• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

The Handbook of 21st Century Management provides authoritative insight into the key issues for students in college or corporate courses with a particular emphasis on the current structure of the topic in the literature, key threads of discussion and research on the topic, and emerging trends. This resource is useful in structuring exciting and meaningful papers and presentations and assists readers in deciding on management areas to take elective coursework in or to orient themselves towards for a career. Indeed, familiarity with many of the topics in this Handbook would be very useful in job interviews for positions in business.

Managing Philanthropic Organizations for Creativity
Managing philanthropic organizations for creativity

This chapter discusses the management dilemmas of foundations, the roots of these, and the ways in which they are handled.1 As foundations exist in many forms and types, it is useful to define them at the onset of this chapter: Foundations are organizations that control and distribute assets, financial or otherwise, with the following characteristics:

  • Non-membership-based organization
  • Private entity
  • Self-governing entity
  • Nonprofit-distributing entity
  • Grant-making entity
  • Serving a public purpose

Over time, foundations have adopted different models or approaches that provide legitimacy for their purpose, ways of operating, including management styles, and expected and actual impact.


The first approach, charity, the original model, was in many ways well suited to the social and political context of the 19th century. With inadequate provision by nonprofits and ...

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