• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

The Handbook of 21st Century Management provides authoritative insight into the key issues for students in college or corporate courses with a particular emphasis on the current structure of the topic in the literature, key threads of discussion and research on the topic, and emerging trends. This resource is useful in structuring exciting and meaningful papers and presentations and assists readers in deciding on management areas to take elective coursework in or to orient themselves towards for a career. Indeed, familiarity with many of the topics in this Handbook would be very useful in job interviews for positions in business.

Why Self-Set Goals May Sometimes be Non-Motivating
Why self-set goals may sometimes be non-motivating

Goals are anticipated positive future states or events which a person strives to achieve. The terms aim, objective, and standard are widely used synonymously. Other related concepts, however, like intention, norm, and task can be distinguished from goals because they emphasize the action itself rather than the anticipated future state.

The importance of a goal for motivated action is beyond doubt. Action theories, for instance, use goal as the key element for defining action—their object of interest. Many motivation theories also see goals as key elements and illustrate their motivational effect with a metaphor: The goal “pulls” the action.

Goals are seen as an effective means for promoting motivation and are therefore used as ...

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