorations in the History of the American Middle Class, edited by Burton Bledstein and Robert Johnson. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Halttunen, Karen. Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830–1870. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982.
      Herman, Daniel J. “The Other Daniel Boone: The Nascence of a Middle-Class Hunter Hero, 1784–1860.” Journal of the Early Republic18 no. 3 (1998) 429–457 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3124673
      Horowitz, Roger, ed. Boys and Their Toys: Masculinity, Technology, and Class in America. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Kasson, John F. Rudeness and Civility: Manners in Nineteenth-Century Urban America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1990.
      Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
      Peña, Manuel. “Class, Gender, and Machismo: The ‘Treacherous-Woman’ Folklore of Mexican Male Workers.” Gender & Society5 (1991) 30–46
      Powers, Madelon. Faces along the Bar: Lore and Order in the Workingman's Saloon, 1870–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
      Roediger, David. Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London: Verso, 1991.
      Rosenberg, Charles E. “Sexuality, Class and Role in 19th-Century America.” American Quarterly25 no. 2 (1973) 131–153 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2711594
      Ryan, Mary. Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790–1835. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
      Saxton, Alexander. The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Verso, 1990.
      Sutton, William R. Journeymen for Jesus: Evangelical Artisans Confront Capitalism in Jacksonian Baltimore. New York: Garland, 1998.
      Traube, Elizabeth. Dreaming Identities: Class, Gender, and Generation in 1980s American Movies. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992.
      Winter, Thomas. Making Men, Making Class: The YMCA and Workingmen, 1877–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
      Consumption and Leisure
      Breazeale, Keanon. “In Spite of Women: Esquire Magazine and the Construction of the Male Consumer.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society20 no. 1 (1994) 1–22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494952
      Edwards, Tim. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashions and Consumer Society. London: Cassell, 1997.
      Herman, Daniel Justin. Hunting and the American Imagination. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.
      Osgersby, Bill. Playboys in Paradise: Masculinity, Youth, and Leisure-Style in Modern America. Oxford: Berg, 2001.
      Ownby, Ted. Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South, 1865–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
      Paoletti, Jo B. “Ridicule and Role Models as Factors in American Men's Fashion Change, 1880–1910.” Costume19 (1985) 121–134
      Paoletti, Jo B. “Clothing and Gender in America: Children's Fashions, 1890–1920.” Signs13 no. 1 (1987) 136–143 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494390
      Parsons, Elaine Franz. “Risky Business: The Uncertain Boundaries of Manhood in the Midwestern Saloon.” Journal of Social History34 no. 2 (Winter 2000) 283–307 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh.2000.0156
      Proctor, Nicolas W. Bathed in Blood: Hunting and Mastery in the Old South. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.
      Powers, Madelon. Faces along the Bar: Lore and Order in the Workingman's Saloon, 1870–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
      Swiencicki, Mark A. “Consuming Brotherhood: Men's Culture, Style, and Recreation as Consumer Culture, 1880–1930.” Journal of Social History31 no. 4 (1998) 773–809 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/31.4.773
      Ethnic and Racial Identities
      Ames, Christopher. “Restoring the Black Man's Lethal Weapon: Race and Sexuality in Contemporary Cop Films.” Journal of Popular Film and Television20 no. 3 (1992) 52–60 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01956051.1992.9944228
      Anderson, Warwick. “The Trespass Speaks: White Masculinity and Colonial Breakdown.” American Historical Review102 no. 5 (1997) 1343–1370 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2171066
      Baca Zinn, Maxine. “Chicano Men and Masculinity.” Journal of Ethnic Studies10 (Spring 1982) 29–44
      Becker, William H. “The Black Church: Manhood and Mission.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion40 no. 3 (1972) 316–333
      Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
      Black, Daniel P. Dismantling Black Manhood: An Historical and Literary Analysis of the Legacy of Slavery. New York: Garland, 1997.
      Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. 3rd ed. Oxford: Roundhouse, 1994.
      Booker, Christopher B. “I Will Wear No Chain”: A Social History of African American Males. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.
      Boyarin, Daniel. Unheroic Conduct: The Rise of Heterosexuality and the Invention of the Jewish Man. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
      Boyd, Herb, and Robert Allen, eds. Brotherman: The Odyssey of Black Men in America. New York: Fawcett, 1996.
      Breines, Paul. Tough Jews: Political Fantasies and the Moral Dilemma of American Jewry. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
      Brod, Harry, ed. A Mensch among Men: Explorations in Jewish Masculinity. Freedom, Calif.: Crossing Press, 1988.
      Brown, Kathleen M. “The Anglo-Algonquian Gender Frontier.” In American Indians, edited by Nancy Shoemaker. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2001.
      Carbado, Devon. Black Men on Race, Gender, and Sexuality: A Critical Reader. New York: New York University Press, 1999.
      Clark, Keith. Black Manhood in James Baldwin, Ernest J. Gaines, and August Wilson. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.
      Cohen, Rich. Tough Jews: Fathers, Sons, and Gangster Dreams. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
      Daniels, Jessie. White Lies: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in White Supremacist Discourse. New York: Routledge, 1997.
      Dawahare, Anthony. “From No Man's Land to Mother-Land: Emasculation and Nationalism in Richard Wright's Depression Era Urban Novels.” African American Review33 no. 3 (Fall 1999) 451–466 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2901212
      Devens, Carol. “Separate Confrontations: Gender as a Factor in Indian Adaptation to European Colonization.” American Quarterly38 (1986) 461–480 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2712677
      Díaz, Rafael M. Latino Gay Men and HIV: Culture, Sexuality, and Risk Behavior. New York: Routledge, 1998.
      Doss, Erika. “Imaging the Panthers: Representing Black Power and Masculinity, 1960s–1990s.” Prospects23 (1998) 483–516 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0361233300006438
      Dudley, David L. My Father's Shadow: Intergenerational Conflict in African American Men's Autobiography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.
      Dyer, Richard. “The White Man's Muscles.” In The Masculinity Studies Reader, edited by Rachel Adams and David Savran. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
      Dyer, Thomas G. Theodore Roosevelt and the Idea of Race. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980.
      Eng, David L. Racial Castration: Managing Masculinity in Asian America. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001.
      Ferber, Abby L. White Man Falling: Race, Gender, and White Supremacy. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
      Ferguson, Ann Arnett. Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.
      Gayfield, Donnie. “On the Periphery of Manhood: The African American Community's Marginalization of Black Male Homosexuality.” The 2000 Berkeley McNair Research Journal (Winter 2000). <http://www-mcnair.berkeley.edu/2000journal/Gayfield/Gayfield.html> (April 9, 2003).
      Golden, Thelma. Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in Contemporary American Art. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1994.
      González, Ray, ed. Muy Macho: Latino Men Confront Their Manhood. New York: Anchor Books, 1996.
      Guerrero, Ed. “The Black Image in Protective Custody: Hollywood's Biracial Buddy Films of the Eighties.” In Black American Cinema, edited by Manthia Diawara. New York: Routledge, 1993.
      Harper, Phillip Brian. Are We Not Men? Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African American Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
      Hawkeswood, William G., and Alex W. Costley, eds. One of the Children: Gay Black Men in Harlem. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
      Hine, Darlene Clark, Earnestine Jenkins, and Bill Strickland A Question of Manhood: A Reader in U.S. Black Men's History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.
      Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. “Overcoming Patriarchal Constraints: The Reconstruction of Gender Relations among Mexican Immigrant Women and Men.” Gender & Society6 (1992) 393–415 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124392006003004
      Horton, James Oliver. “The Manhood of the Race: Gender and the Language of Black Protest in the Antebellum North.” <http://www.law.yale.edu/outside/pdf/centers/sc/Horton-Manhood.pdf> (July 7, 2003).
      Kimmel, MichaelAbby L. Ferber “White Men Are This Nation: Right-Wing Militias and the Restoration of Rural American Masculinity.” Rural Sociology65 no. 4 (2000) 582–604 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2000.tb00045.x
      Ling, Peter J., and Sharon Monteith, eds. Gender in the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Garland, 1999.
      Littlefield, Daniel C. “Blacks, John Brown, and a Theory of Manhood.” In His Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid, edited by Paul Finkelman. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.
      Martel, Elise. “From Mensch to Macho? The Social Construction of a Jewish Masculinity.” Men and Masculinities3 no. 4 (2001) 347–369 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X01003004001
      Matthews, Tracye. “‘No One Ever Asks, What a Man's Role in the Revolution is’: Gender and the Politics of The Black Panther Party, 1966–1971.” In The Black Panther Party Reconsidered, edited by Charles E. Jones. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1998.
      McDannell, Colleen. “Catholic Domesticity, 1860–1960.” In Religion and American Culture: A Reader, edited by David G. Hackett. New York: Routledge, 1995.
      Mirandé, Alfredo. Hombres y Machos: Masculinity and Latino Culture. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997.
      Mjagkij, Nina. Light In The Darkness: African Americans and the YMCA, 1852–1946. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1994.
      Muncy, Robyn. “Trustbusting and White Manhood in America, 1898–1914.” American Studies38 (Fall 1997) 21–42
      Peña, Manuel. “Class, Gender, and Machismo: The ‘Treacherous-Woman’ Folklore of Mexican Male Workers.” Gender & Society5 (1991) 30–46
      Pfeil, Fred. White Guys: Studies in Postmodern Domination and Difference. London: Verso, 1995.
      Prell, Riv-Ellen. Fighting to Become American: Assimilation and the Trouble between Jewish Women and Jewish Men. Boston: Beacon, 1999.
      Ramírez, Rafael L. What It Means to Be a Man: Reflections on Puerto Rican Masculinity. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1999.
      Robinson, Sally. Marked Men: White Masculinity in Crisis. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
      Roediger, David. Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London: Verso, 1991.
      Rogin, Michael Paul. Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian. New York: Knopf, 1974.
      Savran, David. Taking It Like a Man: White Masculinity, Masochism, and Contemporary American Culture. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.
      Saxton, Alexander. The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Verso, 1990.
      Shenk, Gerald E. “Race, Manhood, and Manpower: Mobilizing Rural Georgia for World War I.” Georgia Historical Quarterly81 no. 3 (1997) 622–662
      Shoemaker, Nancy. “An Alliance between Men: Gender Metaphors in Eighteenth-Century American Indian Diplomacy East of the Mississippi.” Ethnohistory46 (Spring 1999) 239–263
      Somerville, Siobhan B. Queering the Color Line: Race and the Invention of Homosexuality in American Culture. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000.
      Spraggins, Johnnie David, Jr. “African American Masculinity: Power and Expression.” Journal of African American Men4 (Winter 1999) 45–72
      Stecopoulos, Harry, and Michael Uebel Race and the Subject of Masculinities. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997.
      Thomas, Kendall. “‘Ain't Nothing' Like the Real Thing’: Black Masculinity, Gay Sexuality, and the Jargon of Authenticity.” In The House That Race Built, edited by Wahneema Lubiana. New York: Vintage, 1998.
      Tillner, George. “Masculinity and Xenophobia: The Identity of Dominance.”Paper presented at UNESCO conference. Masculinity and Male Roles in the Perspective of a Culture of Peace, September 1997. <http://mailbox.univie.ac.at/tillneg8/xenomale/OSLO.html> (March 28, 2003).
      Wallace, Maurice O. Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideality in African American Men's Literature and Culture, 1775–1995. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
      Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. “The Mask of Obedience: Male Slave Psychology in the Old South.” American Historical Review93 (1988) 1228–1252 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1873537
      Family, Fatherhood, and Marriage
      Bardaglio, Peter W. Reconstructing the Household: Families, Sex, and Law in the Nineteenth-Century South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
      Bertolini, Vincent J. “Fireside Chastity: The Erotics of Sentimental Bachelorhood in the 1850s.” American Literature68 no. 4 (1996) 707–737 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2928135
      Cantor, M. G. “Prime-Time Fathers: A Study in Continuity and Change.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication7 (1990) 275–285 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360179
      Carew-Miller, Anna. “The Language of Domesticity in Crèvecoeur's Letters from an American Farmer.” Early American Literature28 (1993) 242–254
      Carroll, Bret E. “‘I Must Have My House in Order’: The Victorian Fatherhood of John Shoebridge Williams.” Journal of Family History24 no. 3 (1999) 275–304 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/036319909902400303
      Chudacoff, Howard. The Age of the Bachelor: Creating an American Subculture. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999.
      Coontz, Stephanie. The Social Origins of Private Life: A History of American Families, 1600–1900. New York: Verso, 1988.
      Coontz, Stephanie. The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap. New York: Basic Books, 1992.
      Daniels, Christine, and Michael V. Kennedy, eds. Over the Threshold: Intimate Violence in Early America. New York: Routledge, 1999.
      Demos, John. “The Changing Faces of Fatherhood.” In Past, Present, and Personal: The Family and the Life Course in American History, edited by John Demos. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
      Dixon, Chris. Perfecting the Family: Antislavery Marriages in Nineteenth-Century America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.
      Edwards, Laura F. “The Politics of Marriage and Households in North Carolina during Reconstruction.” In Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights, edited by Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000.
      Fishburne, Janet Forsythe. The Fatherhood of God and the Victorian Family: The Social Gospel in America. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981.
      Fliegelman, Jay. Prodigals and Pilgrims: The American Revolution against Patriarchal Authority, 1750–1800. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
      Fliegelman, Jay. “Familial Politics, Seduction, and the Novel: The Anxious Agenda of an American Literary Culture.” In The American Revolution: Its Character and Limits, edited by Jack P. Greene. New York: New York University Press, 1987.
      Foster, Thomas A. “Deficient Husbands: Manhood, Sexual Incapacity, and Male Marital Sexuality in Seventeenth-Century New England.” William and Mary Quarterly56 (October 1999) 723–744 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2674233
      Frank, Stephen M. Life with Father: Parenthood and Masculinity in the Nineteenth-Century American North. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
      Gelber, Steven M. “Do-It-Yourself: Constructing, Repairing, and Maintaining Domestic Masculinity.” American Quarterly49 no. 1 (1997) 66–113 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/aq.1997.0007
      Griswold, Robert L. “Law, Sex, Cruelty, and Divorce in Victorian America, 1840–1900.” American Quarterly38 no. 5 (1986) 721–745 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2712820
      Griswold, Robert L. Fatherhood in America: A History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
      Gutiérrez, Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991.
      Hobson, Barbara, ed. Making Men into Fathers: Men, Masculinities, and the Social Politics of Fatherhood. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489440
      Jabour, Anya. Marriage in the Early Republic: Elizabeth and William Wirt and the Companionate Ideal. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
      Johansen, Shawn. Family Men: Middle-Class Fatherhood in Early Industrializing America. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      LaRossa, Ralph. The Modernization of Fatherhood: A Social and Political History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
      Leibman, Nina C. Living Room Lectures: The Fifties Family in Film and Television. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.
      Lupton, Deborah, and Lesley Barclay Constructing Fatherhood: Discourses and Experiences. London: Sage, 1997.
      Lystra, Karen. Searching the Heart: Women, Men, and Romantic Love in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
      Marsh, Margaret. “Suburban Men and Masculine Domesticity, 1870–1915.” American Quarterly40 (June 1988) 165–186 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713066
      May, Elaine Tyler. Great Expectations: Marriage and Divorce in Post-Victorian America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
      May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. New York: Basic Books, 1988.
      McDannell, Colleen. The Christian Home in Victorian America, 1840–1900. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
      Mintz, Steven. A Prison of Expectations: The Family in Victorian Culture. New York: New York University Press, 1985.
      Mintz, Steven. “Mothers and Fathers in America: Looking Backward, Looking Forward.” Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, 2001. <http://www.gliah.uh.edu/historyonline/mothersfathers.cfm> (July 7, 2003).
      Mintz, Steven, and Susan Kellogg Domestic Revolutions: A Social History of American Family Life. New York: Free Press, 1988.
      Murray, Mary. The Law of the Father: Patriarchy in the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism. London: Routledge, 1995.
      Nelson, Claudia. Invisible Men: Fatherhood in Victorian Periodicals, 1850–1910. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.
      Parke, Ross D., and Peter N. Stearns “Fathers and Child Rearing.” In Children in Time and Place: Developmental and Historical Insights, edited by Glen H. Elder, Jr., John Modell, and Ross D. Parke. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
      Pleck, Elizabeth H., and Joseph H. Pleck “Fatherhood Ideals in the United States: Historical Dimensions.” In The Role of the Father in Child Development, edited by Michael E. Lamb. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 1997.
      Robson, David W. “The Republican Father: The Family Letters of Charles Nisbet.” In The American Family: Historical Perspectives, edited by Jean E. Hunter and Paul T. Mason. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Duquesne University Press, 1991.
      Rogin, Michael Paul. “Kiss Me Deadly: Communism, Motherhood, and Cold War Movies.” In Ronald Reagan, the Movie, and Other Episodes in Political Demonology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
      Rotundo, E. Anthony. “American Fatherhood: A Historical Perspective.” American Behavioral Scientist29 (1985) 7–23 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276485029001003
      Ruppel, Tim. “Gender Training: Male Ambition, Domestic Duties, and Failure in the Magazine Fiction of T. S. Arthur.” Prospects24 (1999) 311–337 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0361233300000405
      Ryan, Mary. Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790–1835. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
      Snyder, Katherine. Bachelors, Manhood, and the Novel, 1850–1925. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511485312
      Terry, Jennifer. “‘Momism’ and the Making of Treasonous Homosexuals.” In “Bad” Mothers: The Politics of Blame in Twentieth-Century America, edited by Molly Ladd-Taylor and Lauri Umansky. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Wallach, Glenn. Obedient Sons: The Discourse of Youth and Generations in American Culture, 1630–1860. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.
      Wexler, Laura. Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U.S. Imperialism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
      Wilson, Lisa. Ye Heart of a Man: The Domestic Life of Men in Colonial New England. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
      Zagarri, Rosemarie. “Morals, Manners, and the Republican Mother.” American Quarterly44 (June 1992) 192–215 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713040
      General Anthologies, Histories, and Reference
      Adams, Rachel, and David Savran, eds. The Masculinity Studies Reader. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2002.
      August, Eugene. The New Men's Studies: A Selected and Annotated Interdisciplinary Bibliography. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1994.
      Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
      Booker, Christopher B. “I Will Wear No Chain”: A Social History of African American Males. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.
      Brod, Harry, ed. The Making of Masculinities: The New Men's Studies. Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1987.
      Carnes, Mark C., and Clyde Griffen, eds. Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
      Ehrenreich, Barbara. The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1983.
      Faludi, Susan. Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man. New York: William Morrow, 1999.
      Filene, Peter Gabriel. Him/Her/Self: Sex Roles in Modern America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
      Gilmore, David D. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.
      Kimmel, Michael. Changing Men: New Directions in Research on Men and Masculinity. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1987.
      Kimmel, Michael. Manhood in America: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1996.
      Kimmel, Michael, and Michael A. Messner Men's Lives. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2000.
      Mangan, J. A., and J. Walvin, eds. Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1987.
      McCall, Laura, and Donald Yacovone, eds. A Shared Experience: Men, Women, and the History of Gender. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Morgan, David. “Masculinity, Autobiography, and History.” Gender & History2 no. 1 (1990) 34–39
      Mosse, George L. The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
      Pleck, Elizabeth H., and Joseph H. Pleck, eds. The American Man. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1980.
      Pleck, Joseph H., and Jack Sawyer, eds. Men and Masculinity. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1974.
      Pugh, David G. Sons of Liberty: The Masculine Mind in Nineteenth-Century America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.
      Rotundo, E. Anthony. “Body and Soul: Changing Ideals of American Middle-Class Manhood, 1770–1920.” Journal of Social History16 (1983) 23–38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/16.4.23
      Rotundo, E. Anthony. American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
      Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America. New York: Knopf, 1985.
      Stearns, Peter N. BE A MAN!: Males in Modern Society. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1979.
      Traister, Bryce. “Academic Viagra: The Rise of American Masculinity Studies.” American Quarterly52 (June 2000) 274–304 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/aq.2000.0025
      Urschel, Joanne K. “Men's Studies and Women's Studies: Commonality, Dependence, and Independence.” Journal of Men's Studies (Spring 2000) 407–411.
      Icons and Symbols
      Allmendinger, Blake. The Cowboy: Representations of Labor in American Work Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
      Bivins, Thomas H. “The Body Politic: The Changing Shape of Uncle Sam.” Journalism Quarterly64 no. 1 (1987) 13–20 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908706400102
      Carman, Bryan K. A Race of Singers: Whitman's Working-Class Hero from Guthrie to Springsteen. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
      Davis, Ronald L. Duke: The Life and Image of John Wayne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
      Hay, Robert P. “George Washington: American Moses.” American Quarterly21 (1969) 780–791 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2711609
      Holzer, Harold. “‘Columbia's Noblest Sons’: Washington and Lincoln in Popular Prints.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association15 (1994) 23–69
      Lindgren, James M. “Pater Patriae: George Washington as Symbol and Artifact.” American Quarterly41 (1989) 705–713 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713102
      McCann, Graham. Rebel Males: Clift, Brando and Dean. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1993.
      McDonald, Forrest. “Presidential Character: The Example of George Washington.” Perspectives on Political Science26 (1997) 134–139 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10457099709600670
      Miroff, Bruce. Icons of Democracy: American Leaders as Heroes, Aristocrats, Dissenters, and Democrats. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
      Oates, Stephen B. “Lincoln: The Man, the Myth.” Civil War Times Illustrated22 no. 10 (1984) 10–19
      Rabinowitz, Howard N. “George Washington as Icon.” In Icons in America, edited by Ray B. Browne and Marshall Fishwick. Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Press, 1978.
      Roberts, Randy, and James S. Olson John Wayne: American. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
      Ruth, David E. Inventing the Public Enemy: The Gangster in American Culture, 1918–1934. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
      Savage, William W. The Cowboy Hero: His Image in American History and Culture. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979.
      Schwartz, Barry. “George Washington and the Whig Conception of Heroic Leadership.” American Sociological Review48 (1983) 18–33 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095142
      Schwartz, Barry. “The Character of Washington: A Study in Republican Culture.” American Quarterly38 (1986) 202–222 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2712850
      Schwartz, Barry. George Washington: The Making of an American Symbol. New York: Free Press, 1987.
      Schwartz, Barry. “Iconography and Collective Memory: Lincoln's Image in the American Mind.” Sociological Quarterly32 no. 3 (1991) 301–319 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1991.tb00161.x
      Sklar, Robert. City Boys: Cagney, Bogart, Garfield. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992.
      Susman, Warren I. “Culture Heroes: Ford, Barton, Ruth.” In Culture as History: The Transformation of Society in the Twentieth Century, edited by Warren I. Sussman. New York: Pantheon, 1984.
      Sweeney, J. Gray. The Columbus of the Woods: Daniel Boone and the Typology of Manifest Destiny. St. Louis, Mo.: Washington University Gallery of Art, 1992.
      Wadlington, Warwick. The Confidence Man in American Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
      Wick, Wendy C. George Washington: An American Icon. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1982.
      Winkle, Kenneth J. “Abraham Lincoln: Self-Made Man.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association21 no. 2 (2000) 1–16
      Wyllie, Irvin G. The Self-Made Man in America: The Myth of Rags to Riches. New York: Free Press, 1966.
      Media and Popular Culture
      Ames, Christopher. “Restoring the Black Man's Lethal Weapon: Race and Sexuality in Contemporary Cop Films.” Journal of Popular Film and Television20 no. 3 (1992) 52–60 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01956051.1992.9944228
      Bingham, Dennis. Acting Male: Masculinities in the Films of James Stewart, Jack Nicholson, and Clint Eastwood. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
      Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. 3rd ed. Oxford: Roundhouse, 1994.
      Browne, Ray B., Marshall Fishwick, and Michael T. Marsden, eds. Heroes of Popular Culture. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972.
      Butsch, Richard. “Class and Gender in Four Decades of Television Situation Comedy: Plus ca Change …” Critical Studies in Mass Communication9 (1992) 387–399 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039209366841
      Cantor, M. G. “Prime-Time Fathers: A Study in Continuity and Change.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication7 (1990) 275–285 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360179
      Carman, Bryan K. A Race of Singers: Whitman's Working-Class Hero from Guthrie to Springsteen. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
      Cassell, Justine, and Henry Jenkins, eds. From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998.
      Cohan, Steven. Masked Men: Masculinity and the Movies in the Fifties. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.
      Cohan, Steven, and Ina Rae Hark, eds. Screening the Male: Exploring Masculinities in Hollywood Cinema. London: Routledge, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203142219
      Craig, Steve. Men, Masculinity, and the Media. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1992.
      Craig, Steve. “More (Male) Power: Humor and Gender in Home Improvement.” The Mid-Atlantic Almanack5 (1996) 61–84
      Davies, Jude, and Carol R. Smith Gender, Ethnicity, and Sexuality in Contemporary American Film. Edinburgh: Keele University Press, 1997.
      Davis, Robert Murray. Playing Cowboys: Low Culture and High Art in the Western. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
      DeAngelis, Michael. Gay Fandom and Crossover Stardom: James Dean, Mel Gibson, and Keanu Reeves. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001.
      Delamater, Jerome, and Ruth Prigozy, eds. The Detective in American Fiction, Film, and Television. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.
      Dines, Gail, and Jean M. Humez, eds. Gender, Race, and Class in the Media: A Text Reader. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1995.
      Ehrenstein, David. Open Secret: Gay Hollywood, 1928–1998. New York: William Morrow, 1998.
      Greene, Theodore. America's Heroes: The Changing Models of Success in American Magazines. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
      Gross, Larry. Up from Invisibility: Lesbians, Gay Men, and the Media in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
      Guerrero, Ed. “The Black Image in Protective Custody: Hollywood's Biracial Buddy Films of the Eighties.” In Black American Cinema, edited by Manthia Diawara. New York: Routledge, 1993.
      Holzer, Harold. “‘Columbia's Noblest Sons’: Washington and Lincoln in Popular Prints.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association15 (1994) 23–69
      Ibson, John. Picturing Men: A Century of Male Relationships in American Everyday Photography. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002.
      Jeffords, Susan. Hard Bodies: Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
      King, Neal. Heroes in Hard Times: Cop Action Movies in the U.S. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.
      Kirkham, Pat, and Janet Thumim, eds. You Tarzan: Masculinity, Movies, and Men. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.
      Kirkham, Pat, and Janet Thumim, eds. Me Jane: Masculinity, Movies, and Women. New York: St. Martin's, 1995.
      Krutnik, Frank. In a Lonely Street: Film Noir, Genre, Masculinity. London: Routledge, 1991.
      Lehman, Peter, ed. Masculinity: Bodies, Movies, Culture. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Leibman, Nina C. Living Room Lectures: The Fifties Family in Film and Television. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.
      Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
      Luhr, William. “The Scarred Woman behind the Gun: Gender, Race, and History in Recent Westerns.” Bilingual Review20 no. 1 (1995) 37–42
      MacKinnon, Kenneth. Love, Tears, and the Male Spectator. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002.
      McCann, Graham. Rebel Males: Clift, Brando, and Dean. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1993.
      McDonald, Archie P., ed. Shooting Stars: Heroes and Heroines of Western Film. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
      McEachern, Charmaine. “Bringing the Wildman Back Home: Television and the Politics of Masculinity.” Australian Journal of Media & Culture (1994) 1–15.
      Mellen, Patricia. Big Bad Wolves: Masculinity in the American Film. New York: Pantheon, 1977.
      Mitchell, Lee Clark. Westerns: Making the Man in Fiction and Film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
      Munby, Jonathan. Public Enemies, Public Heroes: Screening the Gangster from Little Caesar to Touch of Evil. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
      Ownby, Ted. “Freedom, Manhood, and Male Tradition in 1970's Southern Rock Music.” In Haunted Bodies: Gender and Southern Texts, edited by Anne Goodwyn Jones and Susan V. Donaldson. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1997.
      Pendergast, Tom. Creating the Modern Man: American Magazines and Consumer Culture, 1900–1950. Columbia University Press, 2000.
      Rogin, Michael Paul. “Kiss Me Deadly: Communism, Motherhood, and Cold War Movies.” In “Ronald Reagan,” the Movie, and Other Episodes in Political Demonology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
      Ruppel, Tim. “Gender Training: Male Ambition, Domestic Duties, and Failure in the Magazine Fiction of T. S. Arthur.” Prospects24 (1999) 311–337 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0361233300000405
      Russo, Vito. The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. Rev. ed New York: HarperCollins, 1987.
      Sklar, Robert. City Boys: Cagney, Bogart, Garfield. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992.
      Spoto, Donald. Camerado: Hollywood and the American Man. New York: New American Library, 1978.
      Studlar, Gaylyn. This Mad Masquerade: Stardom and Masculinity in the Jazz Age. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
      Tasker, Yvonne. Spectacular Bodies: Gender, Genre, and the Action Cinema. London: Routledge, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203221846
      Traube, Elizabeth. Dreaming Identities: Class, Gender, and Generation in 1980s American Movies. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992.
      Trice, Ashton D., and Samuel A. Holland, eds. Heroes, Antiheroes, and Dolts: Portrayals of Masculinity in American Popular Films, 1921–1999. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2001.
      Trujillo, N. “Hegemonic Masculinity on the Mound: Media Representations of Nolan Ryan and American Sports Culture.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication8 (1991) 290–308 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039109366799
      Yaquinto, Marilyn. Pump ‘Em Full of Lead: A Look at Gangsters on Film. New York: Twayne, 1998.
      Military and War
      Appy, Christian. Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
      Bristow, Nancy K. Making Men Moral: Social Engineering during the Great War. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
      Clinton, Catherine, and Nina Silber, eds. Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
      Cooper, PatriciaRuth Oldenziel “Cherished Classifications: Bathrooms and the Construction of Gender/Race on the Pennsylvania Railroad during World War II.” Feminist Studies25 no. 1 (1999) 7–41 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3216669
      Gibson, James William. Warrior Dreams: Violence and Manhood in Post-Vietnam America. New York: Hill & Wang, 1994.
      Goldstein, Joshua. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
      Higginbotham, Don. George Washington and the American Military Tradition. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985.
      Hoganson, Kristin. Fighting for American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998.
      Humphrey, Mary Ann. My Country, My Right to Serve: Experiences of Gay Men and Women in the Military, World War II to the Present. New York: HarperCollins, 1988.
      Jeffords, Susan. The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
      Kaplan, Laura Duban. “Woman as Caretaker: An Archetype That Supports Patriarchal Militarism.” Hypatia9 no. 2 (1994) 123–133 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1994.tb00436.x
      Milkman, Ruth. Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation By Sex During World War II. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
      Shenk, Gerald E. “Race, Manhood, and Manpower: Mobilizing Rural Georgia for World War I.” Georgia Historical Quarterly81 no. 3 (1997) 622–662
      Shilts, Randy. Conduct Unbecoming: Lesbians and Gays in the U.S. Military, Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.
      Whites, LeeAnn. The Civil War as a Crisis in Gender: Augusta, Georgia, 1860–1890. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.
      Willoughby, John. “The Sexual Behavior of American GIs During the Early Years of the Occupation of Germany.” The Journal of Military History62 no. 1 (1998) 155–174 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/120399
      Movements and Organizations
      Clatterbaugh, Kenneth. “Literature of the U.S. Men's Movement.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society25 (Spring 2000) 883–894 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/495485
      Clawson, Mary Ann. Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender, and Fraternalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
      Dorsey, Bruce. Reforming Men and Women: Gender in the Antebellum City. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2002.
      Gustav-Wrathall, John Donald. Take the Young Stranger by the Hand: Same-Sex Relations and the YMCA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
      Harding, Christopher, ed. Wingspan: Inside the Men's Movement. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.
      Hoganson, Kristin. “Garrisonian Abolitionists and the Rhetoric of Gender, 1850–1860.” American Quarterly45 (December 1993) 558–595 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713309
      Jesser, Clinton J. Fierce and Tender Men: Sociological Aspects of the Men's Movement. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996.
      Kimmel, Michael. The Politics of Manhood: Profeminist Men Respond to the Mythopoetic Men's Movement (and the Mythopoetic Leaders Answer). Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995.
      Ling, Peter J., and Sharon Monteith, eds. Gender in the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Garland, 1999.
      Lord, Alexandra M. “Models of Masculinity: Sex Education, the United States Public Health Service, and the YMCA, 1919–1924.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences58 no. 2 (2003) 123–152 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhmas/58.2.123
      MacLean, Nancy. Behind the Mask of Chivalry: The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
      Macleod, David I. “Act Your Age: Boyhood, Adolescence, and the Rise of the Boy Scouts of America.” Journal of Social History16 no. 2 (1983) 3–20 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/16.2.3
      Macleod, David I. Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870–1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.
      Mechling, Jay. On My Honor: Boy Scouts and the Making of American Youth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
      Messner, Michael A. Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1997.
      Mjagkij, Nina. Light in the Darkness: African Americans and the YMCA, 1852–1946. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1994.
      Mjagkij, Nina, and Margaret Spratt Men and Women Adrift: The YMCA and the YWCA in the City. New York: New York University Press, 1997.
      Schwalbe, Michael L. Unlocking the Iron Cage: The Men's Movement, Gender Politics, and American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
      Winter, Thomas. Making Men, Making Class: The YMCA and Workingmen, 1877–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
      Nationalism and Politics
      Anderson, Warwick. “The Trespass Speaks: White Masculinity and Colonial Breakdown.” American Historical Review102 no. 5 (1997) 1343–1370 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2171066
      Bercaw, Nancy, ed. Gender and the Southern Body Politic: Essays and Comments. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
      Bloch, Ruth H. “The Gendered Meanings of Virtue in Revolutionary America.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society13 no. 1 (1987) 37–58 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494385
      Boose, Linda. “Techno-Muscularity and the ‘Boy Eternal.’” In Cultures of United States Imperialism, edited by Amy Kaplan and Donald E. Pease. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993.
      Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
      Burgett, Bruce. Sentimental Bodies: Sex, Gender, and Citizenship in the Early Republic. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.
      Burstyn, Varda. The Rites of Men: Manhood, Politics, and the Culture of Sport. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.
      Cuordileone, Kyle A. “‘Politics in an Age of Anxiety’: Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity, 1949–1960.” Journal of American History87 (September 2000) 515–545 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2568762
      Dean, Robert D. Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
      Edwards, Laura F. Gendered Strife and Confusion: The Political Culture of Reconstruction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
      Edwards, Rebecca. Angels in the Machinery: Gender in American Party Politics from the Civil War to the Progressive Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
      Epstein, Barbara. “Anti-Communism, Homophobia, and the Construction of Masculinity in the Postwar U.S.” Critical Sociology20 (1994) 21–44 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089692059402000302
      Greenberg, Amy S. “A Gray-Eyed Man: Character, Appearance, and Filibustering.” Journal of the Early Republic20 (Winter 2000) 673–699 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3125011
      Hooper, Charlotte. Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
      Isenberg, Nancy. Sex and Citizenship in Antebellum America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
      Kann, Mark E. On the Man Question: Gender and Civic Virtue in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.
      Kann, Mark E. A Republic of Men: The American Founders, Gendered Language, and Patriarchal Politics. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Kann, Mark E. The Gendering of American Politics: Founding Mothers, Founding Fathers, and Political Patriarchy. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999.
      Lewis, Jan. “The Republican Wife: Virtue and Seduction in the Early Republic.” William and Mary Quarterly3 no. 44 (1987) 689–721
      Lockridge, Kenneth. On the Sources of Patriarchal Rage: The Commonplace Books of William Byrd and Thomas Jefferson and the Gendering of Power in the Eighteenth Century. New York: New York University Press, 1992.
      McCurry, Stephanie. Masters of Small Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the Political Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
      Mettler, Suzanne. Dividing Citizens: Gender and Federalism in New Deal Public Policy. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998.
      Milkman, Ruth. “Gender, Race, and the Welfare State: Government Work Programs from the 1930s to the Present.” Feminist Studies19 no. 2 (1993) 318–343
      Miroff, Bruce. Icons of Democracy: American Leaders as Heroes, Aristocrats, Dissenters, and Democrats. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
      Nagel, Joane. “Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations.” Ethnic and Racial Studies21 (March 1998) 245–269
      Nelson, Dana A. National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998.
      Norton, Mary Beth. Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society. New York: Knopf, 1996.
      Rogin, Michael Paul. “Kiss Me Deadly: Communism, Motherhood, and Cold War Movies.” In “Ronald Reagan,” the Movie, and Other Episodes in Political Demonology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
      Rose, Nancy E. “Discrimination against Women in New Deal Work Programs.” Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work5 no. 2 (1990) 23–45
      Sharp, Joanne P. “Gendering Nationhood: A Feminist Engagement With National Identity.” In Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality, edited by Nancy Duncan. London: Routledge, 1996.
      Smith, Geoffrey. “National Security and Personal Isolation: Sex, Gender, and Disease in the Cold-War United States.” International History Review14 (May 1992) 307–337 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07075332.1992.9640616
      Smith, Rogers. Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
      Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. “Domesticating ‘Virtue’: Coquettes and Revolutionaries in Young America.” In Literature and the Body, edited by Elaine Scarry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.
      Testi, Arnaldo. “The Gender of Reform Politics: Theodore Roosevelt and the Culture of Masculinity.” Journal of American History81 no. 4 (1995) 1509–1533 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2081647
      Wexler, Laura. Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U.S. Imperialism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
      Zagarri, Rosemarie. “Morals, Manners, and the Republican Mother.” American Quarterly44 (June 1992) 192–215 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713040
      Zalewski, Marysia, and Jane Parpart, eds. The “Man” Question in International Relations. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
      People
      Auerbach, Jonathan. Male Call: Becoming Jack London. Durham N.C.: Duke University Press, 1996.
      Bingham, Dennis. Acting Male: Masculinities in the Films of James Stewart, Jack Nicholson, and Clint Eastwood. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
      Butters, Ronald R. “Cary Grant and the Emergence of Gay ‘Homosexual.’” Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America19 (1998) 188–204
      Chapman, David L. Sandow the Magnificent: Eugen Sandow and the Beginnings of Bodybuilding. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
      Cheyfitz, Eric. Trans-Parent: Sexual Politics in the Language of Emerson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.
      Clark, Keith. Black Manhood in James Baldwin, Ernest J. Gaines, and August Wilson. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.
      Clifford, Stephen P. Beyond the Heroic “I”: Reading Lawrence, Hemingway, and “Masculinity.” Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1998.
      Cullen, Jim. Born in the USA: Bruce Springsteen and the American Tradition. Westview, Colo.: Harper-Perennial, 1997.
      Davis, Ronald L. Duke: The Life and Image of John Wayne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
      Dawahare, Anthony. “From No Man's Land to Mother-Land: Emasculation and Nationalism in Richard Wright's Depression Era Urban Novels.” African American Review33 no. 3 (1999) 451–466 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2901212
      DeAngelis, Michael. Gay Fandom and Crossover Stardom: James Dean, Mel Gibson, and Keanu Reeves. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001.
      Derrick, Scott. “Making a Heterosexual Man: Gender, Sexuality, and Narrative in the Fiction of Jack London.” In Rereading Jack London, edited by Leonard Cassuto and Jeanne Campbell Reesman. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.
      Dyer, Thomas G. Theodore Roosevelt and the Idea of Race. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980.
      Fone, Byrne R. S. Masculine Landscapes: Walt Whitman and the Homoerotic Text. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.
      Hay, Robert P. “George Washington: American Moses.” American Quarterly21 (1969) 780–791 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2711609
      Herman, Daniel J. “The Other Daniel Boone: The Nascence of a Middle-Class Hunter Hero, 1784–1860.” Journal of the Early Republic18 no. 3 (1998) 429–457 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3124673
      Higginbotham, Don. George Washington and the American Military Tradition. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985.
      Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. Whitman's Poetry of the Body: Sexuality, Politics, and the Text. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
      Lindgren, James M. “Pater Patriae: George Washington as Symbol and Artifact.” American Quarterly41 (1989) 705–713 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713102
      Lucas, John A. “Thomas Wentworth Higginson: Early Apostle of Health and Fitness.” Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation42 (February 1971) 30–33
      Martin, Robert F. “Billy Sunday and Christian Manliness.” The Historian58 no. 4 (1996) 811–812
      McCann, Graham. Rebel Males: Clift, Brando, and Dean. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1993.
      McDonald, Forrest. “Presidential Character: The Example of George Washington.” Perspectives on Political Science26 (1997) 134–139 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10457099709600670
      Motley, Warren. The American Abraham: James Fenimore Cooper and the Frontier Patriarch. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
      Oates, Stephen B. “Lincoln: The Man, the Myth.” Civil War Times Illustrated22 no. 10 (1984) 10–19
      Pollak, Vivian R. The Erotic Whitman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
      Rabinowitz, Howard N. “George Washington as Icon.” In Icons in America, edited by Ray B. Browne and Marshall Fishwick. Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Press, 1978.
      Roberts, Randy, and James S. Olson John Wayne: American. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
      Rogin, Michael Paul. Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian. New York: Knopf, 1974.
      Ruppel, Tim. “Gender Training: Male Ambition, Domestic Duties, and Failure in the Magazine Fiction of T. S. Arthur.” Prospects24 (1999) 311–337 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0361233300000405
      Sayen, William Guthrie. “George Washington's ‘Unmannerly’ Behavior: The Clash Between Civility and Honor.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography107 (1999) 5–36
      Schwartz, Barry. “George Washington and the Whig Conception of Heroic Leadership.” American Sociological Review48 (1983) 18–33 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095142
      Schwartz, Barry. “The Character of Washington: A Study in Republican Culture.” American Quarterly38 (1986) 202–222 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2712850
      Schwartz, Barry. George Washington: The Making of an American Symbol. New York: Free Press, 1987.
      Schwartz, Barry. “Iconography and Collective Memory: Lincoln's Image in the American Mind.” Sociological Quarterly32 no. 3 (1991) 301–319 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1991.tb00161.x
      Skandera-Trombley, Laura. Mark Twain in the Company of Women. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994.
      Sklar, Robert. City Boys: Cagney, Bogart, Garfield. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992.
      Stahl, J. D. Mark Twain, Culture, and Gender: Envisioning America through Europe. Athens: University of Georgia, 1994.
      Stoneley, Peter. Mark Twain and the Feminist Aesthetic. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
      Sweeney, J. Gray. The Columbus of the Woods: Daniel Boone and the Typology of Manifest Destiny. St. Louis, Mo.: Washington University Gallery of Art, 1992.
      Testi, Arnaldo. “The Gender of Reform Politics: Theodore Roosevelt and the Culture of Masculinity.” Journal of American History81 no. 4 (1995) 1509–1533 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2081647
      Townsend, Kim. Manhood at Harvard: William James and Others. New York: Norton, 1996.
      Wick, Wendy C. George Washington: An American Icon. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1982.
      Wills, Garry. Cincinnatus: George Washington and the Enlightenment. New York: Doubleday, 1984.
      Winkle, Kenneth J. “Abraham Lincoln: Self-Made Man.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association21 no. 2 (2000) 1–16
      Wood, Gordon S. “The Greatness of George Washington.” Virginia Quarterly Review68 (1992) 189–207
      Political and Social Issues
      Blumenthal, Monica, et al., eds. Justifying Violence: Attitudes of American Men. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1972.
      Boone, J., and M. Cadden Engendering Men: The Question of Male Feminist Criticism. London: Routledge, 1990.
      Clatterbaugh, Kenneth. Contemporary Perspectives on Masculinity: Men, Women, and Politics in Modern Society. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1997.
      Courtwright, David. Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder from the Frontier to the Inner City. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
      Digby, Tom, ed. Men Doing Feminism. New York: Routledge, 1998.
      Dubbert, Joe. “Progressivism and the Masculinity Crisis.” Psychoanalytic Review61 (Fall 1974) 433–455
      Faludi, Susan. Backlash: The Undeclared War against American Women. New York: Crown, 1991.
      Ferguson, Ann Arnett. Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.
      Fraser, John. America and the Patterns of Chivalry. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
      Gilbert, James. A Cycle of Outrage: America's Reaction to the Juvenile Delinquent in the 1950s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
      Gordon, Lynn D. Gender and Higher Education in the Progressive Era. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.
      Horrocks, Roger. Masculinity in Crisis. London: Macmillan, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230372801
      Kimmel, Michael. The Politics of Manhood: Profeminist Men Respond to the Mythopoetic Men's Movement (and the Mythopoetic Leaders Answer). Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995.
      Kimmel, Michael, ed. Men Confront Pornography. New York: Meridian, 1990.
      Kimmel, Michael, and Thomas E. Mosmiller, eds. Against the Tide: Pro-Feminist Men in the United States, 1776–1990, A Documentary History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
      Lesko, Nancy, ed. Masculinities at School. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225548
      Lewis, Robert A., ed. Men in Difficult Times: Masculinity Today and Tomorrow. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1981.
      Lingard, Bob, and Peter Douglas Men Engaging Feminism: Pro-Feminism, Backlashes, and Schooling. Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1999.
      May, Larry. Masculinity and Morality. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998.
      Messner, Michael A. Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1997.
      Miedzian, Myriam. Boys Will Be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
      Murdock, Catherine Gilbert. Domesticating Drink: Women, Men, and Alcohol, 1870–1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
      O'Toole, Laura L., and Jessica R. Schiffman, eds. Gender Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: New York University Press, 1997.
      Pleck, Joseph. The Myth of Masculinity. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1981.
      Real, Terrence. I Don't Want to Talk about It: Overcoming the Secret Legacy of Male Depression. New York: Fireside, 1998.
      Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Fraternity and Gang Rape: Sex, Brotherhood, and Privilege on Campus. New York: New York University Press, 1990.
      Segal, Lynne, and Mary McIntosh, eds. Sex Exposed: Sexuality and the Pornography Debate. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992.
      Seidler, Victor. “Masculinity, Violence, and Emotional Life.” In Emotions in Social Life: Critical Themes and Contemporary Issues, edited by Gillian Bendelow and Simon J. Williams. New York: Routledge, 1998.
      Smith, Paul, ed. Boys: Masculinities in Contemporary Culture. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996.
      Regional Identities
      Bardaglio, Peter W. Reconstructing the Household: Families, Sex, and Law in the Nineteenth-Century South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
      Basso, Matthew, Laura McCall, and Dee Garceau, eds. Across the Great Divide: Cultures of Manhood in the American West. New York: Routledge, 2001.
      Bercaw, Nancy, ed. Gender and the Southern Body Politic: Essays and Comments. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
      Bruce, Dickson. Violence and Culture in the American South. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979.
      Edwards, Laura F. Gendered Strife and Confusion: The Political Culture of Reconstruction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
      Edwards, Laura F. “The Politics of Marriage and Households in North Carolina During Reconstruction.” In Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights, edited by Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000.
      Faragher, John Mack. Women and Men on the Overland Trail. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979.
      Greenberg, Kenneth S. Honor and Slavery; Lies, Duels, Noses, Masks, Dressing as a Woman, Gifts, Strangers, Humanitarianism, Death, Slave Rebellions, The Proslavery Argument, Baseball, Hunting, and Gambling in the Old South. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.
      Horlick, Allan Stanley. Country Boys and Merchant Princes: The Social Control of Young Men in New York. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1975.
      Johnson, Susan Lee. Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush. New York: Norton, 2000.
      Kamensky, Jane. “Talk Like a Man: Speech, Power, and Masculinity in Early New England.” Gender and History8 (1996) 22–47
      McCurry, Stephanie. Masters of Small Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the Political Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
      Norton, Mary Beth. “Gender and Defamation in Seventeenth-Century Maryland.” William and Mary Quarterly44 (1987) 3–39 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1939717
      Ownby, Ted. Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South, 1865–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
      Ownby, Ted. “Freedom, Manhood, and Male Tradition in 1970's Southern Rock Music.” In Haunted Bodies: Gender and Southern Texts, edited by Anne Goodwyn Jones and Susan V. Donaldson. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1997.
      Proctor, Nicolas W. Bathed in Blood: Hunting and Mastery in the Old South. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.
      Rosa, Joseph G. Age of the Gunfighter: Men and Weapons on the Frontier, 1840–1900. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.
      Shenk, Gerald E. “Race, Manhood, and Manpower: Mobilizing Rural Georgia for World War I.” Georgia Historical Quarterly81 no. 3 (1997) 622–662
      Slotkin, Richard. The Fatal Environment: The Myth of the Frontier in the Age of Industrialization, 1800–1890. New York: Atheneum, 1985.
      Slotkin, Richard. Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. New York: HarperPerennial, 1993.
      Slotkin, Richard. Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.
      Stowe, Steven M. Intimacy and Power in the Old South: Ritual in the Lives of the Planters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.
      White, G. Edward. The Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience: The West of Frederic Remington, Theodore Roosevelt, and Owen Wister. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1968.
      Whites, LeeAnn. The Civil War as a Crisis in Gender: Augusta, Georgia, 1860–1890. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.
      Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
      Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. “The Mask of Obedience: Male Slave Psychology in the Old South.” American Historical Review93 (1988) 1228–1252 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1873537
      Religion and Spirituality
      Abraham, Ken. Who Are the Promise Keepers?: Understanding the Christian Men's Movement. New York: Doubleday, 1997.
      Allen, L. Dean. Rise Up, O Men of God: The “Men and Religion Forward Movement” and the “Promise Keepers.” Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 2002.
      Becker, William H. “The Black Church: Manhood and Mission.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion40 no. 3 (1972) 316–333
      Bederman, Gail. “‘The Women Have Had Charge of the Church Work Long Enough’: The Men and Religion Forward Movement of 1911–1912 and the Masculinization of Middle-Class Protestantism.” American Quarterly41 (September 1989) 432–65 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713149
      Bendroth, Margaret Lamberts. Fundamentalism and Gender: 1875 to the Present. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.
      Bilhartz, Terry D. “Sex and the Second Great Awakening: The Feminization of American Religion Reconsidered.” In Belief and Behavior: Essays in the New Religious History, edited by Philip R. VanderMeer and Robert P. Swierenga. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1991.
      Boyd, Stephen B., W. Merle Longwood, and Mark W. Muesse, eds. Redeeming Men: Religion and Masculinities. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.
      Brickner, Bryan. The Promise Keepers: Politics and Promises. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 1999.
      Brod, Harry, ed. A Mensch among Men: Explorations in Jewish Masculinity. Freedom, Calif.: Crossing Press, 1988.
      Carnes, Mark. Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian America. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.
      Carroll, Bret E. “The Religious Construction of Masculinity in Victorian America: The Male Mediumship of John Shoebridge Williams.” Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation7 no. 1 (1997) 27–60 http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/rac.1997.7.1.03a00020
      Carroll, Bret E. “‘A Higher Power to Feel’: Spiritualism, Grief, and Victorian Manhood.” Men and Masculinities3 no. 1 (2000) 3–29 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X00003001001
      Claussen, Dane, ed. Standing on the Promises: The Promise Keepers and the Revival of Manhood. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press, 1999.
      Claussen, Dane, ed. The Promise Keepers: Essays on Masculinity and Christianity. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000.
      Corrigan, John. Business of the Heart: Religion and Emotion in the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
      Fishburne, Janet Forsythe. The Fatherhood of God and the Victorian Family: The Social Gospel in America. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981.
      Hackett, David G. “Gender and Religion in American Culture, 1870–1930.” Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation5 no. 2 (1995) 127–157 http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/rac.1995.5.2.03a00010
      Hall, Donald E., ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511659331
      Higgs, Robert J. “‘In a Different Voice’: Male and Female Narratives of Religious Conversion in Post-Revolutionary America.” American Quarterly41 (1989) 34–62
      Higgs, Robert J. God in the Stadium: Sports and Religion in America. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
      Juster, Susan. “The Spirit and the Flesh: Gender, Language, and Sexuality in American Protestantism.” In New Directions in American Religious History, edited by Harry S. Stout and D. G. Hart. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
      Juster, Susan, and Lisa MacFarlane, eds. A Mighty Baptism: Race, Gender, and the Creation of American Protestantism. Ithaca: N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1996.
      Kirkley, Evelyn A. Rational Mothers and Infidel Gentlemen: Gender and American Atheism, 1865–1915. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2000.
      Krondorfer, Björn. Men's Bodies, Men's Gods: Male Identities in a Post-Christian Culture. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
      Ladd, Tony. Muscular Christianity: Evangelical Protestants and the Development of American Sport. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1999.
      Lippy, Charles H. “Miles to Go: Promise Keepers in Historical and Cultural Context.” Soundings80 no. 2–3 (1997) 289–304
      Martin, Robert F. “Billy Sunday and Christian Manliness.” The Historian58 no. 4 (1996) 811–812
      McDannell, Colleen. “Catholic Domesticity, 1860–1960.” In Religion and American Culture: A Reader, edited by David G. Hackett. New York: Routledge, 1995.
      Mernissi, Fatima. Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in Modern Muslim Society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
      Ownby, Ted. Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South, 1865–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
      Putney, Clifford. Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.
      Reynolds, David S. “The Feminization Controversy: Sexual Stereotypes and the Paradoxes of Piety in Nineteenth-Century America.” New England Quarterly53 (1980) 96–106 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/365291
      Sutton, William R. Journeymen for Jesus: Evangelical Artisans Confront Capitalism in Jacksonian Baltimore. New York: Garland, 1998.
      Vance, Norman. The Sinews of the Spirit: The Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
      Sexual Identities and Sexuality
      Barker-Benfield, G. J. The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge, 2000.
      Beemyn, Brett, and Erich Steinman, eds. Bisexual Men in Culture and Society. New York: Haworth Press, 2002.
      Bertolini, Vincent J. “Fireside Chastity: The Erotics of Sentimental Bachelorhood in the 1850s.” American Literature68 no. 4 (1996) 707–737 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2928135
      Bérubé, Allan. Coming Out under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two. New York: Free Press, 1990.
      Boyarin, Daniel. Unheroic Conduct: The Rise of Heterosexuality and the Invention of the Jewish Man. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
      Bullough, Bonnie, Vern L. Bullough, and James Elias, eds. Gender Blending. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus, 1997.
      Bullough, Vern L., and Bonnie Bullough Cross Dressing, Sex, and Gender. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.
      Burgett, Bruce. Sentimental Bodies: Sex, Gender, and Citizenship in the Early Republic. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.
      Butters, Ronald R. “Cary Grant and the Emergence of Gay ‘Homosexual.’” Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America19 (1998) 188–204
      Carbado, Devon. Black Men on Race, Gender, and Sexuality: A Critical Reader. New York: New York University Press, 1999.
      Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
      Cheyfitz, Eric. Trans-Parent: Sexual Politics in the Language of Emerson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.
      Corber, Robert J. Homosexuality in Cold War America: Resistance and the Crisis of Masculinity. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997.
      Cott, Nancy F. “Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology, 1790–1850.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society4 (Winter 1978) 219–236 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/493603
      Daniels, Jessie. White Lies: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in White Supremacist Discourse. New York: Routledge, 1997.
      DeAngelis, Michael. Gay Fandom and Crossover Stardom: James Dean, Mel Gibson, and Keanu Reeves. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001.
      D'Emilio, John. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
      D'Emilio, John, and Estelle Freedman Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
      Derrick, Scott. “Making a Heterosexual Man: Gender, Sexuality, and Narrative in the Fiction of Jack London.” In Rereading Jack London, edited by Leonard Cassuto and Jeanne Campbell Reesman. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.
      Díaz, Rafael M. Latino Gay Men and HIV: Culture, Sexuality, and Risk Behavior. New York: Routledge, 1998.
      Duberman, Martin. About Time: Exploring the Gay Past. New York: Penguin, 1991.
      Duberman, Martin, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, Jr.Hidden From History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past. New York: Penguin, 1989.
      Edwards, Justin D. Exotic Journeys: Exploring the Erotics of U.S. Travel Literature, 1840–1930. Hanover: University Press of New England, 2001.
      Ehrenstein, David. Open Secret: Gay Hollywood, 1928–1998. New York: William Morrow, 1998.
      Engelhardt, H. Tristram. “The Disease of Masturbation: Values and Concepts of Disease.” In Sickness and Health in America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.
      Enloe, Cynthia. The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
      Epstein, Barbara. “Anti-Communism, Homophobia, and the Construction of Masculinity in the Postwar U.S.” Critical Sociology20 (1994) 21–44 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089692059402000302
      Epstein, Julia, and Kristine Straub, eds. Body Guards: The Cultural Politics of Gender Ambiguity. London: Routledge, 1991.
      Feinberg, Leslie. Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996.
      Foster, Thomas A. “Deficient Husbands: Manhood, Sexual Incapacity, and Male Marital Sexuality in Seventeenth-Century New England.” William and Mary Quarterly56 (October 1999) 723–44 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2674233
      Friedman, David M. A Mind of Its Own: A Cultural History of the Penis. New York: Free Press, 2001.
      Garber, Marjorie. Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
      Gayfield, Donnie. “On the Periphery of Manhood: The African American Community's Marginalization of Black Male Homosexuality.” The 2000 Berkeley McNair Research Journal (Winter 2000). <http://www-mcnair.berkeley.edu/2000journal/Gayfield/Gayfield.html> (April 9, 2003).
      Godbeer, Richard. Sexual Revolution in Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
      Greenberg, David F. The Construction of Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
      Gross, Larry. Up from Invisibility: Lesbians, Gay Men, and the Media in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
      Gustav-Wrathall, John Donald. Take the Young Stranger by the Hand: Same-Sex Relations and the YMCA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
      Gutiérrez, Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991.
      Haller, John S., and Robin M. Haller The Physician and Sexuality in Victorian America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974.
      Hausman, Bernice L. Changing Sex: Transsexualism, Technology, and The Idea of Gender. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995.
      Hawkeswood, William G., and Alex W. Costley, eds. One of the Children: Gay Black Men in Harlem. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
      Humphrey, Mary Ann. My Country, My Right to Serve: Experiences of Gay Men and Women in the Military, World War II to the Present. New York: HarperCollins, 1988.
      Juster, Susan. “The Spirit and the Flesh: Gender, Language, and Sexuality in American Protestantism.” In New Directions in American Religious History, edited by Harry S. Stout and D. G. Hart, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
      Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U. S. A. Rev. ed. New York: Meridian, 1992.
      Katz, Jonathan Ned. The Invention of Heterosexuality. New York: Dutton, 1995.
      Katz, Jonathan Ned. Love Stories: Sex between Men before Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
      Kern, Louis J. An Ordered Love: Sex Roles and Sexuality in Victorian Utopias: The Shakers, the Mormons, and the Oneida Community. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
      Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. Whitman's Poetry of the Body: Sexuality, Politics, and the Text. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
      Kline, Wendy. Building a Better Race: Gender, Sexuality, and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
      Lewis, Jan. “The Republican Wife: Virtue and Seduction in the Early Republic.” William and Mary Quarterly3 no. 44 (1987) 689–721
      Lord, Alexandra M. “Models of Masculinity: Sex Education, the United States Public Health Service, and the YMCA, 1919–1924.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences58 no. 2 (2003) 123–152 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhmas/58.2.123
      McLaren, Angus. The Trials of Masculinity: Policing Sexual Boundaries, 1870–1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
      Messner, Michael A., and Donald F. Sabo Sex, Violence, and Power in Sports: Rethinking Masculinity. Freedom, Calif.: Crossing Press, 1994.
      Nardi, Peter M. Gay Men's Friendships: Invincible Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
      Plummer, David. One of the Boys: Masculinity, Homophobia, and Modern Manhood. Binghamton, N.Y.: Harrington Park Press, 1999.
      Pollak, Vivian R. The Erotic Whitman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
      Richardson, Diane, ed. Theorizing Heterosexuality: Telling It Straight. Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1996.
      Rosenberg, Charles E. “Sexuality, Class and Role in 19th-Century America.” American Quarterly25 no. 2 (1973) 131–153 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2711594
      Rupp, Leila J. A Desired Past: A Short History of Same-Sex Love in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
      Russo, Vito. The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. Rev. ed. New York: HarperCollins, 1987.
      Segal, Lynne. Straight Sex: Rethinking the Politics of Pleasure. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
      Segal, Lynne, and Mary McIntosh, eds. Sex Exposed: Sexuality and the Pornography Debate. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992.
      Shilts, Randy. Conduct Unbecoming: Lesbians and Gays in the U.S. Military, Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.
      Smith, Geoffrey. “National Security and Personal Isolation: Sex, Gender, and Disease in the Cold-War United States.” International History Review14 (May 1992) 307–337 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07075332.1992.9640616
      Smith, Merril D., ed. Sex and Sexuality in Early America. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. “Sex as Symbol in Victorian America: An Ethnohistorical Analysis of Jacksonian America.” In Turning Points: Historical and Sociological Essays on the Family, edited by John Demos and Sarane Spence Boocock. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
      Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. “Domesticating ‘Virtue’: Coquettes and Revolutionaries in Young America.” In Literature and the Body, edited by Elaine Scarry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.
      Sokolow, Jayme. Eros and Modernization: Sylvester Graham, Health Reform, and the Origins of Victorian Sexuality in America. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1983.
      Somerville, Siobhan B. Queering the Color Line: Race and the Invention of Homosexuality in American Culture. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000.
      Suran, Justin David. “Going Out against the War: Antimilitarism and the Politicization of Homosexuality in the Era of Vietnam.” American Quarterly53 (September 2001) 452–488 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/aq.2001.0030
      Terry, Jennifer. “‘Momism’ and the Making of Treasonous Homosexuals.” In “Bad” Mothers: The Politics of Blame in Twentieth-Century America, edited by Molly Ladd-Taylor and Lauri Umansky. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
      Thomas, Kendall. “‘Ain't Nothing’ Like the Real Thing’: Black Masculinity, Gay Sexuality, and the Jargon of Authenticity.” In The House That Race Built: Black Americans, U.S. Terrain, edited by Wahneema Lubiana. New York: Vintage, 1998.
      Walters, Ronald G., ed. Primers for Prudery: Sexual Advice to Victorian America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
      White, Kevin. The First Sexual Revolution: The Emergence of Male Heterosexuality in Modern America. New York: New York University Press, 1993.
      Williams, Walter L. The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Cultures. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
      Sports
      Burstyn, Varda. The Rites of Men: Manhood, Politics, and the Culture of Sport. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.
      Cavallo, Dominick. Muscles and Morals: Organized Play and Urban Reform, 1880–1920. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.
      Gorn, Elliot J. The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.
      Gustav-Wrathall, John Donald. Take the Young Stranger by the Hand: Same-Sex Relations and the YMCA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
      Higgs, Robert J. God in the Stadium: Sports and Religion in America. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
      Ladd, Tony. Muscular Christianity: Evangelical Protestants and the Development of American Sport. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1999.
      McKay, Jim, Michael A. Messner, and Don Sabo, eds. Masculinities, Gender Relations, and Sport. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2000.
      Messner, Michael A. Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
      Messner, Michael A., and Donald F. Sabo Sport, Men, and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics Books, 1990.
      Messner, Michael A., and Donald F. Sabo Sex, Violence, and Power in Sports: Rethinking Masculinity. Freedom, Calif.: Crossing Press, 1994.
      Putney, Clifford. Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.
      Riess, Steven A. Sport in Industrial America, 1850–1920. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1995.
      Trujillo, N. “Hegemonic Masculinity on the Mound: Media Representations of Nolan Ryan and American Sports Culture.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication8 (1991) 290–308 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039109366799
      Theoretical Works
      Badinter, Elizabeth. XY: On Masculine Identity. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.
      Baumli, Francis, ed. Men Freeing Men: Exploding the Myth of the Traditional Male. Jersey City, N.J.: New Atlantis Press, 1985.
      Berger, Maurice, Brian Wallis, and Simon Watson Constructing Masculinity. New York: Routledge, 1995.
      Beynon, John. Masculinities and Culture. Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 2001.
      Boone, Joseph A., and Michael Cadden, eds. Engendering Men: The Question of Male Feminist Criticism. New York: Routledge, 1990.
      Brenkman, John. Straight Male Modern: A Cultural Critique of Psychoanalysis. New York: Routledge, 1993.
      Brod, Harry, and Michael Kaufman, eds. Theorizing Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243627
      Chapman, Rowena, and Jonathan Rutherford, eds. Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1988.
      Connell, R. W. Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
      David, Deborah Sarah, and Robert Brannon, eds. The Forty-Nine Percent Majority: The Male Sex Role. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1976.
      Dubbert, Joe. A Man's Place: Masculinity in Transition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1983.
      Farrell, Warren. Why Men Are the Way They Are. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986.
      Frosh, Stephen. Sexual Difference: Masculinity and Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203313732
      Gilmore, David G. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.
      Kimmel, Michael. The Gendered Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
      Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
      Lunbeck, Elizabeth. The Psychiatric Persuasion: Knowledge, Gender, and Power in Modern America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994.
      Middleton, Peter. The Inward Gaze: Masculinity and Subjectivity in Modern Culture. London: Routledge Press, 1992.
      Pleck, Joseph. The Myth of Masculinity. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1981.
      Richardson, Diane, ed. Theorizing Heterosexuality: Telling It Straight. Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1996.
      Segal, Lynne. Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.
      Walby, Sylvia. Theorizing Patriarchy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.

      Contributors

      ABBOTT, SHARON A.

      Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology Fairfield University, Fairfield, Connecticut

      ABELE, ELIZABETH

      Instructor, English Department Nassau Community College State University of New York, Garden City, New York

      ADRIAN, LYNNE M.

      Associate Professor, Department of American Studies University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

      ALLEN, HOLLY

      Assistant Professor, American Literature and Civilization Department Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont

      ANDREWS, MATTHEW

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

      ARTHUR, ERICA

      Doctoral Candidate, American Studies School of American and Canadian Studies University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

      BARNARD, TIMOTHY

      Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of English James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia

      BEATTY, GREG

      Instructor University of Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona

      BELL, WALTER F.

      Reference Librarian Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas

      BORG, KEVIN L.

      Assistant Professor, Department of History James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia

      BURG, ROBERT W.

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

      CAMARGO, SANDY

      Resident Instruction Assistant Professor, Department of English University of Missouri–Columbia, Columbia, Missouri

      CASTAGNA, JOANN E.

      Assistant to the Deans (former Adjunct Assistant Professor of American Studies) University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

      COMBEST, ERIC

      Instructor, History Department University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

      CRUZ, JUAN JOSÉ

      Associate Professor, Department of English Universidad de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain

      CURRARINO, ROSANNE

      Assistant Professor, Department of History Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

      DAVIS, MATTHEW R.

      Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of English University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington

      DUDGEON, MATTHEW R.

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of Anthropology Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

      EAGLE, JONNA

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of American Civilization Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

      EAKLOR, VICKI L.

      Professor of History Chair, Division of Human Studies Alfred University, Alfred, New York

      ESTES, STEVE

      Assistant Professor, Department of History Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California

      EZRA, MICHAEL

      Assistant Professor, American Multicultural Studies Department Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California

      FLOOD, KAREN P.

      Lecturer, History and Literature Program Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

      GARDAPHE, FRED

      Professor, Department of European Languages, Literatures, and Cultures and Department of English State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York

      GATES, PHILIPPA

      Assistant Professor, Department of English and Film Studies Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

      GEMME, PAOLA

      Associate Professor, Department of English Penn State University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

      GLASS, LOREN

      Assistant Professor, Department of English Towson University, Towson, Maryland

      GOLDBERG, MICHAEL LEWIS

      Associate Professor, Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences/American Studies Concentration University of Washington, Bothell, Washington

      GRISWOLD, ROBERT L.

      Professor, Department of History University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

      HARTMAN, REBECCA

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey

      HEIDENREICH, LINDA

      Assistant Professor, Department of Women's Studies Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

      HESSINGER, RODNEY

      Assistant Professor, Department of History Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio

      HEUSTON, SEAN

      Assistant Professor, Department of English The Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina

      HIGGINS, JENNY

      Doctoral Candidate, Women's Studies MPH Candidate, International Health Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

      HIRSHBEIN, LAURA D.

      Clinical Instructor, Department of Psychiatry University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

      HODGDON, TIM

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

      HOLLORAN, PETER C.

      Assistant Professor, Department of History Worcester State College, Worcester, Massachusetts

      IBSON, JOHN

      Professor, Department of American Studies California State University, Fullerton, California

      JABOUR, ANYA

      Associate Professor, Department of History University of Montana, Missoula, Montana

      JAMES, ANTHONY W.

      Instructor, Department of History Coastal Carolina Community College, Jacksonville, North Carolina

      KANE, MICHAEL

      Lecturer in German Blanchardstown Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland

      KESSLER, KELLY

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of Radio-Television-Film University of Texas, Austin, Texas

      KETCHELL, AARON K.

      Doctoral Candidate, American Studies Program University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

      KIBLER, M. ALISON

      Assistant Professor, American Studies Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

      KIDDER, KRISTEN M.

      Lecturer, Department of Communication Studies Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts

      KUHLMAN, ERIKA

      Assistant Professor, Department of History Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho

      LAIPSON, PETER

      Head, Department of History Concord Academy, Concord, Massachusetts

      LEE, CALINDA N.

      Assistant Professor, Department of History University of Maryland University College, College Park, Maryland

      LEONARD, DAVID J.

      Assistant Professor, Comparative Ethnic Studies Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

      MACKINNON, KENNETH

      Professor, Department of Humanities, Arts, and Languages London Metropolitan University, London, United Kingdom

      MARR, TIMOTHY

      Assistant Professor, Curriculum in American Studies University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

      MAYBREY, CATHERINE

      Doctoral Candidate and Teaching Fellow, Department of History Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois

      MCCONNELL, KENT A.

      Visiting Professor, Department of Religion Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire

      MEADOWS, MICHAEL R.

      Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Arts Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio

      MECHLING, JAY

      Professor, American Studies Program University of California, Davis, California

      MILLER, ELISA

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

      MILTENBERGER, SCOTT

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History University of California, Davis, California

      MYERS, ELIZABETH

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois

      NELSON, ANGELA M. S.

      Associate Professor, Department of Popular Culture Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio

      NELSON, ROBERT K.

      Doctoral Candidate, American Studies Program College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia

      NEUMANN, CARYN E.

      Doctoral Candidate and Instructor, Department of History Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

      NIEBUR, LOUIS

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of Musicology University of California, Los Angeles, California

      ORDING, DOMINIC

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of American Studies Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

      OSGERBY, BILL

      Senior Lecturer, Department of Cultural Studies University of North London, London, United Kingdom

      OWNBY, TED

      Professor, Department of History and Department of Southern Culture University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi

      PANNAPACKER, WILLIAM

      Assistant Professor, Department of English Hope College, Holland, Michigan

      PARKER, ALISON M.

      Associate Professor, Department of History State University of New York, Brockport, New York

      PARKINSON, KIRSTEN L.

      Assistant Professor, Department of English Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio

      PARSONS, ELAINE FRANTZ

      Assistant Professor, Department of History University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, Wisconsin

      PATELL, CYRUS R. K.

      Associate Professor, Department of English Director of Undergraduate Studies New York University, New York, New York

      DE LA PEÑA, CAROLYN THOMAS

      Assistant Professor, American Studies Program University of California, Davis, California

      PERLMAN, ALLISON

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of American Studies University of Texas, Austin, Texas

      PINFOLD, MICHAEL JOHN

      Field Chair, Department of Film Studies University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, United Kingdom

      PLANT, REBECCA JO

      Assistant Professor, Department of History University of California, San Diego, California

      REGENHARDT, CHRISTY ERIN

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

      REMBIS, MICHAEL A.

      Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of History University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

      RICHARDSON, ANNETTE

      Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Educational Policy Studies, Faculty of Education University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

      ROBERTSON, MICHELLE L.

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of Sociology Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

      ROBINSON, ANGELO RICH

      Assistant Professor, Department of English Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland

      RODRÍGUEZ, CARLOS

      Assistant Professor, Department of Literature and Language Dominican University of California, San Rafael, California

      RUGGILL, JUDD ETHAN

      Doctoral Candidate, Comparative Cultural and Literary Studies University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

      RUSHFORTH, BRETT

      Assistant Professor, Department of History College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia

      SALAMONE, FRANK A.

      Professor of Anthropology, Department of Sociology Iona College, New Rochelle, New York

      SANTO, AVI

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of Radio-Television-Film University of Texas, Austin, Texas

      SCHOCK, ANGIE M.

      Assistant Professor, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences California State University, Northridge, California

      SCHWARTZ, DANIELLE K.

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of Art History and Communications Studies McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada

      SLAVISHAK, EDWARD

      Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of History Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania

      SPITZ, MARKUS OLIVER

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of German School of Modern Languages University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

      STIEGLITZ, OLAF

      Assistant Professor, Department of History Institute for British and North American History Cologne University (Universität Köln), Cologne, Germany

      STOTT, RICHARD

      Associate Professor, Department of History George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

      SUSSMAN, HERBERT

      Professor Emeritus, Department of English Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts

      THOMPSON, JENNY

      Independent Scholar Evanston, Illinois

      TOLLEY-STOKES, REBECCA

      Assistant Professor, Cataloger/Reference Librarian East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee

      TRAISTER, BRYCE

      Associate Professor, Department of English University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

      TRASK, JEFFREY

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of American History Columbia University, New York, New York

      VANSICKLE, EUGENE

      Doctoral Candidate, Department of History West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

      WATTS, TRENT

      Assistant Professor, Department of History James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia

      WHALAN, MARK

      Lecturer, American Literature and Culture University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

      WILSON, ANTHONY

      Instructor, Department of English Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

      WINTER, THOMAS

      Assistant Professor and Acting Chair, Department of American Culture and Literature Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey

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