Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West

Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Gordon Morris Bakken & Alexandra Kindell

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Abstract

Immigration from foreign countries was a small part of the peopling of the American West but an important aspect in building western infrastructure, cities, and neighborhoods. The Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West provides much more than ethnic groups crossing the plains, landing at ports, or crossing borders; this two-volume work makes the history of the American West an important part of the American experience. Through sweeping entries, focused biographies, community histories, economic enterprise analysis, and demographic studies, this Encyclopedia presents the tapestry of the West and its population during various periods of migration. The two volumes examine the settling of the West and include coverage of movements of American Indians, African Americans, and the often-forgotten role of women in the West's ...

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  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • American Indians
    • Biography
    • Cities and Towns
    • Economic Change and War
    • Ethnic and Racial Groups
    • Immigration Laws and Policies
    • Libraries
    • Natural Resources Events and Laws
    • The Way West
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    • List of Entries

        Research Guides
      • Basques in Nevada
      • How to Use the Census
      • Ethnic and Racial Groups
      • How to Use Government Information
      • Mining and Immigration in Nevada: From the Comstock Through World War II

      Reader's Guide

      To give the reader a quick sense of the topics contained in this work, we have arranged most of the entries in the following topical guide. Broad topical entries for cities contain substantial information on the ethnic migrations through those urban areas. American Indian tribes have tribal histories telling some of their experiences with migration. Ethnic groups have limited entries, and some of them are stories of places. Immigration laws and the history of the Immigration and Nationalization Service give readers detailed public policy information on how federal law affected immigration. Libraries were very much a part of the migration matrix in the American West. Economic change and war were the push and pull of migration. Natural resources laws and events are an important part of the western experience, going far beyond the gold rush to California. Biographies tell personal stories of people in places giving life to the immigration and migration experiences of Americans. We hope you find this topical guide useful, but we remind you to also use the index as a search tool. This is particularly important because so much of the migration and immigration experience takes place in cities.

      About the Editors

      Gordon Morris Bakken is Professor of History at California State University, Fullerton; Past President of Phi Alpha Theta, the national honor society in history; Founding Vice President and a Director of the California Supreme Court Historical Society; former Parliamentarian of the Organization of American Historians; Series Editor of The Legal History of North America for the University of Oklahoma Press, Editor of Law in the Western United States (2000) for the University of Oklahoma Press, and a member of the editorial boards of Western Legal History and Montana: The Magazine of Western History. He is also Editor of California Legal History, the journal of the California Supreme Court Historical Society.

      Professor Bakken earned his BS (1966), MS (1967), PhD (1970), and JD (1973) at the University of Wisconsin. He is the author or editor of sixteen books, forty-one articles, sixteen book chapters and encyclopedia entries, and numerous reviews. With Brenda Farrington, he coauthored Learning California History (1999) and the six-volume work The American West (2000). He has held twelve research grants, including the Russell Sage Residency Fellowship in Law; two American Bar Foundation Fellowships; and the Bradley Fellowship at the Montana Historical Society.

      Professor Bakken has been the faculty advisor for the Theta Pi chapter of Phi Alpha Theta on the California State University, Fullerton, campus since 1982. He teaches Westward Movement, Women of the American West, Women and American Law, American Legal and Constitutional History, Development of American Law, American Military Heritage, Historical Thinking, Historical Writing, Historical Editing, California History, Real Estate and Land Use Law, Principles of Real Estate, Environmental Law, Administrative Law, and Collective Bargaining, as well as survey courses in American History.

      Alexandra Kindell is a doctoral candidate at Iowa State University, in residence at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. She teaches California History at Vanguard University and California State University, Fullerton, as well as Historical Writing at California State University, Fullerton. She previously served as Assistant Editor of Agricultural History, the journal of record for the field of agricultural and rural history. She is actively involved with the history section of the Southwestern Social Science Association.

      She is the recipient of the Phi Alpha Theta Doctoral Scholarship (2004), the Garst Dissertation Fellowship (2004), the Colonial Dames Scholarship (2002), the Carmen Bayati Memorial Scholarship (1997), and the Warren Beck Memorial Scholarship (1996). Her scholarship has been recognized twice with the Procter Prize in American History at the Southwestern Historical Association (1999 and 2002). Her most recent publication, “Women and Veterinary Medicine,” appeared in the Encyclopedia of Women in the American West (2003).

      Kindell received her BA (1997) and MA (2001) from California State University, Fullerton, and expects to receive her PhD from Iowa State University in May 2006.

      Contributors

      Richard Aarstad

      Montana Historical Society

      Elwood Bakken

      Independent Scholar

      Gordon Morris Bakken

      California State University, Fullerton

      Eduardo Barrios

      California State University, Fullerton

      Ellen B. Baumler

      Montana Historical Society

      Scott M. Behen

      California State University, Fullerton

      Barbara Berglund

      University of South Florida

      Peggy Park Bernal

      Huntington Library

      Catherine M. Bilanchone

      California State University, Fullerton

      Megan Birk

      Purdue University

      Timothy Braatz

      Saddleback College

      Gilbert J. Bradshaw

      Brigham Young University

      Lincoln Bramwell

      University of New Mexico

      Kathleen Brosnan

      University of Houston

      Patrick K. Brown

      Attorney at Law, Los Angeles

      Dino E. Buenviaje

      University of California, Riverside

      Ann Butterfield

      Pioneer Museum of Bozeman

      Daniel Cady

      Fresno State University

      Ian Chambers

      University of California, Riverside

      Cynthia Culver

      California State University, Channel Islands

      Brandon Davis

      California State University, Fullerton

      Lawrence de Graaf

      California State University, Fullerton

      Susan Badger Doyle

      Independent Scholar

      Wendy Elliott-Scheinberg

      California State University, Fullerton

      Lisa E. Emmerich

      California State University, Chico

      Tracy Smith Falk

      Independent Scholar

      Mateo Mohammad Farzaneh

      University of California, Riverside

      Jody Foley

      Montana Historical Society

      Natalie Fousekis

      California State University, Fullerton

      Kellin D. Francis

      Independent Scholar

      G. W. Franck

      Iowa State University

      Brian Frehner

      University of Oklahoma

      Susanne Gaskins

      California State University, Fullerton

      Victor W. Geraci

      University of California, Berkeley

      Douglas Gibb

      California State University, Fullerton

      Patrick Gibson

      California State University, Fullerton

      Matt Sakiestewa Gilbert

      University of California, Riverside

      Debra L. Gold Hansen

      San Jose State University

      Vanessa Ann Gunther

      California State University, Fullerton

      David Harmon

      Finger Lakes Community College

      Matthew Adam Henderson

      California State University, Fullerton

      Paul T. Hietter

      Mesa Community College

      Laurie Hinck

      University of New Mexico

      Hal Hoffman

      Mount San Antonio College

      Paivi Hoikkala

      California State Polytechnic University at Pomona

      Joel R. Hyer

      Chadron State College

      Jon Ille

      University of California, Riverside

      Robin Jensen

      Brigham Young University

      Suzzanne Kelley

      North Dakota State University

      Scott Keys

      California State University, Fullerton

      Alexandra Kindell

      Iowa State University

      Rebecca Kugel

      University of California, Riverside

      Renee M. Laegreid

      Hastings College

      Janne Lahti

      University of Helsinki

      Patricia Loughlin

      University of Central Oklahoma

      Leleua Loupe

      University of California, Riverside

      Neal Lynch

      Independent Scholar

      Steve C. Lyon

      California State University, Fullerton

      Matthew S. Makley

      Arizona State University

      Mary Marki

      Long Beach City College

      Thomas de Martino

      Independent Scholar

      Sandra K. Mathews-Lamb

      Nebraska Wesleyan University

      Thomas Maxwell-Long

      California State University, San Bernardino

      Rob McCoy

      Washington State University

      Robert McLain

      California State University, Fullerton

      Kenneth McMullen

      California State University, Fullerton

      Cindy Mediavilla

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Susan Meier

      Riverside Community College

      Robert Miller

      California State University, Fullerton

      Melody Miyamoto

      Arizona State University

      Jennifer Mizzell

      Louisiana State University

      Linda Molno

      California State Polytechnic University at Pomona

      Danelle Moon

      San Jose State University

      Paul Nienkamp

      Iowa State University

      Derek Oden

      Iowa State University

      Caroline Owen

      California State University, Fullerton

      J'Nell Pate

      Tarleton State University

      Sally Pierotti

      California State University, Fullerton

      Charlene Porsild

      Montana Historical Society Library

      Heather R. Puckett

      Registered Professional Archaeologist

      Ion Puschila

      Garey High School, Pomona, California

      Karen C. Rosa

      California State University, Fullerton

      Susan Sanchez-Barnett

      Baltimore County, Maryland Public Schools

      Raymond D. Screws

      Nebraska Humanities Council

      Charles Joseph Sedey

      Don Lugo High School, Chino, California

      Brian Shovers

      Montana Historical Society

      Christopher Small

      Claremont Graduate School

      Jeff Smith

      U.S. Forest Service

      Kimberly Sorenson

      California State University, Fullerton

      Paul R. Spitzzeri

      Homestead Museum, Industry, California

      Daniel Stackhouse

      Claremont Graduate School

      George Stantis

      California State University, Fullerton

      Suzanne M. Stauffer

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Timothy A. Strand

      Claremont Graduate School

      Jacquelyn Sundstrand

      University of Nevada–Reno

      Nancy Taniguchi

      California State University, Stanislaus

      Hank Thayer

      Independent Scholar

      Rhonda Tintle

      Oklahoma State University

      Clifford E. Trafzer

      University of California, Riverside

      Trangdai Tranguyen

      Stanford University

      Susan Tschabrun

      California State University, Fullerton

      Leland Turner

      Texas Tech University

      Lonnie Wilson

      FBI, Joint Terrorism Task Force

      Kelly A. Woestman

      Pittsburg State University, Kansas

      Ronald C. Woolsey

      Citrus College

      Tony Yang

      California State University, Fullerton

      Acknowledgments

      This encyclopedia was made possible by the willingness of many scholars to write, revise, edit, and ponder the meaning of immigration and migration in the American West. The subject matter was far more than ethnic groups crossing the plains, landing at ports, or crossing borders. The story of people in places, often many places, dominates this work. It has been no mean task to bring this information and the research guides to print.

      The professionals at Sage Reference made this work possible. We owe a great debt to Rolf A. Janke, Jerry Westby, and Leticia Gutierrez for their support of this project, patience, and guidance. Working with the Sage team is a wonderful scholarly life experience. The Sage copy editors substantially improved the entries and made the editors ruminate language and meaning.

      We also thank all of the librarians who made this research possible. Our author-librarians were particularly helpful. Dr. Debra Gold Hansen at San Jose State University produced an exceptional entry and guided us to other librarians working on important projects. Danelle Moon of Yale University started on her entry in New Haven and migrated to San Jose State University as Director SJSU Special Collections and Archives at the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library in the midst of the project. Dr. Susan Tschabrun at California State University, Fullerton, produced three important research guides and worked with numerous graduate students on their entry projects. Jacqueline K. Sundstrand of the University of Nevada wrote two research guides on special collections at her university. Dr. Cindy Mediavilla at the University of California, Los Angeles, wrote from a rich research background. Dr. Suzanne M. Stauffer contributed an insightful entry on Utah's libraries and migrants. The librarians at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, and at the Pollock Library at California State University, Fullerton, helped many of our scholars with their projects.

      The professional staff of the Montana Historical Society was particularly generous with their time and expertise. Charlene Porsild, Director of the Research Center; Jodie Foley, Oral Historian; Dr. Ellen Baumler, Interpretative Historian; Rich Aarstad, Reference Historian; and Brian Shovers, Senior Reference Historian, all contributed to this work and helped others give shape to their research.

      We hope this work will bring the subject matter to life and provide sufficient examples of scholarship to stimulate others in helping the public understand how important the history of the American West is in the American experience.

      Preface

      The American West is a vast landscape, larger than Western Europe and ranging across geographic variations from deserts and mountains to fertile valleys and swift rivers. This great and varied landmass became home to successive waves of immigrants who, over ten thousand years, shaped it and were shaped by it. The immigrant groups were as varied as the landscape in which they came to live. Indian peoples were the first, moving steadily south and west over generations, changing as the landscape they encountered challenged and then supported them. Soon after the opening of the 16th century, representatives of several European nations appeared, at first singly and then in small groups. Although initially few in numbers, they made their homes across the West; interacted with Indian peoples through trade, missions, and sometimes alliances; and publicized the new (for Europe) land. This connection with Indian peoples would lead to a great exchange that profoundly affected both groups. Europeans received knowledge of new agricultural crops (principally corn, but also beans, squash, and chili peppers), the wildlife that would form the basis of their sustenance, and soon trade and the lore associated with survival in this vast landscape. Indian peoples received the horse (a gift that would refashion the lives and cultures of those Indian groups on the plains), European iron tools, and diseases. The last would become significant in reshaping Indian populations for the next three hundred years.

      The horse allowed the Indian peoples of the plains to remain sovereign over their great grass land, but elsewhere across the West, representatives of European nations and large trading companies began to penetrate into the distant reaches of the landscape, initially in motion and then in permanent settlements. By the middle of the 18th century, as the colonies on the East Coast fought a war for independence, in the West, Russians had moved down from the north into what would become California, the Spanish had established missions in Texas and California, and British trading ships and naval vessels cruised the waters off the Pacific coast. Within three generations, the rise of the now-independent United States changed the political landscape of the West, and soon, its human habitations as well. In a series of diplomatic and military triumphs, America annexed Texas, acquired the Oregon Country by treaty, and immediately thereafter, California, Arizona, and New Mexico by conquest. By the middle of the 19th century, European nations—so significant in the West's history for more than three hundred years—had been reduced to bystanders. Thereafter, the United States would lay sole claim to sovereignty.

      The discovery of gold in California in 1848 brought immigrants from all over the world in response to the fever occasioned by the news. Within a few months, they came from Hawaii to the west; Peru and Chile to the south; Mexico to the southwest; and, within a year, Americans and Europeans added large numbers to the total. Soon, Chinese and Australians had joined the flood of immigrants. With the arrival of these varied peoples, California became the most ethnically diverse place in the world. This was only the beginning of the great immigration that would change the face of the West and its peoples. By the opening of the 20th century, the West was home to Germans and Russians (North Dakota), Basques (Nevada), Chinese (in railroad and mining towns), Irish miners (Montana), Mexican agricultural laborers (interior valleys of California), and a dozen other groups from the plains and across the mountains to the shores of the Pacific.

      From the beginnings of European occupation, with its missions and fur trading posts, the West has been a place of urban centers. In the 20th century, these have become great cities. For some five hundred years of European presence, the West has become a place of hope and opportunity. The enumerations of the decennial census note that the West is the most rapidly growing part of the nation and the most rapidly urbanizing. Large groups of new immigrants from around the world have come to Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle, among other places. Questions of the relationship of the nation to its new arrivals have been posed and answered more than in any other places. Its story and the story of its people continue to unfold into the 21st century. The editors begin in these volumes to document the past and raise questions for the next generation of readers interested in the topic of the American West.

      Malcolm Rohrbough, Department of History, University of Iowa

      Introduction

      The American West, in myth and in reality, became so only after vast migrations and periods of massive immigration. The original inhabitants established migratory and settled communities from the Pacific coast to the 90th meridian centuries before the first European, Pacific Islander, or Asian set foot on its soil. Eventually, the Spanish and Russian explorations, Spanish colonization, and gradual American settlement of the West pushed American Indians off ancestral lands. In the narrative of the American West, this is the beginning of the American Story, rhetorically marked by the end of the Indian's role in the historian's narrative. American Indians become invisible on history's pages after 1890, yet their story also is one of migration, often forced but sometimes motivated by personal and economic reasons. This work represents many of the tribes and bands that constitute our native heritage, in an attempt to reintegrate the significance of their migrations with those of later arrivals. Migration in and out of the West was a periodic affair for most inhabitants.

      The periods of migration are clear. The 19th century witnessed the highest levels, with the gold rush constituting the single greatest migration of Americans, one joined by numerous individuals from China, Germany, and a variety of other countries. In the late 19th century, migration declined until World War II, when thousands came west in search of work and homes in the urban defense industry and suburban, semipastoral neighborhoods in the emerging Sun Belt. The West was a place of opportunity, and people moved to grasp farms, ranches, and small business opportunities in the 19th century. Some opportunities were more ephemeral: For example, African Americans moved west searching for freedom from the discrimination they faced in eastern and southern states. Despite the Jim Crow laws and attitudes brought by southern migrants, especially in places such as southern California, African Americans created neighborhoods and towns in which they hoped to better their lives. So, too, Mexican, Italian, Vietnamese, and countless other ethnic groups moved west for new opportunities and better lives.

      To give the reader a sense of what immigration and migration involved in the public sphere, our authors have provided specific entries on immigration law. In addition to discussions of the general federal provisions, this encyclopedia contains specific entries on actions taken to discriminate against Asian immigrants. Officials used the open spaces in western areas to build internment camps for Japanese and Italians forced from their homes during World War II. Moreover, Americans moving into the West pushed others out, particularly American Indians and Mexicans, so that they would need to find new homes in a region they had known as home before the arrival of Americans.

      To put the forced migrations of American Indians in perspective, our authors have addressed wellknown incidents such as the Trail of Tears, the forced migration of American Indians from the Southeast to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. They have also provided select tribal histories: Readers will find entries on the Apache, Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cheyenne, Creek, Crow, Cupeño, Gros Ventre, Hopi, Juaneño, Kumeyaay, Lakota, Luiseño, Maidu, Mojave, Nez Perce, Northern Pueblo, Palouse, Upland Yuman, Ute, Washo, Yakama, and Yokut. In a broader perspective, some authors discuss American Indians regionally, as in the entries on tribes in California's northern coast, mountains, and valleys. One author focused on Phoenix, Arizona, and brought to light the many American Indian migrations to that city, giving a geographical context to the people as well as a human context to the city. In addition, an entry on the Bureau of Indian Affairs puts the administration of Indian reservations in perspective. Readers will come to understand that a vast number of internal and external forces influenced tribal migrations.

      Migrations and immigration in the American West followed specific economic opportunities, especially mineral exploitation. Our authors explain mineral land policies in several entries and discuss specific mining rushes in others. The gold rush to California, Arizona copper discoveries, Idaho silver strikes, Last Chance Gulch, Pike's Peak, the Black Hills, and other mining events are covered in several entries. Many of these mineral rushes resulted in “instant cities,” built to serve the miners and to funnel profit from their enterprise into the community and the country at large. Our authors produced entries on Bisbee, Arizona; Butte, Montana; Cripple Creek, Colorado; Goldfield, Nevada; Grass Valley, California; Helena, Montana; Inyo County, California; Julian, California; Leadville, Colorado; Libby, Montana; Price, Utah; Rawhide, Nevada; Rhyolite, Nevada; Tombstone, Arizona; Tonopah, Nevada; Tucson, Arizona; and Virginia City, Montana, to name only a few. Men and women arrived in these towns for the mining rushes and moved on to the next discovery of minerals or stayed to establish permanent communities with more varied economies, especially agricultural.

      Land seekers and former miners established farms and ranches throughout the West. Families arriving via the emigrant trails brought stability to certain areas, building churches, schools, and other American institutions as they broke the soil for farming. African Americans came to California first for the gold but soon also sought out land on which to form communities based in agriculture. They established the noted communities of Nicodemus, Kansas, and Dearfield, Colorado. Farms, ranches, and the railroad had a great deal to do with community formation and location. Our authors explored these relationships in entries on Billings, Montana; Bozeman, Montana; Cody, Wyoming; Fort Worth, Texas; Fresno, California; Great Falls, Montana; Jackson, Wyoming; Lincoln, Nebraska; Northwood, North Dakota; Omaha, Nebraska; Park City, Utah; Salt Lake City, Utah; San Diego, California; San Dimas, California; Santa Ana, California; Tacoma, Washington; and Wichita, Kansas, to name a few. Other authors provide a view of farming in Oregon in broad brush for regional context. One author explains the significance of dry farming techniques to the migration of farmers to the Great Plains. These areas retained their populations due to agriculture and stock raising, even if their economies eventually shifted to industry, commerce, or recreation and tourism.

      Within the study of migration and immigration, certain individuals stand out as examples of the ordinary as well as the extraordinary efforts it took to populate the region. To provide the reader with a personal perspective, our authors have focused on the experiences of people in motion in the American West. Biographies include Stephen F. Austin, John Bartleson, Jessie Bloom, Joseph Brent, Joseph Chapman, Cottrell Dellums, Abigail Duniway, Edith Feldenheimer, Ray Frank, Greg Gianforte, William Hartnell, David Jacks, Olive May Percival, John T. Reed, Ben Singleton, Levi Strauss, William Thrall, and Benjamin Wilson. Hundreds of other individuals are included in more general entries, and some of our authors provide a gendered perspective on immigration and migration. One explores the lives of Vietnamese American women and another discusses war brides in Montana. These immigration stories put people in their temporal context and highlight the relationship between migrants and the distinct places making up the heterogeneous region we call the West.

      In the process of researching the assigned topics, several of our authors found surprising historical evidence, forcing them to rethink their topics in new light. Professor Lawrence de Graaf, known for his pioneering work on African American communities in the West, has reevaluated interpretations of African American communities in his entry, based on extensive primary source research. The authors examining the relationship of libraries to immigrants also bring new insight on the subject. Authors produced entries on California's libraries, libraries and their immigrant users, and public libraries in Utah. In addition, our librarian authors also produced a most useful section of research guides. We suspect that many of the entries in this encyclopedia will stimulate research on these subjects, and we invite scholars to answer new questions raised within the entries. The history of the American West is an open field for scholars interested in approaching the region in new ways. The research guides will spur researchers on their way to greater knowledge and insight.

      In this encyclopedia, we called on authors to present the tapestry of the West and its population in sweeping entries, focused biographies, community histories, economic enterprise analysis, and demographic studies. It is our hope that you will find this work informative and stimulating for further inquiry into the many facets of our history.

      Gordon Morris Bakken, California State University, Fullerton
      Alexandra Kindell, Iowa State University
    • Appendix: Research Guides

      Appendix: Research guides

      For readers who wish to go beyond the information in this encyclopedia, the research guides provide a launching pad for further research. The guide “How to Use the Census” is an introduction to the single most important source of information on immigration and migration in the American West. This research guide explains how to use census records to study both historical and contemporary demographic trends with a focus on states, regions, ethnic groups, counties, towns, families, or individuals. Whether searching for an ancestor or for a source of downloadable numerical data for statistical analyses, readers will find the guide full of useful tips for locating the best sources of federal census information, as well as leads to locating less well-known state and territorial censuses and Indian rolls.

      The U.S. Census Bureau may be the first stop for many readers interested in pursuing their own researches into Western immigration and migration, but there are many other government agencies producing useful information. The research guide “How to Use Government Information” continues where the census guide leaves off by describing publications and records available through other federal and state agencies, such as the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly Immigration and Naturalization Service), congressional commissions, the National Archives and Records Administration, the courts, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the General Land Office. The peopling of the West can be studied through immigration statistics, passenger arrival lists, reports of Indian agents, naturalization records, and land patents.

      Readers interested in exploring the myriad ethnic and racial groups populating the American West should begin by consulting the guide “Ethnic and Racial Groups.” This guide lists a number of resources for the novice researcher on the West's multicultural population, including encyclopedias, atlases, and Web sites devoted to the ethnic experience. The guide offers lists, by ethnic group and state, of Web sites wherein researchers may find a wealth of digitized primary source materials, including letters, oral histories, documents, photographs, and sound and video files. The research guides “Basques in Nevada” and “Mining and Immigration in Nevada” provide specific examples of the wide variety of sources researchers might bring to bear on the study of Western immigration and migration. From archaeological work in the mining districts to the Basque carvings in living aspens, the sources that researchers might tap to better understand how the West was populated are as varied as the West's peoples.

      Susan Tschabrun
      Basques in Nevada

      Lured by the possibility of striking it rich, Basques came west to the goldfields of California, then followed the rush to Nevada after the discovery of the Comstock Lode in 1859. Less comfortable with mining than with their traditional occupation of herding livestock, Basques quickly returned to sheep and cattle production to supply the growing population of the mining camps with lamb and beef. After the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, they shipped wool to the East as well as supplying local needs.

      Using Nevada's thinly populated landscape and extensive public lands to increase their profits, Basques roamed the range areas with flocks of sheep, one herder to each flock, living in isolation for extended periods of time. The shepherds came to their lonely existence on contracts from their European homelands and often had little contact with anyone except their Basque bosses. This social isolation ensured that they maintained their language and customs. The largest influx of Basque immigrants came between the years 1890 and 1930. Although many Basques returned to their homeland with their savings, others stayed on to take up ranching and the operation of hotels, boarding houses, and restaurants, all of which catered especially to the Basque population. Communities of Basque-speaking people came into existence where little had existed before. These communities became centers for generations of Basques, who married and, frequently, exchanged rural homes for urban ones.

      It is not easy to find resources on the earliest Basques, as many of these men were not well schooled, and their correspondence was limited. Moreover, the Basque language is unique and little known outside the Basque communities in Spain and France and those areas settled in the American West—mainly Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, California, and Nevada. To learn of the early Basque migrants to Nevada, we must turn to the children of these herders who recount the stories they told and the lives they lived. Probably the leading fictional writer of the Basque story is Nevada's Robert Laxalt.

      Robert Laxalt wrote four novels about his Basque family and heritage. His father's story is captured in Sweet Promised Land (originally published in 1957), which many consider the archetypal story of the Basque herder in the American West. Laxalt then wrote a trilogy about Basque immigrant life, beginning with The Basque Hotel, a coming-of-age story of the narrator-protagonist Pete, set in Depression-era Carson City. The second book, Child of the Holy Ghost, takes the adult Pete to the Basque country in Europe to discover the reasons for his parents' immigration to the American West. In the final book, The Governor's Mansion, the focus is on Pete's older brother, his successful run for the governorship of Nevada, and his unsuccessful bid for U.S. senator. These stories of Basque life depict the interactions of a migrant people with the land and their accommodations to the new culture into which they have been thrust.

      The isolated Basque shepherds created their own form of communication by carving messages, pictures, words, or simply their names into trees. The white bark of the quaking aspen was a favorite choice. These smooth-barked trees grow extensively in the West at over five thousand feet at well-watered sites often used as camps. A fascinating collection of these drawings and photographs of the trees is found in J. Mallea-Olaetxe's informative text Speaking through the Aspens: Basque Tree Carvings in California and Nevada. A number of interesting appendixes include such things as lists of herders by geographic location as well as by birthplace and ethnic identity.

      A series of interviews captures the life of a herder in Beltran: Basque Sheepman of the American West. Beltran Paris worked as a herder, a homesteader, and finally as a rancher, running a successful sheep and cattle business in Nevada. Like other successful Basques, he helped other family members establish their own ranches.

      Other titles of interest may be found by visiting the Web site of the University of Nevada Press (http://www.nvbooks.nevada.edu). Begun in 1961 on the University of Nevada, Reno, campus with Robert Laxalt as editor, the Basque Studies series fills a unique niche in publishing. The titles offered will appeal to the layman as well as to those interested in more scholarly works about all aspects of Basque history and life in both the old and new worlds. Additional titles of interest that include discussions of Nevada's Basques are Jeronima Echeverria's Home Away from Home: A History of Basque Boardinghouses, in which the author chronicles the close relationships these boardinghouses had with the herders as well as with the entire community; Portraits ofBasques in the New World draws from the individuals' stories; and Nancy Zubiri's A Travel Guide to Basque America: Families, Feasts and Festivals devotes a large portion to Nevada's historical past and current activities for the tourist interested in visiting the communities and tasting Basque cooking.

      The Center for Basque Studies (http://www.basque.unr.edu) at the University of Nevada, Reno, conducts and publishes Basque-related research and offers instruction to those interested in pursuing their interests in Basque language, culture, and history, both in the United States and in Europe. The center's development was guided by emeritus scholar and author William A. Douglass. Its faculty and scholars conduct research in anthropology, linguistics, and literature, and their groundbreaking publications serve to further knowledge about Basques and Basque Americans. The campus's Basque Studies Library (http://www.library.unr.edu/depts/basqlib/Default.htm) holds one of the best Basque collections in the world for information about New World Basques. Titles may be borrowed through your local library.

      Jacquelyn K. Sundstrand
      Suggested Reading
      Echieverria, Jeronima. Home Away from Home: A History of Basque Boardinghouses.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1999.
      Etulain, Richard W., and Jeronima Echeverria, eds. Portraits of Basques in the New World.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1999.
      Laxalt, Robert. The Basque Hotel.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1989.
      Laxalt, Robert. Child of the Holy Ghost.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1992.
      Laxalt, Robert. The Governor's Mansion.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1994.
      Laxalt, Robert. Sweet Promised Land.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1986.
      Mallea-Olaetxe, J. Speaking Through the Aspens: Basque Tree Carvings in California and Nevada.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2000.
      Paris, Beltran. Beltran: Basque Sheepman of the American West. As told to William A. Douglass. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1979.
      Zubiri, Nancy. A Travel Guide to Basque America: Families, Feasts and Festivals.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1998.
      How to use the Census

      The United States decennial census is the most important source of data on patterns of immigration and migration in the American West. Taken every 10 years since 1790, the U.S. census can be used to investigate numerous demographic trends responsible for peopling the western United States. The degree to which census records shed light on those processes depends on the time period under consideration and the level of detail the researcher wishes to explore, from the nation as a whole down to specific individuals.

      The U.S. decennial census has evolved from a simple listing of households in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to the much more ambitious data-gathering project of recent decades, in which census enumerators not only counted every individual and gathered information about each one but also sampled the population to discover trends for a large number of social and economic variables. Students of the American West should be aware of the types of questions enumerators asked at various time periods to understand the types of immigration- and migration-related information that was gathered. Relevant questions include those about an individual's birthplace (asked since the 1850 census), parent's birthplace (since 1870), year of immigration to the United States (since 1900), citizenship status (since 1870), language spoken or mother tongue (since 1900), migration status (since 1940), and ancestry (since 1980), to mention only some of the most important. The researcher should consult the U.S. Census Bureau's Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000, which brings together the questionnaires used in all the censuses since 1790 and is a good source for understanding what was asked during each of the censuses. Similar information has been gathered into a much more condensed chart at the University of Michigan.

      Names versus Numbers

      After determining the types of information that are available for the time period of interest, it is useful to consider the level of detail one wishes to research. Family historians, genealogists, and some local historians are primarily interested in gaining access to copies of the actual population schedules, to locate information about specific individuals and families. These original schedules are available in microfilm for the time period 1790–1930 at the National Archives and its regional repositories, some genealogical libraries, and online (for a fee) at http://Ancestry.com. Since 1930, original census schedules have been closed to the public until 72 years after the census was taken, to protect the privacy of the individuals named in those documents. There is a wealth of information about conducting genealogical research using census information on the Web and in print. Probably the best single source is the book by Kathleen W. Hinckley, Your Guide to the Federal Census for Genealogists, Researchers, and Family Historians.

      For researchers who are more interested in studying immigration and migration trends—numbers rather than names—statistical summaries are available for all the censuses from 1790 to 2000. American FactFinder (http://factfinder.census.gov) is a powerful Web database from the U.S. Census Bureau that allows researchers to search the 1990 and 2000 decennial Census of Housing and Population, as well as other Census Bureau censuses and surveys from the same period. Data may be generated for a large variety of geographical units, including the nation, a state or group of states, counties, cities and towns, and census tracts and blocks. The form the data takes is also diverse and may include data sets, tables, and color-coded maps that compare information across multiple geographic areas. From the American FactFinder home page, it is possible to access quick information on immigration and migration by clicking on the People button and then scrolling down to Origins and Language or Race and Ethnicity. The same searches can be performed for different geographies by filling in a Web form at the top of the People page with a specific state, county, zip code, and street address. For customized tables and maps, it is best to click on the Data Sets button and select the type of data output desired. American FactFinder also makes it easy to locate the exact census tract, block group, or block for a specific address and view the boundaries of each unit on a map.

      Researchers looking for census information from the 1970 and 1980 censuses will need to locate a National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) facility or a library with the relevant holdings in paper, microfiche, or CD-ROM. To find a NARA facility in your region, use the locator at http://www.archives.gov/facilities/index.html. To locate a federal depository library, go to the U.S. Government Printing Office Access page “Locate a Federal Depository Library” (http://www.gpoaccess.gov/libraries.html). NARA facilities and federal depositories are not the only repositories with census materials, but they are likely to have the most complete collections. Another useful tool is the Census Index, put out by the Ohio State University Libraries (http://www.lib.ohio-state.edu/refweb/govdocs/census/Cenindex.htm). The Census Index makes the search for information easier by listing relevant publications from 1790 to 1997, which may then be located in a specific library. Simply search the Census Index with a phrase such as “1970 census” to get the exact titles of the census publications for that year.

      For the 1790–1960 period, researchers will find the University of Virginia Libraries' Historical Census Browser (http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/) helpful for immigration and migration research, provided, of course, that relevant data were gathered during the census year of interest. The Historical Census Browser allows the researcher to browse data for each census year it covers by selecting variables and geographic areas down to the county level. To give just one example, it is possible to choose the 1920 census, highlight the number of foreign-born males and females older than 21 years (among many other possible variables), and view the results for all states, or, if more detail is required, select several states to view by county. The results may be easily graphed by clicking a button, thereby revealing the county with the greatest number of foreign-born males and females older than 21 in the selected states. The Historical Census Browser does not include all the variables collected by the censuses it includes, nor does it provide any information below the county level. Only the data for states (no western territories before statehood) are included.

      The most copious and easily accessible census data come from the most recent censuses. Census 2000 data have been packaged in many formats and supplemented with other survey data. For example, decennial census data form the basis of the Census Bureau's “Migration Data and Reports” (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/migration.html)and Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity (http://www./census.gov/population/www/cen2000/atlas.html), but the data in “Geographical Mobility/Migration” (http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/migrate.html) and the Population Estimates Program's international migration data (http://www.census.gov/popest/international.html) come from sources other than the decennial censuses. The U.S. Bureau of the Census Population Division working papers (http://www.census.gov/population/www/techpap.html) are also extremely valuable. Several working papers are dedicated to immigration- and migration-related topics, and they often assist in the difficult task of mapping data across numerous censuses to give reliable longitudinal statistics.

      Researchers who wish to manipulate census information in the form of large data sets using statistical software will need to download the data from a data repository. The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research at the University of Michigan (http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/) has a large number of census enumeration data files from 1790 to 2000. The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series site at the University of Minnesota (http://www.ipums.umn.edu/usa/index.html) is composed of twenty-seven high-precision samples of the American population drawn from the 1850–2000 censuses. Uniform codes are assigned across all samples that permit the quantitative study of social change.

      State and Territorial Censuses and Indian Rolls

      The U.S. federal government has been the main collector of census data in the American West, but state and territorial governments have also been players. Just as the constitutional rationale for the U.S. federal census was the apportionment of the House of Representatives, state governments sometimes instituted state censuses to help in the apportionment of representatives to state legislatures. Territorial governments, on the other hand, usually undertook censuses to establish eligibility for admission as a state to the union.

      Most states soon gave up the practice of conducting their own censuses for reasons of cost and efficiency, relying instead on the decennial federal censuses. Even when state governments continued to take them, however, state censuses rarely included the range of information gathered by federal census agents. To find out if a state census exists for a particular Western state, the best general guide is Ann S. Lainhart's State Census Records, which lists extant records by state. Although the focus of the guide is state censuses, it also lists territorial censuses carried out by territorial (rather than federal) governments, early California padron and mission censuses, Texas rancho and mission censuses, Spanish and Mexican censuses in New Mexico, Arizona “great registers,” Colorado voter poll records, and other censuslike enumerations of people, especially for time periods for which no state or federal censuses are available. Most state and territorial censuses are not as widely available as the federal censuses, but Lainhart gives leads for locating the original records.

      Finally, Native Americans are largely missing from federal censuses prior to the 20th century. Before 1870, Native Americans were not counted by federal enumerators due to their status as members of separate nations. Any early rolls that exist were tied to specific, limited purposes, such as emigration rosters or annuity payments. However, in 1884, a congressional act mandated that Bureau of Indian Affairs agents in charge of reservations submit annual censuses. These Indian Census rolls, taken from 1885–1940, are available in microfilm from the National Archives (http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/population/native-americans-1885-1940.html). These censuses, which covered only persons with formal affiliation to a tribe under federal supervision, did not result in a complete enumeration of Native Americans. The 1900 federal census is the first census in which a complete enumeration of Native Americans was attempted.

      Susan Tschabrun
      Suggested Reading
      Hinckley, Kathleen W. Your Guide to the Federal Census for Genealogists, Researchers, and Family Historians.Cincinnati, OH: Betterway Books, 2002.
      Lainhart, Ann S. State Census Records.Baltimore, MD: Genealogical, 1992.
      National Archives. “Census Records.” Available from http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/
      Ohio State University Libraries. “Census Index.” Available from http://www.lib.ohio-state.edu/refweb/govdocs/census/Cenindex.htm
      University of Virginia Geospacial and Statistical Data Center. “Historical Census Data Browser.” Available from http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/
      U.S. Census Bureau. “American FactFinder.” Available from http://factfinder.census.gov
      U.S. Census Bureau. “Mapping Census: The Geography of U.S. Diversity.” Available from http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/atlas.html
      U.S. Census Bureau. “Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000.” Available from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/abs/ma.html
      U.S. Census Bureau. “United States Census 2000 Migration Data and Reports.” Available from http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/migration.html
      York, Grace. Population and Housing Items on the General Census Schedules1790–2000. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Library, 2000. Available from http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/census2/censubj.pdf
      U.S. Bureau of the Census Population Division Working Papers

      Costanzo, Joseph M., Cynthia J. Davis, and Nolan Malone.“Guide to International Migration Statistics: The Sources, Collection, and Processing of Foreign-Born Population Data at the U.S. Census Bureau” [Population Division Working Paper Series no. 68]. Available from http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0068/twps0068.html

      Gibson, Campbell, and Kay Jung. “Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, for the United States, Regions, Divisions, and States” [Population Division Working Paper Series no. 56]. Available from http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056.html

      Gibson, Campbell, and Emily Lennon. “Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850–1990” [Population Division Working Paper Series no. 29]. Available from http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0029/twps0029.html

      Ethnic and Racial Groups

      The role of immigration and migration in the populating of the American West is evident in the mosaic of peoples that inhabit the western regions today. The multiculturalism of the West is nothing new, and thanks to the range of people who have chosen to settle there, the western states have been the most diverse in the nation through much of their history. There is a growing body of primary source materials available on the Web that allows the researcher to explore the West's ethnic and racial diversity through documents, photographs, sound files, and other media. Before discussing these Web sites, however, it is useful to explore some general resources that will orient the researcher to the population groups in question.

      Resources for Getting Started

      The Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America (2nd ed., 2000) is the successor to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980), which was for years the standard reference work on the ethnic experience in the United States and is still worth consulting. The newer Gale Encyclopedia is also an impressive source, with signed articles that give overviews of the origins, immigration history, and cultural attributes of 101 ethnic groups, from the Acadians to the Yupiat. The Atlas of American Migration (1998) is a good place to get started on Western population research; it provides graphic representations of the main flows of population throughout U.S. history, from colonial times to recent decades. In addition, there are several Web sites that have organized access to Web resources on the ethnic and racial groups of the American West:

      The Multicultural American West: A Resource Site (http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~amerstu/mw/). This Washington State University site provides links to sites about and by Native peoples, African Americans, Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, and Latinos, among other topics. WestWeb: Western History Resource (http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/westweb/). “The Golden Mountain” (about Asian migratory history in the West), “Tierra Nuestra” (Chicanos), and “Other Great Migrations” (African Americans) are only some of the pages related to Western population history offered by Catherine Lavender (City University of New York) at this site. Digital History (http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/). The University of Houston site provides, among other things, links to primary sources for Native Americans and Mexican Americans. The Modern Language Association Language Map (http://www.mla.org/census_main). Based on data from the 2000 census, this interactive map allows the user to graphically view the distribution of thirty languages in the United States, down to the zip code level.
      Resources by Ethnic or Racial Group

      Researchers looking for up-to-date or statistical information on population groups in the West should consult the many publications of the U.S. Bureau of Census, including the Census 2000 Briefs and Special Reports (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs.html), many of which deal with specific ethnic or racial groups (see also “How to Use the Census,” pp. 739–742 in this volume). On the other hand, for more qualitative, historical research, students of the American West will find a wealth of materials on the Web provided by public institutions such as universities, libraries, and archives. The Web sites listed here are a representative sample of some high-quality sites that provide access to digital collections useful for reconstructing the lives of westerners.

      African Americans
      The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History and Culture (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/intro.html). Sections on “Western Migration and Homesteading” and “Nicodemus, Kansas.” National Archives. “Black History” (http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/black-history.html). A large number of African American history links to both government and nongovernment sources, some of which deal with the West.
      Asian Americans
      Chinese
      Library of Congress. The Chinese in California 1850–1925 (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award99/cubhtml/cichome.html). Photographs, original art, cartoons, letters, records, and printed matter document the lives of Chinese Americans in California during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. “Oroville Chinese Temple” (http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/collections/oroville/index.html). Searchable database of artifacts and photographs relating to a Chinese temple built in 1863 in Oroville, California. Chinese Historical Society of Southern California. “Digital Archive” (http://www.usc.edu/isd/libraries/collections/chinese_history/). More than a thousand color images of artifacts excavated from the original Chinatown site in Los Angeles and a Chinese laundry in Santa Barbara document the lives of Chinese immigrants from 1880–1933.
      Japanese
      Library of Congress. “Suffering Under a Great Injustice”: Ansel Adams's Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanar (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aamhtml/aamhome.html). Negatives and prints of the 242 images Adams shot at the Manzanar War Relocation Center in California in 1943. California Digital Library Online Archive of California. Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives (http://jarda.cdlib.org/). More than ten thousand images and twenty thousand pages of electronic text and oral history transcripts covering the experience of the Japanese Americans in internment camps during World War II.
      Koreans
      University of Southern California. Korean American Digital Archive (http://www.usc.edu/isd/libraries/collections/korean_american/). Covering the Korean American experience during the period 1903–1965, this large digital collection includes 13,000 documents, 1,900 photographs, and sound files.
      Europeans
      Irish
      Stanford University. The Irish American West: A Hypertext Corpus of Texts and Research (http://shl.stanford.edu/IAW/). An effort to make primary texts, author biographies, and scholarly materials about Irish Americans in the Western states available online.
      Jews
      Jewish Historical Society of the Upper Midwest (http://www.jhsum.org/asp_pages/index.asp). Photographs, excerpts from oral histories, and manuscripts recreate pioneer Jewish life.
      Mormons
      Library of Congress. Trails to Utah and the Pacific: Diaries and Letters, 1846–1869 (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award99/upbhtml/overhome.html). Forty-nine diaries penned by Mormon pioneers, together with numerous maps, photographs, and published guides, paint a picture of life on the trail during the westward migrations between 1847 and 1869.
      Scandinavians
      Nordic Council of Ministers. Scandinavian Roots, American Lives (http://www.migrationinstitute.fi/nordic/index.html). Exhibition photographs, organizational links, and emigration databases from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden
      Latin Americans
      Library of Congress American Folklife Center. Hispano Music and Culture of the Northern Rio Grande: The Juan B. Rael Collection (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/rghtml/rghome.html). Digitized audio recordings and textual transcriptions of music of the Spanish-speaking residents of rural northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. California Ethnic and Multicultural Archives, University of California, Santa Barbara. Chicano Art Digital Image Collection (http://cemaweb.library.ucsb.edu/digitalArchives.html). More than 1,300 images representing all branches of Chicano visual arts, including drawings, graphic arts, and murals. Oregon State University. “Braceros in Oregon Photograph Collection” (http://digitalcollections.library.oregonstate.edu/bracero/). The 102 photographs in this collection document the lives of the workers in Oregon's Braceros Program from 1942 to 1947. University of Texas at Arlington. Tejano Voices (http://libraries.uta.edu/tejanovoices/). Seventy-seven oral history interviews of Tejano and Tejana leaders from across the state of Texas. University of Texas at Austin. U.S. Latinos and Latinasand World War II (http://www.utexas.edu/projects/latinoarchives/). This oral history project provides access to interview information through its online publication, Narratives.
      Native Americans
      Library of Congress. American Indians of the Pacific Northwest (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/wauhtml/aipnhome.html). The lives of Northwest Coast and Plateau Native Americans are documented by the more than 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text available at this site. Library of Congress. “Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian” (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ienhtml/curthome.html). More than two thousand photographic images from Edward S. Curtis's twenty-volume work, published between 1907 and 1930. National Archives. “Indians/Native Americans” (http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/nativeamericans.html). Extensive list of links to resources from NARA, the National Parks Service, and other sources of digital collections, genealogical resources, history, law, and tribal resources. National Congress of American Indians (http://130.94.214.68/indexto.asp). Provides a directory for tribal governments, links to tribal government Web pages, and links to Indian organizations throughout the United States.
      Resources by State

      Not all digital collections available on the Web relating to the ethnic and racial groups populating the American West are devoted to a single group. The Web sites listed here by state have resources useful to the study of the people of the West.

      Arizona
      University of Arizona Library Web Exhibits (http://www.library.arizona.edu/exhibits/). Lists numerous online exhibits of digitized of photographs, manuscripts, audio recordings, and videotapes, many of which relate to Arizona's ethnic groups.
      California
      Library of Congress. “California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties” (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/afccchtml/cowhome.html). Sound recordings, photographs, drawings, and documents from European, Slavic, Middle Eastern, and English- and Spanish-language communities in northern California. Library of Congress American Folklife Center. “Voices from the Dust Bowl: The Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin Migrant Worker Collection, 1940–1941” (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/afctshtml/tshome.html). Sound recordings, photographs, and other materials dealing with migrants in Farm Security Administration work camps in central California in 1940–1941. Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. California Heritage Collection (http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/CalHeritage/frame2.html). More than thirty thousand images illustrating California's history and culture. Collections include “Early California,” “Native Americans,” “World War II and Japanese Relocation Photographs,” and “California's Diverse Population.”
      Colorado
      Library of Congress. “History of the American West 1860–1920: Photographs from the Collection of the Denver Public Library” (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/codhtml/hawphome.html). More than thirty-thousand photographs, many documenting more than forty Native American tribes west of the Mississippi, during the period 1860–1920.
      Kansas
      Kansas State University Heritage Group. The Kansas Collection (http://www.kancoll.org/index.html). Rare books, letters, diaries, memoirs, photographs, postcards, and other materials documenting Kansas history. Kansas State Historical Society. “Documents Available Online” (http://www.kshs.org/research/collections/documents/online/index.htm). Lists the Kansas State Historical Society's digital collections, including railroad immigration pamphlets, photograph collections, Territorial Kansas Online, and the Western Trails Project.
      Nebraska
      Library of Congress. “Prairie Settlement: Nebraska Photographs and Family Letters 1862–1912” (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/nbhihtml/pshome.html). About three thousand photographs and three thousand pages of family letters document homesteading in the Great Plains.
      Nevada
      Library of Congress American Folklife Center. “Buckaroos in Paradise: Ranching Culture in Northern Nevada, 1945–1982” (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ncrhtml/crhome.html). This collection of motion pictures, sound recordings, photographs covering the period 1870–1982 documents the lives of Anglo Americans, Italians, Germans, Basque, Swiss, Northern Paiute Indians, and Chinese in Paradise Valley.
      North Dakota
      Library of Congress. “The Northern Great Plains, 1880–1920: Photographs from the Fred Hultstrand and F. A. Pazandak Photograph Collections” (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/ndfahtml/ngphome.html). Many of the nine hundred photographs in this digital collection show the ethnic diversity of the North Dakota rural areas, including Anglo Americans, Norwegians, Icelanders, and Eastern Europeans.
      Washington
      University of Washington Libraries. Washington State Pioneer Life Database (http://content.lib.washington.edu/pioneerlifeweb/). Searchable database of writings, diaries, letters, and recollections of 19th-century pioneers in Washington State. Washington State University. Digital Collections (http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/imagedatabases.htm). Check the drop-down box of predefined searches to locate digitized collections dealing with African Americans, Basques, Chinese, Germans, Italians, Japanese, Jews, Mexicans, Native Americans, and Russians in Washington.
      Multistate Projects
      Cline Library, Northern Arizona University. Colorado Plateau Digital Archives Search (http://www.nau.edu/library/speccoll/). Digitized photographs, diaries and letters, oral history, interviews, films, and maps document the Colorado Plateau region, covering parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project (http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/crbeha/projteam/). Although not a digital collection, this collaborative project by institutions in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon allows searching of archival materials about ethnic groups settling the Columbia River Basin held in the collections of the participating institutions. National Archives. “Photographs of the American West, 1861–1912” (http://www.archives.gov/research/americanwest/). Almost two hundred selected images of the West from NARA's holdings. Western Trails: An Online Journey (http://www.cdpheritage.org/westerntrails/). Digital collections from several institutions in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming are searchable at this site. Includes materials relating to African Americans, Native Americans, German Russians, Jews, and many other ethnic groups.
      Susan Tschabrun
      How to use Government Information

      The United States government, through its various agencies, has been gathering information about immigration and migration in the American West since the western regions fell under U.S. control. This information has taken the form of both published documents and unpublished records. The most voluminous information comes from the decennial censuses the U.S. Census Bureau has taken every ten years since 1790 (see “How to Use the Census,” pp. 739–742 in this volume), but other governmental agencies have also been actively gathering useful information. The key to locating government information is to imagine the points of contact between immigrants or migrants and specific government agencies. In other words, under what conditions would the government be empowered to gather and retain information about a given group of immigrants or migrants, and which specific agencies are (or were) empowered to do so? With a little imagination and good detective work, the answers to those questions can point the researcher in several fruitful directions.

      In the case of statistics, the U.S. government has simplified the process of locating information by publishing a statistical compendium since 1878 that incorporates information on social and economic conditions in the United States from numerous government agencies. The Statistical Abstract of the United States is available online for all but a few of the years it has been published (http://www.census.gov/statab/www/). The amount of immigration- and migration-related information to be found in the Statistical Abstract has increased in measure with the size of the Statistical Abstract (and the government) over time. The first edition of the Statistical Abstract was a modest 157 pages; the 2003 edition had ballooned to 1,030 pages. Despite its heft, the Statistical Abstract does not publish all the statistical information produced by government agencies, so a careful reading of the Statistical Abstract for the agency sources it used to create its statistical tables will often lead to more information.

      Covering the years before 1878, the two-volume Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 has a format similar to the Statistical Abstract and allows exploration of long-term trends for the pre-1970 period. Chapter C, on migration, is divided into two sections: “Internal Migration” and “International Migration and Naturalization.” The notes preceding the statistical tables are very helpful for understanding the sources of data included and the historical conditions under which those data were collected.

      For most other sources of government information about the peopling of the American West, it is necessary to identify the specific agencies empowered to gather relevant information. In the case of internal migration within the United States, the government has had few reasons to collect information on migrants beyond the data gathered as part of the decennial censuses and other census-related surveys, as most movement has been voluntary and unregulated. The glaring exceptions are the instances of forced migration, including the Native American removals and the internment of Japanese Americans. Another potential source of migration-related data springs from the role of the U.S. government in the sale of western lands (see the “Migration” section here).

      Immigration Information

      In contrast to voluntary internal migrants, immigrants have been far more closely regulated by the U.S. government, especially during the last 120 years. The growing concern of the government in regard to controlling the flow of immigrants into the United States is reflected in the history of the main agency charged with regulating immigration. Congress passed the first federal law to regulate immigration in 1882. Before that, the government only required the enumeration of arrivals, not their control. In 1891, Congress authorized the creation of the Office of the Superintendent of Immigration in the Department of the Treasury. The next few decades saw a gradual elaboration of the powers of this agency, culminating in 1933, the year it was named the Immigration and Naturalization Service and housed in the Department of Justice. Recently renamed the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, the agency is now located in the Department of Homeland Security.

      U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

      Under whatever name, the federal immigration office has published an annual compendium of immigration statistics since 1933. Currently called the Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, this publication has also been called the Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (1978–2001) and the Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (1933–1977). The data in these publications are derived from agency records dealing with, for instance, new arrivals or the adjustment of immigrant status (permanent residency, etc.). Although much of the information is reported at the national level, there are tables that break down the information by state, thereby allowing the researcher to track trends in immigration as they relate to the American West. The Yearbook is available online from 1996 to the present (http://uscis.gov/graphics/shared/aboutus/statistics/ybpage.htm); older editions are readily available in libraries with government documents collections. In addition to the Yearbook, Citizen and Immigration Services puts out a variety of reports, data files, and publications that are listed on its Web site (http://uscis.gov/graphics/shared/statistics/index.htm).

      Congressionally Authorized Immigration Reports

      As immigration has become an increasingly politicized issue in the United States, Congress from time to time has mandated the creation of large, synthesizing reports on the impact of immigration and immigrants in the United States. One such report is that authorized by the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, which requires Citizen and Immigration Services to report every three years to Congress on the size, growth, and impact of the immigrant population and the extent to which government programs have served that population. The 1999 and 2002 Triennial Comprehensive Reports on Immigration are available online (http://uscis.gov/graphics/aboutus/repsstudies/addition.htm). Similarly, the Immigration Act of 1990 authorized the creation of the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, which delivered four reports to Congress before being dissolved in 1997. These reports, as well as an important study on Mexico–U.S. binational migration, auxiliary research reports, and congressional testimony, are available online (http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir/).

      Earlier commission reports are available in libraries with government document collections. They include the 1981 report by the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy, titled “U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest”; the 1911 “Reports of the Immigration Commission,” by the Dillingham Commission; and the 1901 “Report of the Industrial Commission on Immigration.” The 1911 and 1901 reports provide valuable statistical information for a period during which there was no regular publication of immigration statistics. An even earlier source of immigration statistics compiled from official data is the History of Immigration to the United States by William Jeremy Bromwell (1856).

      Passenger Arrivals

      Arrivals of persons into the United States comprise one source of immigration statistics available in the Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, but the Yearbookand its predecessors only cover the time period since 1933. However, earlier information had been collected at least since 1820, as the result of an 1819 law that required the captain of a ship arriving at a U.S. port to submit a list (or manifest) of passengers to the customs official of the port. When the Office of Superintendent of Immigration was created in 1891, the administrative structure of the Customs Service became the basis for the control of immigrants, eventually evolving into the immigration bureaucracy we know today.

      Copies of the original ship manifests listing individual passengers are records of great interest to genealogists because they can be used to document the link between an immigrant ancestor and his or her country of origin. For that reason, a large number of passenger arrival records have been microfilmed and are available through the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). To see a listing of records, including those from numerous ports in the western states (from Andrade, California, to Zapata, Texas), navigate to the National Archives Immigration Records page (http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/immigration/passenger-arrival.html).

      Immigrant arrivals across land borders from Mexico and Canada cannot be tracked through ship passenger records, and indeed, the laws governing land border crossings are in several areas different from those governing ship (and, later, plane) arrivals. Two National Archives documents assist the researcher in understanding records from the so-called “land ports”: “Mexican Border Crossing Records” and an article in the NARA journal Prologue, “By Way of Canada: U.S. Records of Immigration Across the U.S. Border, 1895–1954.” These guides, together with guides on Chinese immigration records and case files of early immigrants to San Francisco and Hawaii, are available from the NARA Immigration Records page (http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/immigration/#links).

      The usefulness of individual passenger or border-crossing records for researching the history of immigrants in the American West is not as clear as their usefulness in genealogical research, as there is no way to know where an immigrant settled after arriving at any given port. For instance, it can be assumed that a large number of immigrants who migrated to the American West from 1892 to 1924 entered the United States through Ellis Island. The Ellis Island immigration records for that period have been scanned and transcribed into a database by the nonprofit Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation (http://www.ellisis.land.org/). The records can be searched using an individual's name, and in the case of a match, the information for that individual is displayed in its transcribed form with a link to an image of the original manifest page. The data collected on the manifest often include a column for recording the intended destination of the passenger, but whether any given person actually traveled to that destination would not be known unless the researcher was already working with a group of known individuals. For pre-1933 aggregated statistical information, the researcher may consult the Statistical Abstract after 1878 or, for the earlier period, the reports “Passengers Arriving in the United States,” annually submitted to Congress and available in the U.S. Congressional Serial Set, which may be found in paper or microfiche at larger research libraries.

      Naturalization Records

      For immigrants who chose to become citizens, the naturalization process was another point of contact between the immigrant and the government. Like passenger arrival records, these records are also of great use to genealogists because they often indicate the immigrant's country of origin. However, naturalization records are far more scattered than arrival records because an immigrant could be naturalized in almost any court. NARA provides a clear description of the naturalization process at the “Naturalization Records” page (http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/naturalization/). Researchers interested in these records should consult Christina K. Schaefer's Guide to Naturalization Records of the United States for detailed descriptions of the location of records relating to each of the western states.

      Migration Information

      As already mentioned, the U.S. decennial census and other Census Bureau surveys are the best source of information on the migration of individuals to, or within, the American West. However, there are some cases in which the U.S. government's role in initiating migration has resulted in an accumulation of government records about it. Two such instances are the Bureau of Indian Affairs records relating to removals or relocations of Native Americans in the 19th century and the granting of federal land patents in the western states in the 19th and early 20th century.

      Bureau of Indian Affairs Records

      The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is the agency in charge of administering Native American lands. Originally called the Office of Indian Affairs when it was created in 1824 as part of the War Department, the agency was renamed the Bureau of Indian Affairs and attached to the Department of the Interior in 1849, where it remains today. From the period of the removals of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole across the Mississippi into Indian Territory in the 1830s to the defeat of the Sioux in the 1890s, the American West was the location of forced migrations that brought many Native peoples into the fragmented reservation system still in existence today. Some of that history is documented in the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1824–1949), which includes, in addition to the report of the commissioner to the secretary of the interior, the texts of reports and correspondence from Indian agents, territorial governors, and others to the commissioner. These reports are available both in microfilm and, for the period 1824–1920, in the U.S. Congressional Serial Set. The U.S. Congressional Serial Set is available at some federal depository libraries in paper or microfiche and partially online (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwss.html). To use the Serial Set, first consult the U.S. Congressional Serial Set Finding List for these Indian Affairs reports (http://www.wooster.edu/library/gov/serialset/agency/I/IndianAffairsAnnual.htm). Researchers willing to travel to the National Archives and Records Administration or one of its regional facilities can view records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs from 1793–1989. NARA provides a listing of these records on its Web site (http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html).

      General Land Office Records

      Through its land policies, the U.S. government was instrumental in populating the western United States, especially in the half century following the Homestead Act of 1862. The impact of land policies on migration to the West took place in stages, as well-watered regions filled up and more arid regions became attractive to settlers. The General Land Office (GLO) in the Bureau of Land Management was the agency in charge of public lands in all the western states except Texas. The GLO issued land patents documenting the transfer of land to individuals, and those patents issued in the western states from 1908 to the 1960s are available online in the GLO Federal Land Patents Databases (http://www.glorecords.blm.gov/). The database may be searched by the names of individuals or the official land description. More information about GLO records can be found in NARA's General Information Leaflet Number 67 (http://www.archives.gov/publications/general-info-leaflets/67.html). For land patents in the western states prior to 1908, researchers should contact the Bureau of Land Management Office for that state (http://www.blm.gov/nhp/index.htm).

      State Government Information

      All the government information described so far was created by the federal government. It probably comes as no surprise that there is far more federal government information available on immigration and migration in the American West than state government information, in part due to the special role played by the federal government in regulating immigration, its role in the decennial censuses, and the greater resources it has devoted to making information available to the public through the sale of publications, the Federal Depository Library Program, the National Archives, and the Web. Nevertheless, state governments have also played a role in producing information, and it is worthwhile to consider what state governments might have that is of value.

      Some state governments have set up research units, usually in their finance or labor departments, that produce reports on immigration and migration (among other topics) for their states. Examples include the California Department of Finance's Demographic Research Unit (http://www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/repndat.htm) and the Washington State Office of Financial Management Forecasting Division (http://www.ofm.wa.gov/forecasting/sitemap.htm). These research bodies often summarize or analyze data taken from federal government sources, but other times they pull from unique state-level sources of information, such as, for instance, the Arizona Work-force Informer report on “Immigration Based on Out of State Driver's Licenses Surrendered” (http://www.workforce.az.gov/admin/uploadedPublications/1308_azdmv104.pdf). It is usually possible to figure out if a state research agency exists in a given western state by exploring the official Web site of that state.

      The insatiable demand for genealogical information has also persuaded some state governments to invest in making some of their government records more readily available to the public. The Texas General Land Office has a freely available searchable land-grant database, with almost half a million land-grant records, going back as far as the 1700s. The same office has made more than ten thousand historical maps of Texas available, dating from as early as the 1820s (http://www.glo.state.tx.us/archives/landgrant.html). Another effort made to assist genealogists is the Historical Records Search, a project of the Washington Department of the Secretary of State, which makes it possible to search for individual names in naturalization, census, and other diverse records (http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/search.aspx).

      Susan Tschabrun
      Suggested Reading
      National Archives and Records Administration. “Chinese Immigration and the Chinese in the United States.” Available from http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/immigration/#links
      National Archives and Records Administration. “Immigration Records.” Available from http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/immigration/passenger-arrival.html
      National Archives and Records Administration. “Mexican Border Crossing Records.” Available from http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/immigration/border-mexico.html
      Schaefer, Christina K. Guide to Naturalization Records of the United States.Baltimore, MD: Genealogical, 1997.
      Smith, Marian L. “By Way of Canada: U.S. Records of Immigration Across the U.S. Border, 1895–1954.”Prologue32no. 3(Fall 2000). Available from http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2000/fall/us-canada-immigration-records-1.html
      U.S. Census Bureau. Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1975.
      U.S. Census Bureau.The Statistical Abstract of the United States.Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1879–2004.
      U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.Triennial Comprehensive Reports on Immigration. Available from http://uscis.gov/graphics/aboutus/repsstudies/addition.htm
      U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, 2002–2004. Available from http://uscis.gov/graphics/shared/aboutus/statistics/ybpage.htm
      U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform. Web site. http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir/
      U.S. Immigration Commission (Dillingham Commission).Reports of the Immigration Commission. Available from http://library.stanford.edu/depts/dlp/ebrary/dillingham/body.shtml
      U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service.Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1933–1977.
      U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service.Statistical Yearbook of Immigration and Naturalization Service.Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978–2001.
      U.S. Industrial Commission.Report of the Industrial Commission on Immigration.Washington, DC: U.S. Industrial Commission, 1901.
      U.S. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy.U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest.Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.
      Mining and Immigration in Nevada: From the Comstock Through World War I

      The story of Nevada from the discovery of the Comstock Lode through World War I is the story of mining, and the story of mining is the story of boom and bust. As discoveries were made, people flocked to the new bonanzas from the last discovery, in many cases disassembling the machinery from one mining district and transporting it to another. Nevada has the distinction of being part of an eastward expansion, as people often came from Nevada's more populous neighbor to the west, California. They came from the East Coast, and they came from Ireland, Cornwall, Italy, the Basque regions of France and Spain, China, Finland, Canada—from all the corners of the earth. The 1870 census shows that 44 percent of Nevada's population was foreign born, and it is likely that some groups, such as the Chinese, who lived largely in separate communities, and the Basques, many of whom were scattered throughout the hinterlands tending flocks, were undercounted. The immigrants came from all levels of society, and they brought a vast array of skills. A brief stroll through the Virginia City graveyard reveals the presence of many Cornish and Welsh names, men who brought their mining skills to Nevada as they had to California and Georgia. Of course, there were also the Irish and Chinese, both groups brought west to build the railroads. The Chinese were largely sojourners, men who had left behind their families to seek their fortunes and return home with newly acquired wealth. The Irish were more likely to be immigrants and more likely to be assimilated into the general population. The single factor that united this polyglot population was the pursuit of precious metals. Their lives were tied to the mines. When the mines thrived, communities grew up and a degree of social order was established. When the mines failed, these communities became ghost towns and the population moved on.

      That mining communities so often proved ephemeral makes for difficulty for the researcher. Further complicating the researcher's task is the transient nature of the populations under perusal. The ratio between men and women was more often ten men to one woman. Frequently, the majority of the female population was composed of prostitutes, who lived brutal lives under brutal conditions. Many prostitutes were victims of violence and, frequently, of suicide. There is little in the way of personal correspondence.

      The same may be said for the male population. Miners worked twelve-hour shifts six days a week, and what little leisure they had was spent in the pursuit of pleasures such as contests (wresting and boxing), animal baiting, gambling, and drinking. Personal correspondence suffered. The chief source of information about the mining communities comes less from the inhabitants and more from newspapers and mining records. The former are frequently colored by politics and hyperbole, and the latter consist of records that require careful sifting, the province of the scholar working in primary sources.

      For those interested in learning more about the history of Nevada, there are a number of resources and histories. Because this discussion cannot be comprehensive, only a selective sample is offered here. Publications dealing with mineral resources and individual journal articles are not included. The list of sources offered is arranged to serve as both an introduction and provide a path to further research.

      Often there is no better way to understand an area than to visit it. This is particularly true of Nevada and its mining districts. A number of museums devoted to local history can be found scattered across the state. A great place to start and of particular interest is the Tonopah Historic Mining Park, located in Tonopah on the claim sites that made the area the largest producer of silver after the Comstock. The 100-acre park preserves original equipment and buildings, and visitors can view the exhibits and even go underground. Visit the park's Web site, at http://tonopahnevada.com/tonopahhistoricminingpark.htm.

      Other museums and historical societies of interest can be located by going to the Nevada Division of Museums and History Web site (http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/museums/) and clicking on the “Museums in Nevada” link. Some comments about local publications from a few of these institutions are in order.

      • The Nevada Historical Society, a state agency located in Reno, has extensive artifact collections and a great research library of primary and secondary sources. The society also publishes a journal, the Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, covering topics on all aspects of the state's development.
      • Since 1970, Elko's Northeastern Nevada Historical Society has published the Northeastern Nevada Historical Society Quarterly.
      • The Churchill County Museum in Fallon has issued an annual journal titled In Focus since 1987.

      The University of Nevada Press, located on the campus of the University of Nevada, Reno, has been a central force in bringing Nevada and Great Basin topics to the public since it began publishing in 1961. Its current list of books in print contains a number of imprints of interest to those attracted to reading more about mining history throughout the state. These titles can be viewed and ordered from its Web site, http://www.nvbooks.nevada.edu. Out-of-print titles can be requested through a local library's interlibrary loan service.

      Restless Strangers: Nevada's Immigrants and Their Interpreters, by Wilbur S. Shepperson, is particularly useful to those interested in patterns of migration. Shepperson was a specialist in immigration studies and devoted his talents to telling Nevada's immigrant history. His interests in exploring local settlement and the cultural adaptation of the foreign born through historical and statistical surveys are supported by personal interviews and views of life through local newspaper accounts and popular fiction. This seminal work, now out of print, is an excellent introduction to the various ethnic groups that helped to build the state.

      For armchair adventurers, author Shawn Hall has put together a remarkable series of guidebooks to historic sites and ghost towns in many counties, all published by the University of Nevada Press in a similar format. Romancing Nevada's Past: Ghost Towns and Historic Sites of Eureka, Lander and White Pine Counties covers three of Nevada's central areas where early mining discoveries were found. The second, covering the state's eastern and most northern county, is Old Heart of Nevada: Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of Elko County. Preserving the Glory Days: Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of Nye County, Nevada is Hall's third guidebook, dealing with southern Nevada mining areas, including Rhyolite and Jim Butler's discovery at Tonopah. Each county or region is broken into smaller areas, with each section's sites arranged in alphabetical order. Entries of various lengths include driving directions, an accompanying map, and historical or contemporary photos illustrating the site's past or current state. Hall provides an excellent bibliography and index to sites, mines, and individuals.

      The most economically and socially influential strike was the discovery of the Comstock Lode in 1859, in and around Gold Hill and Virginia City. Miners from the gold fields in California flocked to the new bonanza, and by 1860, Virginia City and its environs had grown to about ten thousand people.

      Eighty mills were in operation by 1862. Although the mines produced riches for some of their owners and shareholders, many miners lost their lives underground in pursuit of their dreams. Today Virginia City is a frequent stop for tourists interested in viewing Nevada's mining history.

      For those interested in learning more about the Comstock's history, three books may be of interest among the many written. Dan De Quille's The Big Bonanza, first published in 1876 as History of the Big Bonanza, probably had its most well-known edition published by A. A. Knopf in 1947 with an introduction by Oscar Lewis. De Quille, whose real name was William Wright, worked at the Territorial Enterprise newspaper in Virginia City for thirty-one years and knew Samuel Clemens when he joined the paper. Fascinated with mining but finding no success as a miner in California, Wright turned to writing on his arrival on the Comstock, and his book and storytelling abilities capture the time, place, and people from the perspective of one who reported on these events as only an eyewitness could.

      The second book that deals with the Comstock is The History of the Comstock Lode: 1850–1997 by Grant Smith. First published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology in 1943, additional materials were added by Joseph V. Tingley, and the 1998 edition was copublished by the Bureau of Mines and the University of Nevada Press. More fact driven in its history than parts of the Big Bonanza, the book covers the complete history of Comstock mining operations, from the silver discovery to 1997. This work explores economic developments, labor unions, economic depressions, legal disputes, and political outcomes, and it reveals the efforts of individuals with names such as John Mackay, Adolph Sutro, George Hearst, and Phillipp Deidesheimer.

      Women's lives are the focus in Comstock Women: The Making of a Mining Community, edited by Ronald M. James and C. Elizabeth Raymond. The essays provided by scholars from many disciplines reveal how women tried to create a stable community for themselves and their children in a transient mining town and how their efforts had a social impact. The authors cover traditional domestic roles for women in all ethnic groups, as well as the topics of prostitution, divorce, ladies' societies, and spiritualism.

      Mining the ore and shipping it from its source to mills for refining and eventual shipment out of the area needed the support of additional trades. Companies formed to supply timber and create mills to cut the logs into lumber. Hauling of the lumber to the mines and the ores from them was first completed by wagon and, if the area was economically stable, by newly built railroads. Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California, a two-volume set by David F. Myrick, provides a comprehensive record of the lines in the states. Both volumes are extensively illustrated with photos and maps of the lines.

      Author Shawn Hall also covers this transportation history in Connecting the West: Historic Railroad Stops and Stage Stations in Elko County, Nevada. As in his other guidebooks, Hall discusses and illustrates the historic sites within the county, basing his text on numerous primary and secondary sources.

      Hugh A. Shamberger, a former state engineer, wrote ten volumes on historic mining camps of Nevada, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources. He provides an interesting perspective on the use of natural resources, particularly water in the desert environment, and discusses the development of many mining districts. He draws on many original sources and newspaper accounts and includes photos and interesting maps reproduced from original or early plates, such as the Garnier map of Candelaria (Esmeralda County), which shows the location and name of each person's dwelling or business, thus exhibiting the mix of nationalities within the town.

      Useful contributions to regional history include Donald R. Abbe's Austin and the Rees River Mining District: Nevada's Forgotten Frontier; Russell R. Elliott's Nevada's Twentieth-Century Mining Boom: Tonopah, Goldfield, Ely; Sally Zanjani's Glory Days in Goldfield, Nevada; and James W. Hulse's Lincoln County, Nevada, 1864–1909: A History of a Mining Region. Hulse remarks on the peculiar difficulties of putting such a work together:

      Residents of most early Nevada mining towns were poor recorders of history. Statistics on mineral production and accounts of the operations of the mines must be regarded with caution because there was often reason to falsify such data. Memoirs of old-timers warrant caution, too…. Newspapers of the era were optimistic most of the time, and they may deceive a historian because of the enthusiasm in good times and wishful thinking in dull times.

      For those intrepid souls who wish to learn more about a community, newspapers are a wonderful source of information from not only the news columns but also the advertisements. Nevada's mining communities generated newspapers aplenty. In Restless Strangers, Wilbur Shepperson states that by 1870, at least thirty-eight papers had been founded in Nevada, but only eighteen were still being published. Richard E. Lingenfelter and Karen Rix Gash offer a geographical guide to newspaper sources in The Newspapers of Nevada: a History and Bibliography, 1854–1979.

      Many more voices are being coaxed out of the desert. Archaeology and artifacts reveal lives of residents in an area, how they lived, what they ate, and what they discarded. A good overview of archaeological procedures can be found in Donald L. Hardesty's work for the Society of Historical Archaeology, The Archaeology of Mining and Miners: A View from the Silver State. Frank Crampton's personal account of life in the mines, Deep Enough: A Working Stiff in the Western Mine Camps, reveals that “Life at the mines was tough.” Mrs. Hugh Brown wrote about her twenty years in Tonopah in Lady in Boomtown: Miners and Manners on the Nevada Frontier. The three-volume Journals of Alfred Doten, 1849–1903, is a fascinating, detailed account of early California and the Comstock.

      The story of early Nevada, the people, and the events, is a work in progress. Through artifacts and primary sources (e.g., photographs, letters, maps, ledgers, and the like), a clearer picture of the people of Nevada and their activities in the mining camps begins to emerge. The materials being collected by and donated to museums, historical societies, and library special collections are progressively more accessible through the Internet, making it possible for the researcher to make connections and reveal discoveries that would heretofore have required extensive travel. The state's two university library's online catalogs can be consulted for additional resources. Primary sources of documentation are usually housed within their special collections departments. The catalog for University of Nevada, Reno's Special Collections can be viewed at http://www.library.unr.edu/specoll. The online catalog for University of Nevada, Las Vegas' Special Collections can be found at http://www.library.unlv.edu/speccol.

      Jacqueline K. Sundtrand
      Suggested Reading
      Abbe, Donald R. Austin and the Rees River Mining District: Nevada's Forgotten Frontier.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1985
      Brown, Mrs. Hugh. Lady in Boomtown: Miners and Manners on the Nevada Frontier.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1968.
      Crampton, Frank. Deep Enough: A Working Stiff in the Western Mine Camps.Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.
      De Quille, Dan. The Big Bonanza.New York: Knopf, 1947.
      Elliott, Russell R. Nevada's Twentieth-Century Mining Boom: Tonopah, Goldfield, Ely.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1988
      Hall, Shawn. Connecting the West: Historic Railroad Stops and Stage Stations in Elko County, Nevada.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2002.
      Hall, Shawn. Old Heart of Nevada: Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of Elko County.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1998.
      Hall, Shawn. Preserving the Glory Days: Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of Nye County, Nevada. Rev. ed.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1999.
      Hall, Shawn. Romancing Nevada's Past: Ghost Towns and Historic Sites of Eureka, Lander and White Pine Counties.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1994.
      Hardesty, Donald L. The Archaeology of Mining and Miners: A View from the Silver State (Special Publication Series no. 6).Rockville, MD: Society of Historical Archaeology, 1988.
      Hulse, James W. Lincoln County, Nevada, 1864–1909: A History of a Mining Region.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1971.
      James, Ronald M., and C. Elizabeth Raymond, eds. Comstock Women: The Making of a Mining Community.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1998.
      Lingenfelter, Richard E., and Karen Rix Gash. The Newspapers of Nevada: A History and Bibliography, 1854–1979.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1984.
      Myrick, David F. Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California. Vol. 1. The Northern Roads.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1992.
      Myrick, David F. Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California. Vol. 2. The Southern Roads.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1992.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Candelaria and Its Neighbors.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1978.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Fairview.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1973.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Goldfield.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1982.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Rawhide.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1970.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Rochester.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1973.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Seven Troughs.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1972.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Silver Peak.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1976.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of the Water Supply for the Comstock.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1972.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Weepah.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1975.
      Shamberger, Hugh A. Story of Wonder.Reno: U.S. Geological Survey and the Nevada Department of Conservation and Resources, 1974.
      Shepperson, Wilbur S. Restless Strangers: Nevada's Immigrants and Their Interpreters.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1970.
      Smith, Grant, with Joseph V. Tingley. The History of the Comstock Lode: 1850–1997.Reno: Nevada Bureau of Mines and the University of Nevada Press, 1998.
      Van Tilburg Clark, Walter, ed. Journals of Alfred Doten, 1849–1903.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1973.
      Zanjani, Sally. Glory Days in Goldfield, Nevada.Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2002.

      Appendix: Master Bibliography

      Appendix: Master bibliography
      1820–1870 Western Emigrant Trails: Historic Trails, Cutoffs, and Alternates. [Map]. Omaha, NE: Western Emigrant Trails Research Center, 1999.
      “A Viper Is Nonetheless a Viper Wherever the Egg Is Hatched. So a Japanese-American…Grows Up to Be a Japanese, Not an American.” Los Angeles Times February 2, 1942.
      Abajian, James. Blacks and Their Contribution to the American West: A Bibliography and Union List of Library Holdings through 1970.Boston: G. K. Hall, 1974.
      Abbott, Carl. Colorado: A History of the Centennial State.Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1976.
      Abbott, Carl. The Metropolitan Frontier: Cities in the Modern American West.Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993.
      Abbott, Carl, Stephen J. Leonard, and David McComb. Colorado: A History of the Centennial State.Boulder: Colorado Associate University Press, 1982.
      Abelmann, Nancy, and John Lie. Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.
      Accordino, John J. Captives of the Cold War Economy: The Struggle for Defense Conversion in American Communities.Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.
      Adams, Eleanor B.France V. Scholes. “Books in New Mexico, 1598–1680.”New Mexico Historical Review17(1942)
      Adams, Samuel Hopkins. The Harvey Girls.Cleveland, OH: Random House, 1944.
      Adler, Patricia. “Watts: From Suburb to Black Ghetto.” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1977.
      “The African American Mosaic.” Available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam010.html
      Aginsky, Burt. “The Socio-Psychological Significance of Death among the Pomo.” In Native Californians: A Theoretical Retrospective, edited by Lowell J. Bean and T. C. Blackburn. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press, 1976.
      Agnew, Meaghan. “As the Crow Flies.” USC Trojan Family Magazine(Summer 2002). Available from http://www.usc.edu
      Air University Library Staff. “Base Realignment and Closures: PMCS Financial/Resource Topics.” Available from http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/brac/brac.htm
      Akiyama, Kiyoma Henry. Interview by Arthur A. Hansen and Yasko Gamo [Interview no. 1751, transcript], June 10, 1982. Fullerton: California State University Fullerton Oral History Collection.
      Alexander, Thomas G. Mormons & Gentiles: A History of Salt Lake City.Boulder, CO: Pruett Press, 1985.
      “Alien Land Laws.” Available from http://www.santacruzpl.org/history/ww2/9066/land.shtml
      “Aliens Must Register First Week in February.” Cody EnterpriseJanuary 23, 1918.
      Allen, Elsie. Pomo Basketmaking: A Supreme Art for the Weaver.Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph, 1972.
      Allen, Margaret Day. Lewiston Country: An Armchair History.Lewiston, ID: Nez Perce County Historical Society, 1990.
      Altrocchi, Julia C. The Old California Trail.Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, 1945.
      American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Military Base Closings: Benefits for Community Adjustment.Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1977.
      “The American Indian in the Great War: Real and Imagined.” Available from http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~ww_one/comment/camurat1.html
      American National Biography.New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
      Andrist, Ralph. The Long Death.New York: Macmillan, 1974.
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