Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement

Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Larry E. Sullivan, Marie Simonetti Rosen, Dorthy Moses Schulz & M. R. Haberfeld

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Abstract

This three-volume Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement provides a comprehensive, critical, and descriptive examination of all facets of law enforcement on the state and local, federal and national, and international stages. This work is a unique reference source that provides readers with informed discussions on the practice and theory of policing in an historical and contemporary framework. The volumes treat subjects that are particular to the area of state and local, federal and national, and international policing. Many of the themes and issues of policing cut across disciplinary borders, however, and several entries provide comparative information that places the subject in context.

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  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Agencies/Associations/Organizations
    • Civilian/Private Involvement
    • Communications
    • Crime Statistics
    • Culture/Media
    • Drug Enforcement
    • Federal Agencies/Organizations
    • International Law Enfrocement
    • Investigation Techniques
    • Investigation, Types of
    • Investigative Commissions
    • Law and Justice
    • Legislation/Legal Issues
    • Military
    • Minority Issues
    • Personnel Issues
    • Police Conduct
    • Police Procedures
    • Policing Strategies
    • Safety and Security
    • Specialized Law Enforcement Agencies
    • Tactics
    • Terrorism
    • Victims/Witnesses
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    • Editorial Board

      Geoffrey Alpert

      University of South Carolina

      Thomas Feltes

      University of Applied Police Sciences, Spaichingen, Germany

      Lorie A. Fridell

      Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, DC

      James J. Fyfe

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      David T. Johnson

      University of Hawaii at Manoa

      Peter K. Manning

      Northeastern University

      Stephen D. Mastrofski

      George Mason University

      Rob Mawby

      University of Plymouth, U.K.

      Mark Moore

      Harvard University

      Maurice Punch

      London School of Economics, U.K.

      Wesley G. Skogan

      Northwestern University

      Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      List of Entries

      Volume 1: State and Local
      Volume 2: Federal
      Volume 3: International

      Reader's Guide

      List of Contributors – Volume 1

      Acker, James R.

      State University of New York–Albany

      Agatino, Daniel

      Munmouth University

      Almeida, Bryant Daniel

      New York County District Attorney's Office

      Alpert, Geoffrey P.

      University of South Carolina

      Amendola, Karen L.

      Police Foundation

      Bailey, Frankie Y.

      State University of New York–Albany

      Bartlett, Dennis Alan

      NABIC

      Belcher, Ellen H.

      John Jay College

      Blumstein, Alfred

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Bracey, Dorothy H.

      John Jay College

      Braga, Anthony A.

      Harvard University

      Brooks, Marvie

      John Jay College

      Brotherton, David

      John Jay College

      Burke, Tod W.

      Radford University

      Byrne, Dara N.

      John Jay College

      Canavan, Francis P.

      Pact Training LLC

      Capeci, Jerry

      The New York Sun

      Carrel, Barbara Goldman

      John Jay College

      Carter, David L.

      Michigan University

      Chermak, Steven

      Indiana University

      Clear, Todd R.

      City University of New York

      Clowers, Marcia

      John Jay College

      Cohen, John D.

      PS Comm LLC

      Cole, Simon A.

      University of California–Irvine

      Collica, Kimberly

      Monroe College

      Collins, Judith M.

      Michigan State University

      Curro, Isabelle L.

      John Jay College

      Curtis, Ric

      John Jay College

      De Forest, Peter

      John Jay College

      DeMaio, Enrico

      St. John's University

      Diamond, Drew

      Police Executive Research Forum

      Dine, Kim C.

      Frederick, Maryland Police Dept.

      Donovan, Pamela

      Bloomsberg University

      D'Ovidio, Rob

      Drexel University

      Doyle, James R.

      Guidance Software

      Drylie, James J.

      West Orange, New Jersey, Police Department

      Dulin, Adam

      Sam Houston State University

      Dunham, Janice K.

      John Jay College

      Edge, Christine Ivie

      Georgia Southern University

      Egger, Steven A.

      University of Houston–Clear Lake

      Feinberg, Lotte E.

      John Jay College

      Forst, Brian

      American University

      Fridell, Lorie

      Police Executive Research Form

      Frost, Natasha A.

      State University of New York–Westbury

      Fyfe, James J.

      John Jay College

      Geberth, Vernon J.

      P.H.I. Investigative Consultants, Inc

      Giblin, Matthew J.

      York College of Pennsylvania

      Gibson, Camille

      Prairie View A&M University

      Goldstock, Ronald

      New York University

      Gormley, Paula

      John Jay College

      Grant, Heath B.

      John Jay College

      Green, Nicole R.

      John Jay College

      Greenberg, Martin Alan

      State University of New York–Ulster

      Greene, Dana

      John Jay College

      Gross, Gretchen

      John Jay College

      Jeff Gruenewald

      Indiana University

      Haberfeld, Maria (Maki)

      John Jay College

      Hadfield, Karyn

      John Jay College

      Hecht, Michelle R.

      Indiana University

      Heffernan, William C.

      John Jay College

      Hemmens, Craig

      Boise State University

      Henry, Vincent E.

      Pace University

      Herman, Susan

      National Center for Victims of Crime

      Holden, Richard N.

      Central Missouri State University

      Holland, Kim

      University of Arkansas–Little Rock

      Horan, James J.

      John Jay College

      Horne, Peter

      Mercer County Community College

      Hummer, Don

      University of Massachusetts–Lowell

      Hurban, Holly

      John Jay College

      Ijames, Steve

      Springfield, Missouri, Police Department

      Jacobson, Michael

      John Jay College

      Jones-Brown, Delores D.

      John Jay College

      Jordan, Casey

      Western Connecticut State University

      Kaminski, Robert J.

      University of South Carolina

      Karmen, Andrew

      John Jay College

      Kelling, George

      Rutgers University

      Kenney, Dennis

      John Jay College

      Kessler, Rachel A.

      John Jay College

      King, Joseph F.

      John Jay College

      Kiriakova, Maria

      John Jay College

      Kleinig, John

      John Jay College

      Klinger, David A.

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Klockars, Carl B. (deceased)

      University of Delaware

      Kobilinsky, Lawrence

      John Jay College

      Kraska, Peter B.

      Eastern Kentucky University

      Lab, Steven P.

      Bowling Green State University

      Latzer, Barry

      John Jay College

      LeBeau, James L.

      Southern Illinois University–Carbondale

      Levine, James P.

      John Jay College

      Linn, Edith

      Kean State University

      Louden, Robert

      John Jay College

      Lovely, Richard W.

      John Jay College

      Lyman, Michael D.

      Columbia College of Missouri

      Mac Donald, Heather

      Manhattan Institute

      Magers, Jeffrey S.

      Stephen Austin State University

      Maghan, Jess

      Forum for Comparative Correction

      Manatu, Norma

      John Jay College

      Mandery, Evan J.

      John Jay College

      Manning, Peter K.

      Northeastern University

      Mastrofski, Stephen D.

      George Mason University

      Maxwell, Christopher D.

      Michigan State University

      Mayo, Lou

      Police Association for College Education

      McAndrew, John Brendan

      John Jay College

      McCarthy, William F.

      State University of New York–Corning

      McDonald, Phyllis P.

      Johns Hopkins University

      McKee, Adam J.

      University of Arkansas at Monticello

      McNickle, R. G. “Nick”

      New York Sports Clubs

      Moore, Mark H.

      Harvard University

      Morrow, Tyrone Russell

      Fairfax County Police Department

      Murphy, Rick

      Project SafeCom

      Natarajan, Mangai

      John Jay College

      Newbold, Katherine

      XG Consultants Group Inc.

      O'Rourke, Hugh E.

      Westchester Community College

      Ortiz, Christopher W.

      Vera Institute of Justice

      Pascarella, Joe

      Queens College, City University of New York

      Pate, Anthony

      COSMOS Corp.

      Penrod, Stephen

      John Jay College

      Phillips, Nickie

      John Jay College

      Pilant Grossman, Lois

      Wings Publishing Company

      Pisani, Angelo

      St. John's University

      Rodriguez, Dennis

      Tampa Police Department

      Rojek, Jeff

      St. Louis University

      Rowland, John

      St. John's University

      Saunders, Jessica

      John Jay College

      Sawers, Deborah L.

      John Jay College

      Schafer, Joseph A.

      Southern Illinois University–Carbondale

      Schulz, Dorothy Moses

      John Jay College

      Scott, Michael S.

      University of Wisconsin

      Scrivner, Ellen

      Chicago Police Department

      Segal, Lydia

      John Jay College

      Sexton, Ellen

      John Jay College

      Shkutzko-Penola, Diane T.

      John Jay College

      Silverman, Eli B.

      John Jay College

      Skogan, Wesley G.

      Northwestern University

      Smith, Margaret Leland

      John Jay College

      Sonner, Andrew

      Court of Special Appeals of Maryland

      St. George, Joyce

      Pact Training LLC

      Stahl, William J.

      John Jay College

      Stein, Abby

      John Jay College

      Sullivan, Elena E.

      Emory University

      Sullivan, John P.

      Los Angeles Sheriff's Department

      Sullivan, Larry E.

      John Jay College

      Sullivan, Mara

      St. John's University

      Taylor, David B.

      Niagara University

      Taylor, Ralph B.

      Temple University

      Ternes, Anne

      Office of the New York State Inspector General

      Terry, Karen J.

      John Jay College

      Van Raalte, Ronald C.

      Law Enforcement Memorial Association Inc.

      Volpe, Maria R.

      John Jay College

      Walker, Anders

      John Jay College

      Walker, Jeffrey T.

      University of Arkansas–Little Rock

      Wallenstein, Martin

      John Jay College

      Walsh, Jeff

      John Jay College

      Ward, Richard H.

      Sam Houston State University

      Weisheit, Ralph A.

      Illinois State University

      Wells, William M.

      Southern Illinois University–Carbondale

      Williams, Lisa A.

      John Jay College

      Wylie-Marques, Kathryn

      John Jay College

      List of Contributors – Volume 2

      Amendola, Karen L.

      Police Foundation

      Archbold, Carol A.

      Marquette University

      Baggett, Ryan K.

      Eastern Kentucky University

      Bartels, Elizabeth

      John Jay College

      Beckmann, John D.

      New York City Police Department

      Beharry, Michelle

      John Jay College

      Birch, Timothy K.

      Excelsior College

      Bolz, Frank A., Jr.

      New York City Police Department

      Bracey, Dorothy H.

      John Jay College

      Briggs, Lisa Thomas

      Western Carolina University

      Brooks, Marvie

      John Jay College

      Bunker, Robert J.

      Opposing Force Program

      Butler, Richard

      New Jersey State Parole Board

      Byrd, Mason

      Virginia Commonwealth University

      Camacho, Alisa

      John Jay College

      Cherry, Steven D.

      Glen Rock (NJ) Police Department

      Clear, Todd R.

      John Jay College

      Collica, Kimberly

      Monroe College

      Cubero, Candido

      New York City Police Department

      DelCastillo, Vincent

      John Jay College

      D'Eustachio, Peter

      New York University

      Diamond, Deanna L.

      Sam Houston University

      D'Olivo, Amy

      Centenary College

      Domingo, Jannette O.

      John Jay College

      Draper, Heather R.

      Sam Houston State University

      Dunham, Janice K.

      John Jay College

      Egan, Nancy

      John Jay College

      Faggiani, Donald

      University of Wyoming

      Feeney, George

      John Jay College

      Feinberg, Lotte E.

      John Jay College

      Freilich, Joshua D.

      John Jay College

      Garcia, Venessa

      Kean University

      Garland, Tammy S.

      Sam Houston State University

      Gellman, Robert

      Privacy and Information Policy Consultant

      Gibbons, Mary

      Attorney, Private Practice

      Giblin, Matthew

      York College of Pennsylvania

      Gibson, Camille

      Prairie View A & M University

      Gibson, Pamela A.

      Old Dominion University

      Goodwin, Lorine Swainston

      University of Missouri

      Gormley, Paula

      John Jay College

      Grant, Heath B.

      John Jay College

      Green, Nicole R.

      Oxford College

      Gross, Gretchen

      John Jay College

      Guy, Genevieve

      San Mateo, CA, Police Department

      Hassell, Kimberly D.

      University of Nebraska at Omaha

      Hohn, David A.

      North Dakota State University

      Johnston, Richard

      National White Collar Crime Center

      Killoran, Katherine B.

      John Jay College

      King, Joseph F.

      John Jay College

      Kiriakova, Maria

      John Jay College

      Koletar, Joseph W.

      Ernest & Young LLP

      Lacks, Brian Kessler

      Virginia State Police

      Lacks, Robyn Diehl

      Virginia Commonwealth University

      Li, Richard C.

      Sam Houston State University

      Linskey, Joseph P.

      Centenary College

      Lothridge, Kevin

      National Forensic Science Technical Center

      MacNamara, Brian S.

      John Jay College

      Maitland, Angela S.

      Indiana University

      Martin, Vertel T.

      East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania

      Mazzone, Jason

      Brooklyn Law School

      McCrie, Robert D.

      John Jay College

      McKee, Adam

      University of Arkansas at Monticello

      Mege, Jacqueline D.

      New York City Police Department

      Moon, Michon

      Commonwealth Attorney's Office, VA

      Moore, Robert

      Delta State University

      Moriarty, Laura J.

      Virginia Commonwealth University

      Morse, Christopher

      John Jay College

      Munch, Janet Butler

      Lehman College

      Munch, Vincent A.

      Metropolitan College of New York

      Musluoglu, Subutay

      Transit Historian

      Musto, David F.

      Yale University

      Newbold, Katherine M.

      XG Consultants Group Inc.

      O'Donnell, Eugene J.

      John Jay College

      Parsons-Pollard, Nicolle Y.

      Virginia Commonwealth University

      Phillips, Nickie

      John Jay College

      Rebovich, Donald J.

      Utica College

      Richter, Michelle Y.

      Sam Houston State University

      Roff, Sandra Shoiock

      Baruch College

      Rowan, Patrick

      St. Vincents Hospital

      Ruegger, Stephen E.

      University of Arkansasph Monticello

      Santos, Nadine

      Sam Houston State University

      Sawers, Deborah L.

      John Jay College

      Scheidegger, Amie R.

      Charleston Southern University

      Schmitz, William

      Borough of Manhattan Community College

      Schulz, David

      Freelance Journalist

      Schulz, Dorothy Moses

      John Jay College

      Schwartz, Adina

      John Jay College

      Sexton, Ellen

      John Jay College

      Sheng, Yi

      Lehman College

      Sherertz, Frances

      Sacramento County Airport System

      Spunt, Barry

      John Jay College

      Stoops, Gary

      National White-Collar Crime Center

      Sullivan, John P.

      Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department

      Sullivan, Mara

      St. John's University

      Tatum, Becky L.

      Grambling State University

      Taylor-Greene, Helen

      Old Dominion University

      Telesco, Grace A.

      East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania

      Tilstone, William J.

      National Forensic Science Technical Center

      Twersky-Glasner, Aviva

      John Jay College

      Viadero, Roger C.

      Ernst & Young

      Waldron, John F.

      John Jay College

      Walsh, Jeff

      John Jay College

      Waterhouse, Jessica

      Tunxis Community College

      Watner, Dryden

      St. John's University

      Webb, Kelly Renee

      Eastern Kentucky University

      Weissinger, George

      New York Institute of Technology

      Wexler, Sandford

      Freelance Journalist

      Wheeler, Sean

      John Jay College

      White, Michael D.

      John Jay College

      Zerella, Denise

      New York City Police Department

      List of Contributors – Volume 3

      Aderanti, Cornelius Kayode

      Nigeria Police Force

      Akorimo, Samuel

      International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

      Albrecht, James F.

      Sam Houston State University

      Alexandre, Lem

      John Jay College

      Alizaden, Mohsen

      CUNY–Graduate School

      Baleva, Dilyana

      MM Consult, Bulgaria

      Bennett, Richard R.

      American University

      Birkbeck, Christopher

      Universidad de los Andeds-Merida, Venezuela

      Bjorken, Johanna

      John Jay College

      Browne-Marshall, Gloria J.

      John Jay College

      Carrington, Keith

      St. John's University

      Cerrah, Ibrahim

      Institute for Security Science, Turkey

      Chiabi, David K.

      New Jersey City University

      Alizaden, Mohsen

      CUNY–Graduate School

      Clarke, Curtis

      Athabasca University

      Constantinou, Angelo G.

      John Jay College

      Cullen, Stuart

      Central Police Training and Development Authority, UK

      Dayioglu, Mehmet

      John Jay College

      DeMaio, Enrico

      St. John's University

      Domingo, Jannette O.

      John Jay College

      Dupont, Benoît

      Université de Montréal

      Ellis, Tom

      University of Portsmouth, UK

      Esperza, Marcia John Jay College

      Feltes, Thomas

      Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

      Fields, Charles B.

      Eastern Kentucky University

      Furst, Gennifer

      John Jay College

      Geva, Ruth

      Israeli Police Force

      Ghile, Vasili

      Romanian Mission to the U.N.

      Georgi, Glonti

      American University, Georgia Office

      Goold, Benjamin

      Niigata University

      Grant, Heath B

      John Jay College

      Haberfeld, Maria (Maki)

      John Jay College

      Hakeem, Farukh

      John Jay College

      Herzog, Sergio

      University of Haifa, Isreal

      Holmberg, Lars

      University of Copenhagen, Denmark

      Huberts, L.W.J.C.

      Vrije Universiteit, the Netherlands

      Kavanagh, David

      Garda Headquarters, Ireland

      Kim, Rithy

      John Jay College

      Kiriakova, Maria

      John Jay College

      Knutsson, Johannes

      Police Academy, Norway

      Kroll, Rainer

      John Jay College

      Kutnjak, Ivkovich Sanja

      Harvard Law School

      Librett, Mitch

      John Jay College

      Lobnikar, Branko

      College of Police & Security Studies

      Long, Matt

      Sheffield Hallam University

      Louden, Robert

      John Jay College

      Ma, Yue

      John Jay College

      Maldonado, Evelyn

      CUNY Law School

      Manev, Viktor

      MM Consult, Inc., Bulgaria

      Maronie, Ellis

      John Jay College

      Maule, Brian A.

      John Jay College

      McDonald, William H.

      Tunxis Community College

      McKenzie, Ian K.

      University of Portsmouth

      O'Donnell, Eugene

      John Jay College

      Onieal, Brian

      John Jay College

      O'Rourke, Hugh E.

      John Jay College

      Payumo, Kenneth C.

      City University of New York

      Peck, Cheri

      John Jay College

      Petoussi, Vassiliki

      University of Crete

      Peyser, Melanie

      USAID Centeral Asia Judicial Systems Development Project

      Podell, Jeffrey

      John Jay College

      Punch, Maurice E.

      Mannheim Centre, London School of Economics

      Reames, Benjamin

      Lawyers Committee for Human Rights

      Ren, Ling

      Sam Houston University

      Resetnikova, Aigi

      University of Tartu

      Roudik, Peter

      Law Library of Congress

      Sadykiewicz, Michael

      Colonel (Retired) Polish Army, Independent Consultant, U.K.

      Sahapattana, Prapon

      Belgian Police

      Sanchez, Minerva

      Sam Houston State University

      Schulz, Dorothy Moses

      John Jay College

      Scurlock, Bill

      Portsmouth University, U.K.

      Shaughnessy, Edward J.

      John Jay College

      Smyth, Jim

      Queen's University of Belfast

      Spanjol, Kimberly L.

      John Jay College

      Strobl, Staci

      John Jay College

      Sullivan, Larry E.

      John Jay College

      van Steden, Ronald

      Free University, Amsterdam

      Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

      Auburn University

      Virta, Sirpa

      University of Tampere, Finland

      Vitsin, Sergei

      Moscow, Russia

      von Hassell, Agostino

      The Repton Group LLC

      Vu, Kim

      John Jay College

      Walek, Czeslaw

      Transparency International Czech Republic

      Wilson, Basil

      John Jay College

      Wood, Steven

      John Jay College

      Wylie-Marques, Kathryn

      John Jay College

      Yuki, Hidemi

      The City University of New York

      Zhang, Hongwei

      Law School of Guangxi University

      Zhao, Ruohui

      University of Nebraska at Omaha

      Introduction

      Security is now and has always been the primary function of government. All societies require some form of law enforcement capability to function effectively. Throughout history, governments of all types have relied on either public police agencies or informal means to effect conformity to social norms, standards, and laws. Given how essential law enforcement is to society, it is surprising how little we really know about how it actually functions. The job of law enforcement is always complex and sometimes dangerous. Police function under much public scrutiny, yet the complexities of what police do and why they do it rarely come to our attention. Readers of this encyclopedia will be introduced to the vagaries and nuances of the field, because it is critical to have a more informed citizenry so that when issues concerning public safety come to our attention, as they do on an almost daily basis, we can judge the situation fairly and wisely.

      We cannot strictly equate policing with law enforcement in general, but what we do know on the subject is primarily based on policing in large urban settings. So far, few reference works have been published on law enforcement in the federal, state, local, rural, or private sectors. Our knowledge of international and comparative law enforcement is almost nonexistent, and policing in Western democracies can be qualitatively different from policing in emerging countries or other areas using different legal systems. In many countries, law enforcement—indeed, government itself—is almost entirely lacking. In worst-case scenarios, police are used primarily as a force of terror to keep dictators in power. Regimes fall and rise daily, and people find themselves in lawless and violent states. In the early 21st century alone, we can think of such states as Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Haiti, to name only a few, that find themselves without effective policing powers.

      Although there is a plethora of studies on crime and punishment, law enforcement as a field of serious research in academic and scholarly circles is only in its second generation. When we study the courts and sentencing, prisons and jails, and other areas of the criminal justice system, we frequently overlook the fact that the first point of entry into the system is through police and law enforcement agencies. My work in the field of crime and punishment has driven this fact home with a sense of urgency. Approximately 800,000 men and women work in law enforcement in the United States alone, and they are held to higher standards than the rest of us, are often criticized, and function under intense public scrutiny. Ironically, they are the most visible of public servants, and yet, individually, they often work in near obscurity. But their daily actions allow us to live our lives, work, play, and come and go. They are “the thin blue line”—the buffer between us and the forces of disorder.

      Our understanding of the important issues in law enforcement has little general literature on which to draw. Currently available reference works on policing are narrowly focused and sorely out of date. Not only are there few general works on U.S. law enforcement in all its many facets, but the student and general reader will find very little on current international policing. Policing has changed dramatically over the past century, but our general understanding of it comes primarily from the news media and police television shows and movies. The public seems to gain much of its knowledge of policing from popular television shows such as Law and Order and the CSI: Crime Scene Investigation series. What we see on television is simplistic and conflates within its 42-minute hour a year's worth of police work. Those of us in the academic field of criminal justice research see an urgent need for providing students and the general interested public balanced information on what law enforcement does, with all of its ramifications. Because democracy can remain strong only with an informed public, our goal is to provide the necessary information for an understanding of these institutions dedicated to our safety and security. To this end, we have gathered a distinguished roster of authors, representing many years of knowledge and practice in the field, who draw on the latest research and methods to delineate, describe, and analyze all areas of law enforcement.

      The criminal justice field is burgeoning and is one of the fastest growing disciplines in colleges and universities throughout the United States. The Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement provides a comprehensive, critical, and descriptive examination of all facets of law enforcement on the state and local, federal and national, and international stages. This work is a unique reference source that provides readers with informed discussions on the practice and theory of policing in a historical and contemporary framework. Each volume treats subjects that are particular to the area of state and local, federal and national, and international policing. Many of the themes and issues of policing cut across disciplinary borders, however, and a number of entries provide comparative information that places the subject in context. The Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement is the first attempt to present a comprehensive view of policing and law enforcement worldwide.

      It is fitting and appropriate that we present this information in an encyclopedia, traditionally and historically the gateway to the world of knowledge, a gateway that leads to further studies for those who want to pursue this fascinating and important field. The encyclopedia is the most comprehensive, durable, and utilitarian way in which to present a large body of synthesized information to the general public. Encyclopedias trace their beginnings back to Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder (23–79 A.D.), in which he collected much of the knowledge of his time in numerous volumes. They became standard and necessary reference tools during the Enlightenment with Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie in 1772 and the first edition of the monumental Encyclopedia Britannica in 1771. These seminal compendia attempted to present an entire body of knowledge to its readers. The modern encyclopedias broke new ground in the transmission of ideas, and over the centuries, they have been updated and improved. Some editions have become classics in themselves, such as the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.

      Specialty encyclopedias are more a phenomenon of the modern age. The field of criminal justice has matured in the past generation, and its monographs and journals present a large body of specialized research from which to draw. The subspecialty of law enforcement, however, has not received the focused treatment of a comprehensive reference work until now. The study of policing and law enforcement has come a long way since the first attempts at police professionalism at the turn of the 20th century. At that time, we also saw the initial professional publications in policing by way of such partisan, anecdotal police histories as Augustine E. Costello's Our Police Protectors (1885) on New York and John J. Flinn's History of the Chicago Police in 1887. In no way can we call these works scholarly, although they did give us a glimpse into the activities of the local police departments. It was only with the age of general crime commissions, beginning in the 1930s and culminating in the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice in 1967, that we saw the development of a large body of data on police activities. And it was also in the 1960s that the first College of Police Science was founded at the City University of New York (1964), which became the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in 1966, the foremost college of its kind in the world. Within the decade, journals devoted to the scholarly study of the police were founded, and thus, this academic subspecialty of criminal justice was on the road to professional respectability. In the past 40 years, the field of law enforcement has grown and evolved rapidly.

      Law enforcement (or lack thereof) is a complex social and political process that affects everyone. Explanations of its role in society are basic to our understanding of the proper maintenance of social order. Older reference works on policing were limited given the few available sources on which they drew. But a large enough body of scholarly work now exists that a reference work such as this encyclopedia can provide coverage of most U.S. law enforcement concepts, strategies, practices, agencies, and types, as well as the comparative study of world law enforcement systems. Police and law enforcement officers do a variety of things in a day and need to draw on a body of knowledge that includes law, sociology, criminology, social work, and other disciplines. This encyclopedia attempts to answer all the questions on what an officer or an agency, here and abroad, does, but also attempts to explain the reasons for an officer's proper and improper actions. In numerous articles, we also show the development of policing, its functions, the impact of technology and modern culture on law enforcement, and the impact that court decisions have on every facet of the field. Law enforcement worldwide was profoundly affected by the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001, and many of the field's methods, concepts, principles, and strategies have changed because of the ubiquity of terrorism. Most of the relevant articles in this encyclopedia reflect these changes. As a reference work, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the field of law enforcement.

      The Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement offers the professional, the student, and the lay user information unavailable in any other single resource. Its aim is to bring interdisciplinary treatment to the myriad topics that touch on all facets of law enforcement.

      To this end, the editors have assembled more than 300 specialists in the field—academics and practitioners alike—to provide the most current treatment on more than 550 topics. These entries range from simple descriptive essays on federal law enforcement agencies to the most sophisticated analysis of contemporary theories of policing. The broadening of the field of law enforcement affected the process of selection of topics. Some selections were driven by theoretical interests, whereas others were practical and more specific. Our goal is to survey the entire field of law enforcement and to be as comprehensive as possible. For ease of use, we have divided the volumes into three areas of law enforcement: state and local, federal and national, and international. Each volume contains a master index. The longest entries cover key issues in law enforcement, large federal agencies, and major countries of the world. Many of the short entries are descriptive, especially when covering a small federal agency police force, or for a smaller country that provides little information on its law enforcement bureaucracy or that has an insignificant law enforcement presence. Some countries, especially those in social and political flux, have been omitted owing to the dearth of information and/or the almost total lack of a police force. Other entries are analytical and cover the most up-to-date theories and philosophies of law enforcement. The main focus of each entry is on currency, although some historical background is usually covered by the author. A glance at the tables of contents gives a good idea of the many perspectives from which a reader can view a given topic. For instance, a brief look at the essay on police accountability leads the reader to investigate the whole panoply of law enforcement, including police impact on constitutional rights, use of force, civilian oversight, theories of policing, and other areas. Given the interrelatedness of these topics, most authors, when possible, treat their subjects using cross-disciplinary or comparative methods. Some authors give a practical viewpoint of law enforcement, whereas others use empirical research and discuss theories and concepts. In general, the encyclopedia combines the disciplines of criminology, sociology, history, law, and political science to elucidate the most contemporary and up-to-date view of law enforcement as it is practiced and studied in the world today. An encyclopedia of this kind would be incomplete without such comparative and/or cross-disciplinary coverage. As it now stands, it is the most invaluable tool for all who work in or are interested in the field because it brings together in one work the most recent research and practice of law enforcement.

      Some of the subjects are controversial, but we have requested that authors cover alternative views evenhandedly and fairly. We did not include any biographical entries, which can be found in the myriad biographical sources available today. But in order to present the most comprehensive coverage possible, important personages are included in the subject entries. All relevant legal cases affecting law enforcement are cited in the text and in the bibliographies. The discussion of legal cases is especially useful for the generalist not trained in the law, and we have attempted to explain these court cases and laws succinctly and concisely. Bibliographies to guide the reader to documentation on the subject and further research are included after each entry. The bibliographies include relevant books, journal articles, scholarly monographs, dissertations, legal cases, newspapers, and Web sites. (A comprehensive reading list is presented at the end of each volume as well). The Reader's Guide classifies the articles into 24 general subject headings for ease of use. For instance, under Terrorism, we have grouped such subjects from Chemical and Biological Terrorism on both the local and national levels to an essay on foreign terrorist groups. Policing Strategies will guide the reader from the Broken Windows strategy to Zero Tolerance. Entries are organized alphabetically and are extensively cross referenced. The international volume, in addition to presenting all available information on policing in most of the countries of the world, also includes analytical essays on such subjects as Community Policing, Police and Terrorism, History of Policing, and Women in Policing.

      It has been a great pleasure working with Sage Publications on this project. I would especially like to thank Rolf Janke, Publisher of Sage Reference; Jerry Westby, Executive Editor; and Benjamin Penner, Associate Editor, for all of their wise counsel in bringing this publication to fruition. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to the administrators, faculty, students, and staff of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, whose support made this work possible. I could not have worked with three better editors: Marie Simonetti Rosen was responsible for Volume 1, Dorothy Moses Schulz for Volume 2, and M. R. Haberfeld for Volume 3. I also want to thank the members of our editorial board for their valuable assistance during all stages of the project. I owe special thanks to our project manager, Nickie Phillips, for her excellent handling of the numerous technical details that a project of this magnitude entails. None of this could have been done without the assistance of the outstanding librarians of the Lloyd Sealy Library of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. To them, I owe a deep and lasting debt of gratitude.

      Larry E. Sullivan, Editor-in-Chief

      About the Editors

      Larry E. Sullivan is Chief Librarian and Associate Dean at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Professor of Criminal Justice in the doctoral program at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York. He holds an M.A. and Ph.D. in history from The Johns Hopkins University, an M.S.L.S from the Catholic University in Washington, D.C., and a B.A. from De Paul University in Chicago. He was also a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Poitiers in France where he studied medieval history and literature. Prior to his appointment at John Jay in 1995, he was the Chief of the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress where he had responsibility for the nation's rare book collection. Previous appointments include Professor and Chief Librarian at Lehman College of the City University of New York, Librarian of the New-York Historical Society, and Head Librarian of the Maryland Historical Society. He first became involved in the criminal justice system when he worked at the Maryland Penitentiary in Baltimore in the late 1970s. That experience prompted him to begin collecting literature written by felons and to write the book The Prison Reform Movement: Forlorn Hope (1990 and 2002). A specially bound copy of this book representing the Eighth Amendment was featured at the exhibition of artist Richard Minsky's “The Bill of Rights” series at a number of art galleries in 2002 and 2003. Sullivan's private collection of convict literature has been on public exhibition at the Grolier Club in New York and at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He based his book, Bandits and Bibles: Convict Literature in Nineteenth Century America (2003), on these prison writings. He is the author, co-author, or editor of over fifty books and articles in the fields of American and European history, penology, criminal justice, art history, and other subjects, including the above books and Pioneers, Passionate Ladies, and Private Eyes: Dime Novels, Series, Books and Paperbacks (1996; with Lydia C. Schurman) and the New-York Historical Society: A Bicentennial History (2004). Besides many publications in journals, he has written entries in numerous reference publications over the years, including the Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, Collier's Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of New York State, Encyclopedia of the Prison, International Dictionary of Library Histories, Dictionary of Library Biography, Encyclopedia of Library History, Dictionary of Literary Biography, and the Dictionary of the Middle Ages. He serves or has served on a number of editorial boards, including the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, the Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice, and the journal Book History. Sullivan has delivered papers at meetings of the American Historical Association, the Modern Language Association, the American Society of Criminology, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing, and the American Library Association, among others. He has consulted on the development of criminal justice libraries and on rare book and manuscript collections. At John Jay College, in addition to directing the largest and best criminal justice library in the world, he teaches graduate- and doctoral-level courses in Advanced Criminology, Punishment and Responsibility, and the Philosophical and Theoretical Bases of Contemporary Corrections. Work in progress includes the book Crime, Criminals, and Criminal Law in the Middle Ages.

      Maria (Maki) R. Haberfeld is Associate Professor of Police Science, and Chair of the Department of Law, Police Science, and Criminal Justice Administration at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. She was born in Poland and immigrated to Israel as a teenager. She holds two bachelor's degrees, two master's degrees, and a Ph.D. in criminal justice. During her army service in the Israel Defense Force, in which she earned the rank of sergeant, she was assigned to a special counter-terrorist unit that was created to prevent terrorist attacks in Israel. Prior to coming to John Jay, she served in the Israel National Police, in which she earned the rank of lieutenant. She has also worked for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, in the New York Field Office, as a special consultant.

      Haberfeld has taught at Yeshiva University and New Jersey City University. Her research interests and publications are in the areas of private and public law enforcement, specifically training, police integrity, and comparative policing (her research involves police departments in the United States, Eastern and Western Europe, and Israel). She has also done some research in the area of white-collar crime, specifically organizational and individual corruption during the Communist era in Eastern Europe. For 3 years (from 1997 to 2000), she was a member of a research team, sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, studying police integrity in three major police departments in the United States. Between 1999 and 2002, she was also a principal investigator on a research project in Poland, sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, where she studied the Polish National Police and its transformation to community-oriented policing. She has received additional grants from the PSC-CUNY Research Foundation to continue her research in Poland, with particular focus on the balancing act between the public perceptions of the new police reform and rampant accusations of police corruption and lack of integrity.

      Haberfeld has recently published a book on police training, Critical Issues in Police Training (2002); presented numerous papers on training-related issues during professional gatherings and conferences; and written a number of articles on police training, specifically on police leadership, integrity, and stress. In addition, she has been involved in active training of police officers on issues related to multiculturalism, sensitivity, and leadership, as well as provided technical assistance to a number of police departments in rewriting procedural manuals. She is a member of a number of professional police associations, such as the International Association of Chiefs of Police, International Police Association, and American Society of Law Enforcement Trainers. From 2001 to 2003, she was involved in developing, coordinating, and teaching a special training program for the NYPD. She has developed a graduate course titled “Counter-Terrorism Policies for Law Enforcement,” which she teaches at John Jay to the ranking officers of the NYPD. Her most recent involvement in Eastern Europe includes redesigning the basic academy curriculum of the Czech National Police, with the emphasis on integrity-related training.

      Marie Simonetti Rosen is the publisher of Law Enforcement News, a publication of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, the City University of New York. As publisher of one of the nation's leading publications in policing, she has chronicled the trends and developments that have shaped and transformed law enforcement in America during the last three decades. A well-known expert in policing, she is often cited in the mainstream press.

      In the publication's 30-year history, it has reported on the evolution of such developments as problem-oriented policing, community policing, and the influence of “Broken Windows” and Compstat in the nation's law enforcement agencies. Under Rosen's leadership, Law Enforcement News has followed the increased use of science and technology in the criminal justice system and has reported extensively on crime rates, use of force, pursuits, police integrity and oversight, standards and training, and minority relations. It regularly covers both state and federal court decisions and legislation that affect criminal justice policy and practice.

      Law Enforcement News has influenced a generation of police leadership. The newspaper's articles are frequently reprinted in college and professional texts. The publication's reporting has been a factor in the development of legislation and public policy in such areas as health and safety issues, bias-related crime, higher education for police, psychological screening of police recruits, and the police response to the mentally ill. The paper has earned major national awards for its coverage of policing on tribal reservations and the impact of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on law enforcement practitioners.

      Her annual analysis of policing that appears in the publication's Year-in-Review issue is widely cited and appears in the Appendix to Volumes 1 and 2. Rosen received her B.A. from the City University of New York.

      Dorothy Moses Schulz is Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice at the City University of New York, where she teaches courses in criminal justice, police history, police administration, and women in policing. Schulz joined the faculty of John Jay College in 1993 after a career in policing. She was the first woman captain with the Metro-North Commuter Railroad Police Department and its predecessor, the Conrail Police Department. She was one of the first women to hold a supervisory rank in any rail or transit police agency, and among her assignments was serving as the commanding officer of New York City's Grand Central Terminal, the midtown Manhattan landmark through which about three quarters of a million people pass daily. Previously she had been director of police operations for the New York City Human Resources Administration. Before beginning her career in policing, she was a reporter and copy editor for a number of municipal newspapers and a freelance editor for a variety of magazines and book publishers. Immediately before joining the John Jay College faculty, she was the director of security at the Fashion Institute of Technology at the State University of New York in New York City.

      A well-known expert on historical and current issues involving women in policing, she is the author of From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Policing (1995), which traces the more than 100-year history of women in policing. The book describes how the fluctuating fortunes of feminism helped early policewomen but how in the 1960s women were forced to reject their historical roles when they sought a wider presence in law enforcement. Her new book, Breaking the Brass Ceiling: Women Police Chiefs and Their Paths to the Top (2004), highlights the women—police chiefs and sheriffs—who have made it to the very top rank of law enforcement. Based on historical research, questionnaire data, and interviews, the book describes the careers of pioneering and present women police chiefs and sheriffs, who make up about 1% of law enforcement chief executive officers.

      A frequent speaker at police and academic meetings, Schulz received a B.A. in journalism from New York University, an M.A. in criminal justice from John Jay College, and a Ph.D. in American studies from New York University. She has addressed conferences of the International Association of Women Police (IAWP), the Women in Federal Law Enforcement (WIFLE), the National Center for Women & Policing (NCW&P), the Senior Women Officers of Great Britain, and the Multi-Agency Women's Law Enforcement Conference sponsored by the U.S. Border Patrol in El Paso, Texas, as well as at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia, and the Canadian Police College in Ottawa, Ontario. In 2003 and 2004, she assisted the New York City Police Museum on exhibits documenting the history of women in the department.

      Schulz has also retained her involvement with rail and transit policing. From 1994 to 1997 she was the principal investigator on the Transit Cooperative Research Program's Guidelines for the Effective Use of Uniformed Transit Police and Security Personnel, the largest transit policing grant funded in the United States, and she has overseen a number of Federal Transit Administration triennial audits of urban transit system police departments. She is completing research for a book on the history of railroad policing in America.

      In 1998, she was a visiting scholar at the British Police Staff College/National Police Training, Bramshill, Hampshire, England, and she has received research grants from the St. Louis Mercantile Library at the University of Missouri, St. Louis; the Newberry Library, Chicago; the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul; the City University of New York, University Committee on Research; the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the National Association of Female Law Enforcement Executives.

      Schulz has delivered papers at meetings of the American Society of Criminology, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and the American Historical Association and has published in a number of police and historical journals. She was a coeditor of police topics for Crime and the Justice System in America: An Encyclopedia and has contributed articles to other reference publications, including the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, the Encyclopedia of Homelessness, the Encyclopedia of New York State, and the Encyclopedia of Women and Crime.

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