Encyclopedia of Juvenile Justice
- Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
- Publication Year: 2003 |
- Online Publication Date: September 15, 2007 |
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412950640 |
- Print ISBN: 9780761923589 |
- Online ISBN: 9781412950640 |
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From boot camps to truancy, the Encyclopedia of Juvenile Justice provides more than 200 up-to-date, concise, and readable entries in a single, authoritative volume. The editors, noted authors of several criminal justice books and editors of the award-winning Encyclopedia of Prisons, cover historical and contemporary theories, concepts, and real-world practices of juvenile justice in the United States. The entries address a broad range of issues and topics, such as alcohol and drug abuse, arson, the death penalty for juveniles, computer and Internet crime, gun violence, gangs, missing children, school violence, teen pregnancy, and delinquency theories. In addition, topics cover society’s response to the problems of juvenile justice, punishments meted out to America’s juvenile offenders, juvenile rehabilitation programs, and well-known researchers and professionals in the field. ...
- Reader's Guide
- Entries A-Z
- Subject Index
- Delinquency Theories and Theorists
- Historical References: People and Projects
- Delinquent Behavior
- Treatment and Interventions for Delinquency
- Juvenile Law and Legislative Initiatives
- Juvenile Issues and Public Policy
Copyright © 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of juvenile justice / Marilyn D. McShane, Frank P. Williams III, editors.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Juvenile justice, Administration of—United States—Encyclopedias. 2. Juvenile delinquency—United States—Encyclopedias. 3. Juvenile delinquents-Rehabilitation—United States—Encyclopedias. 4. Juvenile corrections—United States—Encyclopedias. I. McShane, Marilyn D., 1956– II. Williams III. Franklin P.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
03 04 05 06 07 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Editorial Assistant: Sara Tauber
Development Editor: Vince Burns
Copy Editor: Barbara McGowran
Production Editor: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Cover Designer: Ravi Balasuriya
List of Entries[Page vii]
- [Page viii]
Reader's Guide[Page ix]
Delinquency Theories and Theorists
- Biological Theories
- Constitutional Theories
- Cycle of Violence
- Sociological Theories
- Psychological Theories
- Ruth Shonle Cavan
- Richard Cloward
- Albert Cohen
- Lamar T. Empey
- Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck
- Stanley G. Hall
- Travis Hirschi
- Joan McCord
- Solomon Kobrin
- Henry McKay
- Walter Miller
- Walter Reckless
- Lloyd Ohlin
- Thorsten Sellin
- Clifford Shaw
- Edwin Sutherland
- James Short
- Fredrick Thrasher
- Marvin Wolfgang
Historical References: People and Projects
- Boys Town
- Cambridge-Somerville Study
- Community Treatment Project
- Chicago Area Project
- Child Saving
- Augusta Bronner
- Deinstitutionalization Movement
- Stanley G. Hall
- Jerome Miller
- William Healy
- National Youth Survey
- Philadelphia Birth Cohort
- Provo Experiment
- Reformatories, Reform schools
- Silverlake Experiment
Treatment and Interventions for Delinquency
- Alternative Schools
- Boot Camps
- Boys and girls Clubs
- community action boards
- Culturally Specific Programming
- Group Homes
- Detention Facilities
- family therapy
- group therapy
- victim offender
- Prevention strategies
- police responses to delinquency
- out of home placement
- Scared Straight
- Teen courts
- Wilderness Programs
Juvenile Law and Legislative Initiatives
- California Street Terrorism Enforcement & Prevention
- California Youth Authority
- Death Penalty
- Education of Handicapped Children Act
- Foster Care
- Guardian Ad Litem
- Juvenile Courts
- Juvenile Law
- Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act
- parens patriae
- Parental liability laws
- National Council of Juvenile & Family Court Judges
- National Council on Crime & Delinquency
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
- Waivers to Adult Court
- Photo 1. “To the Inhabitants of the City of New York” 57
- Photo 2. Judge Lindsey Presides in the Chambers of His Juvenile Court 78
- Photo 3. Charles Starkweather 110
- Photo 4. Grafitti and Tagging 186
- Photo 5. Boys in a Beet Field at the State Industrial School for Boys, Kearney, Nebraska 210
- Photo 6. An Inmate Cell at Elmira Reformatory 220
- Photo 7. Students in Front of the State Industrial School for Boys, Kearney, Nebraska 280
- Photo 8. Work Projects Administration Poster 296
- Photo 9. Elmira Reformatory 318
- Photo 10. Cauliflower Field, State Industrial School for Boys, Kearney, Nebraska 356
- Photo 11. The Lyman School, Westborough, Massachusetts 377 [Page xii]
- Allen, Leana C., Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
- Andrus, Tracy, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Armstrong, Gaylene Styve, Arizona State University-West, Phoenix, AZ
- Azubuike, Eric E., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Bailey, Charles, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Bailey, Frankie Y., State University of New York, Albany, NY
- Bailey, Laura J., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Batton, Candice L., University of Nebraska, Omaha, Lincoln, NE
- Belbot, Barbara A., University of Houston–Downtown, Houston, TX
- Benekos, Peter, Mercyhurst College, Erie, PA
- Binder, Arnold, University of California, Irvine, CA
- Bing, Robert L., III, University of Texas, Arlington, TX
- Bishop, Natalie, Urban Pathway's Cluster House, New York, NY
- Bloom, Barbara, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA
- Bohm, Robert M., University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL
- Brooks, Willie M., Jr., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Buffkin, Jana, Drury University, Springfield, MO
- Caeti, Tory J., University of North Texas, Denton, TX
- Caldwell, Dawn M., Charleston Southern University, Charleston, SC
- Carona, Anthony, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Carter, Andrea M., University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR
- Casey, Verna, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY
- Cassiday-Shaw, Aimee, Bakersfield, CA
- Catlin, Dennis W., Northern Arizona University, Tucson, AZ
- Chima, Felix O., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Cintrón, Myrna, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX [Page xiv]
- Davis, Laura, San Bernardino County Probation, San, Bernardino, CA
- DeLisi, Matthew J., Iowa State University, Ames, IA
- Dodge, Mary, University of Colorado, Denver, CO
- Dolny, H. Michael, California State University, Stanislaas, CA
- Dunnuck, Sandra, Montgomey County Probation, Conroe, TX
- Eggleston, Carolyn, California State University, San Bernardino, CA
- Eggleston, Elaine P., University of Maryland, College Park, MD
- Engram, Peggy A., University of Houston–Downtown, Houston, TX
- Farr, Kathryn Ann, Portland State University, Portland, OR
- Farrar, Jon R., University of Texas, Tyler, TX
- Ferrell, Jeff, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX
- Ford, Frederick, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Ford, Marilyn Chandler, Volusia County Dept of Corrections, Daytona Beach, FL
- French, Laurence A., Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM
- Freng, Adrienne, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY
- Fritsch, Eric J., University of North Texas, Denton, TX
- Gaines, Larry K., California State University, San Bernardino, CA
- Gardner, Betina, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY
- Gehring, Thom, California State University, San Bernardino, CA
- Geis, Gilbert, University of California, Irvine, CA
- Gibbons, Don C., Portland State University, Portland, OR
- Gibson, Camille, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Golden, James, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR
- Gordon, Jill A., Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
- Grabowski, Michael J., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Grimes, Ruth-Ellen M., California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA
- Hagan, Frank E., Mercyhurst College, Erie, PA
- Heck, William P., Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, OK
- Heide, Kathleen M., University of South Florida, Tampa, FL
- Henningsen, Rodney J., Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX
- Hickey, Thomas J., University of Tampa, Tampa, FL
- Hirsch, Claudia Rios, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Hirsch, Philip, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Jenkins, Jeffrey A., Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI
- Jerin, Robert A., Endicott College, Beverly, MA
- Johnson, Wesley, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX
- Josi, Don A., Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA
- Knox, George W., National Gang Crime Research Center, Peotone, IL [Page xv]
- Krause, Wesley, San Bernardino County Probation, San Bernardino, CA
- Laub, John H., University of Maryland, College Park, MD
- Lawrence, Richard, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN
- Lovett, Marilyn D., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Lowe, R. Steve, Pacific Youth Ministries, San Bernardino, CA
- Luttrell, Vickie, Drury University, Springfield, MO
- MacKenzie, Doris Layton, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
- Maddan, Sean A., University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR
- Mays, G. Larry, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM
- McConnell, Elizabeth H., Charleston Southern University, Charleston, SC
- McGowen, Bridgett L., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- McShane, Marilyn D., University of Houston–Downtown, Houston, TX
- McWhorter, Richard, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Mebane, Dalila, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Merlo, Alida V., Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA
- Moriarty, Laura J., Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
- Moyer, Imogene L., Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA
- Mupier, Robert M., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Myers, David L., Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA
- Palmer, Ted, California Youth Authority, Ret., Sacramento, CA
- Patenaud, Allan, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR
- Pelz, Beth, University of Houston–Downtown, Houston, TX
- Penn, Everette B., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Peterson, Dana, The University at Albany, NY
- Pisciotta, Alexander W., Kutztown University, Kutztown, PA
- Richter, Michelle, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX
- Roberts, Lisa M., Albion, PA
- Rosenbaum, Dennis P., University of Illinois, Chicago, IL
- Rubenser, Lorie, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX
- Rush, Jeffrey P., University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, TN
- Russo-Myers, Bernadette V., Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX
- Samuels, Lorraine, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Scarpitti, Frank R., University of Delaware, Newark, DE
- Schauer, Edward J., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Scheidegger, Amie R., Charleston Southern University, Charleston, SC
- Schram, Pamela, California State University, San Bernardino, CA
- Sechrest, Dale K., California State University, San Bernardino, CA
- Shelden, Randall G., University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV
- Shichor, David, California State University, San Bernardino, CA [Page xvi]
- Sims, Barbara, Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg, Middletown, PA
- Skonovd, Norman, California Youth Authority, Sacramento, CA
- Snell, Cletus, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Snow, Terry A., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Steinmann, Rick M., Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO
- Taylor, Morris, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL
- Taylor, Terrance J., Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
- Thistlethwaite, Amy B., Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY
- Tibbetts, Stephen G., California State University, San Bernardino, CA
- Tischler, Chloe, Radford University, Radford, VA
- Turk, Austin T., University of California, Riverside, CA
- Van Houten, Amy, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR
- Vandiver, Donna M., Illinois State University, Normal, IL
- Veneziano, Carol, Southeastern Missouri State University, Cape, Girardeau, MO
- Veneziano, Louis, Southeastern Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO
- Walker, Jeffrey T., University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR
- Websdale, Neil, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ
- Williams, Frank P., III, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Willingham, Tonya Y., Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX
- Worrall, John, California State University, San Bernardino, CA
The patience and kindness of many people go into the production of any scholarly endeavor. We would like to thank our good friend Leo Balk for suggesting this project to us. We also want to extend a huge thank you to all the contributors, whose conscientious efforts made this volume possible and many of whom volunteered again, even after the Encyclopedia of American Prisons. We would also like to thank the wonderful faculty and staff at Prairie View A&M University and at the University of Houston–Downtown for assisting us in this effort.[Page xviii]
We hope we have risen to the challenge of the Encyclopedia of Juvenile Justice in producing a mix of historical works, current perspectives, people, and ideas related to the field of juvenile justice. We are confident, at least, that the entries will invite comments and generate a lively debate. One thing is certain: Our selection is as wide ranging as it is far reaching. Here is an incredible collection for the reader, who will find that every entry provides a fascinating insight into the field of juvenile justice.
The encyclopedia features the work of many talented authors who have made their mark by producing detailed coverage of many controversial issues. More important, however, are the references, as you dip in and out of the alphabetical listing of topics from intervention and prevention programs, to legal perspectives, mental health concerns, and theories that focus on delinquency.
Each section of the volume has successfully accomplished the task of bringing a large body of knowledge together and making it understandable not only to those who work in the field but also to those who are newly interested in the problems of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention. The contributors all deserve considerable credit for their accomplishment. Most of all, recognition must be given to the editors, Marilyn McShane and Frank Williams III, who conceptualized and molded this volume into its present form. I recommend it to you and salute the authors and editors for a job well done.School of Juvenile Justice and Psychology, Prairie View A&M University, Dean, [Page xx]
In recent years, much attention has been focused on the juvenile offender, perceived changes in the types and seriousness of crimes being committed by the juvenile, and a controversial variety of possible treatment interventions, such as boot camps, corporal punishments, and culturally specific programs. Stories of school shootings, violent gangs, and murders being perpetrated by 7-year-olds have dominated the newspapers and sent practitioners and policymakers scrambling to develop ways to prevent crime, predict and intercept high-risk offenders, and implement treatment strategies that will both rehabilitate the offender and protect society. Unfortunately, these sensational events tend to color the public's view of juvenile crime and distort perceptions of its nature. Myths abound about the causes of and cures for delinquency. Neither research, common sense, nor logical strategy can keep up with the laws, policies, and other political “Hail Marys” flung desperately into the end zone of the juvenile justice system.
This work was compiled with the belief that everyone should be familiar with the history and current operations of the juvenile justice system. Many of the entries in this encyclopedia begin with a historical discussion to help frame the issues. Any understanding of contemporary problems must begin with an appreciation for where we have been. The more we know about juvenile justice issues, the better we can plan for and implement realistic, workable solutions for the future.
The entries included here are by no means exhaustive. We circulated lists of topics and received feedback from many respected colleagues in narrowing the subjects to this manageable volume. We apologize, in advance, if we were not able to include a personal favorite topic.
As a reference work, this encyclopedia seeks to provide an accurate and readable resource for students of juvenile justice, criminology, and criminal justice. May this be the starting point for your research efforts and serve to interest and inform you about many challenging and critical issues for our society today. To assist in this process, each entry includes a bibliography listing the most important references related to the topic as well as other related topics that might enlighten the reader further. Another function of this volume is to highlight the cumulative knowledge and insights of the experts featured here. We are constantly impressed with their ability to summarize issues and speak to the heart of matters vitally important to the quality of life we profess to value.
There are many popular claims made today about juveniles and the best way to approach the problems of delinquency. We invite the reader to evaluate these ideas and form your own opinion about what is needed to best serve children today.Marilyn D. McShane, Frank P. Williams III, (Editors)[Page xxii]
About the Editors[Page xxiii]Marilyn D. McShane, Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Houston–Downtown Director, Community Justice Institute Ph.D. (1985) Sam Houston State University
Specialization: Institutional and community corrections, child abuse, criminal justice system management, and criminological theory
Dr. McShane is currently working in research and faculty development at the University of Houston–Downtown. For her previous work at California State University, San Bernardino's School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, she received the 1994 Faculty Professional Development Award. She was also Chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at Northern Arizona University. Dr. McShane has served on a number of national criminal justice professional organization boards and often consults for the National Institute of Justice. Professor McShane has a consistent record of publication and grantsmanship (more than 50 books and articles, and many grants). Her editorial work includes a series for LFB Scholarly Publishing, featuring the most recent and notable dissertations in the field, and the award-winning Encyclopedia of American Prisons (1996), both of which she coedited. Her most recent book is the third edition of Criminological Theory (1999), coauthored with Frank P. Williams III.Franklin P. Williams III, Professor of Juvenile Justice, Prairie View A&M University Coordinator, Juvenile Justice Doctoral Program Professor Emeritus, California State University, San Bernardino Ph.D. (1976) Florida State University
Specialization: Criminological theory, corrections, fear of crime, drug abuse, methodology, and statistics
Dr. Williams has taught at departments in five universities and has published a substantial number of articles, research monographs and government reports, and books. He has served as Department Chair (California State University at San Bernardino) and Assistant Director for Research (Sam Houston State University) and has directed numerous research projects and two centers. He has served on the boards of national scholarly organizations, chaired a major division of a national organization, and chaired or served on numerous national and regional committees. He has been an editor or associate editor for several journals and publisher's book and monograph series. He is currently serving as coeditor of two book series and is beginning work on the fourth edition of a popular theory textbook. His most recent book is Imagining Criminology (1999).
Appendix 1 Print and Online Resources for Juvenile Justice[Page 399]Appendix 1 Print and online resources for juvenile justice
The field of juvenile justice is complex in its subsystems, but in general, the field comprises the following three categories: juvenile delinquency and education, youth crime and victimization, and the juvenile justice system. Further distinctions can be made within these categories. For instance, programmatic research in the correctional area of the juvenile justice system may be designated as community-based programs, residency programs, and boot camps. Specific research topics are as varied as media portrayals of violence to body mutilation and may cut across the categories and subcategories.
Given the complexity of the juvenile justice system, coupled with the complexity of today's libraries, it is no wonder students sometimes feel lost. The intent of this entry is to guide the student to find resources more easily.
Resources that are valuable for researching juvenile justice topics are as varied as the topics themselves. While the Internet is one easily accessed source of information, the library offers many other sources: books, including reference sources such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, statistical materials, and standards; journals; databases; and newspapers and news broadcasts.Books
The most basic tool of a library is the catalog. Basically, a library catalog lists the materials the library owns, both book and journal titles. In the past, library catalogs were paper card catalogs. Electronic catalogs have taken the place of printed cards in most libraries today. These electronic catalogs are searchable by title, author, subject headings, and keyword. Because subject headings prescribed by the Library of Congress are long and complicated, a better alternative is to use the keyword search option if available. However, there is a disparity of indexing terms among catalogs, indexes, abstracts, and databases. Most electronic catalogs can be searched from any Internet connection.
Juvenile justice resources are found in the Library of Congress call numbers H through K. The call number designation H includes the social sciences (sociology, economics, and business); J is the political sciences; and K is law. Depending on the focus of your topic, it is sometimes useful to browse these areas. Examples of books useful for juvenile justice research include the following:
- American Correctional Association. 2000. Juvenile and Adult Correctional Departments, Institutions, Agencies and Paroling Authorities. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.
- Benemati, D., A. Bouloukos, G. Newman, and P. Schultze. 1997. Criminal Justice Information: How to Find It, How to Use It. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
- Nelson, B. 1997. Criminal Justice Research in Libraries and on the Internet. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
- O'Block, R., L. Parker, and Q. Thurman. 2000. Criminal Justice Research Sources, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Dictionaries, handbooks, and encyclopedias offer quick and easy access to basic information about research topics. Some excellent examples of these resources include the following:[Page 400]
- Champion, D. (ed.). 2001. American Dictionary of Criminal Justice, Key Terms and Major Court Cases, 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Roxbury.
- Gale Group (ed.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, 2nd ed. Farmington Hills: Gale Group.
- Johnson, E. (ed.). 1987. Handbook of Crime and Delinquency Prevention. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
- Knox, G. (ed.). 1995. National Gangs Resource Handbook, An Encyclopedic Reference. Bristol, VA: Wyndham Hall.
- Meagher, R. 1996. Crime and Justice in America. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt.
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 1991. Handbook for Juvenile Justice Advisory Boards. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.
- Rush, G. F., and S. Torres. 1998. The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Criminology. Incline Village, NV: Copperhouse.
- Shoemaker, D. (ed.). 1996. International Handbook on Juvenile Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Visit your library's reference room or check the electronic catalog to find these titles.Standards
Standards are written to provide guidelines for professionals in the provision of services to juveniles. Standards assure quality of service and provide checks and balances for governing bodies. The following are two examples of standards publications published by the American Correctional Association:
- Commission on Accreditation for Corrections Staff. 1991. Standards for Juvenile Detention Facilities, 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.
- Commission on Accreditation for Corrections Staff. 1991. Standards for Juvenile Training Schools, 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.
The American Correctional Association publishes many other standards publications dealing with various aspects of juvenile justice and corrections. See also the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges for various court-related standards.Statistics
The federal government is a prolific producer of statistics in juvenile justice. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is an organization that operates under a mandate from Congress and collects and disseminates statistics on various facets of crime in the United States. The BJS produces many publications, most notably in the form of newsletters. Typically, BJS publications are found in the government documents sections of libraries, but some libraries maintain special collections of government publications pertinent to the libraries' clientele. The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics (2001), 27th edition, is an excellent, comprehensive resource published by BJS. Aside from providing print resources, the BJS has a comprehensive Web site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs.
Another resource for juvenile justice statistics is the Uniform Crime Reports (also known as Crime in the United States), published annually by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In addition, most states collect and compile their own criminal justice statistics and make them available either in print or electronic format.Journals
Professionals in the field of juvenile justice often publish their research findings in journals. The currency of journal articles makes them one of the most important sources of information for the juvenile justice researcher.
Databases, indexes, and abstracts, either print or electronic, allow a researcher to locate articles within journals by keyword or subject. These resources give citation information that will allow you to access articles. Some electronic databases give the full text of the article. If full text databases are not available, check the library catalog to see if the journal is in the library's collection. Keep in mind that library catalogs index journal titles, not the titles of the articles within the journals.
[Page 401]The following are some outstanding journals in the field of juvenile justice:
- Adolescence, published by Libra Publishers, beginning in 1966.
- Child Welfare, published by Transaction Publishers, beginning in 1920.
- Journal of Adolescent Chemical Dependency, published by Haworth Press, beginning in 1990.
- Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, published by Sage Periodicals Press, beginning in 1964.
- Juvenile and Family Court Journal, published by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, beginning in 1978.
- Juvenile and Family Law Digest, published by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, beginning in 1981.
- Juvenile Justice Digest, published by Washington Crime News Services, beginning in 1972.
- Social Problems, published by the University of California Press, beginning in 1953.
Due to the interdisciplinary nature of juvenile justice, other disciplines, including criminal justice and sociology, cover juvenile justice issues as well.Databases
Databases are electronic collections of information. Searchable by keywords, databases are usually produced for specific audiences such as juvenile justice researchers. Databases are either in CD-ROM format or are delivered over the Internet.
Juvenile justice researchers are fortunate to have several outstanding databases available for their use. Criminal Justice Abstracts, published by Sage Publications and produced electronically by Silver Platter, covers journals, books, reports, and dissertations. However, CJ Abstracts does not contain full text of these materials, only the abstracts. Crime Justice Periodical Index (CJPI), published by UMI and produced by ProQuest, focuses its content on crime prevention, juvenile delinquency, and courtroom procedures. CJPI does contain a significant amount of full-text articles. The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) provides free Internet access to their database of abstracts available at http://www.ncjrs.org. The NCJRS database contains many hard-to-find public agency publications and is of interest to juvenile and criminal justice research scholars, policymakers, and practitioners.
The content of a database varies depending on the subscription limitation. Many databases are available in print as well as electronic format.Newspapers and News Broadcasts
Currency is always an issue for researchers. Newspapers and news broadcasts are excellent venues to learn about current, popular trends and issues concerning juveniles. Current events are transmitted to a large audience via these resources quickly, nearly as soon as the information is available, and sometimes as the situation is unfolding. To stay abreast of the latest trends and issues, the popular media is an adequate source of information. Both newspapers and television stations have very thorough Web sites that offer searchable archives. Do not overlook these valuable resources.Internet
While the Internet is an incredible resource for researchers, it is advisable to use discretion when collecting information from it. Ask yourself the following questions to judge the quality of information found on a Web site:
- Accuracy: How do you know the information is accurate?
- Authority: Can you trust the information presented?
- Authorship: Who is the author and is she or he an expert on the topic?
- Currency: Is the page updated regularly for changes in content? If a page is not updated regularly, the information may be questionable.
- Objectivity or point of view: Does the site consider all perspectives or focus solely on one perspective of an issue?[Page 402]
- Scope and purpose of the site: Does the site have a motive for existing other than simply communicating information? Does the site advance an agenda?
Many Web sites offer e-mail updates, online news updates, and listservs to help keep researchers on top of the latest developments and to keep them engaged in a continuing dialogue with their colleagues. When used in conjunction with library resources, the Internet is a rich resource. However, the Internet should not be relied on as a sole source of information due to its increasingly commercial nature.Interlibrary Loan
Researchers should also note the availability of interlibrary loan services at their public or academic libraries. Nearly all libraries today participate in agreements that partner them with other libraries for sharing resources. If a researcher is unable to get a particular book, article, or other information source at his or her library, he or she may be able to request the resources from another library. Sharing resources in such a way makes researching limitless in terms of quantity of information.Conclusion
Even though the modern library, with its rows of computers, may seem confusing and daunting at first, it is actually easier now to find and use information than ever before. A single networked computer can substitute for many library tools of the past, such as card catalog, indexes, abstracts, encyclopedia, almanacs, and the like. Although the computer makes searching for and using information fast and easy, become acquainted with the librarian and ask for her or his assistance. Librarians are the single best source of information in the library.and
Appendix 2 Internet Resources for Juvenile Justice[Page 403]Appendix 2 Internet resources for juvenile justiceAdoption and Foster Care
Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/acyf
Children's Bureau http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/cb
Interstate Compact on Adoption and Medical Assistance (ICAMA) http://aaicama.aphsa.org
National Adoption Information Clearinghouse (NAIC) http://www.calib.com/naic
National Resource Center for Foster Care and Permanency Planning http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp
National Resource Center for Special Needs Adoption http://www.spaulding.org/adoption/NRC-adoption.htmlAlcohol Abuse
National Institution on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) http://www.niaaa.nih.govChild Abuse and Neglect
American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) http://www.apsac.org
Childhelp USA http://www.childhelpusa.org
National Abandoned Infants Assistance Resource Center (NAIARC) http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~aiarc
National Center for the Prosecution of Child Abuse http://www.ndaaapri.org/apri/programs/ncpca/index.html
National Children's Alliance http://www.nca-online.org
National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information http://www.calib.com/nccanch
National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect http://www.ndacan.cornell.edu
National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse http://www.preventchildabuse.com
National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment http://www.gocwi.org/nrccm
Prevent Child Abuse America http://www.preventchildabuse.org[Page 404]Data and Statistics on Juvenile Crime
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs
Government Printing Office http://www.gpo.gov
Justice Research and Statistics Association http://www.jrsainfo.org
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) http://www.archives.gov/index.html
National Criminal Justice Reference Service http://www.ncjrs.org
Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook
Statistical Abstract of the United States http://www.census.gov/statab/wwwDelinquency and Crime Theory
Criminological Theory http://www.crimetheory.comDrugs
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) http://www.samhsa.gov/centers/csat2002/csat_frame.html
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) http://www.health.org
National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) http://www.nida.nih.gov
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) http://www.samhsa.govEducation and Child Welfare
Administration on Developmental Disabilities (ADD) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/add
Black Administrators in Child Welfare (BACW) http://www.cwla.org/programs/bacw
Children's Bureau http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/cb
Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) http://www.cwla.org
Department of Education http://www.ed.gov
Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC) http://icpc.aphsa.org
National Child Welfare Resource Center on Legal and Judicial Issues http://www.abanet.org/child/rclji/home.html
National Child Welfare Resource Center for Organizational Improvement http://muskie5.musk.usm.maine.edu/helpkids
National Indian Child Welfare Association http://nicwa.org
National Information Center for Children and Youth With Disabilities (NICHCY) http://www.nichcy.org
National Resource Center for Information Technology in Child Welfare http://www.nrcitcw.org
National Resource Center for Youth Development http://www.nrcys.ou.edu/nrcyd.htm
Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) http://www.ed.gov/offices/OERI
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERSFamily Issues
Administration for Children and Families (ACF) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/index.html
[Page 405]Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/acyf
AVANCE Family Support and Education Program http://www.avance.org
Military Family Resource Center (MFRC) http://mfrc.calib.com
National Child Care Information Center http://nccic.org
National Child Welfare Resource Center for Family-Centered Practice http://www.cwresource.org
National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth (NCFY) http://www.ncfy.com
National Resource Center for Community-Based Family Resource and Support Programs (FRIENDS) http://www.chtop.com/FRIENDS
Office of Family Assistance http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofaFamily and Social Services
Administration for Children and Families (ACF) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/index.html
American Public Human Services Association (APHSA) http://www.aphsa.org
ARCH National Resource Center for Respite and Crisis Care Services http://www.chtop.com/ARCH/ARCHserv.htm
Child Care Bureau (CCB) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ccb
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) http://www.hud.gov
Department of Labor (Women's Bureau) http://www.dol.gov/wb
Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/fysb
Office of Community Services http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ocs
Office of Human Services Policy (HSP) http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/index.htmJuvenile Justice Programs and Services
Bureau of Justice Assistance http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA
Department of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov
Juvenile Justice Evaluation Center http://www.jrsa.org/jjec/index.html
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges http://www.ncjfcj.unr.edu/index.html
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org
Office of Justice Programs (OJP) http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov
Texas Youth Commission Home http://www.tyc.state.tx.usLaw Enforcement and Judicial Agencies
Department of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov
[Page 406]Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) http://www.fbi.gov/homepage.htm
Institution for Law and Justice http://www.ilj.org
National Institution of Justice (NIJ) http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij
Texas Attorney General http://www.oag.state.tx.usMedical and Health Issues
Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) http://www.mentalhealth.org/cmhs
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov
Department of Health and Human Services http://www.dhhs.gov
Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://www.hrsa.gov
Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) http://www.mchb.hrsa.gov
National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health (NCEMCH) http://www.ncemch.org
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) http://www.nichd.nih.gov
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) http://www.nimh.nih.gov
National Institutes of Health (NIH) http://www.nih.gov
National Maternal and Child Health Clearinghouse http://www.nmchc.org
National Mental Health Information Center http://www.mentalhealth.org
National Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Resource Center (NSRC) http://www.sidscenter.org
Office of Minority Health Resource Center http://www.omhrc.gov/omhhome.htm
Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS) http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/ophs
World Health Organization (WHO) http://www.who.intResearch on Juveniles and Juvenile Crime
ABA Center on Children and the Law http://www.abanet.org/child
Children's Defense Fund http://www.childrensdefense.org
The Letric Law Library's Constitutional Law and Rights Topic Area http://www.lectlaw.com/tcon.htm
National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) http://www.ncjrs.org[Page 407]Special Topics
Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences http://www.acjs.org
Administration for Native Americans http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ana
American Humane Association http://www.americanhumane.org
American Society of Criminology http://www.asc41.com
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service http://www.reeusda.gov
Court TV http://www.courttv.com/index.html
Criminal Justice Policy Council http://cjpc.state.tx.us
Cybrary Criminal Justice Directory http://talkjustice.com/cybrary.asp
Famous Trials, Compiled by Douglas Linder, professor of law at the University of Missouri–Kansas City Law School http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/ftrials.htm
Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control http://www.roxbury.net/jdcchout.html
MegaLinks in Criminal Justice http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor
National Self-Help Clearinghouse http://www.selfhelpweb.org
Office of Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov
Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/opre
The Origin of Prisons http://www.notfrisco.com/prisonhistory/origins/index.html
Punishment and the Death Penalty http://ethics.acusd.edu/death_penalty.html
Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet http://thomas.loc.gov
University of Missouri–St. Louis Department of Sociology http://www.umsl.edu/~sociolog
Women's Bureau Clearinghouse http://www.dol.gov/wbViolence and Victims
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children http://www.missingkids.org
Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc
Office for Victims of Crime Resource Center http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/ovcres/welcome.html
Violence Against Women Office (VAWO) http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/vawo[Page 408]