The Encyclopedia of Housing


Edited by: Andrew T. Carswell

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    • Editorial Board


      Andrew T. Carswell, University of Georgia

      Editorial Assistant

      Diane Kesler, University of Georgia

      Advisory Board

      Carolyn T. Adams, Temple University

      Rachel G. Bratt, Tufts University

      Elliot Eisenberg, National Association of Home Builders

      Karen A. Franck, New Jersey Institute of Technology

      Edward G. Goetz, University of Minnesota

      Chester Hartman, Poverty & Race Research Action Council, Washington, D.C.

      Marakand Hastak, Purdue University

      Dan Immergluck, Georgia Institute of Technology

      Dennis Keating, Cleveland State University

      Daniel Mandelker, Washington University St. Louis School of Law

      Peter Marcuse, Columbia University

      William Michelson, University of Toronto

      Jon Pynoos, University of Southern California


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      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      About the Editor

      Andrew T. Carswell is an associate professor in the Department of Housing and Consumer Economics at the University of Georgia, Athens. He received his doctorate in urban affairs and public policy from the University of Delaware. He has written extensively about consumer issues related to housing, such as mortgage fraud and housing counseling.

      Dr. Carswell has also written several articles in refereed journals and industry magazines on the operations of residential property managers within apartment buildings. Before entering academia, he worked for several years within the housing industry, most notably at the National Association of Home Builders, Freddie Mac, and Fannie Mae.


      • Stuart M. Adams
      • Louisiana State University
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      • College of Charleston
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      • Relman, Dane & Colfax, PLLC
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      • Christophe André
      • Organisation for Economic, Co-operation and, Development
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      • International Monetary Fund
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      • University of Quebec at Montreal
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      • University of Texas Austin
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      • University of Sydney
      • Nicholas Bloom
      • New York Institute of Technology
      • Joe Bolinger
      • Indiana University
      • Rachel G. Bratt
      • Tufts University
      • Matthew Bressette
      • University of Southern California
      • Mary E. Brooks
      • Center for Community Change
      • Warren A. Brown
      • University of Georgia
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      • Portland State University
      • Naomi Carmon
      • Technion Israel Institute of Technology
      • Andrew T. Carswell
      • University of Georgia
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      • Christine Cook
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      • Julian Diaz III
      • Georgia State University
      • David Dowall
      • University of California, Berkeley
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      • Steven J. Eagle
      • George Mason University
      • Carla Earhart
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      • Elliot Eisenberg
      • National Association of Home Builders
      • Marja Elsinga
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      • Reid Ewing
      • University of Utah
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      • Price Fishback
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      • Siemens Building Technologies, Inc.
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      • Alex Schwartz
      • The New School
      • Amanda Seward
      • Independent Scholar
      • Randy Shaw
      • Tenderloin Housing Clinic
      • Anne B. Shlay
      • Temple University
      • Mark Shroder
      • U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
      • Hilary Silver
      • Brown University
      • Kim Skobba
      • University of Georgia
      • Jim Smith
      • University of Georgia
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      • Iván Tosics
      • Metropolitan Research Institute, Hungary
      • Michael Trinkley
      • Chicora Foundation, Inc.
      • David A. Turcotte
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      • Pamela R. Turner
      • University of Georgia
      • Pamela C. Twiss
      • California University of Pennsylvania
      • Suzanne Vallance
      • Lincoln University
      • Willem van Vliet–
      • University of Colorado
      • David A. Vandenbroucke
      • U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
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      • Thomas Joseph Vicino
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      • Clarion Associates
      • Kathleen L. Wolf
      • University of Washington
      • Ping Xu
      • University of Colorado
      • Becky L. Yust
      • University of Minnesota
      • Ann Ziebarth
      • University of Minnesota


      Welcome to the second edition of The Encyclopedia of Housing. Back in 1996, the good folks at SAGE Publications had an outlandish notion to produce an encyclopedia devoted to the rather broad subject matter of housing. The resulting volume would become widely recognized as a highly useful resource for students and professionals in a number of housing-related fields. Much has changed since the publication of that initial volume—both at SAGE and within the housing world. Whereas the original Encyclopedia of Housing was one of only a handful of subject-based encyclopedias offered by SAGE, since then the publisher has launched a Reference Division that has already produced more than 200 subject-based encyclopedias and handbooks in fields of study as diverse as criminology, economics, and sports medicine. In the meantime, both gradual changes and dramatic upheavals within the housing industry have provided the impetus for a comprehensive update of that first edition.

      The Changing Housing Environment since the 1990s

      When I started working at Freddie Mac out of college in the late 1980s, the housing industry was fairly predictable. Over the course of the past 15 years, that predictability has disappeared. Before the start of the 21st century, the housing market was expected to increase year over year. It was considered extremely safe as an investment; housing was expected to lead the general economy out of any recession; and home-ownership was expected to be the ultimate achievement for many households. One's living environment grew in terms of square footage every few years; suburbia was expected to expand continuously throughout the United States and its vast, undeveloped land; and the secondary mortgage market giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were expected to become even more important players in the housing finance system. In the span of the last two decades, this paradigm has been upended. We have witnessed the worst housing downturn in American history, rivaling even that of the Great Depression. Foreclosures, once considered remote and isolated events, now consistently dot the landscape. The country's exit from general recessionary conditions was not foreshadowed by expansionary conditions within the housing industry, defying conventional wisdom. While homeownership has always been a primary goal for many American households, the excesses of the housing market have caused many to reconsider the benefits of homeownership and realize that rental housing provides several benefits of its own. The average square footage of an American home rose from less than 1,000 square feet in 1950 to well over 2,000 square feet only 50 years later in a nearly unbroken trend line upward. For reasons related to both the housing recession and the burgeoning sustainable development movement, many households have chosen to “downsize” their living area expectations. Along those same lines, several communities have embraced new urbanist type living, promoting the concept of sustainable design intended to not only eliminate sprawl-type pressures to communities and their public service provision but also bring people back to the cities. As of this writing, the prospect of Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's ultimate survival was not very promising either.

      Given the recent change and upheaval within the housing market, the housing industry today is perhaps more relevant than ever. The housing crisis has sparked some of the most intense public policy pressure on finding solutions to a myriad of problems, not the least of which includes the future of mortgage finance, what to do with a glut of foreclosed properties, and the proper way of intervening in homeless-ness situations. Meanwhile, various legal cases have provided touchstone moments that have polarized the nation, such as the famous Kelo v. New London Supreme Court case of 2005, the reverberations of which are still being felt even today, nearly 7 years later across all 50 states. In light of these and many other examples too numerous to mention in such a limited space, many of the original authors whose work appeared in the first edition were asked to provide substantial updates to the entries they contributed back in 1996. It is evident from the passion with which these authors have written that these various niche issues resonate more loudly today than perhaps ever before.

      The Multidisciplinary Nature of Housing

      One of the enduring aspects about housing as a field of study is that it is an agglomeration of subject matter that borrows from a number of academic disciplines. The entries in this encyclopedia are written by academics in such diverse scholarly fields as anthropology and urban planning. As a result, its audience includes those from a broad array of academic disciplines as well. Many of the authors listed in the Contributors section come from urban planning programs, a natural fit for a compendium of housing research such as this one. Even the most avid enthusiasts of the iconic SimCity computer program would agree that the various entries on the topics of zoning and infrastructure serve as excellent examples of how counties and municipalities need to prepare for growth. Landscape architecture is a specialized field of study that enhances housing developments throughout the country. Dan Nadenicek's excellent piece on landscape architecture encapsulates both the importance of the academic field itself and its relevance to the broader issue of housing. The building science programs are also well represented within this edition. For example, Ted Koebel's instructive entry, “Innovation in Housing,” helps to illustrate just how important such academic programs are in serving as a bridge to such vital industries within the housing trade as the home building industry. As a former employee of one of the largest housing trade groups, the National Association of Home Builders, I can assure readers that such work by building science researchers makes a huge difference in the residential quality and standard of living that we enjoy as a society. There is also a presence felt from legal scholars in several entries that follow. My friend and colleague Jim Smith has somehow paradoxically combined both his abundant energy and dwindling available time to produce a trio of entries that make us realize that the housing industry in general is still an industry that is subject to an entangling web of legal constraints and that has a number of legal ramifications as well. (On that note, I invite you to read Steven Eagle's exemplary entry on the topic of eminent domain.) For those who specialize in finance and economics, as I did as an undergraduate, there is of course an abundance of material within these pages to satisfy your interests. Dan Immergluck's timely entry on mortgage finance is admirably thorough and yet manages to deliver its wealth of information within a prescribed 3,000-word limit. The various entries on housing demand, housing supply, and the building cycle provide good fundamental information on how the massive and somewhat unpredictable housing economy operates. The encyclopedia also benefits from the expertise of several academics representing the fine real estate programs found today throughout the country. Family and consumer science programs (and their close relatives in human ecology) have long been advocates for the importance of housing in the daily lives of households and families. Having said that, I hope that you will enjoy the entry on housing adjustment theory, the most prominent housing theory within these types of programs. The social work profession is also invariably intertwined with the provision of housing services. Ellen Bassuk's and Jeffrey Olivet's entry on homelessness focuses on an issue of ever-increasing importance, especially during the harsh economic environment of the post– housing boom era. Their mention of the Housing First approach helps bring a fresh perspective to the discussion, one that is both thought provoking and controversial. Sociologists also have a great stake in the discussion of housing in general, and there is no shortage of sociology-related articles within this volume. Discrimination in the housing professions has been studied extensively for the better part of four decades now, and there is probably no more qualified person in the country to write about the issue than George Galster. Closely related to sociology is the field of criminology. Crime within public housing has been extensively researched, and the entry on crime prevention has been reprised to reemphasize the importance of the issue.

      New entries have been added to this edition to add new perspectives on the connections between housing and crime (see “Castle Doctrine,” “Gated Community,” and “Mortgage Fraud”). Historians also will find value in many of the entries. Among the many examples of entries steeped in social history, Price Fishback's updated piece on company housing deserves some mention for its conciseness and its sharp focus on a little understood aspect of the labor movement of the turn of the last century. The domain of gerontology is also well represented, largely due to the prominence of Editorial Board member Jon Pynoos and his connections within the field of housing for the elderly. The encyclopedia has benefited greatly from that expertise, and the gerontological entries are arguably the biggest change from the previous edition. Finally, a significant amount of space has been devoted to environmental issues surrounding the housing decision, among them the inclusion of an entry devoted to the subject of indoor air quality. Since the mid-1990s, this issue has become one of immense importance to housing researchers, and it reminds us that while housing serves a fundamental human need for shelter from outside elements that can harm us, dwellings can harbor insidious microbes dangerous to human health, upsetting the notion that we are safe and sound within our own home.

      Structure of the Encyclopedia

      The second edition of The Encyclopedia of Housing shares many similarities with its immediate predecessor, but it does vary in some respects. The Reader's Guide, now a standard feature of SAGE encyclopedias, groups all entries within the body of the encyclopedia according to different nodes, broad subject areas that were deemed primary focus points. Certain entries can be found under more than one node; that is, the subject areas are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Along with the many entries that have been substantially updated from the first edition, there are a number of others entirely new to this edition, testifying not only to the emergence of new developments in the field but also to the continuing growth of housing research across a variety of disciplines. The encyclopedia concludes with appendices devoted to (a) the prominent housing organizations that the reader can access for further information on housing-related research (complete with website information), (b) various industry and academic journals and periodicals devoted to housing-related matters, and (c) an updated historical list of federal legislation pertinent to the housing industry and housing consumers.


      A few special notes of recognition are in order. Given the daily pressures that exist for academics, I am extremely grateful for the efforts that resulted in so many outstanding contributions to this encyclopedia. I am especially thankful to those authors who graciously took on multiple assignments, many of whom remarked that an updated project of this nature was long overdue and a service to the field of housing research itself. I could never have foreseen the chorus of “thank-yous” that came from a group who had been subjected to my periodic appeals and harangues on meeting their required deadlines. Now that the project has reached its completion, I would like to return the thanks to them. I have thoroughly enjoyed reading the fruits of their labors. As readers will discover for themselves, entry after entry offers eloquent proof that genuine expertise arises from a passionate involvement with one's subject matter.

      The encyclopedia project was undoubtedly helped along considerably through the efforts of two organizations, the Urban Affairs Association and the Housing Education and Research Association. Both groups sent out a call for authors through their various member listservs, which produced dozens of inquiries about participating in the project. Some members even proposed excellent ideas for entries I had not originally planned to include. Their proactive requests undoubtedly enhanced the quality of the final product. In the process, it has reinforced my belief that the housing field is filled with vibrant and committed researchers. I would also like to thank the numerous people who “volunteered” for reviewer duties. I know that such work is not normally appreciated nearly as much as it should be, but I can assure you that these reviewers’ efforts did not go unnoticed. Diane Kesler served as an admirable editorial assistant, skillfully completing tasks too numerous to mention here; nonetheless, her attention to countless details in the early phases of development helped streamline the process and bring the overall project to completion on time. Her effort was even more appreciated by me, since it occurred during her supposed downtime at home. The Encyclopedia of Housing Editorial Board (listed in an earlier section) was also a good sounding board for several ideas that helped shape the material included within these pages. Because so many of the board members had participated in developing the previous edition, I was the beneficiary of both their collective wisdom from the previous experience and their generosity in fielding so many inquiries from me over the past 18 months related to this project.

      The team at SAGE Reference Publications also deserves major kudos. For a first-time editor of an undertaking this large, I could not have had a more helpful team to assist me in navigating the way to publication. Sanford Robinson, the project's senior developmental editor, was at turns gracious, encouraging, prodding, and instructive, all the while maintaining a humility that must make him a favorite for all of the managing editors with whom he works. Laura Notton managed to keep her calm demeanor about her as I asked nearly a hundred questions (some repetitive) regarding SAGE's online administrative management and tracking service. If there were ever a medal given out to people who serve wayward editors with questionable technological savvy, I am quite certain that Laura would have won that award by now.

      A special note of thanks should go to Willem van Vliet–, the editor of the first edition and the official consulting editor for this edition of The Encyclopedia of Housing. I have probably stated a few dozen times that this process was many times easier than that which Willem undertook in 1996, the year in which Willem began work on the first edition. Because so many of the original authors decided to update their original entries, the infrastructure was put in place to make this transition to a second edition as seamless as possible. Also, the technological platform that now supports SAGE Reference was put in place only at the start of the 2000s, and thus, Willem operated from a 20th-century system in which the authors mailed in their entries, a process that undoubtedly added considerably more time to the creation of the first edition. Willem was also an invaluable informant and guide, breaking me in on what it took to become an editor of a reference publication. For all of these things and probably others that I am temporarily forgetting, I thank him for his help. As a tribute to Willem's eloquence as a writer, I have included his introduction from the earlier edition immediately following.

      Finally, I would like to thank you, the reader. By virtue of either purchasing this volume outright or simply accessing it from the library in which you work or study, you have validated what everyone who has contributed to this encyclopedia knows already. That is the simple message that “housing matters.” Whether the housing market is robust or floundering, there are still a number of issues that endure no matter what the circumstances. Whether you call it a “home” or a “house,” a “neighborhood” or a “community,” the interpersonal nature that families share with their living environments and the experiences that they gain from residing there make the housing decision and housing experience more than simply a purchase of a “bricks and mortar” structure. Just as these building materials help to create a strong edifice, I hope that this encyclopedia will serve as a cornerstone of your own knowledge of a subject matter of great importance.

      Andrew T. “Andy”Carswell

      Introduction to the First Edition (1998) by Willem van Vliet–

      Every day is a journey, And the journey itself is home.

      Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694)
      Functions and Conceptualizations of Housing

      Housing addresses basic human needs. At its most elemental level, it acts as shelter, offering protection against excessive cold and heat, rain, high winds, and other intemperate weather situations threatening people's well-being. By the same token, dampness, lead paint, vermin, overcrowding, and other substandard conditions undermine residents’ physical and mental health. Housing also protects people against the risk of victimization by street crime.

      Housing fulfills other important functions as well. At the household level, it provides a physical enclosure for domestic behavior—a place of relative privacy for daily activities, where people can cook, eat, socialize, and rest, away from the public realm and a place where, in many cultures, they are born and die. It is also a setting, removed from external scrutiny, where child beating and spousal abuse often go undetected. At the same time, through its location, housing forms the basis for activities in the community and larger outside world, such as interactions with neighbors, work, school, and shopping.

      For most residents, however, housing is more than just a structure of “bricks-and-mortar.” Usually, it is a place that people want to make into a home, a place to which they tend to hold emotional attachments resulting from its association with accumulated life experience. Psychologically and socially significant aspects of housing are also evident in people's desire to personalize the interior and exterior space. People attempt to express their individual or group identity through housing. Research has found, for example, that the design of housing may reflect the occupational values of the residents, with self-made businessmen choosing somewhat ostentatious display homes and service professionals opting for more inward-looking designs. Furthermore, from an economic perspective, housing represents the largest financial investment most households will make during their lifetimes. Housing cost burdens for those with low incomes often leave insufficient resources for other necessities, such as food, clothing, medical care, and transportation.

      In a wider community context, the design and location of housing can denote a household's affiliation with a particular cultural or religious group, serving to reinforce the social bonds among its members or making possible the carrying out of certain ritual activities. On the other hand, these same housing characteristics also reflect segregation from other population groups and can reinforce unequal access to day care, education, jobs, and life chances generally. In this sense, housing is inextricably connected to questions of redistributive justice and, thereby, to political and economic processes in the wider community and society at large.

      It is not only to its occupants that housing is important. Aside from the users, there are the producers: land developers, builders, lenders, Realtors, investors, architects, planners, construction unions, contractors, and many specialized professionals and trades. Each of these groups has it own particular interests. In market societies, these interests revolve around financial gain because, in them, housing is treated foremost as a commodity, to be produced and traded for profit. In these systems, access to housing is a function of ability to pay. This perspective contrasts with a view of housing as a right, similar to entitlements to elementary education and basic health care. After years of back-and-forth negotiation among opponents and proponents, at the second U.S. Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), held in Istanbul in June 1996, governments officially affirmed a commitment to the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing. However, in practice, this remains an elusive goal.

      At the policy level, governments use housing to attain various other objectives. Chief among them are economic ones. Internationally, housing investments constitute between 2% and 8% of GNP, between 10% and 30% of gross capital formation, between 20% and 50% of accumulated wealth, and between 10% and 40% of household expenditures. Residential construction has numerous forward linkages (e.g., furniture, household appliances) and backward linkages (e.g., building components). Using this multiplier effect, governments often stimulate new construction to boost employment. Alternatively, when inflation is high, governments may seek to slow building by, for example, restricting credit supply. Housing can also be used as a tool to attain population-related objectives. Countries such as Singapore and Israel have attempted to achieve integration of their populations by means of housing whereas others, such as Great Britain and the Netherlands, have used housing as part of population redistribution efforts. In an earlier era, the Republic of South Africa exploited housing as an instrument to implement apartheid.

      Just as housing can be used to advance other policy goals, so also can nonhousing policies have significant effects on housing. A case in point was the U.S. transportation policy during the 1950s, when the interstate highway construction program played a key role in promoting low-density suburban sprawl. Other nonhousing policies affecting housing in major ways are those concerned with public finance, trade, employment, and social welfare.

      Turner (1976) distinguished between housing as a noun and housing as a verb. According to this distinction, housing can be viewed as a product, ranging from individual artifacts (i.e., a house) to a collection of units (e.g., an apartment building, the national housing stock). Another conceptualization sees housing as a process: the provision and maintenance of housing by means of informal activities (e.g., self-help) and formal programs, embedded in public policies. The latter perspective is less oriented to what housing is (e.g., in terms of its physical standard) and more to what it does (e.g., provides scrutiny and access). Although these two are very different conceptualizations, both make it possible to link different levels of analysis and practice. Studies and programs concerned with homelessness, for example, can (and should) go beyond a narrow focus on the personal characteristics of those who are homeless to include also consideration of the broader contexts with which these individual experiences are intwined, such as local housing and labor markets, national economic and social policies, and the global mobility of investment capital. Because it implicates different levels of action, housing can provide important insights into the workings of society. Thus, there exist studies of how, where, and how much money enters into and leaves the housing system on behalf of households, large corporations, and government entities. There are also many studies of housing interest group politics vis-à-vis local and national government and of how public policies are the outcome of a shifting balance of power among contending forces.

      The Multidisciplinarity of the Field

      Considering the many functions and different conceptualizations of housing, it is not surprising that, as a field of research, housing draws on many disciplines, including political science, sociology, economics, geography anthropology, and psychology. Housing practitioners likewise have diverse origins: planning, architecture, law, social work, the policy sciences, and public administration, among others. As a result, much of the work in housing has been scattered rather than cumulative. For example, those concerned with legal aspects of housing and those involved with its financial aspects tend to publish in different journals, and they generally go to different conferences. Planners similarly have their own arena of activities, often more directed to physical aspects of housing yet quite distant from architects, who are more specifically oriented to issues of design.

      Organizational structure (e.g., separate professional associations) and communication impediments (e.g., jargon) further reinforce these disciplinary and professional boundaries.

      This rather amorphous situation is unfortunate because most housing issues do not divide up neatly according to these contrived boundaries. Combining insights from one area with those from others produces a broader-based and more effective approach to housing problems. There is a growing recognition that the resolution of practical housing issues increasingly demands approaches based on several disciplines and professions. There is a rising demand for individuals whose thinking is informed by expertise from multiple domains.

      The Encyclopedia of Housing responds to this greater interest in integration. Its coverage is multi-disciplinary. Its authors represent more than a dozen disciplines and work in widely different settings: a range of academic departments, a variety of public agencies at the federal and local level, nonprofit organizations, and several private firms. This broad spectrum results from a deliberate decision to cast a wide net to capture the diversity and scope of the housing field. By consequence, readers will find entries written by contributors favoring demand-side economics as well as others by proponents of a supply-side perspective. The list of authors includes longtime champions of a progressive housing agenda as well as leading advocates of a more conservative political paradigm. The field does not speak in unison. My purpose was to reflect this diversity and to bring together the many different voices in a balanced mix. In doing so, I have tried not to impose my personal viewpoints, which are available in more appropriate places elsewhere (e.g., van Vliet– 1992, 1997). An alternative approach would have been to remain within a narrowly defined, single disciplinary or political framework. This would have meant more in-depth treatment but of fewer subjects. It would have been a different project. It also would have prevented the work from bringing into focus the many and important connections between the different disciplines in the field.

      Other Reference Works

      A number of other reference works related to housing are available. To begin with, there are several quite voluminous dictionaries of housing-related terms. For example, Sayegh's (1987) effort lists over 28,000 entries. Not all of these terms have a direct bearing on housing (e.g., self-esteem, spinster, and schizophrenia, among others, seem only marginally relevant), but the comprehensive scope ensures that users with a question about any aspect of housing will find a listing. For instance, in case one seeks a definition of door, window, roof, or driveway, Sayegh provides an answer. However, considering the exhaustive listing, by necessity these answers tend to be brief, generally limited to one or two lines. Rostron (1997) has compiled a similar dictionary of housing.

      Several other works also feature brevity but with a stronger concern for aspects of application. Examples are Dumouchel's (1985) The Commissioner's Dictionary of Housing and Community Development Terminology and Moskowitz and Lindbloom's (1993) New Illustrated Book of Development Definitions. A much more specialized effort along these lines is The Automated Builder by Carlson (1995), which concerns itself strictly with industrialized housing. However, the choice of some terms is a bit curious (e.g., potable water: safe drinking water; PR: public relations; PC: personal computer), whereas many others have a rather technical orientation, describing certain construction-related activities, defining certain tools or building components, at times with reference to their commercial manufacturer.

      A number of discipline-based reference works also exist. Morrow's (1987) A Dictionary of Landscape Architecture contains an extensive list of brief definitions, although few of them are directly relevant to housing. On the business side, there are several reference works on real estate investment, development, and management (e.g., Blankenship, 1989; Tosh, 1990). Packard and Korab (1995) offer a lavishly illustrated Encyclopedia of American Architecture whose eclectic selection of 234 entries includes diverse topics such as adhesives, computer, fountain, housing, L. Mies van der Rohe, I. M. Pei, seismic design, and wood frame structure. A somewhat dated work by Heyer (1978) focuses exclusively on individual architects, as does Placzek's (1982) four-volume encyclopedia. Emanuel's (1994) Contemporary Architects is a similar resource of more recent vintage. Detailed information and visual documentation of cultural, geographic, environmental, and climatic aspects of traditional architecture in some 80 countries around the world can be found in Oliver's (1997) recent three-volume opus. Whittick (1974) provides a not quite current but still interesting international survey of urban planning, including some aspect of housing. Finally, there also exist several practice-oriented publications, for example, The Subdivision and Site Plan Handbook, by Listokin and Walker (1989) and Time-Saver Standards for Housing and Residential Development, by De Chiara, Panero, and Zelnik (1995). Additional publications in this genre include Harris (1988) and Colley (1993).

      All these reference works differ in various ways from the present volume. To begin with, this Encyclopedia is strictly orientated to housing, albeit broadly viewed. Its focus and scope are defined in substantive terms from a multidisciplinary perspective. This approach contrasts with one that would adopt a narrower, sectoral perspective delineated by a particular discipline or profession. Furthermore, in this volume, treatment of subjects goes well beyond providing merely a definition or brief description, whether the topic be Abandonment or Zoning. For example, to the latter subject, Morrow (1987) devotes two brief paragraphs, Dumouchel (1985) gives it one short paragraph, and it gets three lines from Moskowitz and Lindbloom (1993) and one sentence from Carlson (1995). This Encyclopedia provides more detailed coverage: In addition to a full essay on Zoning, it also includes related entries on, for example, Exclusionary Zoning, Inclusionary Zoning, and Subdivision Controls. Although the aforementioned sources are useful for purposes of quick reference, they serve a different function from this volume, which, aside from offering initial definitions, provides expanded treatment.

      About this Volume

      This book, then, is intended to address a gap in the literature. It offers a brief description of each topic, further elaboration of selected aspects, and critical assessment. Virtually all entries are also accompanied by a brief bibliography, listing classic works, recent authoritative studies, or other key publications. These references serve less as source documentation for the entries than as suggestions for readers who want to study a subject in greater depth. Inevitably, they are selections from much larger compilations. In some cases, opinions may differ over what should be included. However, the intent in each instance was to provide a reasonable representation of the relevant literature on any given topic. The entries also include brief descriptions of housing organizations and periodical publications.

      The length of entries varies. Short entries typically furnish concise reviews of relevant research findings, whereas longer, more detailed entries usually include historical background, a review of legislative context, or an analysis of policy trends. Key topics get more coverage than more peripheral ones. A strategy of “triangulation” ensured that major topics are discussed under more than one title. In most of those instances, one of these titles has been chosen as a “nodal” entry (see below), and related aspects are discussed in additional entries, identified by cross-references. For example, the first entry, Abandonment, presents a compact and informative discussion of the topic, and cross-references identify related aspects, such as Blight, Code Enforcement, Redlining and Urban Redevelopment, which are discussed in other entries.

      With respect to housing-related organizations and publications, coverage was sometimes restricted by the availability of information. We considered eliminating those cases or imposing the same word limit on all these entries. However, accommodating a certain unevenness in length appeared to be preferable over truncating and impoverishing a substantial number of entries in favor of uniformity. Furthermore, all these entries include address information letting readers know where to obtain further details.

      The cross-references are an important feature of this Encyclopedia. Often, a number of entries form a cluster of interrelated topics. Cross-references at the end of entries help identify these clusters and facilitate an understanding of the connections between different subjects. Their organization follows a nodal pattern; that is, in each case, one entry will serve as a central point with a relatively extensive list of cross-references to related “satellite” entries. Each of these satellites will have fewer cross-references, one of which always leads back to the nodal entry and via it to other, related satellites. The entries on Affordability, Discrimination, and the Elderly are examples of such nodal entries. A full list is provided in Appendix A. For the sake of convenience, nodal cross-references are printed in boldface roman type to set them apart from the other cross-references.

      The Encyclopedia has four appendices. The first comprises the nodal entries. The second lists the housing organizations included as entries. The third does the same for housing publications. These lists provide convenient overviews. The fourth appendix is a chronology of major U.S. housing legislation. Most of these acts and their major components are also covered in separate entries.

      There are three indices at the end of this volume. The first index lists the authors of this encyclopedia and enables readers to find the contribution(s) each has written. The second index comprises the names of the authors whose works are cited in the brief bibliographies that conclude most entries under the brief heading “Further Readings.” The third index includes terms appearing in the text of the entries. Whenever a term in this index refers to a topic to which an entire entry is devoted, the pagination inclusive of coverage is printed in boldface; additional mention of that topic, incidental to other entries, is included as well.

      The Audience

      Scientific reference works have a reputation for being as dull as dishwater. Some unwritten law appears to proscribe plain language. Although the use of jargon can be a parsimonious way of communicating within a particular discipline or profession, it hinders effective cross-boundary communication. In line with the intent to foster multidisciplinary integration, most contributors to the Encyclopedia purposely tried to make their writing accessible to others outside their specialization. Hence, this is a reference work meant to serve several user groups, including students, teachers, researchers, housing professionals, and government officials. A prepublication version proved to be a useful teaching tool; students found the succinct coverage informative and indicated that the system of cross-references helped them to develop a more coherent grasp of multifaceted issues.

      A number of entries were written by housing practitioners, and people in the field have reacted positively to parts of the manuscript while it was in progress. Nevertheless, this Encyclopedia is not primarily oriented to immediate application in practice. It is not a “how-to-do-it” manual. Thus, readers will find few specific guidelines for planning and design, no hands-on architectural programs, and no specification of the detailed steps borrowers go through when seeking a mortgage loan. However, the entries do assist in the conceptualization of housing problems and outline methods for studying and resolving them. For example, the entry of Discrimination identifies domains of housing where discrimination occurs, the forms it takes, the reasons behind it, and its effects. Related, cross-referenced entries go into greater depth on how to detect housing discrimination, the extent to which it occurs, and how to prevent it. Other entries provide information on organizations actively working to counter discriminatory practices.

      Similarly, in addition to the entry on Affordability, related entries address questions of how afford-ability can be measured, the advantages and disadvantages of alternative measurement methods, the characteristics of a variety of subsidy approaches, and the activities of organizations whose mission it is to promote affordability. Here, again, the cross-references are a useful tool.

      Limitations of Scope

      An acknowledgment of humbleness: Its title notwithstanding, this volume cannot be truly encyclopedic in the sense of being completely comprehensive. It is extensive in its coverage. However, it is not exhaustive. Although it includes many important housing topics in several disciplines, the choice for multidisciplinarity has also meant that no single discipline could be fully covered. Some readers may find that a favorite topic is not included or not discussed as fully as they would like. Limits on the project necessitated a selection of topics and required authors to put strict boundaries on write-ups of subjects meriting book-length discussion. However, throughout, an attempt was made to arrive at decisions that would produce results representative of pertinent research and practice.

      It is important to be aware that this volume is not a compilation of empirical research. The entries were not written to report detailed findings of specific studies. Instead, they offer more broad-ranging coverage that summarizes and synthesizes the current state of knowledge. Furthermore, although every effort was made to include the latest information, the lag between collection and availability of data inevitably results in the description of circumstances at least several years in the past. However, many housing issues have historical continuity and fundamental characteristics that endure. The entries are meant to provide understanding and insights not radically changed by tomorrow's developments. For those interested in housing statistics, Simmons (1997) has provided a convenient organization in a single source, containing some 200 tables with detailed data on housing demand, housing starts, housing investment, household trends, ownership rates, and other aspects of the U.S. housing stock and market dynamics.

      Having described what this Encyclopedia includes, it is appropriate as well to be clear about what it does not include. Space restrictions and the wish to avoid duplication produced a decision not to include biographical entries. Instead, many persons who have been prominent in housing in the United States are mentioned in the context of the situations in which they made their presence felt. Readers interested in more extensive coverage of particular individuals are referred to various who's who publications and existing biographies (e.g., Macfadyen, 1970; Davis, 1973; Richards, 1977; Placzek, 1982; Novak, 1988; Doumato, 1989; Tafel, 1993; Tominaga, 1993; Emanuel, 1994).

      Nor does this Encyclopedia provide a comprehensive history of housing. Its orientation is more to the present. Selected historical topics have been included, however, when they offer a useful background for contemporary issues. For example, the essay on the housing of slaves, while of interest in itself, informs about antecedents to the subsequent housing situation of African Americans, discussed in a separate essay. Likewise, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 is covered as an important precursor to the Civil Rights Act of 1968. In other cases, essays include a historical dimension insofar as it sets the context for a better understanding of a current topic. Examples are the entries on Lending Institutions, Cooperative Housing, Federal Government, and Housing Codes. Readers interested in more in-depth treatment of historical aspects of housing are referred to specialized works for specific countries (e.g., Bullock & Read, 1985; Daunton, 1990; Doan, 1997; Gauldie, 1974; Mason, 1982; Wright, 1983) or cities (Bowly, 1978; Fairbanks, 1988; Plunz, 1990; Shapiro, 1985).

      Full treatment of past and current housing legislation would constitute an encyclopedia in its own right. This volume contains a chronological listing of major housing legislation in the United States (Appendix D) as well as selective coverage of individual acts. Many sections give brief descriptions that state, for example, a law's intent and its eligibility requirements. A number of housing acts, generally viewed as having been more important, get more extensive discussion. Sometimes this occurs under a legislative heading for all or part of a given act (for example, Section 8, Community Development Block Grant). Other times, cross-references point to more extensive, separate discussion on major elements of a certain act or topics related to it. Examples are Wagner-Steagall Housing Act (Public Housing), Housing Act of 1949 (Urban Redevelopment), Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 (Section 235, Section 236), the Civil Rights Act of 1968-Title VIII (Discrimination), and the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (Homelessness). Readers will find detailed coverage of U.S. housing legislation in U.S. House of Representatives (1991) and Milgram (1994). More general treatment of the legal aspects of housing is provided by, for example, Burnet (1996) and in periodical publications such as Housing Law Bulletin, Housing Affairs Letter, and Housing and Development Reporter. A comprehensive, ongoing information service on housing law and practice in Britain is the multiple-volume set edited by Arden, Hunter, and Pramall (1972), supplemented by regular loose-leaf additions.

      Finally, the primary frame of reference for this Encyclopedia is North America—in particular, the United States. Housing legislation and institutions, for example, are discussed predominantly within this context.

      Lack of space would not permit equal coverage of other countries. To be sure, there are a number of international entries, but they do not focus on any single country in particular. Instead, they concern themselves with a broad geographical region or a topic that is more generally relevant, irrespective of national boundaries. They were included because housing in the United States can be better understood when placed in a wider spectrum of perspectives (van Vliet–, 1990). Public housing, privatization, self-help, and community-based initiatives, to name but a few, all have origins or parallels elsewhere. Therefore, readers will find entries on housing in Canada, Western and Eastern Europe, the Third World, cross-national housing analysis, the Global Strategy for Shelter, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, and the World Bank, among others. These international entries help set out a framework for evolutionary policy making, which enables U.S. housing policies and practices to be informed by the experiences from other countries. In a generic sense, many housing issues transcend the peculiarities of the U.S. housing system. Therefore, I hope that also the reading public elsewhere will find the Encyclopedia's treatment of these issues to be of interest.

      Willemvan Vliet–
      Arden, A., Hunter, C., & Pramall, S. A. (Eds.). (1972). Encyclopedia of housing law and practice (5 Vols., updates). London, UK: Sweet & Maxwell.
      Blankenship, F. J. (1989). The Prentice Hall real estate investor's encyclopedia. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Bowly, D. (1978). The poorhouse: Subsidized housing in Chicago, 1895–1976. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
      Bullock, N., & Read, J. (1985). The movement for housing reform in Germany and France, 1840–1914. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
      Burnet, D. (1996). Introduction to housing law. Holmes Beach, FL: Gaunt.
      Carlson, D. O. (Ed.). (1995). Automated builder: Dictionary/encyclopedia of industrialized housing. Carpenteria, CA: CMN Associates.
      Colley, B. (1993). Practical manual of land development (
      2nd ed.
      ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Daunton, M. J. (Ed.). (1990). Housing the workers, 1850–1915: A comparative perspective. London, UK: Leicester University Press.
      Davis, A. F. (1973). American heroine: The life and legend of Jane Addams. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
      De Chiara, J., Panero, J., & Zelnik, M. (Eds.). (1995). Time-saver standards for housing and residential development (
      2nd ed.
      ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Doan, M. C. (1997). American housing production, 1880–2000: A concise history. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
      Doumato, L. (1989). Catherine Bauer, 1905–1964: A bibliography. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies.
      DumouchelR. (1985). The commissioner's dictionary of housing and community development terminology. Washington, DC: National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials.
      Emanuel, M. (1994). Contemporary architects (
      3rd ed.
      ). New York, NY: St. James Press.
      Fairbanks, R. B. (1988). Making better citizens: Housing reform and the community development strategy in Cincinnati, 1890–1960. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
      Gauldie, E. (1974). Cruel habitations: A history of working-class housing 1780–1918. London, UK: Allen & Unwin.
      Harris, C. M. (1988). Time-saver standards for landscape architecture. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Heyer, P. (1978). Architects on architecture. New York, NY: Walker.
      Listokin, D., & Walker, C. (1989). The subdivision and site plan handbook. New Brunswick: Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Center for Urban Policy Research.
      Macfadyen, D. (1970). Sir Ebenezer Howard and the town planning movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
      Mason, J. B. (1982). History of housing in the U.S., 1930–1980. Houston, TX: Gulf.
      Milgram, G. (1994). A chronology of housing legislation and selected executive actions, 1892–1992 (Congressional Research Service Report). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
      Morrow, B. H. (1987). A dictionary of landscape architecture. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
      Moskowitz, H. S., & Lindbloom, C. G. (1993). New illustrated book of development definitions. New Brunswick: Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Center of Urban Policy Research.
      Novak, F. G. (1988). The autobiographical writings of Lewis Mumford. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
      Oliver, P. (Ed.). (1997). The encyclopedia of vernacular architecture of the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
      Packard, R., & Korab, B. (1995). Encyclopedia of American architecture (
      2nd ed.
      ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
      Placzek, A. K. (1982). Macmillan encyclopedia of architects. New York, NY: Free Press.
      Plunz, R. (1990). A history in New York City: Dwelling type and social change in the American metropolis. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
      Richards, T. M. (Ed.). (1977). Who's who in architecture: From 1400 to the present day. London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.
      Rostron, J. (1997). Dictionary of housing. Brookfield, MA: Ashgate.
      Sayegh, K. S. (1987). Housing: A multidisciplinary dictionary. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Academy Book.
      Shapiro, A.-L. (1985). Housing the poor of Paris, 1850–1902. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
      Simmons, P. A. (Ed.). (1997). Housing statistics of the United States. Lanham, MD: Bernan.
      Tafel, E. (1993). About Wright: An album of recollections by those who knew Frank Lloyd Wright. New York, NY: Wiley.
      Tominaga, Y. (1993). Essays on residential masterpieces: Le Corbusier 2. Tokyo, Japan: A.
      D. A.Edita. Tosh, D. S. (1990). Handbook of real estate terms. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Turner, J. F. C. (1976). Housing by people: Towards autonomy in building environments. New York, NY: Pantheon.
      U.S. House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development. (1991). Basic laws on housing and community development (Revised through September 30, 1991). Washington, DC: Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs.
      van Vliet–, W. (Ed.). (1990). International handbook of housing policies and practices. Westport, CT: Greenwood/Praeger.
      van Vliet–, W. (1992). A house is not an elephant: Centering the marginal. In E.Arias (Ed.), The meaning and use of housing (Last chapter). London, UK: Gower.
      van Vliet–, W. (1997). Learning from experience: The ingredients and transferability of success. In W.van Vliet– (Ed.), Affordable housing and urban development in the United States (pp. 247–276). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Whittick, A. (Ed.). (1974). Encyclopedia of urban planning. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    • Appendix A: List of Organizations

      American Affordable Housing Institute

      AAHI is an applied policy research center located in the School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Their principal objective is to develop a new knowledge base for action that will enhance the ability of all Americans to live in decent, safe, and affordable housing.

      American Association of Housing Educators (AAHE)

      AAHE was founded to strengthen and promote the interdisciplinary study of housing as a vital part of both consumer education and professional preparation for housing careers in the private and public sectors. Members are encouraged to become active in the various committees through which the majority of the association's work is accomplished.

      The American Institute of Architects (AIA)

      This organization serves to unite the nation's architects, to promote the architectural profession, to advance research in the field, and to coordinate the building design industries.

      American Land Title Association (ALTA)

      A national organization, it was founded to encourage the safe and efficient transfer of property ownership by informing and educating consumers, regulators, legislators, and members.

      American Planning Association (APA)

      A nonprofit public interest and research organization, it was established to advance the art and science of planning and to foster physical, economic, and social planning at the local, regional, and national levels. It resulted from a merger between the American Institute of Planners and the American Society of Planning Officials. Its members share a commitment to the use of sound planning to meet the nation's economic and community development needs, to conserve resources, and to preserve the environment.

      American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association

      This organization publishes a quarterly journal on scholarly research in real estate issues, including housing, to facilitate communication among academic researchers and industry professionals.

      American Seniors Housing Association (ASHA)

      ASHA is a national association of corporations and agencies in the seniors’ housing sector. It is dedicated to promoting policies and legislation favorable to the development and preservation of seniors’ housing; disseminating information on tax and finance laws, building codes, and regulations that affect seniors’ housing; and fostering the exchange of information and ideas in the industry.

      Appraisal Institute (AI)

      AI serves the public by conferring membership designations to properly qualified real estate appraisers and by enforcing a code of standards and ethics on its members. It also represents its members before Congress and government agencies and promotes research in the appraisal field.

      Assisted Living Federation of America (ALFA)

      A national organization of residential care providers, ALFA offers health and daily living assistance to those who cannot or choose not to live alone. It represents its members before legislative bodies and regulatory agencies, monitors legislation that affects the assisted-living industry, and develops research, position papers, and policy statements to advance the industry. The association also sponsors conventions, meetings, and educational programs for its members.

      Building Systems Councils on the National Association of Home Builders (BSC)

      A national organization, BSC is composed of four councils representing distinct segments of the housing manufacturing industry. The councils represent their members on legislative and regulatory issues, promote the architectural and engineering excellence of building systems through conventions and trade expositions, and offer quality control programs, technology seminars, and information services.

      Center for Universal Design

      CUD was founded to develop a variety of affordable housing options and innovative approaches to investigating, designing, financing, and managing models of adaptable housing and applications of universal design in the home environment. The center offers information and referral services and technical design assistance services, which are offered for a fee.

      Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University

      CUPR provides Rutgers University with an interdisciplinary focal point for studies of urban and regional policy. Its mission is to serve the university, the state, and the nation by conducting research, by disseminating research results, and by educating the researchers and practitioners of the future. In addition to publications and research, CUPR teaches graduate courses, trains students in research projects, conducts conferences and seminars, and provides expert advice.

      Centre for Urban and Community Studies

      The center facilitates and supports multidisciplinary studies by housing and administering research projects, publishing papers, and improving communications among researchers and institutions in Canada and elsewhere. Its members are predominantly academic, with strong links to policy and practitioner communities. The center also publishes a newsletter, and organizes seminars and conferences.

      Community Associations Institute

      CAI is a national organization of condominium, cooperative, and homeowner associations; builders; developers; insurance and real estate brokers; and individual homeowners. It is dedicated to developing and distributing the most advanced and effective guidelines for creating, financing, operating, and maintaining community facilities and services. The organization provides information and referral services, tracks legislation concerned with community associations and housing issues, and hosts two national conferences and two law seminars per year.

      Consortium for Housing and Asset Management (CHAM)

      CHAM works to expand the capacity of community-based organizations and others working in the nonprofit housing industry to responsibly own and professionally manage affordable housing. The organization provides asset and property management training for low-income, nonprofit housing providers. Regional branches across the country offer housing management training programs and advise on-site about specific property and asset management issues.

      Cooperative Housing Foundation (CHF) International

      A private nonprofit organization, CHF helps low-income families overseas build better housing and communities. CHF has been working at the grass roots and at the municipal and national government levels in activities aimed at enabling people to live in better, healthier environments. Through approaches such as credit and finance, job creation, institution building, and policy formulation, the CHF enables families to invest their own resources to improve their economic situation and their living conditions. The organization helps to strengthen the capabilities of host governments and communities, donor agencies, small- and medium-size private businesses, and nongovernmental organizations in 80 developing countries.

      Council for Affordable and Rural Housing (CARH)

      CARH seeks to secure adequate funding for affordable housing programs and works to maintain a tax environment conducive to the continued construction of affordable housing.

      Council of Large Public Housing Authorities (CLPHA)

      CLPHA is composed of more than 60 of the largest housing authorities that own and manage more than 40% of the public housing stock in the United States. Its mission is the preservation and improvement of public housing programs addressing physical conditions, management and operations issues, legislation, and funding.

      Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

      An international professional society, the council holds world congresses every 5 years, organizes regional conferences, and acts as an information clearinghouse for its members.

      Enterprise Community Partners

      Its mission is to provide low-income households with opportunities to access fit and affordable housing and to move out of poverty.

      Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA)

      This is the longest established organization dedicated to improving the quality of human environments through research-based design. EDRA seeks to advance the art and science of environmental design research, improve understanding of the interrelationships between people and their built and natural surroundings, and help create environments responsive to human needs.

      European Network for Housing Research (ENHR)

      ENHR is an organization of research institutes and individual scholars in the housing field. The purpose is to direct research attention toward discovering the links between political, economic, and social factors in the international housing market; to develop methods for analyzing and measuring the housing situation; and to foster communication between social scientists working in this field.

      European Real Estate Society (ERES)

      ERES is an international association providing a network between real estate centers and practicing professionals. Primarily focusing on commercial real estate, it seeks to address the needs of the European commercial property industry and academics who deal with the rapidly internationalizing property industry.

      Fannie Mae is a private corporation with a public mission to facilitate homeownership. It provides financial products and services that increase the availability and the affordability of mortgage credit for low-, moderate-, and middle-income households. It provides a secondary market for mortgage loans, and it purchases residential home loans from mortgage-lending institutions.

      The Finance Board was created to supervise the operations of 12 federal home loan (FHL) banks and the Office of Finance. The five-director board oversees the FHL banks’ financial performance and operations and administers the Affordable Housing, Community Investment, and Community Support programs. Member institutions borrow funds from FHL banks at interest rates lower than the commercial market to give them the liquidity to offer loans to home buyers. The FHL bank system was created to provide a credit system to strengthen the housing market weakened by the Great Depression.

      Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA)

      GNMA was created by Congress and is more commonly known as Ginnie Mae. It was formed to achieve three goals: to manage and sell loans previously held by Fannie Mae, to guarantee government-sponsored mortgage pools, and to assist with the development of certain low-income mortgage assistance programs. Ginnie Mae also assists in the packaging, standardizing, and guaranteeing of cash flows from government-sponsored mortgages for investors in the secondary mortgage market. This has been essential in the development of the mortgage-backed securities market.

      Habitat for Humanity International

      This is an ecumenical, Christian organization that seeks to eliminate substandard, poverty housing through the construction of low-cost homes and the rehabilitation of existing ones. These programs are joint ventures that involve residents and community volunteers in the building and renovation process. Former president Jimmy Carter's participation helped provide publicity for these efforts. The organization also coordinates services for the homeless, sponsors educational programs for schools and the general public, and distributes a free bimonthly newsletter that reports projects news and information on affordable housings.

      Habitat International Coalition

      HIC is an independent alliance of more than 350 nongovernmental and community-based organizations working in the field of housing and human settlements in nearly 80 countries. The primary focus of HIC is creating conditions that lead to the implementation of the right to a place to live in peace and dignity.

      Homelessness Resource Center (a Program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Services Administration)

      The center focuses on the needs of homeless persons with serious mental illnesses. It disseminates information about housing and support services to homeless persons with mental illnesses, their families, and service providers.

      Hospice Foundation of America (HFA)

      HFA initially was chartered to provide fundraising assistance to hospices operating in southern Florida. Now it has expanded its scope to the national level. A board of health policy experts guides the foundation's efforts to offer leadership regarding the entire spectrum of end-of-life issues, to serve as a resource on hospice issues and care of the terminally ill for policymakers, and to advocate for sound principles of hospice.

      Housing and Development Law Institute (HDLI)

      HDLI is a nonprofit organization that provides legal and educational services for the public affordable housing sector.

      Housing Assistance Council (HAC)

      HAC is a nonprofit corporation that fosters the development of low-income housing in the rural United States through technical assistance, seed money loans, research projects, housing programs, policy assistance, and training and information service.

      Housing Partnership Network

      This group has served as an advocacy and information-sharing organization for public and private nonprofit housing partnerships across the United States since 1990. It also works to develop programs and policy related to the expansion of affordable housing opportunities and the revitalization of inner-city, suburban, and rural communities.

      Institute of Real Estate Management (IREM)

      IREM provides education and certification for real estate management professionals—managers of residential, commercial, and industrial properties; asset managers and site managers; property supervisors; and management company owners.

      International Association for Housing Science (IAHS)

      IAHS is an international, interdisciplinary nonprofit organization that promotes research on housing science, disseminates research findings to members of the public and private sector housing fields; and sponsors international conferences to develop innovative ideas and methods to solve worldwide housing shortages.

      International Association for People-Environment Studies (IAPS)

      The objectives of the IAPS are to facilitate communication among those concerned with the relationships between people and their physical environment, stimulate research and innovation for improving human well-being and the physical environment, and promote the integration of research, education, policy, and practice.

      International Federation for Housing and Planning (IFHP)

      IFHP's purpose is to provide easy access to internationally available sources of knowledge in housing, urban and regional planning, the environment, and related fields to improve housing and planning practice throughout the world.

      Joint Center for Housing Studies

      This is an interdisciplinary research institute whose purpose is to bring together members of the academic community with housing industry executives and government officials to study trends in design, production, and consumption of housing and to analyze public and private efforts to meet affordable housing needs in the United States. Its research has been instrumental in shaping housing legislation at the local, state, and federal levels and in informing private groups of various aspects of housing policy.

      Leading Age (formerly American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging [AAHSA])

      This is a national organization of over 5,000 nonprofit senior housing facilities, retirement communities, nursing homes, and community agencies servicing the elderly. It serves its members by representing the concerns of nonprofit elder care organizations before Congress and federal agencies.

      Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA)

      A national organization of corporations, MBA is involved in real estate finance and related fields, representing the real estate finance industry before Congress and federal regulators. It also provides members with education and networking services, including correspondence courses, seminars, and conferences.

      National Alliance to End Homelessness

      This alliance is dedicated to the prevention and eradication of homelessness. It was originally founded as the Committee for Food and Shelter and serves as a source of information on homeless issues and low-cost housing and as a network for homeless advocates in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors.

      National American Indian Housing Council (NAIHC)

      NAIHC seeks to increase low-income housing opportunities for more than 500 Indian tribes and Alaska Native villages on reservation and trust lands and provides a national forum for tribal leaders and Native American Indian housing professionals.

      National Apartment Association (NAA)

      NAA is the largest full-service trade association in the United States servicing the specific needs of the multifamily housing industry.

      National Association for Home Care (NAHC)

      NAHC is a national trade association representing the nation's home care providers. It works to ensure availability of humane, cost-effective, high-quality home care services by advocating home care's interest before congress, the administration, and various federal and state regulatory agencies. In addition, it provides educational programming and publications for home care providers.

      National Association of Affordable Housing Lenders (NAAHL)

      NAAHL's mission is to build bridges between capital markets and U.S. neighborhoods. It is dedicated to delivering credit to low- and moderate-income families, first-time home buyers, and affordable rental housing.

      National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials (NAHRO)

      NAHRO provides advocacy for affordable housing and strong, viable communities. It enhances the professionalism and effectiveness of its members through professional development training, conferences, and publications.

      National Association of Housing Cooperatives (NAHC)

      NAHC is a nonprofit federation of housing cooperatives, professionals, organizations, and individuals that promotes the interest of cooperative housing in the United States. It provides a network for those involved in the cooperative housing field, technical assistance on the development and operation of cooperatives, representation on issues of concern before Congress and federal agencies, and consulting and training services.

      National Association of Local Housing Finance Agencies (NALHFA)

      A national, nonprofit organization of public and private sector agencies, ALHFA is responsible for developing and financing affordable housing. It serves both as an advocate before Congress and regulatory agencies on issues affecting affordable housing and as a forum in which members can interact with others in the field.

      National Association of Realtors (NAR)

      NAR represents residential and commercial real estate brokers, sales people, and property managers; appraisers; and counselors before Congress and promotes the right to own, transfer, and use real property. It provides members with educational programs, informational services, and research opportunities designed to enhance their businesses and the reality industry as a whole.

      National Center for Healthy Housing (NCHH)

      NCHH is a nonprofit organization solely dedicated to establishing healthy, green, and safe homes for families across all income levels through research, education, training, and policy efforts.

      National Center for Home Equity Conversion

      This was founded to promote the development of sound home equity conversion opportunities for older homeowners.

      National Center for Housing Management, Inc. (NCHM)

      NCHM is a nonprofit organization created by Executive Order 11668 of the president of the United States to “strengthen and professionalize” public and privately owned federally assisted housing. It also provides training and certification programs, a toll-free hotline service for certified professionals, and technical services for management improvement and audits.

      National Coalition for the Homeless (NCH)

      NCH promotes affordable housing, health care, and benefits for the homeless through policy, advocacy, public education, and grassroots organizing. The board members serve as links between the coalition and homeless advocacy organizations on the state and local levels by providing technical assistance and informational materials.

      This was created by Congress as part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989. The commission was established to identify public housing developments in a severe state of distress, assess the most promising strategies to improve the condition of distressed housing projects, and develop a national action plan to eliminate unfit living conditions in severely distressed developments.

      National Commission on Urban Problems (Douglas Commission)

      The Douglas Commission was appointed by President Lyndon Johnson, and the report was issued in the closing days of the Johnson administration. The report is a blueprint for urban reform, and it examined the federal urban renewal program, overall urban development policy, building and housing codes, development standards, urban government, and urban public finance.

      National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC)

      NCRC battles discrimination through its dedication to increasing fair and equal citizen access to credit and banking services and products. It provides regulatory and legislative updates on community reinvestment issues and networking with legislators, academicians, the press, and community reinvestment leaders.

      National Consortium of Housing Research Centers (NCHRC)

      NCHRC is a consortium of 18 research institutions with interest in housing and community development. Their mission is to operate a national cooperative network of housing-related research centers to serve the residential and light-commercial construction industry, to facilitate the adoption of technological innovations by the industry, and to improve the quality of building science in the United States.

      National Council of State Housing Agencies (NCSHA)

      NCSHA is a nonprofit organization created to assist its members in advancing the interest of lower-income and underserved people through the financing, development, and reservation of affordable housing.

      National Fair Housing Alliance (NFHA)

      NFHA is a nonprofit organization dedicated to achieving fair, nondiscriminatory housing in the United States by educating housing consumers and housing industry officials, promoting the enforcement of fair housing and fair lending laws, and researching the causes and effects of housing discrimination. It also provides technical and program assistance to private and public fair housing agencies and consults for the housing and mortgage lending industry.

      This foundation was founded to preserve the existing stock of affordable housing, create new affordable housing, and link social services to housing needs in poor communities. It also works to develop affordable housing models and to provide technical assistance in property acquisition by other nonprofit organizations.

      National Homebuyers Association (NHHA)

      NHHA provides educational publications to assist prospective home buyers and testifies on Capital Hill on behalf of home buyers and homeowners.

      National Housing and Rehabilitation Association (NH&RA)

      NH&RA is a national membership organization that promotes partnerships among professionals in the affordable multifamily housing field. It represents its membership before Congress and other national forums.

      National Housing Conference (NHC)

      NHC promotes public awareness of the nation's housing needs and advocates national housing policies designed to make decent housing available, affordable, and accessible to all citizens.

      National Housing Institute (NHI)

      NHI was established to provide information on affordable housing and community building to state and local policymakers, nonprofit groups, and practitioners in the low-income housing and community development field.

      National Housing Law Project (NHLP)

      NHLP is a legal advocacy group dedicated to helping poor people gain access to decent, affordable housing. It works to protect and expand the existing affordable housing stock, and it monitors the efficacy of government housing programs. In addition, it combats segregation, works to improve minority communities, and promotes fair operation practices of publicly assisted housing.

      National Housing Trust (NHT)

      NHT is a national nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation of affordable housing. The trust also does technical and project-based consulting work with private, nonprofit, and public agency clients.

      National Institute of Senior Housing (NISH)

      NISH is a constituent unit of the National Council on the Aging. It serves a network of housing providers and advocates promoting quality housing options for older people. It represents the concerns of both residents and providers of housing before state, national, and local decision makers.

      National Leased Housing Association (NLHA)

      NLHA is dedicated to expanding the supply of low-and moderate-income housing and to strengthening the role of the government and providing such housing. It lobbies Congress and government agencies for the development of housing for elderly, handicapped, and low-income people.

      National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC)

      NLIHC is a nonprofit educational organization that conducts research and provides information on the U.S. affordable housing crisis to Congress, the executive branch, the media, and the public. It is the nation's foremost organization in support of low-income housing and helps to foster the development of a growing number of state-based housing coalitions throughout the United States.

      National Low Income Housing Preservation Commission

      This commission is a nonprofit bipartisan group with a fourfold mission: (a) to determine the possible magnitude of loss of low-cost, federally subsidized housing and the causes of the loss, (b) to examine alternative ways to minimize the loss of subsidized housing stock, (c) to recommend ways to offset the negative effect of any losses on low-income households, and (d) to analyze the cost of alternative solutions to the U.S. Treasury.

      National Multi Housing Council (NMHC)

      NMHC is a national association of corporations in the rental housing industry that promotes governmental policies favorable to the preservation of rental housing, campaigns to combat rent control legislation, disseminates information, maintains a comprehensive library and information clearing house, and hosts industry meetings.

      National Rural Housing Coalition

      This coalition was established to lobby Congress for programs and policies to improve low-income housing in rural areas.

      National Shared Housing Resource Center (NSHRC)

      NSHRC was established to support shared-housing programs for the elderly, disabled, homeless, and single parents. The volunteers offer training and technical assistance for governmental and nonprofit shared-housing sponsors and aid them in the planning, financing, and management of their programs.

      Neighborhood Housing Services of America (NHSA)

      NHSA purchases below-market-rate, high-risk loans originated by local Neighborhood Housing Services organizations. It creates a secondary market for home purchase mortgages, home rehabilitation and multifamily loans, and real estate development financing.

      NeighborWorks America

      This organization is the country's preeminent leader in affordable housing and community development. It works to create opportunities for lower income people to live in affordable homes in safe, sustainable neighborhoods that are healthy places for families to grow.

      This partnership is the nation's largest service-providing agency dealing exclusively with the issues surrounding homelessness. Serving New York City, it seeks to motivate various units of government, religious denominations, private industry, charitable foundations, and the general public to formulate programs and provide funding for the housing and care of homeless people.

      Poverty & Race Research Action Council (PRRAC)

      PRRAC is a civil rights policy organization begun by major civil rights, civil liberties, and antipoverty groups in 1989–1990. Its primary mission is to help connect advocates with social scientists working on race and poverty issues and to promote a research-based advocacy strategy on structural inequality issues. Among other things, the organization pursues project-specific work in the areas of housing, education, and health, focusing on the importance of “place.”

      Public Housing Authorities Directors Association

      This association is a national, nonprofit association representing the directors of public housing agencies before Congress and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. It conducts workshops, seminars, and tradeshows and provides members with informational resources.

      Shimberg Center for Housing Studies (SCHS)

      SCHS is a research, information, and referral center for issues related to housing and community development. It serves to facilitate the provision of safe, decent, and affordable housing and community development and to establish Florida as the national and international model for successful affordable housing delivery.

      Urban Homesteading Assistance Board (UHAB)

      UHAB assists local residents throughout New York City to develop and administer their own low-income housing. It is a not-for-profit organization that has trained people living in some 20,000 dwelling units to acquire, finance, repair, and redesign their own apartments and to manage their own housing associations.

      Urban Institute

      This institute is a nonprofit, nonpartisan public policy research organization. The purpose of the institute is to investigate the social and economic problems confronting the United States and to evaluate governmental programs designed to alleviate those problems. The organization is divided into seven independent centers, each with a specific research focus.

      Urban Land Institute (ULI)

      ULI has been widely recognized as the preeminent voice in the United States for encouraging and fostering high standards of land use planning and real estate development.

      Women's Institute for Housing and Economic Development

      This institute's mission is to create housing and economic security for low-income women and their families in Boston. It provides technical assistance to community and women's groups on housing and business development and develops innovative affordable housing.

      Appendix B: List of Periodicals

      Architecture and Behavior/Architecture et Comportement

      English- and French-language journal concerned with interest of architects, planners, and scholars of environmental design.

      Built Environment

      Quarterly journal concerned with research interest of urban, regional, and environmental planners, geographers, and architects.

      Canadian Housing/Habitation Canadienne

      Promotes discussion of affordable housing policies and alternatives, understanding of housing, community renewal, rehabilitation, and property standards affecting the urban environment. It recognizes adequate and affordable housing as a fundamental human right.

      City Limits

      Urban affairs magazine covering community action and government policy as it affects low-income neighborhoods in New York City and elsewhere.


      Offers high-quality original research on housing and community development issues to scholars, government officials, and practitioners. The journal is open to all relevant disciplines, including architecture, consumer research, demography, economics, engineering, ethnography, finance, geography, law, planning, political science, public policy, regional science, sociology, statistics, and urban studies.

      Ekistics: The Problems and Science of Human Settlements

      Bimonthly, English-language publication of the Athens Center of Ekistics. Concerned with interest of architects, urban and regional planners, scholars, and policymakers in related fields. Contains original articles on themes regarding human settlements, including housing, civic design, urban economics, and planning practice and education.

      Environment and Behavior

      Bimonthly journal concerned with research in environmental design. Contains primarily empirical articles that focus on the environment-behavior interface, including housing.

      Environment and Planning A: Urban and Regional Research

      International monthly journal covering issues in urban planning, including housing and topics such as environmental values, long-term urban growth, and locational analyses of industries.

      Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design

      Bimonthly journal concerned with the interest of urban and regional planners, architects, and design theorists. Focuses on mathematical, computer, and systems approaches to cities, regions, buildings, and urban morphologies.

      Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy

      Interdisciplinary and international quarterly journal reporting original research in economics, political science, public administration, geography, urban and regional studies, and related disciplines. Articles focus on housing, planning, and land use; urban, environmental, and regional policy; transportation issues; tax and fiscal policy; and urban economic development.

      Environment and Planning D: Society and Space

      International bimonthly journal focusing on theoretical and empirical research that addresses the relations between society and space.

      Environment and Urbanization

      Biannual publication serving to encourage Third World researchers, teachers, nongovernmental organization (NGO) staff, and professionals to debate on issues and exchange information on their activities and publications. Each issue contains seven to 10 papers on a particular theme.

      Habitat International

      Quarterly journal on research into urban issues in a development context. It addresses aspects of urban policy and implementation, the links between planning, building, and land finance and management.

      Habitat World

      The educational, informational, and outreach publication of Habitat for Humanity International, a nonprofit, ecumenical, Christian organization dedicated to eliminating poverty housing worldwide. Habitat works in partnership with people in need to build simple, decent shelter that is sold at no profit, through no-interest loans.

      Housing Affairs Letter

      Weekly nationwide publication covering the housing markets, legislation, and regulations. Contains current information on housing activity nationwide.

      Housing and Development Reporter

      Weekly, loose-leaf national publication in reference service providing comprehensive coverage of housing and urban development programs and management, community and economic development, and related business, finance, and tax issues.

      Housing and Society

      Triannual journal concerned with the interest of architects, interior designers, researchers, realtors, and educators in the housing field. Articles cover a broad range of topics, including housing, alternatives, design, utilities, interiors, energy, policy, and behavioral aspects of housing.

      Housing Finance

      Tracks the housing market in the United Kingdom. It is published quarterly, in February, May, August, and November, by the Council of Mortgage Lenders. Each issue includes a commentary on housing market trends during the preceding quarter.

      Housing Finance International

      Quarterly journal of the International Union of Housing Finance Institutions. It presents nontechnical articles relating to the housing finance field.

      Housing Finance Review

      A now defunct quarterly journal. It covered all aspects of housing finance, including portfolio management by private financial institutions, and various types of mortgages and mortgage-related instruments. It also reviewed the structure of primary and secondary mortgage markets.

      Housing Policy Debate

      A scholarly journal published quarterly by the Fannie Mae Foundation that provides insightful discussion of an original research on a broad range of housing issues.

      Housing Studies

      Published quarterly and is a referred international journal presenting original research on all aspects of housing studies and housing policy.

      International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

      Quarterly publication covering all aspects of urban and regional development research, including housing. The audience is primarily academic.

      Journal of Affordable Housing and Community Development Law

      Quarterly publication that serves as a clearinghouse of information on programs related to affordable housing and community development law and provides training programs for lawyers and concerned laypersons.

      Journal of American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association

      A quarterly publication on scholarly research in real estate issues. Its purpose is to facilitate communication among academic researchers and industry professionals and to improve decisions related to real estate.

      Journal of Architecture and Planning Research

      Published in cooperation with several international architectural and design organizations, this journal is a major international, interdisciplinary resource for professionals and scholars in architecture, design, and planning.

      Journal of Housing and Community Development

      Bimonthly publication on the needs and concerns of public housing and redevelopment officials. Contents include direct administrative, organizational, and operational reports.

      Journal of Housing Economics

      A quarterly publication focusing on economic research related to housing and targeted toward academics and professionals.

      Journal of Housing for the Elderly

      A quarterly journal focusing on the interests of architects, urban planners, managers, and policymakers specializing in seniors’ housing. It seeks to enhance the residential environment for the elderly through the rapid publication of original, cross disciplinary research in the housing and aging fields.

      Journal of Housing Research

      A scholarly journal published twice a year by the Fannie Mae Foundation. It presents theoretical and empirical research on housing and finance issues.

      Journal of Planning Education and Research

      This quarterly journal is a forum for planning educators and scholars (from both academia and practice) to present results from teaching and research that advance the profession and improve the planning practice.

      Journal of Planning Literature

      A quarterly publication that includes review articles and abstracts of recent literature in city and regional planning and design, while simultaneously offering an understanding of the state of knowledge of the field for use in research or professional practice.

      Journal of Property Management

      A bimonthly journal focused on asset and property management of investment-grade real estate.

      Journal of Real Estate Research

      A quarterly journal that focuses on business decision-making applications of scholarly real estate research. It is especially interested in research that can be useful to business decision makers in areas such as development, finance, investment, management, market analysis, marketing, and valuation.

      Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless

      A quarterly journal that provides an international, interdisciplinary forum for original, peer-reviewed papers on psychosocial distress. Articles explore contemporary and historical issues relating to education, health care, criminal justice, economics, and the family, treating topics such as homelessness, urban violence, and racial tension.

      Journal of Urban Economics

      A bimonthly publication focusing on urban economics. The journal also has brief notes commenting on published work, new information, or new theoretical advances.

      Netherlands Journal of Housing and the Built Environment

      A quarterly, English-language, refereed international journal sponsored by the Netherlands Institute for Physical Planning and Housing (NIROV), the Faculty of Architecture, Urban Planning and Housing (Delft University of Technology), the Netherlands Graduate School for Housing and Urban Research (NETHUR), and OTB Research Institute for Policy Sciences and Technology (Delft University of Technology). It focuses on the interest of research, policymakers, architects, and others in the fields of housing and urban studies.

      Open House International

      Published quarterly in the United Kingdom. It is a refereed journal of an association of institutes and individuals concerned with housing, design, and development in the building environment. This association focuses on exchanges that enable the various professional disciplines dealing with the built environment to understand the dynamics of housing and so contribute more effectively to it. Its more general aim is to improve the quality of the built environment through encouraging a greater sharing of decision making and to help develop the necessary institutional frameworks that will support the local initiatives of people in the housing process.

      Opolis: An International Journal of Suburban and Metropolitan Studies

      This is a semi-annual, peer-reviewed publication that runs 96 pages per issue and is unique in that it is the first academic journal specifically focused on suburban studies. The journal is broad based and multidisciplinary, inviting submissions from fields across the social and natural sciences.

      People and Physical Environment Research (PAPER)

      A periodic journal focusing on human-environment interaction primarily in the Southwest Pacific region. Its primary objective is to facilitate communication between researchers to improve the physical environment.

      Progressive Architecture (P/A)

      A monthly publication serving professional architects and planners. It explores the processes behind architecture, the people, policies, and producers that make it happen, and examines typical problems in architecture. PA evaluates buildings after they have been in use to see what has worked and what has not.

      Real Estate Law Journal

      A quarterly journal focusing on current issues in real estate law.

      Real Estate Review

      A quarterly national publication providing comprehensive coverage of real estate topics and issues. It contains articles on a variety of topics relating to real estate. Each issue also contains a letters to the editor section and special sections on the topics of law and taxation, appraisal, and executive compensation.


      A magazine that contains summaries of important research, analysis of new policies, essential facts and figures, legal updates, and reviews, both in Great Britain and the rest of Europe.

      SAGE Urban Studies Abstracts

      A quarterly publication of cross-indexed abstracts covering the spectrum of urban studies.

      Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research

      A quarterly publication of the Swedish Institute for Housing Research, the Finnish Ministry of Environment, the Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research, and the Danish Building Research Institutes. It focuses on the interests of architects, planners, and policymakers in the housing field.

      Shelterforce Magazine

      The nation's oldest continually published housing and community development publication. It serves as a primary forum for organizers, activists, and advocates in the affordable housing and neighborhood revitalization movements. Its goal is to empower individuals and groups to take control of their communities and effect real change. In 1983, the National Housing Institute (NHI) incorporated as an independent nonprofit research organization and publisher of Shelterforce. The magazine reflects the view that successful community revitalization requires both local, bottom-up community organizing and a national agenda that supports urban redevelopment and grassroots revitalization efforts. It provides activists with clear analysis of important policy issues and concise descriptions of rules and regulations, while providing local, state, and national policymakers with input from the grass roots.

      Tax Credit Advisor

      A nationwide, monthly publication offering news, ideas, and information for federal low-income housing tax credit program participants.

      UNCHS Habitat News

      A former, triannual publication of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) that focused on the interests of housing professionals, officials, and scholars.

      Urban Affairs Review

      Presents the empirical and theoretical research of urban scholars in a variety of disciplines. Published six times a year.

      Urban Age

      Quarterly publication aimed at stimulating debate and interaction on various urban topics in developed and developing countries, including housing. Each issue focuses on a theme.

      Urban Geography

      Semiquarterly journal focusing on the research interests of geographers, urban planners, policymakers, and scholars in related social science fields.

      Urban Studies

      An international journal published 11 times per year by the University of Glasgow. Contributions to the journal are drawn from the field of economics, planning, statistics, sociology, demography, and public administration.

      U.S. Housing Market Conditions

      Quarterly publication containing detailed information on national and regional housing markets in the United States. Each issued includes current and historical data on diverse topics.

      Women and Environments

      An annual international journal presenting feminist perspectives on women's relationships to the built, natural, and social environments.

      Appendix C: Major Federal Legislation and Executive Orders Authorizing HUD Programs

      National Housing Act, 1934 (Public Law [Pub. L.] 73-479)

      Title I: Property Improvements

      Section 2: Manufactured Housing (Loan Insurance) Property Improvement (Loan Insurance)

      Title II:

      Section 203: Homes (One-to-Four Family) (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 203(h): Disaster Housing (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 203(i): Suburban and Outlying Areas or Small Communities (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 203(k): Major Home Improvements (Loan Insurance)

      Section 207: Multifamily Housing (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 213: Cooperative Housing (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 221(d): Homeownership Assistance for Low- and Moderate-Income Families (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 221(h): Major Home Improvements (Loan Insurance)

      Section 222: Homes for Service Members (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 223(a)(7): Refinancing of Existing Insured Multifamily Rental Housing (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 223(e): Housing in Declining Neighborhoods (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 223(f): Purchase or Refinance: Existing Multifamily Rental Housing (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 231: Mortgage Insurance for the Elderly Section 232: Nursing Homes, Intermediate Care Facilities, and Board and Care Homes (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 233: Experimental Housing (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 234: Condominium Housing (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 235: Interest Supplements on Home Mortgages

      Section 236: Interest Supplements on Rental and Cooperative Housing Mortgages

      Section 237: Mortgage Credit Assistance for Homeownership Counseling Assistance for Low- and Moderate-Income Families

      Section 240: Purchase of Fee Simple Title From Lessors (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 241: Supplemental Loans for Multifamily Projects

      Section 242: Nonprofit and Public Hospitals (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 245: Graduated Payment Mortgages

      Section 247: Single Family Mortgage Insurance on Hawaiian Home Lands

      Section 248: Single Family Mortgage Insurance on Indian Reservations

      Section 249: Reinsurance Contracts

      Section 251: Adjustable Rate Single Family Mortgages

      Section 252: Shared Appreciation Mortgages for Single Family Housing

      Section 253: Shared Appreciation Mortgages for Multifamily Housing

      Section 255: Home Equity Conversions Mortgages (Demonstration)

      Title III: Government National Mortgage Association

      Title VIII:

      Section 809: Armed Services Housing for Civilian Employees (Mortgage Insurance)

      Section 810: Armed Services Housing in Impacted Areas (Mortgage Insurance)

      Title X: Land Development (Mortgage Insurance)

      Title XI: Group Practices Facilities (Mortgage Insurance)

      U.S. Housing Act of 1937 (Pub. L. 93-383, which replaced Pub. L. 75-412)

      Housing Act of 1949 (Pub. L. 81-560)

      Title I: Urban Renewal Projects

      Housing Act of 1954 (Pub. L. 83-560)

      Title VII: Section 701: Comprehensive Planning Assistance

      Housing Act of 1959 (Pub. L. 86-372)

      Title II: Section 202: Senior Citizen Housing (Direct Loans)

      Housing Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-560)

      Title III: Section 312: Rehabilitation Loans

      Title VIII: Part 1: Federal-State Training Programs

      Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 (Pub. L. 89-117)

      Title I: Rent Supplements

      Title VII: Community Facilities

      Section 702: Grants for Basic Water and Sewer Facilities

      Section 703: Grants for Neighborhood Facilities

      Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (Pub. L. 9-174)

      Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966 (Pub. L. 89-754)

      Title I: Model Cities

      Title X: Sections 1010 and 1011: Urban Research and Technology

      Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Pub. L. 90-284)

      Title VIII: Fair Housing

      Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 (Pub. L. 90-448)

      Title I: Homeownership for Lower-Income Families

      Title IV: New Communities

      Title VIII: Government National Mortgage Association

      Title XI: Urban Property Protection and Reinsurance

      Title XIV: Interstate Land Sales

      Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969 (Pub. L. 91-152)

      Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-609)

      Title V: Research and Technology

      Title VII: National Urban Policy and New Communities

      Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-383)

      Title I: Community Development Block Grants Title II: Assisted Housing

      Section 8: Lower-Income Rental Assistance

      Title III: Mortgage Credit Assistance

      Section 306: Compensation for Substantial Defects

      Section 307: Coinsurance

      Section 308: Experimental Financing

      Title VI: Mobile Home Construction and Safety Standards

      Title VIII: Miscellaneous

      Section 802: State Housing Finance Agency Coinsurance

      Section 809: National Institute of Building Science (NIBS)

      Section 810: Urban Housing

      Section 811: Counseling and Technical Assistance

      Emergency Home Purchase Assistance Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-449)

      Emergency Housing Act of 1975 (Pub. L. 94-50)

      Title I: Emergency Homeowner's Mortgage Relief

      Housing Authorization Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-375)

      Housing and Community Development Act of 1977

      Title I: Community Development

      Title II: Housing Assistance and Related Programs

      Title III: Federal Housing Administration Mortgage Insurance and Related Programs

      Title IV: Landing Powers of Federal Savings and Loan Associations; Secondary Market Authorities

      Title V: Rural Housing

      Title VI: National Urban Policy

      Title VIII: Community Reinvestment

      Title IX: Miscellaneous Provisions

      Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-557)

      Title I: Community and Neighborhood Development and Conversion

      Title II: Housing Assistance Program

      Title III: Program Amendments and Extensions

      Title IV: Congregate Services

      Title V: Rural Housing

      Title VI: Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation

      Title VII: Neighborhood Self-Help Development

      Title VIII: Livable Cities

      Title IX: Miscellaneous

      Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1979 (Pub. L. 96-153)

      Title I: Community and Neighborhood Development and Conservation

      Title II: Housing Assistance Programs

      Title III: Program Amendments and Extensions

      Title IV: Interstate Land Sales

      Title V: Rural Housing

      Housing and Community Development

      Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-399)

      Title I: Community and Neighborhood Development and Conservation

      Title II: Housing Assistance Programs

      Title III: Program Amendment and Extension

      Title IV: Planning Assistance

      Title V: Rural Housing

      Title VI: Condominium and cooperative Conversion Protection and Abuse Relief

      Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981; Title III of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Pub. L. 97-35).

      Subtitle A: Housing and Community Development

      Part 1: Community and Economic Development

      Part 2: Housing Assistance Program

      Part 3: Program Amendments and Extensions

      Part 5: Rural Housing

      Part 6: Multifamily Mortgage Foreclosure

      Part 7: Effective Date

      Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act of 1983; Titles I through V of the Domestic Housing and Internal Recovery and Financial Stability Act (Pub. L. 98-181)

      Title I: Community and Neighborhood Development and Conservation

      Title II: Housing Assistance Programs

      Title III: Rental Housing Rehabilitation and Production Program

      Title IV: Program Amendments and Extensions

      Title V: Rural Housing

      Housing and Community Development Technical Amendments Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-479)

      Housing and Community Development Act of 1987 (Pub. L. 100-242)

      Title I: Housing Assistance

      Title II: Preservation of Low-Income Housing

      Title III: Rural Housing

      Title IV: Mortgage Insurance and Secondary Mortgage Market Programs

      Title V: Community Development and Miscellaneous Programs

      Title VI: Nehemiah Housing Opportunity Grants

      Title VII: Enterprise Zone Development

      Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (Pub. L. 100-77)

      Title IV: Housing Assistance

      Subtitle A: Comprehensive Homeless Assistance Plan

      Subtitle B: Emergency Shelter Grants

      Subtitle C: Supportive and Housing Demonstration

      Subtitle D: Supplemental Assistance for Facilities to Assist the Homeless

      Section 441: Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation of Single Room Occupancy Units for Homeless Individuals

      Title V: Identification and Use of Surplus Federal Property

      Indian Housing Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-358)

      Title II: Assisted Housing for Indians and Alaska Natives

      Section 201: Lower Income Housing on Indian Reservation

      Section 202: Mutual Help Homeownership Opportunity

      Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-430, which amended Title VIII, Pub. L. 90-284)

      Title VIII: Fair Housing and Fair Housing Enforcement

      Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amendments Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-628)

      Title IV: Amendments to Title IV of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act

      Title X: Housing and Community Development Technical Amendments

      Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-690)

      Title V: User Accountability

      Subtitle C, Chapter 1: Regulatory and Enforcement Provisions

      Subtitle C, Chapter 2: Public Housing Drug Elimination

      Subtitle C, Chapter 3: Drug-Free Public Housing

      Subtitle D: Drug-Free Workplace

      Section 5301, Denial of Federal Benefits to Drug Traffickers and Possessors

      Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989 (Pub. L. 101-235)

      Title I: Reforms to Department of Housing and Urban Development

      Subtitle A: Ethics

      Subtitle B: Management Reform

      Subtitle C: Federal Housing Administration Reform

      Title II: Housing Preservation

      Title III: Housing Program Extensions and Changes

      Title V: National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing

      Title VI: National Commission on Native American, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing

      Title VII: Miscellaneous

      Title VIII: Section 8 Rent Adjustments

      Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (Pub. L. 101-625)

      Title I: General Provisions and Policies Title II: Investment in Affordable Housing

      Subtitle A: HOME Investment Partnerships

      Subtitle B: Community Housing Partnerships

      Subtitle C: Other Support for State and Local Housing Strategies

      Subtitle D: Specified Model Programs

      Subtitle E: Mortgage Credit Enhancements

      Subtitle F: General Provisions

      Title III: Homeownership

      Subtitle A: National Homeownership Trust Demonstration

      Subtitle B: FHA and Secondary Mortgage Market

      Subtitle C: Effective Date

      Title IV: Homeownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere Programs

      Subtitle A: HOPE for Public and Indian Housing Homeownership

      Subtitle B: HOPE for Homeownership of Multifamily Units

      Subtitle C: HOPE for Homeownership of Single Family Homes

      Title V: Housing Assistance

      Subtitle A: Public and Indian Housing

      Subtitle B: Low-Income Rental Assistance

      Subtitle C: General Provisions and Other Assistance Programs

      Title VI: Preservation of Affordable Rental Housing

      Subtitle A: Prepayment of Mortgages Insured Under National Housing Act

      Subtitle B: Other Preservation Provisions

      Title VIII: Housing for Persons With Special Needs

      Subtitle A: Supportive Housing for the Elderly

      Subtitle B: Supportive Housing for Persons With Disabilities

      Subtitle C: Supportive Housing for the Homeless

      Subtitle D: Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS

      Title IX: Community Development and Miscellaneous Programs

      Subtitle A: Community and Neighborhood Development and Preservation

      Subtitle B: Disaster Relief

      Subtitle C: Regulatory Programs

      Subtitle D: Miscellaneous Programs

      Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-550)

      Multifamily Housing Property Disposition Reform Act of 1994 (Pub. L. 103-233)

      Housing Opportunity Program Extension Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-120)

      Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (Pub. L. 91-695)

      Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-112)

      National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-383)

      Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-533)

      Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act (Pub. L. 98-181)

      Americans With Disabilities Act (Pub. L. 101-336)

      Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act (Pub. L. 102-550)

      Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-551)

      Empowerment Zones – Sections 13301–13303 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (Pub. L. 103-66)

      HUD Demonstration Act of 1993 (Pub. L. 103-120)

      Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-330)

      Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (Pub. L. 105-65) Title V

      Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 (also known as the Public Housing Reform Act) (Pub. L. 105-276) Title V

      Preserving Affordable Housing for Senior Citizens and Families Into the 21st Century Act (Pub. L. 106-74) Title V

      Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 (Including New Market Initiatives) (Pub. L. 106-554)

      Omnibus Indian Advancement Act (Pub. L. 106-568)

      American Homeownership and Economic Opportunity Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-569)

      Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-292)

      Downpayment Simplification Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-326)

      American Dream Downpayment Act (Pub. L. 108-186)

      Recovery Rebates and Economic Stimulus for the American People Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-185)

      Housing and Economic Recovery Act (Pub. L. 110-289)

      The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-411)

      American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5)

      Helping Families Save Their Homes Act (Pub. L. 111-22)

      Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Pub. L. 111-203)

      Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-372)

      Frank Melville Supportive Housing Investment Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-374)

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