Encyclopedia of Human Development

Encyclopedia of Human Development

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Neil J. Salkind

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Abstract

The Encyclopedia of Human Development is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and informative reference work that presents state-of-the-art research and ready-to-use facts from the fields of psychology, individual and family studies, and education in a way that is not too technical. With more than 600 entries, this three-volume Encyclopedia covers topics as diverse as adolescence, cognitive development, education, family, gender differences, identity, longitudinal research, personality development, prenatal development, temperament, and more. 

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  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Adler, Alfred
    • Apgar Score
    • Abstract Reasoning
    • Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
    • Assisted Suicide
    • Abecedarian Research Project
    • After-School Programs
    • Adoption
    • Abortion
    • Battered Child Syndrome
    • Adolescence
    • Alleles
    • American Sign Language (ASL)
    • Aptitude
    • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    • Amnesia
    • Anorexia Nervosa
    • Activity Theory
    • Anger
    • American Academy of Pediatrics
    • African Americans
    • Bisexuality
    • Aggression
    • Case Study
    • Applied Behavior Analysis
    • Alcoholics Anonymous
    • Elderhostel Programs
    • Baby Boomers
    • Middle Adulthood
    • Gray Panthers
    • Alcoholism
    • Conscience
    • Cohort
    • Altruism
    • Contraception
    • Anti-Semitism
    • American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
    • Attribution Theory
    • Athletics
    • Antisocial Behavior
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN)
    • Aptitude Tests
    • Babbling
    • Chromosomes
    • Dating
    • Battered Woman Syndrome
    • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    • Authoritarian Parenting Style
    • Charter Schools
    • Child Care/Day Care
    • Bereavement
    • Advance Directives
    • Accommodation
    • Attachment
    • Ainsworth, Mary Salter
    • Ames, Louise
    • Babinski Reflex
    • Adaptation
    • Age Discrimination
    • Bereavement Overload
    • Early Childhood
    • Competence versus Performance
    • Authoritative Parenting Style
    • Acupuncture
    • Child Abuse
    • Delinquency
    • Fragile X Syndrome
    • Baby Talk
    • Crystallized Intelligence
    • Children's Rights
    • Dyslexia
    • Anxiety Disorders
    • Biological Clock
    • Five-Factor Model of Personality
    • American Psychological Association
    • Buddhism
    • Erectile Dysfunction
    • Androgyny
    • Correlation
    • Continuity and Discontinuity in Development
    • Amphetamines
    • Oldest Old Age
    • Young Adulthood
    • Retirement
    • Cocaine
    • Critical Period
    • Criterion-Referenced Tests
    • Attitude
    • Extramarital Sex
    • Catholicism
    • American Psychological Society
    • Hope
    • BMI (Body Mass Index)
    • Asperger Syndrome
    • Extinction
    • Courtroom Testimony
    • Developmental Quotient
    • Bilingualism
    • Human Genome Project
    • Gangs
    • Child Neglect
    • Addiction
    • Child Custody
    • Distance Learning
    • Early Intervention Programs
    • Brain Death
    • Ageism
    • Assimilation
    • Bayley Scales of Infant Development
    • Apgar, Virginia
    • Bandura, Albert
    • Birth Defects
    • Attention
    • Aging
    • Death
    • Failure to Thrive
    • Giftedness
    • Child Rearing
    • Allergy
    • Elder Abuse
    • Juvenile Delinquency
    • Phenotype
    • Echolalia
    • Emotional Intelligence
    • Inclusion/Mainstreaming
    • False Memories
    • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    • Brain Development
    • Identity
    • Centers for Disease Control
    • Ethnic Cleansing
    • Heterosexuality
    • Bar/Bat Mitzvah
    • Cross-Sectional Research
    • Deferred Imitation
    • Crack Baby Syndrome
    • Drug Abuse
    • Development
    • Dependent Variable
    • Bullying
    • Homosexuality
    • Ethnic Identity
    • Gerontological Society of America
    • Individual Differences
    • Brain Lateralization
    • Autism
    • Inhibitory Control
    • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    • Fluid Intelligence
    • English as a Second Language (ESL)
    • Storm and Stress
    • Elder Neglect
    • Alzheimer's Disease
    • Childlessness
    • Grade Retention
    • Head Start
    • Death with Dignity
    • Aging Parents
    • Attention Span
    • Birth Order
    • Barker, Roger
    • Baumrind, Diane
    • Birth Weight
    • Categorization
    • Aging Well
    • Dying
    • Kindergarten Readiness
    • Higher Education
    • Common Law Marriage
    • Anemia
    • Elder Maltreatment
    • Teenage Pregnancy
    • Language Acquisition Device
    • Intellectual Decline
    • Medicare
    • Learning
    • Binge Drinking
    • Brain Plasticity
    • Self-Actualization
    • MADD (Mothers against Drunk Driving)
    • Hate Crimes
    • Intimacy
    • Career Development
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    • Developmental Direction
    • Drunk Driving
    • Gateway Drug
    • Ecological Theory
    • Ethical Standards of Research
    • Cohabitation
    • Kinsey Institute
    • Hispanic Americans
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
    • Self-Concept
    • Breathing Reflex
    • Binge Eating
    • Learning Disabilities
    • Older Americans Act
    • Intelligence
    • Language Development
    • Incest
    • Apnea
    • Congregate Housing
    • Individualized Education Programs (IEP)
    • Mozart Effect
    • Euthanasia
    • Assisted Living
    • Cognitive Development
    • Birthing Centers
    • Bayley, Nancy
    • Binet, Alfred
    • Breech Birth
    • Cognitive Dissonance
    • Average Life Expectancy
    • Funerals
    • NICHD Child Care Study
    • Literacy
    • Corporal Punishment
    • Arteriosclerosis
    • Rape
    • Mean Length Utterance
    • IQ Tests
    • Public Policy
    • Long-Term Memory
    • Bulimia Nervosa
    • Circadian Rhythm
    • Shyness
    • National Vital Statistics Reports
    • Holocaust
    • Lesbians
    • Conflict
    • Experiment
    • Ego
    • Marijuana
    • Methadone
    • Ego Development
    • Experimental Group
    • Cooperative Learning
    • Immigrants
    • Society for Research in Child Development
    • Temperament
    • Cochlear Implant
    • Cluster Suicide
    • Memory Failure
    • Social Security
    • Mental Age
    • Phonics
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Asthma
    • Cosleeping Arrangements
    • Montessori Method
    • Noble Savage
    • Hospice
    • Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging
    • Cognitive Equilibrium
    • Circumcision
    • Bowlby, John
    • Brazelton, T. Berry
    • Colic
    • Cognitive Style
    • Berkeley/Oakland Longitudinal Studies
    • Infanticide
    • Nursery (Preschool)
    • Motivation
    • Deadbeat Dads
    • Breast Cancer
    • Phonological Awareness
    • Multiple Intelligences
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Comorbidity
    • Crawling
    • World Health Organization
    • Islam
    • Cooperative Play
    • Experimental Method
    • Electra and Oedipal Complexes
    • Ethology
    • Framingham Study
    • Cross-Cultural Development
    • Judaism
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    • Conduct Disorder
    • Problem Solving
    • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
    • Private Speech
    • Cancer
    • Discipline
    • National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
    • Perry Preschool Program
    • Mortality
    • Chronological Age
    • Concrete Operational Period
    • Crying
    • Bronfenbrenner, Urie
    • Brown, Roger
    • Donor Insemination
    • Conservation
    • Dementia
    • National Hospice Study
    • Preschool Years
    • National Center for Educational Statistics
    • Divorce
    • Cardiovascular Disease
    • Second Languages
    • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
    • Punishment
    • Depression
    • Exercise
    • Native Americans
    • Disgust
    • Generalizability
    • Id
    • Imitation
    • Hypothesis
    • Emerging Adulthood
    • Religion
    • Fine Motor Control
    • Developmental Disabilities
    • Reinforcement
    • Semantic Development
    • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    • Divorce Mediation
    • Reading
    • Reggio Emilia Childhood Program
    • Palliative Care
    • Elder Abuse
    • Convergent Thinking
    • Dynamical Systems
    • Bruner, Jerome
    • Chomsky, Noam
    • Embryo
    • Creativity
    • Elder Maltreatment
    • Parasuicide
    • Resiliency
    • SAT
    • Domestic Violence
    • Chronic Illness
    • Stuttering
    • Retention
    • Developmental Psychopathology
    • Fine Motor Development
    • Empathy
    • Internet
    • Imprinting
    • Nature–Nurture
    • Longitudinal Research
    • Friendship
    • Gross Motor Development
    • Down Syndrome
    • Short-Term Memory
    • Universal Grammar
    • Congestive Heart Failure
    • Dual-Earner Households
    • School
    • Toddlerhood
    • Right-to-Die Movement
    • Elder Neglect
    • Deductive Reasoning
    • Fetal Medicine
    • Darwin, Charles
    • Erikson, Erik
    • Fetus
    • Dialectical Thought
    • Generation Gap
    • Stages of Dying
    • Toilet Training
    • School Dropouts
    • Empty Nest
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
    • Whole Language
    • Eating Disorders
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy
    • Gender Differences
    • Meta-Analysis
    • Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Reciprocal Determinism
    • Naturalistic Observation
    • Gender Identity
    • Hormones
    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    • Extended Family
    • School Readiness
    • Gerontology
    • Egocentrism
    • Fraternal Twins
    • Flavell, John
    • Freud, Sigmund
    • Gamete
    • Equilibration
    • Older Adulthood
    • School Years
    • Family Size
    • Deafness
    • Independent Living
    • Hot Flashes
    • Gender Role Development
    • New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS)
    • Self-Efficacy
    • Sensitive Period
    • Norm-Referenced Tests
    • Gilligan's Theory of Feminine Morality
    • Maturation
    • Mental Retardation
    • Diabetes
    • Fathers
    • Sex Education
    • Stroke
    • Executive Functioning
    • High-Risk Infants
    • Gardner, Howard
    • Gesell, Arnold
    • Home Birth
    • Five-to-Seven Shift
    • Theories of Aging
    • Foster Care
    • Dieting
    • Mood Disorders
    • Menarche
    • Later Adulthood
    • Normal Curve (Bell Curve)
    • Separation Anxiety
    • Sociobiology
    • Norms
    • Learned Helplessness
    • Menopause
    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Disasters
    • Gay Marriages
    • Very Old Age
    • Formal Operational Period
    • Identical Twins
    • Gilligan, Carol
    • Hall, G. Stanley
    • Immunizations
    • Habituation
    • Widowhood and Widowerhood
    • Glass Ceiling
    • Endocrine Disruptors
    • Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
    • Menstruation
    • Locus of Control
    • Observational Learning
    • Superego
    • Tabula Rasa
    • Qualitative Methods
    • Loneliness
    • Motor Skill Mastering
    • Panic Disorder
    • Epilepsy
    • Grandparents
    • Wisdom
    • Humor
    • Infancy
    • Harlow, Harry
    • Hetherington, E. Mavis
    • Infant Mortality
    • Imaginary Audience
    • Intergenerational Relationships
    • Estrogen
    • Pervasive Developmental Disorders
    • Myelin
    • Mentor
    • Quantitative Methods
    • Theories of Development
    • Utopianism
    • Quasi-Experimental Design
    • Midlife Crisis
    • Myopia
    • Phobias
    • Firearms
    • Interracial Marriages
    • Imaginary Friend
    • Infertility
    • Ilg, Frances
    • Kohlberg, Lawrence
    • Labor
    • Imaginary Thinking
    • Joint Custody
    • Health Insurance
    • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Moral Reasoning
    • Reliability
    • Sampling
    • Neighborhoods
    • Pain
    • Postpartum Depression
    • Hemophilia
    • Kibbutzim
    • Inductive Reasoning
    • Low Birth Weight (LBW)
    • Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth
    • Locke, John
    • Maternal Health
    • Information Processing Theory
    • Marital Equity
    • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
    • Psychopathology
    • Physical Development and Growth
    • Peer Pressure
    • Scientific Method
    • Seattle Longitudinal Study
    • Peers
    • Psychopharmacology
    • Ritalin
    • Homicide
    • Marriage
    • Magical Thinking
    • Maternal Phenylketonuria
    • Maslow, Abraham
    • Piaget, Jean
    • Maternal Smoking
    • Metacognition
    • Only Children
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    • Schizophrenia
    • Puberty
    • Pets
    • Standardized Testing
    • Statistical Significance
    • Prosocial Behavior
    • Sensation Seeking
    • Social Anxiety Disorder
    • Huntington's Chorea
    • Orphans
    • Moral Development
    • Midwife
    • Rogers, Carl
    • Rogers, Fred
    • Miscarriage
    • Object Permanence
    • Parent-Child Interaction
    • Hydrocephalus
    • Special Needs Children
    • Self-Esteem
    • Psychosocial Development
    • Twin Studies
    • Validity
    • Quinceañera
    • Sexual Activity
    • Suicide
    • Immune System
    • Parent-Child Relationships
    • Preoperational Thought
    • Multiple Births
    • Sears, Robert
    • Skinner, B. F.
    • Natural Childbirth
    • Primary Circular Reactions
    • Parent Training
    • Inborn Errors of Metabolism
    • Sleep
    • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    • Visual Cliff
    • Sex Differences
    • Smell
    • Incontinence
    • Parenting
    • Scaffolding
    • Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
    • Vygotsky, Lev
    • Watson, John B.
    • Neonate
    • Schema
    • Parents Anonymous
    • Infectious Diseases
    • Taste
    • Smiling
    • Social Class
    • Touch
    • Ionizing Radiation
    • Permissive Parenting Style
    • Sensory Development
    • Ovulation
    • Wright, John C.
    • Pesticides
    • Social Cognition
    • Poverty
    • Klinefelter's Syndrome
    • Social Development
    • Socioeconomic Status
    • Lead Poisoning
    • Siblings
    • Stages of Development
    • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • Pregnancy
    • Stages of Moral Development
    • Single-Parent Family
    • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
    • Strange Situation
    • Stress
    • Malnutrition
    • Single Parents
    • Theory of Mind
    • Prenatal Development
    • Preterm Infants
    • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
    • Spanking
    • Methylmercury
    • Symbolic Play
    • Television
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Stepfamilies
    • Secure Attachment
    • Stranger Anxiety
    • Surrogate Mothers
    • Noise
    • Video Games
    • Violence
    • Nutrition
    • Sucking Behaviors
    • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
    • Obesity
    • Volunteering
    • Work
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Twins
    • Ultrasound
    • Osteoporosis
    • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB)
    • Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW)
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Preventive Medicine
    • Prostate Cancer
    • Reflexes
    • Rett Syndrome
    • Rh Factor
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Rubella (German Measles)
    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
    • Structural and Functional Brain Imaging
    • T Cells
    • Tay-Sachs Disease
    • Teratogen
    • Testosterone
    • Thalassemia
    • Thalidomide
    • Tourette's Syndrome
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Vaccination
    • Vitamin Deficiency
    • Weight
    • Well-Baby Checkup
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
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    • Copyright

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      Editorial Board

      Marvin Berkowitz

      Department of Psychology

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Winnie Dunn

      Department of Occupational Therapy

      University of Kansas Medical Center

      Susan Gelman

      Department of Psychology

      University of Michigan

      Aletha Huston

      Department of Human Ecology

      University of Texas

      Margie E. Lachman

      Professor of Psychology

      Brandeis University

      Jim Raths

      School of Education

      University of Delaware

      Terrill Saxon

      Department of Educational Psychology

      Baylor University

      Eva Skoe

      Department of Psychology

      University of Oslo

      Marylyn Thompson

      Department of Psychology in Education

      Arizona State University

      Ross Thompson

      Department of Psychology

      University of California, Davis

      Mary Zimmerman

      Department of Sociology

      University of Kansas

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      About the Editor

      Neil J. Salkind (PhD, University of Maryland, 1973) is a Professor of Psychology and Research in Education at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas. He completed postdoctoral training as a member of the Bush Child and Family Policy Institute at the University of North Carolina in 1980 and has authored and coauthored more than 125 scholarly papers and books. He is author most recently of Theories of Human Development (2003) and Statistics for People Who Think They Hate Statistics (2003), both published by Sage. He was the editor of Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography, published by the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), from 1988 through 2001 and continues to be active in that organization as a member of various committees.

      Contributors

      Abar, Beau

      George Mason University

      Abrams, Lise

      University of Florida

      Acitelli, Linda K.

      University of Houston

      Ackerman, John P.

      University of Delaware

      Adams, Gary A.

      University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

      Adams, Mary Ann

      University of Southern Mississippi

      Adkins, Paula M.

      University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

      Affeld, J'Anne

      Northern Arizona University

      Alcantara, Adriana A.

      University of Texas at Austin

      Aldrich, Naomi

      City University of New York, Brooklyn College

      Alejano-Steele, AnnJanette

      Metropolitan State College

      Alexander, Duane

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health

      Allen, Lacy

      University of Central Florida

      Allen, LaRue

      New York University

      Altmann, Lori J. P.

      Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brain Research Center, University of Florida

      Altus, Deborah E.

      Washburn University

      America, Alison

      University of Hartford

      Amory, John K.

      University of Washington

      Anderson, Craig A.

      Iowa State University

      Anderson, David I.

      San Francisco State University

      Anderson, Kathryn B.

      Our Lady of the Lake University

      Anderson, Pamela M.

      Tufts University

      Anderson, Robert N.

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Appel, James B.

      University of South Carolina

      Appelhans, Bradley

      Arizona State University

      Archibald, Matthew E.

      Emory University

      Arndt, Jamie

      University of Missouri

      Astuto, Jennifer

      New York University

      Attanasio, Roberta

      Georgia State University

      Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

      University of Iowa

      Aylsworth, Arthur S.

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Ayotte, Brian J.

      West Virginia University

      Bailey, Richard

      Canterbury Christ Church University College

      Bakhurst, David

      Queen's University

      Balaban, Marie T.

      Eastern Oregon University

      Barnett, W. Steven

      Rutgers University

      Barr, Rachel

      Georgetown University

      Barsky, Robert F.

      Vanderbilt University

      Barton, John L.

      Arizona State University

      Bartsch, Karen

      University of Wyoming

      Bass, Jennifer

      The Kinsey Institute

      Basso, Michael R.

      University of Tulsa

      Bateson, Patrick

      University of Cambridge

      Bauer, David J.

      University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

      Bayer, Michelle

      University of Central Florida

      Beauchamp, Anne S.

      University of Kansas

      Becker, Gay

      University of California, San Francisco

      Benigno, Joann P.

      University of Florida

      Bennett, Kymberley

      Indiana State University

      Bennett, Trude

      University of North at Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Benson, Eric

      University of Kansas

      Benson, Janette B.

      University of Denver

      Berger, Lauren

      University of Denver

      Berntson, Gary G.

      The Ohio State University

      Bhatia, Tej K.

      Syracuse University

      Bickham, David S.

      Children's Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical School

      Bjorklund, David F.

      Florida Atlantic University

      Blanton, Priscilla W.

      University of Tennessee

      Bleich, J. David

      Yeshiva University

      Blount-Matthews, Kirsten M.

      University of California, Berkeley

      Bonner, Melanie J.

      Duke University

      Bonvillian, John D.

      University of Virginia

      Boorstein, Hilary C.

      University of Connecticut

      Borrego, Joaquin

      Texas Tech University

      Bortfeld, Heather

      Texas A&M University

      Bowers, J. Michael

      Oklahoma State University

      Branch, Marc N.

      University of Florida

      Brandell, Jerrold R.

      Wayne State University

      Bregman, Joanne

      Northwestern University

      Bretherton, Inge

      University of Wisconsin–Madison

      Bright, Jim E. H.

      University of New South Wales

      Bronson, Judith Conoyer

      University of Missouri–Columbia

      Brookhart, Sarah

      American Psychological Society

      Brown, Eleanor D.

      University of Delaware

      Brown, Joy L. M.

      University of Northern Alabama

      Brown, Megan

      Duke University Medical Center

      Brown, Robert T.

      University of North Carolina at Wilmington

      Brown, Stephanie

      University of Michigan

      Browne, Joy V.

      Center for Family and Infant Interaction

      Bubany, Shawn T.

      University of Kansas

      Buck, Richard M.

      Mount St. Mary's College

      Buckley, Jennifer

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Bullwinkel, Deborah M.

      American Academy of Pediatrics

      Burgess, Melinda C. R.

      Southwestern Oklahoma State University

      Burgess, Stephen

      Southwestern Oklahoma State University

      Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.

      University of Utah

      Burstein, Joyce

      California State University, Northridge

      Cacioppo, John T.

      University of Chicago

      Cain, Kathleen M.

      Gettysburg College

      Caldera, Yvonne M.

      Texas Tech University

      Campos, Joseph J.

      University of California, Berkeley

      Camune, Barbara

      University of Texas Medical Branch–School of Nursing

      Canny, Susan

      Stanford University

      Cantu, Clara A.

      University of Houston

      Caporino, Nicole

      University of South Florida

      Cardozo, Patricia R.

      San Diego State University

      Carey, James R.

      University of California, Davis

      Carlton, Martha

      Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

      Caskie, Grace I. L.

      Lehigh University

      Cavanaugh, Cathy

      University of North Florida

      Chambers, Cynthia R.

      University of Kansas

      Chaney, John M.

      Oklahoma State University

      Chang, Nadine

      New York University

      Chang, Tae H.

      California State University, Northridge

      Chang-Rios, Karin Lee

      University of Kansas

      Cheek, Jonathan M.

      Wellesley College

      Chen, Denise

      Rice University

      Chen, Yiwei

      Bowling Green State University

      Childre, Amy

      Georgia College & State University

      Ching, Lai-Ming

      University of Auckland

      Chrisler, Joan C.

      Connecticut College

      Christ, Shawn E.

      University of Washington

      Churchill, James D.

      Saint Louis University

      Cicirelli, Victor G.

      Purdue University

      Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

      University of Connecticut

      Clark, Vincent P.

      University of New Mexico

      Clayton, Dawn B.

      University of Kansas

      Coatsworth, J. Douglas

      Pennsylvania State University

      Coelho, Jennifer S.

      University of Toronto

      Coffman, Daniel

      Saybrook Institute

      Cohen, Lawrence H.

      University of Delaware

      Cohen, LeoNora M.

      Oregon State University

      Coleman, Herbert L.

      Austin Community College

      Conrad, Clifton

      University of Wisconsin–Madison

      Conroy, David E.

      Pennsylvania State University

      Conway, Francine

      Adelphi University

      Cooke, D. Tighe

      Worcester State College

      Coolidge, Frederick L.

      University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

      Corbin, William R.

      Yale University

      Coussons-Read, Mary

      University of Colorado at Denver

      Cox, Daniel W.

      University of Kansas

      Coyle, Thomas R.

      University of Texas at San Antonio

      Crain, Timothy

      University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

      Crowther, Janis H.

      Kent State University

      Curry Jr., Thomas E.

      University of Kentucky

      Cusack, Regina

      Our Lady of the Lake University

      Danso, Henry A.

      Wesleyan University

      Darcy, Marie U. A.

      University of West Florida

      Dasch, Kimberly

      University of Delaware

      Davey, Adam

      University of Georgia

      Day, Kristin M.

      University of Central Florida

      Dearing, Eric

      University of Wyoming

      Delaney, Peter F.

      University of Florida

      DellaVecchia, Francis

      Marijuana Policy Project

      Delwiche, Jeannine Frances

      The Ohio State University

      Dempsey, Jared P.

      Texas Tech University

      DeRuyck, Kimberly A.

      University of Kansas

      Detoma, Hannah R.

      Medical University of South Carolina

      Dick, Amy C.

      Indiana University

      Ditto, Peter H.

      University of California, Irvine

      Donalek, Julie

      DePaul University

      Donohue, Brad

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Dooley, Hester

      University of South Alabama

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      State University of New York Fredonia

      Zhou, Ling-Yi

      University of St. Francis

      Zierten, Elizabeth A.

      University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

      Preface

      The field of human development focuses on the growth and development of the human being, including physical, social, psychological, and emotional development from conception through death. Under the broad umbrella of the term human development are found countless topics, many of which are explored in this encyclopedia. In addition, as our knowledge about development has increased through the use of more sophisticated research techniques and large funding programs, we have seen a growth in the general interest in these areas, hence the proliferation of trade and mass-market books about development that are readily available and accessible to the public.

      Although there are hundreds of books about different topics in development, and there are thousands of researchers pursuing more information about the major topics on which specialists in human development focus, there are few comprehensive overviews of these topics and their importance. There are even fewer books that convey this information in a way that is comprehensive, authoritative and informative, and yet not too technical. The purpose of this multivolume Encyclopedia of Human Development is to convey this information in that way.

      Through approximately 650 entries, experts in each of the areas contained in these pages contribute an overview and an explanation of the major topics in the field of human development.

      The underlying rationale for the selection of particular topics and their presentation in this encyclopedia comes from the need to share with the naïve (about human development, that is) but educated reader topics that are rich, diverse, and deserving of closer inspection. Within these pages we provide the overview and the detail that we feel is necessary to become well acquainted with topics that do a good job of representing the field of human development.

      As is the case with many encyclopedias, the Encyclopedia of Human Development is also organized in alphabetical order, from A through Z. However, particular themes were identified early on that could be used to conceptually organize the information and the entries. These themes or major topic areas constitute the Reader's Guide, which begins on page xv. Categories such as adolescence, education, emotional development, older adulthood, religion, and substance abuse are only a few of the many that help organize the entire set of contributions.

      The Process

      The task of developing a complete and thorough review of the topic of human development started with the identification of entries that the editor and advisory board (see page vii) thought were important to include. We tried to make sure that these entries included topics that would be of interest to a general readership but did not require the use of terms that were too highly technical or too far removed from the interests of the everyday reader. This list was reviewed several times, until we felt that it was a comprehensive set of topics that best fit the vision for the encyclopedia.

      As expected, this list was edited and revised as we worked and as authors were recruited to write particular entries. Enthusiastic authors suggested new topics that might have been overlooked and noted topics that might not appeal. All of these changes were taken into consideration as the final list was assembled.

      The next step was to assign lengths to particular entries, which ranged from 400 words for bibliographies (such as the one on Charles Darwin) to 5,000 words for articles (such as the one on the human genome). In between, there were articles that were 1,500 and 3,000 words in length. At times, authors asked that the length be extended because they had so much information they wanted to include, and they felt that the limitation on space was unwarranted. In most cases it was not a problem to allow such an extension.

      As for choosing authors, this step took place through a variety of mechanisms, including identifying individuals based on recommendations from the advisory board and the editor's professional and personal experiences, contacting authors of journal articles and books who focused on a particular area directly related to the entry, and asking for referrals from other individuals who are well known in the field.

      Once authors were identified and invited, and once they confirmed that they could participate, they were sent detailed instructions and given a deadline for the submission of their entry. The result, after editing, layout, and other production steps, is in your hands.

      How to Use this Book

      Like a good meal, a book is meant to be fully enjoyed, and, while most people believe that encyclopedias are only used for reference purposes, this three-volume encyclopedia is an easy one to sit down with open up, and browse through.

      As was mentioned earlier, a primary goal of creating this set of volumes was to open up the broad discipline of human development to a wide and general audience. For this reason, you will find topics that are of particular interest to the general public, such as AIDS, friendship, retirement, and creativity.

      Take these books and find a comfortable chair; browse through the topics and read the ones that catch your eye. We are confident that you will continue reading and looking for additional related entries (see the end of many articles for related entries in the set) and, in doing so, learn more about whatever interests you.

      Should you want to find a topic within a particular area, consult the Reader's Guide, which organizes entries within this three-volume set into general categories. Using this tool, you can quickly move to an area or a specific topic that you find valuable and of interest.

      Acknowledgments

      Any project as ambitious as this that contains more than 600 entries by more than 650 talented experts has to be the work of many people, and I would like to acknowledge them all. If this encyclopedia sees success, it is to a very large extent due to the work of these and other fine people.

      First, thanks to the advisory board, a group of scholars in many different areas who took the time to review the list of entries and make invaluable suggestions as to what readers might find valuable and how that topic should be approached. These are very busy people who took the time to help the editor develop a list that is broad in scope and represents the most important topics in human development. You can see a complete list of these fine people on page vii.

      My editor at Sage Publications, Jim Brace-Thompson, deserves a great deal of thanks for bringing this project to my attention and giving me the chance to make it work. He has been steadfast in his support and advice throughout. I call and he is there to answer my question; I e-mail him and I have an answer in minutes. What else could an editor ask for?

      Other Sage people also helped make this task both enjoyable and helped create the useful, informative, and approachable set of volumes you hold in your hands. Among these people are Karen Ehrmann, editorial assistant; Tracy Alpern, project editor; Rolf Janke, Sage References publisher; and Sara Tauber, developmental editor.

      My sincere thanks and appreciation go to the managing editors, Kim DeRuyck and Kristin Rasmussen, both advanced graduate students, who managed the submissions from the recruitment of authors to the transmission of the final documents to Sage. Both completed their tasks with enthusiasm, initiative, and perseverance, answering endless questions through thousands of e-mails to hundreds of authors. Thank you sincerely.

      And finally, of course, how could anything of this magnitude ever have been done without the timely execution and accurate scholarship of the contributing authors? They understood that the task at hand was to introduce educated readers (such as yourself) to new areas of interest in the broad field of human development, and without exception I think they did a wonderful job. You will see throughout that their writing is clear and informative—just what material like this should be for the intelligent reader. To them, a sincere thank you and a job well done.

      Neil J. Salkind University of Kansas July 2005
    • Appendix 1: Tables and Figures on Selected Aspects of Human Development

      Appendix 1: Tables and figures on selected aspects of human development
      • Americans 65 Years and Older As a Percentage of Total U.S. Population, 1950–2050 1348
      • Annual Number of Births, 1946 to 2001 1349
      • Average Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy Scores of 15-Year-Olds, by Sex, 2000 1350
      • Basic Indicators of World Health Organization Members, 2001 1351
      • Child Care Arrangements of Preschool Children, by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Type of Child Care Arrangement, 1999 1355
      • Death Rates for Leading Causes of Death for All Ages: United States, 1950–2002 1356
      • Enrollment in Grades K8 and 9–12 of Elementary and Secondary Schools 1357
      • General Statistics of Public Libraries, by Population, 2000 1358
      • Health Insurance Coverage by Age Group in United States 1358
      • High School Graduates 1987–1988 to 2012–2013 1359
      • Life Expectancy in All Member States of World Health Organization in 2001 1360
      • Mortality Causes under 5 Years Old in 2002 1364
      • Number of People Age 60 and Older 1364
      • Number of School-Associated Violent Deaths, 1992–2000 1365
      • Percent of Early Prenatal Care by Race: United States, 1980–2002 1365
      • Percent of Families with Income below the Poverty Level 1366
      • Percent Overweight and Obesity by Age: United States, 1960–2002 1366
      • Percentage of Children Ages 3–5 Not Yet Enrolled in Kindergarten Who Participated in Home Literacy Activities with a Family Member Three or More Times per Week 1367
      • Selected Chronic Health Conditions Causing Limitation of Activity among Working-Age Adults by Age: United States, 2000–2002 1367
      • Use of Illicit Drugs in the Past Month by Age, 2003 1368
      • Years of Life Lost in Thousands by Risk Factor and Sex, 2000 1369
      Americans 65 Years and Older As A Percentage of Total U.S. Population, 1950–2050
      YearTotal65 years and over75 years and over
      1950150,216,11012,256,8503,852,395
      1960179,325,65716,207,2375,359,338
      1970203,211,92620,065,5027,630,046
      1980226,545,80525,549,4279,968,822
      1990248,709,87331,078,89513,033,400
      2000281,421,90634,991,75316,600,767
      2010308,935,58140,243,71318,974,204
      2020335,804,54654,631,89122,852,732
      2030363,584,43571,453,47133,505,538
      2040391,945,65880,049,63444,579,726
      2050419,853,58786,705,63748,763,200
      SOURCE: U.S. Census (2000).
      Annual Number of Births, 1946 To 2001 (In Thousands)
      YearNumber of birthsYearNumber of births
      19463,42619743,160
      19473,83419753,144
      19483,65519763,168
      19493,66719773,327
      19503,64519783,333
      19513,84519793,494
      19523,93319803,612
      19533,98919813,629
      19544,10219823,681
      19554,12819833,639
      19564,24419843,669
      19574,33219853,761
      19584,27919863,757
      19594,31319873,809
      19604,30719883,910
      19614,31719894,041
      19624,21319904,158
      19634,14219914,111
      19644,07019924,065
      19653,80119934,000
      19663,64219943,953
      19673,55519953,900
      19683,53519963,891
      19693,62619973,881
      19703,73919983,942
      19713,55619993,959
      19723,25820004,063
      19733,13720014,028
      SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Annual Summary of Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: United States, various years, National Vital Statistics Report (2003).
      Average Reading, Mathematics, And Science Literacy Scores1 Of 15-Year-Olds, By Sex, 2000
      Reading literacyMathematics literacyScience literacy
      CountryTotalMaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotalMaleFemale
      Australia528513546533539527528526529
      Austria507495520515530503519526514
      Belgium507492525520524518496496498
      Canada534519551533539529529529531
      Czech Republic492473510498504492511512511
      Denmark497485510514522507481488476
      Finland546520571536537536538534541
      France505490519517525511500504498
      Germany484468502490498483487489487
      Greece474456493447451444461457464
      Hungary480465496488492485496496497
      Iceland507488528514513518496495499
      Ireland527513542503510497513511517
      Italy487469507457462454478474483
      Japan522507537557561553550547554
      Korea, Republic of525519533547559532552561541
      Luxembourg441429456446454439443441448
      Mexico422411432387393382422423419
      Netherlands517547569558529529
      New Zealand529507553537536539528523535
      Norway505486529499506495500499505
      Poland479461498470472468483486480
      Portugal470458482454464446459456462
      Spain493481505476487469491492491
      Sweden516499536510514507512512513
      Switzerland494480510529537523496500493
      United Kingdom523512537529534526532535531
      United States504490518493497490499497502
      SOURCE: World Health Organization.
      1. Average score equals 500.
      Basic Indicators of World Health Organization Members, 2001
      Member StateTotal population (in thousands)Annual growth rate (%)Percentage of population aged 60+yearsTotal fertility rate
      20011991–20011991200119912001
      Afghanistan22,4734.54.74.77.16.8
      Albania3,144− 0.57.99.22.92.4
      Algeria30,8411.95.76.04.32.9
      Andorra905.019.421.11.51.3
      Angola13,5273.24.74.57.27.2
      Antigua and Barbuda650.39.110.01.91.6
      Argentina37,4871.313.013.42.92.5
      Armenia3,7870.510.413.22.21.2
      Australia19,3381.215.616.51.91.8
      Austria8,0740.420.021.11.51.3
      Azerbaijan8,0951.18.210.52.71.6
      Bahamas3071.76.78.12.62.3
      Bahrain6512.63.74.83.62.4
      Bangladesh140,3682.24.75.04.53.6
      Barbados2680.415.113.21.61.5
      Belarus10,146− 0.116.818.81.81.2
      Belgium10,2630.320.722.21.61.5
      Belize2302.06.05.94.33.0
      Benin6,4453.04.74.26.65.8
      Bhutan2,1412.26.06.55.85.2
      Bolivia8,5162.45.96.24.94.1
      Bosnia and Herzegovina4,066− 0.210.715.11.61.3
      Botswana1,5532.03.64.65.04.1
      Brazila172,5581.46.88.02.62.2
      Brunei Darussalam3342.44.05.23.22.6
      Bulgaria7,866− 1.019.521.71.61.1
      Burkina Faso11,8552.55.24.87.26.8
      Burundi6,5011.24.74.36.86.8
      Cambodia13,4403.04.44.45.54.9
      Cameroon15,2022.45.65.65.84.8
      Canada31,0141.015.716.91.71.6
      Cape Verde4362.36.86.34.13.3
      Central African Republic3,7812.36.26.15.65.0
      Chad8,1343.15.24.96.76.7
      Chile15,4011.59.110.42.62.4
      China1,292,3780.98.610.02.11.8
      Colombia42,8021.86.37.03.12.7
      Comoros7263.04.04.26.05.1
      Congo3,1093.15.35.06.36.3
      Cook Islands200.75.86.94.13.3
      Costa Rica4,1122.76.47.63.12.7
      Côte d'Ivoire16,3482.34.35.06.14.8
      Croatia4,6540.317.320.51.61.7
      Cubaa11,2360.511.814.01.71.6
      Cyprus7901.314.815.92.41.9
      Czech Republic10,2600.017.818.61.71.2
      Democratic People's Republic of Korea22,4271.07.810.42.42.1
      Democratic Republic of the Congo52,5213.24.64.56.76.7
      Denmark5,3320.320.320.21.71.7
      Djibouti6432.24.15.76.35.9
      Dominica71− 0.19.110.02.11.8
      Dominican Republic8,5061.75.56.73.32.8
      Ecuador12,8792.16.27.03.72.9
      Egypt69,0791.96.16.34.03.0
      El Salvador6,3992.16.67.23.63.0
      Equatorial Guinea4692.76.35.95.95.9
      Eritrea3,8152.04.44.76.25.4
      Estonia1,376− 1.317.520.31.81.2
      Ethiopia64,4582.84.54.76.96.8
      Fiji8221.24.95.83.43.0
      Finland5,1770.318.620.21.81.6
      France59,4520.419.320.51.71.8
      Gabon1,2612.79.18.65.15.4
      Gambia1,3373.34.85.25.84.9
      Georgia5,238− 0.415.318.92.01.4
      Germany82,0060.320.523.71.41.3
      Ghana19,7332.44.65.15.54.3
      Greece10,6230.420.423.71.41.3
      Grenada940.39.110.04.13.5
      Guatemala11,6862.75.15.35.54.6
      Guinea8,2732.74.44.56.56.0
      Guinea-Bissau1,2262.45.95.66.06.0
      Guyana7620.46.76.92.62.4
      Haiti8,2691.65.75.65.14.1
      Honduras6,5742.74.55.15.13.9
      Hungary9,916− 0.419.119.91.81.3
      Iceland2810.914.615.12.21.9
      India1,025,0951.86.97.73.83.1
      Indonesia214,8391.56.37.83.22.4
      Iran, Islamic Republic of71,3681.84.75.34.82.9
      Iraq23,5832.94.54.65.84.9
      Ireland3,8400.915.215.32.12.0
      Israel6,1712.912.513.13.02.8
      Italy57,5020.121.524.31.31.2
      Jamaica2,5980.910.09.62.82.4
      Japana127,3340.318.023.81.51.4
      Jordan5,0503.94.64.65.74.4
      Kazakhstan16,094− 0.49.711.22.62.0
      Kenya31,2922.54.14.25.84.3
      Kiribati841.46.06.94.44.6
      Kuwait1,970− 0.62.14.83.42.7
      Kyrgyzstan4,9861.28.38.93.62.5
      Lao People's Democratic Republic5,4022.56.05.66.05.0
      Latvia2,405− 1.017.921.11.81.1
      Lebanon3,5552.58.28.53.12.2
      Lesotho2,0571.86.06.65.14.5
      Liberia3,1074.05.24.46.86.8
      Libyan Arab Jamahiriya5,4072.14.35.64.63.5
      Lithuania3,688− 0.116.418.81.91.3
      Luxembourg4411.419.019.41.61.7
      Madagascar16,4362.94.84.76.25.8
      Malawi11,5711.84.34.77.36.5
      Malaysia22,6322.25.86.73.73.0
      Maldives2993.05.35.26.35.5
      Mali11,6762.65.35.87.07.0
      Malta3910.814.817.22.01.8
      Marshall Islands521.46.06.95.55.7
      Mauritania2,7463.04.94.76.16.0
      Mauritius1,1700.98.39.12.31.9
      Mexico100,3671.75.97.13.32.6
      Micronesia, Federated States of1262.66.06.94.85.1
      Monaco34− 2.918.420.51.81.8
      Mongolia2,5581.25.95.63.82.4
      Morocco30,4301.96.06.44.13.1
      Mozambique18,6442.95.15.16.46.0
      Myanmara48,3631.66.76.83.93.0
      Namibia1,7872.35.55.65.95.0
      Nauru132.66.06.94.44.5
      Nepal23,5922.45.85.95.14.6
      Netherlandsa15,9290.617.418.41.61.5
      New Zealand3,8071.115.315.72.12.0
      Nicaragua5,2072.94.44.64.94.0
      Niger11,2263.53.53.38.08.0
      Nigeria116,9282.84.74.86.55.6
      Niue2− 1.45.86.93.22.6
      Norway4,4870.520.819.61.91.7
      Oman2,6213.53.84.36.95.6
      Pakistan144,9712.65.65.85.95.2
      Palau202.36.06.92.62.8
      Panama2,8981.77.38.23.02.5
      Papua New Guinea4,9192.54.24.25.14.4
      Paraguay5,6352.65.35.44.73.9
      Peru26,0921.76.27.33.62.7
      Philippines77,1302.14.95.64.33.4
      Poland38,5760.115.116.62.01.3
      Portugal10,0320.119.321.01.51.5
      Qatar5742.12.13.34.33.4
      Republic of Korea47,0680.87.911.31.71.5
      Republic of Moldova4,284− 0.212.913.62.31.5
      Romania22,387− 0.316.018.91.71.3
      Russian Federation144,663− 0.316.218.51.71.2
      Rwanda7,9482.14.14.26.85.9
      Saint Kitts and Nevis38− 0.89.110.02.82.4
      Saint Lucia1491.28.67.63.22.6
      Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1140.79.110.02.21.9
      Samoa158− 0.16.16.74.74.3
      San Marino271.421.524.31.51.3
      Sao Tome and Principe1401.86.86.36.26.0
      Saudi Arabia21,0272.94.14.96.85.7
      Senegal9,6612.54.64.26.25.2
      Seychelles811.48.39.12.11.8
      Sierra Leone4,5871.15.04.76.56.5
      Singapore4,1072.98.610.81.71.5
      Slovakia5,4020.214.915.52.01.3
      Slovenia1,9840.317.319.51.51.2
      Solomon Islands4623.54.44.15.95.4
      Somalia9,1562.44.23.97.37.3
      South Africa43,7911.75.15.83.42.9
      Spain39,9200.119.622.01.31.1
      Sri Lanka19,1031.08.19.52.52.1
      Sudan31,8092.35.05.55.44.6
      Suriname4180.46.88.12.62.1
      Swaziland9371.84.95.45.54.5
      Sweden8,8320.222.622.72.01.4
      Switzerland7,1690.419.221.71.51.4
      Syrian Arab Republica16,6092.74.54.75.33.8
      Tajikistan6,1351.36.36.84.73.1
      Thailand63,5831.46.48.32.22.0
      The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia2,0430.611.814.61.91.6
      Togo4,6562.84.84.96.35.5
      Tonga990.35.86.94.73.8
      Trinidad and Tobago1,2990.68.89.72.31.6
      Tunisia9,5611.47.08.43.42.2
      Turkey67,6321.77.38.53.32.4
      Turkmenistan4,8342.56.26.44.23.3
      Tuvalu101.45.86.93.62.9
      Uganda24,0223.04.13.87.17.1
      Ukraine49,111− 0.618.620.71.71.1
      United Arab Emirates2,6532.42.75.54.03.0
      United Kingdoma59,5410.320.820.71.81.6
      United Republic of Tanzania35,9642.93.84.06.05.2
      United States of Americaa285,9251.116.616.22.02.0
      Uruguay3,3600.716.517.22.52.3
      Uzbekistan25,2561.96.57.13.82.5
      Vanuatu2012.85.24.84.94.4
      Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of24,6312.15.86.73.42.8
      Viet Nam79,1741.67.37.53.52.3
      Yemen19,1134.64.13.67.67.6
      Yugoslavia10,5370.315.618.42.01.6
      Zambia10,6482.54.44.56.35.8
      Zimbabwe12,8512.04.64.75.74.7
      a. Figures not endorsed by member state as official statistics.
      SOURCE: World Health Organization, The World Health Report 2002.
      Child Care Arrangements of Preschool Children, By Age, Race/Ethnicity, And Type of Child Care Arrangement, 1999
      Percent in nonparental arrangements
      CharacteristicsRelative careNonrelative careCenter-based programPercent with parental care only
      Total22.816.159.723.1
      Age
      3 years old24.416.245.730.8
      4 years old2215.969.617.7
      5 years old20.216.176.513.5
      Race/ethnicity
      White, non-Hispanic18.819.46023.2
      Black, non-Hispanic33.47.473.213.7
      Hispanic26.512.744.233.4
      Other30.210.466.116.6
      SOURCE: Department of Education.

      Death Rates for Leading Causes of Death for All Ages: United States, 1950–2002

      U.S. Department of Education.

      Enrollment in Grades K8 And 9–12 Of Elementary and Secondary Schools (In Thousands)
      YearTotalPublicPrivate
      K121K819–12K121K819–12K121K819–12
      198845,43032,53712,89340,18828,50111,6875,2424,0361,206
      198945,74133,18712,55440,54329,15211,3905,1984,0351,163
      199046,45133,96212,48841,21729,87811,3385,2344,0841,150
      199147,32234,61912,70342,04730,50611,5415,2754,1131,162
      199248,14535,26412,88242,82331,08811,7355,3224,1751,147
      199348,81235,71913,09343,46531,50411,9615,3484,2151,132
      199449,61036,23313,37644,11131,89812,2135,4984,3351,163
      199550,50336,80613,69744,84032,34112,5005,6624,4651,197
      199651,37537,31614,06045,61132,76412,8475,7644,5511,213
      199751,96837,69614,27246,12733,07313,0545,8414,6231,218
      199852,47538,04814,42746,53933,34613,1935,9374,7021,235
      199952,87638,25314,62346,85733,48813,3696,0184,7651,254
      200053,38538,58414,80147,22333,70913,5146,1624,8751,287
      200153,89038,83215,05847,68833,95213,7366,2024,8801,322
      Projected
      200254,15838,82715,33147,91833,94213,9766,2414,8851,356
      200354,29638,71915,57748,04033,84314,1986,2564,8761,379
      200454,45538,54115,91448,17533,66914,5066,2794,8711,408
      200554,61538,41216,20348,30433,53414,7706,3114,8781,433
      200654,90738,52216,38548,52433,58914,9366,3834,9331,449
      200755,04938,60516,44548,64033,65414,9866,4094,9501,458
      200855,12438,76616,35848,69033,79114,8996,4344,9751,459
      200955,22338,99516,22848,76133,99414,7676,4615,0011,461
      201055,38639,28316,10348,89034,24314,6486,4955,0401,455
      201155,61839,68815,93049,08434,59714,4876,5345,0911,443
      201255,94640,15415,79249,36735,00614,3616,5795,1481,430
      201356,36440,63815,72649,73735,43014,3076,6275,2081,419
      SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education.
      1. Includes most nursery school enrollment.
      General Statistics of Public Libraries, By Population, 2000
      Number of public library service outlets17,1825,7494,2051,7902,1401,1082,190
      Central libraries8,9155,4232,5824992817357
      Branch libraries7,3832551,3261,1131,6939642,032
      Bookmobiles8847129717816671101
      Collections, in thousands
      Books and serial volumes760,51399,639185,48091,633112,46175,126196,173
      Audio and video materials and films54,0215,45613,0206,6628,2415,18415,458
      Serial subscriptions1,944276487209254193523
      Paid staff, in full-time equivalents
      Librarians43,1186,01611,3175,1566,0184,19510,416
      Librarians with ALA-MLS29,5191,2216,9043,7614,8583,4419,334
      Other staff86,9845,47920,40411,77015,7879,49224,053
      Income, in thousands
      Total operating income$7,702,768$499,840$1,744,932$967,817$1,246,162$858,994$2,385,022
      Source of operating income (percent)
      Federal0.71.50.60.60.70.60.9
      State12.87.812.315.211.613.013.3
      Local77.169.377.476.080.279.075.9
      Other and private9.421.49.88.27.57.410.0
      SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education.

      Health Insurance Coverage by Age Group in United States

      Centers for Disease Control.

      High School Graduates 1987–1988 To 2012–2013 (In Thousands)
      Year endingTotalPublicPrivate
      19882,7732,500273
      19892,7442,459285
      19902,5892,320269
      19912,4932,235258
      19922,4782,226252
      19932,4812,233247
      19942,4642,221243
      19952,5192,274246
      19962,5182,273245
      19972,6122,358254
      19982,7042,439265
      19992,7592,486273
      20002,8332,554279
      20012,8522,569283
      Projected
      20022,9172,630287
      20032,9862,685301
      20043,0022,698305
      20053,0372,728308
      20063,1012,785316
      20073,1722,850322
      20083,2622,931331
      20093,2742,942332
      20103,2622,930331
      20113,2372,906331
      20123,2022,870331
      20133,1762,843333
      SOURCE: National Center for Educational Statistics.
      Life Expectancy in All Member States of World Health Organization In 2001
      CountryTotalMales at birthMales at age 60Females at birthFemales at age 60
      Japan73.671.417.175.820.7
      Switzerland72.871.116.974.419.4
      San Marino72.270.416.374.019.1
      Sweden71.870.516.573.218.5
      Australia71.670.116.473.218.8
      Monaco71.369.016.373.519.4
      France71.369.016.173.519.1
      Iceland71.270.516.871.917.6
      Italy71.069.215.572.918.2
      Austria71.068.915.773.018.5
      Andorra70.968.815.873.018.5
      Spain70.968.715.273.018.2
      Norway70.869.315.672.217.9
      Luxembourg70.668.615.172.718.3
      Greece70.469.015.771.917.1
      New Zealand70.369.115.971.517.7
      Germany70.268.315.072.217.7
      Finland70.167.715.272.518.1
      Denmark70.169.315.570.816.7
      Netherlands69.968.715.071.117.3
      Canada69.968.215.371.617.9
      Belgium69.767.714.871.817.8
      United Kingdom69.668.415.070.916.9
      Israel69.468.015.870.816.9
      Malta69.267.614.370.916.5
      Ireland69.067.613.970.416.1
      Singapore68.767.914.569.515.8
      Slovenia67.765.113.370.316.6
      United States of America67.666.414.968.816.6
      Republic of Korea67.464.512.970.316.6
      Portugal66.864.313.469.416.2
      Czech Republic66.663.812.869.516.0
      Cuba66.664.714.468.516.6
      Cyprus66.265.313.267.214.5
      Chile66.164.413.367.815.5
      Kuwait64.964.112.265.813.0
      Costa Rica64.862.612.967.015.3
      Uruguay64.761.212.368.316.8
      Poland64.362.111.966.614.6
      Barbados64.361.012.367.616.4
      Slovakia64.161.611.566.614.6
      Panama64.161.213.666.916.4
      Mexico63.862.614.565.014.9
      Croatia63.359.710.166.914.4
      China63.262.012.764.314.2
      Argentina63.160.611.965.715.1
      Bulgaria63.060.811.565.213.9
      Jamaica62.861.111.864.513.9
      United Arab Emirates62.561.710.663.312.3
      Bosnia and Herzegovina62.560.011.364.914.3
      The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia62.260.411.463.913.0
      Yugoslavia62.160.711.063.612.8
      Dominica62.159.413.064.815.0
      Brunei Darussalam62.060.410.563.712.8
      Estonia62.058.011.166.115.0
      Bahrain61.862.310.561.39.4
      Hungary61.858.010.465.514.4
      Tunisia61.358.910.863.713.4
      Qatar61.259.29.463.112.7
      Lithuania61.156.911.065.414.8
      Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of61.157.111.665.015.0
      Romania60.958.611.163.313.5
      Saint Kitts and Nevis60.858.811.162.813.5
      Saint Lucia60.658.911.062.413.5
      Cook Islands60.558.310.262.612.7
      Trinidad and Tobago60.458.911.562.012.8
      Oman60.459.010.461.712.3
      Malaysia60.457.69.263.212.0
      Latvia60.055.210.064.914.4
      Saudi Arabia60.057.410.062.513.0
      Saint Vincent and the Grenadines59.857.511.362.214.0
      Georgia59.857.510.362.212.1
      Turkey59.858.511.261.112.4
      Antigua and Barbuda59.756.910.362.613.4
      Libyan Arab Jamahiriya59.656.89.862.412.9
      Ecuador59.556.611.662.414.2
      Lebanon59.456.510.062.212.9
      Syrian Arab Republic59.258.010.060.511.5
      Seychelles59.155.48.662.913.1
      Niue59.156.410.061.913.0
      Belize58.956.310.461.512.9
      Sri Lanka58.955.28.862.612.7
      Fiji58.856.810.060.812.3
      Tonga58.857.110.060.411.9
      Colombia58.755.310.762.112.9
      Albania58.755.98.861.512.7
      Paraguay58.755.49.661.912.9
      Viet Nam58.655.99.961.412.5
      Bahamas58.654.711.162.514.7
      Thailand58.656.412.060.812.6
      Jordan58.557.29.959.911.5
      Belarus58.453.99.562.813.0
      Armenia58.355.49.261.112.2
      Algeria57.855.810.359.912.2
      Nicaragua57.854.410.761.313.7
      Samoa57.756.09.359.511.6
      Palau57.755.59.259.911.7
      Grenada57.556.010.159.012.1
      Republic of Moldova57.554.29.360.811.7
      Suriname57.554.29.460.712.6
      El Salvador57.453.711.261.213.5
      Peru57.454.710.760.113.2
      Ukraine57.452.98.861.812.2
      Mauritius57.156.49.457.711.2
      Iran, Islamic Republic of56.755.59.857.911.4
      Indonesia56.756.110.657.211.1
      Russian Federation56.751.58.561.912.7
      Egypt56.756.49.457.09.2
      Brazil56.752.29.461.113.0
      Cape Verde56.552.29.260.812.3
      Dominican Republic56.453.09.759.813.1
      Honduras55.952.19.359.612.6
      Micronesia, Federated States of55.854.09.357.511.2
      Democratic People's Republic of Korea55.853.510.758.113.2
      Philippines55.551.18.059.811.9
      Morocco55.454.99.255.910.0
      Vanuatu54.953.48.956.310.8
      Solomon Islands54.852.68.756.911.0
      Guatemala54.351.410.457.211.6
      Guyana54.151.69.456.712.1
      Mongolia53.949.99.758.012.7
      Tuvalu53.952.08.855.711.0
      Uzbekistan53.550.98.256.110.8
      Kiribati53.251.18.755.410.8
      Azerbaijan52.850.38.555.411.0
      Nauru52.748.86.856.610.4
      Marshall Islands52.650.47.954.710.3
      Kazakhstan52.449.08.755.810.8
      Bangladesh52.151.79.452.610.9
      Maldives51.949.65.754.37.5
      Kyrgyzstan51.547.76.955.410.4
      Bhutan51.450.09.252.911.1
      India51.451.59.751.310.2
      Sao Tome and Principe51.448.18.254.710.8
      Pakistan50.950.49.351.510.8
      Bolivia50.848.08.453.611.0
      Iraq50.547.78.153.311.0
      Turkmenistan50.346.76.853.89.7
      Tajikistan50.147.08.453.211.8
      Comoros49.947.07.652.810.2
      Gabon49.948.29.151.511.0
      Papua New Guinea49.847.98.251.810.4
      Myanmar48.946.59.051.411.0
      Nepal48.948.78.949.110.5
      Yemen48.445.57.051.210.4
      Gambia48.045.17.851.010.3
      Ghana47.845.88.449.710.6
      Cambodia46.443.07.649.910.5
      Sudan45.542.97.448.19.9
      Senegal45.443.17.447.79.8
      Madagascar44.542.27.446.79.8
      Lao People's Democratic Republic44.242.47.546.09.8
      Eritrea44.142.38.045.910.3
      Equatorial Guinea43.841.77.745.910.0
      Congo43.040.97.745.210.6
      Haiti42.938.58.447.311.2
      Togo42.740.67.644.910.2
      Guinea42.440.07.344.79.6
      Benin42.140.17.144.19.5
      Nigeria41.940.07.043.89.5
      Mauritania41.639.66.943.69.4
      South Africa41.340.08.942.711.4
      Kenya40.839.58.142.110.7
      Namibia40.439.88.741.110.9
      Cameroon40.438.87.342.09.9
      Djibouti40.137.96.942.39.6
      Ethiopia38.836.97.040.79.4
      Chad38.735.96.341.59.3
      Guinea-Bissau38.336.16.940.69.4
      Uganda38.036.26.939.89.4
      Côte d'Ivoire37.836.37.339.39.7
      United Republic of Tanzania37.836.36.839.39.5
      Liberia37.535.36.639.69.1
      Mozambique36.034.46.937.79.5
      Mali35.733.76.537.79.2
      Burkina Faso35.133.97.036.39.4
      Somalia35.032.56.337.48.8
      Democratic Republic of the Congo34.832.36.337.39.2
      Central African Republic34.032.36.035.69.2
      Swaziland33.933.89.034.111.0
      Rwanda33.831.76.736.09.6
      Burundi33.731.76.835.79.6
      Afghanistan33.431.14.935.78.7
      Lesotho33.433.28.433.610.6
      Niger33.231.76.134.78.6
      Botswana32.933.09.132.712.2
      Zimbabwe31.331.68.631.010.7
      Zambia30.930.57.531.410.0
      Malawi29.829.07.230.79.5
      Angola28.725.75.831.79.2
      Sierra Leone26.524.05.529.08.5
      SOURCE: World Health Organization.

      Mortality Causes Under 5 Years Old in 2002

      World Health Organization.

      Number of People Age 60 and Older

      World Health Organization.

      Number of School Associated Violent Deaths, 1992–2000
      Ages 5–19Ages 5–19
      YearHomicides at schoolHomicides away from schoolSuicides at schoolSuicides away from school
      1992–1993343,58362,199
      1993–1994293,80672,263
      1994–1995283,54672,220
      1995–1996323,30362,113
      1996–1997282,95012,108
      1997–1998342,72862,055
      1998–1999332,36641,855
      1999–2000162,12461,922
      Total23424,4064316,735
      SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics.

      Percent of Early Prenatal Care by Race: United States, 1980–2002

      National Center for Education Statistics.

      Percent of Families With Income Below the Poverty Level

      U.S. Census Bureau.

      Percent Overweight and Obesity by Age: United States, 1960–2002

      Centers for Disease Control.

      Percentage of Children Ages 3–5 Not Yet Enrolled in Kindergarten Who Participated in Home Literacy Activities With A Family Member Three Or More Times Per Week
      Read toTold a storyTaught letters, words, or numbersTaught songs or music
      Child and family characteristics19932001199320011993200119932001
      Total78.384.14354.357.774.24154.1
      Age
      3 Years79.483.646.454.557.271.24559.9
      4 Years77.885.241.254.658.177.138.951.7
      5 Years75.981.535.85257.974.633.140.6
      Race/Ethnicity
      Asian/Pacific Islander68.887.452.158.161.877.935.950.4
      Black65.976.73951.262.777.548.953.9
      White84.889.444.357.957.274.840.253.4
      Other175.986.548.161.85678.431.357.9
      Hispanic58.270.737.742.353.968.238.756.6
      Poverty Status
      Below poverty threshold (poor)67.573.739.150.759.672.445.257
      At or above poverty threshold (nonpoor)82.187.144.355.35774.739.553.3
      SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, NCES, School Readiness and Early Childhood Education Program Participation Surveys of the National Household Education Surveys Program.
      1. Other includes American Indian and Alaska Native.

      Selected Chronic Health Conditions Causing Limitation of Activity Among Working-Age Adults by Age: United States, 2000–2002

      U.S. Department of Education.

      Use of Illicit Drugs in the Past Month by Age, 2003

      U.S. Department of Education.

      Years of Life Lost in Thousands By Risk Factor and Sex, 2000 (Global)
      MalesFemales
      Childhood and maternal undernutrition
      Underweight64,11962,766
      Iron deficiency11,89113,967
      Vitamin A deficiency11,27614,727
      Zinc deficiency13,45913,167
      Other diet-related risks and physical inactivity
      Blood pressure30,20625,342
      Cholesterol19,37315,600
      Overweight11,27611,868
      Low fruit and vegetable intake13,46310,014
      Physical inactivity8,5627,278
      Sexual and reproductive health risks
      Unsafe sex36,91840,052
      Lack of contraception4,206
      Addictive substances
      Tobacco37,9137,708
      Alcohol28,0354,662
      Illicit drugs3,841978
      Environmental risks
      Unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene24,91724,315
      Urban air pollution3,5332,871
      Indoor smoke from solid fuels17,34117,805
      Lead exposure1,888914
      Climate change2,4152,530
      Occupational risks
      Risk factors for injury6,674433
      Carcinogens1,105271
      Airborne particulates1,344143
      Ergonomic stressors41
      Noise00
      Other selected risks to health
      Unsafe health care injections5,5043,675
      Childhood sexual abuse784908
      SOURCE: World Health Organization.

      Appendix 2: Master Bibliography

      Appendix 2: Master bibliography
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