Encyclopedia of Homelessness

Encyclopedia of Homelessness

Encyclopedias

Edited by: David Levinson

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Abstract

The Encyclopedia of Homelessness is the first systematic effort to organize and summarize what we know about this complex topic which impacts not only the homeless but all of society. The Encyclopedia focuses on the current situation in the United States, with a comparative sampling of homelessness around the world. The Encyclopedia contains entries on Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, France, Guatemala, Japan, Nigeria, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Zimbabwe, Tokyo, Calcutta, London and others from around the world. The Encyclopedia of Homelessness meets the needs of a broad audience, offering a rich history and the data, views, and perspectives of experts from different disciplines and perspectives.

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  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Causes
    • Cities
    • Demography and Characteristics
    • Health Issues
    • History
    • Housing
    • Legal Issues, Advocacy, and Policy
    • Lifestyle Issues
    • Organizations
    • Perceptions of Homelessness
    • Populations
    • Research
    • Service Systems and Settings
    • World Perspectives and Issues
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      General Editor

      David Levinson

      Berkshire Publishing Group

      Editorial Board

      Susan Barrow

      New York State Psychiatric Institute

      Ellen Bassuk

      Harvard Medical School/National Center on Family Homelessness

      Jim Baumohl

      Bryn Mawr College

      Martha Burt

      The Urban Institute

      Robert Drake

      Dartmouth Medical School

      Irene Glasser

      Community Renewal Team, Inc.

      Kim Hopper

      Columbia University/Nathan Kline Institute

      Paul Koegel

      RAND Health

      Kenneth L. Kusmer

      Temple University

      Gretchen Noll

      National Network for Youth

      Debra J. Rog

      Vanderbilt University/Center for Mental Health Policy

      Marybeth Shinn

      New York University

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      This list is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries into fourteen general categories: Causes; Cities; Demography and Characteristics; Health Issues; History; Housing; Legal Issues, Advocacy, and Policy; Lifestyle Issues; Organizations; Perceptions of Homelessness; Populations; Research; Service Systems and Settings; and World Perspectives and Issues. Some entry titles appear in more than one category.

      List of Sidebars

      Alcohol and Drugs

      A “Healing Place” for Recovery 10

      Australia

      Selection from Australia's Working towards a National Homelessness Strategy 22

      Autobiography and Memoir, Contemporary Homeless

      Excerpts from Four Autobiographical Stories of Homelessness 24

      Bowery, The

      Unexpected Attention for the Bowery 33

      Brazil

      A Street Child in Porto Alegre, Brazil 36

      Children, Education of

      The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, Subtitle VII-B 73

      Continuum of Care

      Integrating Group Homes into Neighborhoods 81

      Health Care

      An Excerpt from Down and Out in London and Paris, by George Orwell 195

      Foreign-Trained MDs Give Vital Service to Poor 199

      Homelessness, International Perspectives on

      A Green Statement on Homelessness 243

      Housing and Homelessness in Developing Nations

      Rita: A Case Study 276

      Legal Advocacy

      Privacy Rights versus Homeless Surveillance 337

      Libraries: Issues in Serving the Homeless

      America's Libraries and the Homeless 349

      Literature, Hobo and Tramp

      Catching Your First Train 357

      London

      Applying to Be Registered as Homeless 361

      An Encounter with a Homeless Girl in Central London, circa 1990 362

      Minneapolis and St. Paul

      A Twin Cities Success Story 388

      New York City

      Housing Works: A Unique Service Provider 419

      Older Homeless Persons

      A Dying Neighborhood Turns Around 429

      Paris

      Maigret and the Homeless 443

      Public Opinion

      “You Get Thirty Days!” 471

      A Wary Welcome 472

      Street Newspapers

      Homeless Journalists Hone Their Reporting Skills 537

      The Big Issue of Britain 538

      Survival Strategies

      Finding a New Life in the Circus 552

      Toronto

      A Healthier Homeless Life in Toronto 564

      United Kingdom

      British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher on Entitlements 577

      Washington, D.C.

      Safe Haven for Refugee Families in Washington, D.C. 595

      Women

      Homeless Women Become Self-Advocates 600

      Workhouses

      Selection from The Warden, by Anthony Trollope 610

      Youth, Homeless

      Selections from Oliver Twist: Oliver Twist Escapes to London 618

      List of Historical Documents

      The following documents appear in Appendix 4, Documentary History of Homelessness, in Volume II.

      Document 1 640

      Biblical Passages Relevant to Homelessness

      Document 2 647

      Chaucer, Geoffrey, “The Begging Friar and the Pardoner,” from Canterbury Tales

      Document 3 647

      Luther, Martin, Three Classification Schemes (1500, 1561, 1627)

      Document 4 651

      Harman, Thomas, “A Caveat or Warening for Commen Corsetors, vulgarely called Vagabones”

      Document 5 653

      An Act for the Relief of the Poor, Anno xliii. Reginæ ELIZABETHÆ. CAP. II. (1601)

      Document 6 658

      “The Cunning Northern Beggar”

      Document 7 660

      Chambers, James, “The Poor Poetaster” from The Political Works of James Chambers, Itinerant Poet, With the Life of the Author

      Document 8 662

      The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834—An Act for the Amendment and better Administration of the Laws relating to the Poor in England and Wales

      Document 9 692

      Mayhew, Henry, Labour and the London Poor; A Cyclopædia of the Condition and Earnings of Those That Will Work, Those That Cannot Work, and Those That Will Not Work

      Document 10 696

      Riis, Jacob, How the Other Half Lives

      Document 11 699

      Booth, Charles, Life and Labour of the People in London

      Document 12 711

      Higgs, Mary, Glimpses into the Abyss

      Document 13 716

      Rice, Stuart A., “The Homeless”

      Document 14 723

      Stiff, Dean (Nels Anderson), The Milk And Honey Route

      Document 15 730

      Gibbs, Philip, England Speaks

      Document 16 736

      Benson, Ben, “How to go to California without a Dollar”

      Document 17 738

      Camp La Guardia News

      Document 18 740

      United States Fair Housing Act. Sec. 800. [42 U.S.C. 3601 note]

      Document 19 747

      Summary of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act [U.S. Public Law 100–77, 42 U.S.C. 119]

      Document 20 752

      European Social Charter (1966)

      Document 21 755

      Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements of 1996

      Document 22 757

      Resolutions of the United Nations Housing Rights Programme (April–May 2003)

      Women's equal ownership, access to and control over land and the equal rights to own property and to adequate housing 757

      Adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living 760

      Global campaigns on secure tenure and urban governance 762

      Document 23 763

      U. S. Conference of Mayors, Resolution No. 22, Endorsing Ten-Year Planning Process to End Chronic Homelessness (2003)

      Contributors

      • Acevedo, Gregory
      • Temple University Latino(a)s
      • Ahmed, Sawssan R.
      • Wayne State University
      • African-Americans
      • Egypt
      • Allen, Michael
      • Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law
      • Fair Housing Laws
      • Amer, Mona
      • University of Toledo
      • Egypt
      • Anderson, Isobel
      • University of Stirling
      • Cuba
      • United Kingdom
      • Arangua, Lisa
      • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Disorders and Health Problems: Overview
      • Service Utilization
      • Aron, Laudan
      • The Urban Institute
      • Homelessness, Rural
      • Banks, Steven
      • Legal Aid Society of New York
      • Legal Advocacy
      • Barber, Charles
      • Moodus, Connecticut
      • Literature, Hobo and Tramp
      • Baron, Stephen W.
      • Queen's University
      • Street Youth and Violence
      • Barrow, Susan M.
      • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Family Separations and Reunifications
      • Housing, Transitional
      • Women
      • Bassuk, Ellen
      • Harvard Medical School / National Center on Family Homelessness
      • Families
      • Trauma and Victimization
      • Baumohl, Jim
      • Bryn Mawr College
      • Abeyance Theory
      • Deinstitutionalization
      • Liminality
      • Panhandling
      • Social Welfare Policy and Income Maintenance
      • Berg, Steve
      • National Alliance to End Homelessness
      • Legislation, Programs, and Policies, U.S. Federal
      • Binder, Steve
      • San Diego, California
      • Homeless Court Program
      • Borchert, James
      • Cleveland State University
      • Deindustrialization
      • Goodwill Industries International
      • Goodwill Industries International
      • Breakey, William R.
      • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
      • Interventions, Clinical
      • Mental Illness and Health
      • Bridgman, Rae
      • University of Manitoba
      • Homelessnes, International Perspectives on
      • Safe Havens
      • Self-Help Housing
      • Buck, David S.
      • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Houston
      • Buck, Philip O.
      • Wayne State University
      • Images of Homelessness in the Media
      • Buckner, John C.
      • Harvard Medical School
      • Children, Impact of Homelessness on
      • Epidemiology
      • Burt, Martha
      • Urban Institute
      • Continuum of Care
      • Homeless Assistance Services and Networks
      • Homelessness, Definitions and Estimates of
      • Busch-Geertsema, Volker
      • GISS Bremen
      • Germany
      • Calsyn, Robert J.
      • University of Missouri, St. Louis
      • Social Support
      • Chase, Richard
      • Wilder Research Center
      • Wilder Research Center
      • Christensen, Michael
      • Drew University
      • Calcutta
      • Christian, Julie
      • University of Birmingham
      • London
      • United Kingdom
      • Cloke, Paul
      • University of Bristol
      • United Kingdom, Rural
      • Clower, Terry L.
      • University of North Texas
      • Dallas
      • Cohen, Carl I.
      • SUNY Downstate Medical Center
      • Older Homeless Persons
      • Colangelo, Emily A.
      • Berkshire Publishing Group
      • Association of Gospel Rescue Missions
      • European Network for Housing Research
      • Homeless International
      • International Network of Street Newspapers
      • International Union of Tenants
      • National Alliance to End Homelessness
      • National Center on Family Homelessness
      • National Coalition for the Homeless
      • Salvation Army
      • UN-HABITAT
      • Urban Institute
      • Cousineau, Michael R.
      • University of Southern California
      • Encampments, Urban
      • Covell, Nancy
      • University of Connecticut
      • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
      • Crannell, Linda M.
      • http://www.poorhousestory.com
      • Poorhouses
      • Crowley, Sheila
      • National Low Income Housing
      • Coalition
      • Low-Income Housing
      • Curtis, Karen A.
      • University of Delaware
      • Food Programs
      • Daly, Gerald
      • York University
      • Canada
      • Davidson, Amy
      • AIDS Housing of Washington
      • HIV and AIDS
      • DePastino, Todd
      • Waynesburg College
      • Great Depression
      • DeVerteuil, Geoffrey
      • University of Manitoba
      • Mobility
      • Doorn, Lia van
      • Nederlands Instituut voor Zorg en
      • Welzijn (NIZW)
      • Netherlands
      • Erickson, Victoria Lee
      • Drew University
      • Hidden Homelessness
      • Firdion, Jean-Marie
      • Institut National d' Études
      • Démographiques
      • Foster Care France Paris
      • Fischer, Pamela J.
      • Substance Abuse and Mental Health
      • Services Administration
      • Criminal Activity and Policing
      • Fischer, Sean N.
      • New York University
      • New York City
      • Research on Homelessness: Overview
      • Forney, Jason
      • Oakland University
      • Prostitution
      • Frisman, Linda
      • University of Connecticut
      • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
      • Fujimura, Clementine
      • U.S. Naval Academy
      • Russia
      • Gaetz, Stephen
      • York University
      • Work on the Streets
      • Gelberg, Lillian
      • UCLA Center for Health Policy
      • Research
      • Disorders and Health Problems: Overview
      • Ghafur, Shayer
      • Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
      • Bangladesh
      • Gillis, Laura
      • Health Care for the Homeless, Inc.
      • Interventions, Clinical
      • Glasser, Irene
      • Community Renewal Team, Inc.
      • Alcohol and Drugs
      • Homelessness, International Perspectives on
      • Soup Kitchens
      • Grzyb, Amanda F.
      • University of Western Ontario
      • Appendix 2: Filmography of American Narrative and Documentary Films on Homelessness
      • Autobiography and Memoir, Contemporary Homeless
      • Images of Homelessness in Contemporary Documentary Film
      • Images of Homelessness in Narrative Film, History of
      • Images of Homelessness in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century American Literature
      • Heinz, Teresa L.
      • Indiana University
      • Street Newspapers
      • Hess, Nancy Owens
      • Holderness, New Hampshire
      • Child Care
      • Higginbotham, Peter
      • Oxford University
      • Workhouses
      • Hikida, Lyn
      • Corporation for Supportive Housing
      • Corporation for Supportive Housing
      • Hoburg, Robin
      • University of Connecticut
      • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
      • Hoch, Charles
      • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Chicago Skid Row
      • Single-Room Occupancy Hotels
      • Holter, Mark
      • University of Michigan
      • Mental Health System
      • Holupka, C. Scott
      • Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy
      • Studies
      • Interventions, Housing
      • Hopper, Kim
      • Nathan Kline Institute
      • Abeyance Theory
      • Ethnography
      • Liminality
      • Municipal Lodging Houses
      • Shelters
      • Horton-Newell, Amy E.
      • American Bar Association
      • American Bar Association Commission on Homelessness and Poverty
      • Hurtubise, Roch
      • Université de Sherbrooke
      • Montreal
      • Hwang, Stephen W.
      • St. Michael's Hospital,
      • University of Toronto
      • Toronto
      • Janisse, Heather C.
      • Wayne State University
      • Homelessness, Patterns of
      • Javits, Carla
      • Corporation for Supportive Housing
      • Johnsen, Matthew
      • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Service Utilization Research
      • Kamete, Amin Y.
      • University of Zimbabwe
      • Zimbabwe
      • Kasprow, Wesley
      • Yale University
      • Veterans
      • Kim, Myoung
      • Mathematica Policy Research
      • Hunger and Nutrition
      • Koegel, Paul
      • RAND
      • Causes of Homelessness: Overview
      • Ethnography
      • Homelessness, Course of
      • Houston
      • Leufgen, Jillianne
      • University of California, Irvine
      • Survival Strategies
      • Levinson, David
      • Berkshire Publishing Group
      • Bowery, The
      • Lewis, Dan
      • Northwestern University
      • Homelessness, Suburban
      • Linares, Esperanza
      • CARITAS ESPA—OLA
      • Spain
      • Lombardo, Sylvie
      • Oakland University
      • Prostitution
      • Loschiavo dos Santos, Maria Cecília
      • University of São Paulo
      • Brazil
      • Lovell, Anne
      • Université Toulouse le Mirail
      • Marginality
      • MacManus, Donal
      • FEANTSA
      • FEANTSA
      • Marpsat, Maryse
      • Institut National d'Études Démographiques
      • France
      • Paris
      • Marr, Matthew
      • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Japan
      • Tokyo
      • McIntosh, Greg
      • Canberra, Australia
      • Australia
      • Sydney
      • Milbourne, Paul
      • Cardiff University
      • United Kingdom, Rural
      • Morse, Gary
      • Community Alternatives
      • Case Management
      • St. Louis
      • Mowbray, Carol
      • University of Michigan
      • Mental Health System
      • Munoz, Manuel
      • Universidad Complutense de Madrid
      • Stressful Life Events
      • Nelson, Bruce
      • Northwestern University
      • Homelessness, Suburban
      • O'Callaghan, Seana
      • Nathan Kline Institute
      • Harm Reduction
      • O'Connell, James
      • Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program
      • Boston
      • Health Care
      • O'Grady, Bill
      • University of Guelph
      • Work on the Streets
      • Olufemi, Olusola
      • Memorial University, Newfoundland
      • Nigeria
      • South Africa
      • Owen, Greg
      • Wilder Research Center
      • Minneapolis and St. Paul
      • Wilder Research Center
      • Panadero, Sonia
      • Madrid, Spain
      • Stressful Life Events
      • Piening, Suzanne
      • National Center on Family Homelessness
      • Trauma and Victimization
      • Price, Jillian M.
      • National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness
      • National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness
      • Rafferty, Yvonne
      • Pace University
      • Children, Education of
      • Rahardjo, Tjahjono
      • Soegijapranata Catholic University
      • Indonesia
      • Robertson, Marjorie
      • Public Health Institute
      • Youth, Homeless
      • Rog, Debra J.
      • Vanderbilt University
      • Interventions, Housing
      • Program Evaluation Research
      • Roman, Nan
      • National Alliance to End Homelessness
      • Legislation, Programs, and Policies, U.S. Federal
      • Rosenheck, Robert A.
      • Yale School of Medicine
      • Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)
      • Veterans
      • Rosenthal, Rob
      • Wesleyan University
      • Homeless Organizing
      • Ross, Marcy
      • Berkshire Publishing Group
      • Philadelphia
      • Washington, D.C.
      • Rowe, Michael
      • Yale University
      • Service Integration
      • Roy, Shirley
      • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • Montreal
      • Sahlin, Ingrid
      • Goteborg University
      • Sweden
      • Salter, Charles A.
      • Library Consultant
      • Libraries: Issues in Serving the Homeless
      • Salter, Jeffrey L.
      • Shreve Memorial Library
      • Libraries: Issues in Serving the Homeless
      • Schneider, John C.
      • Tufts University
      • Skid Row Culture and History
      • Schulz, Dorothy Moses
      • John Jay College of Criminal Justice
      • Vagrancy
      • Seibyl, Catherine
      • Yale University School of Medicine
      • Veterans
      • Sharma, Kalpana
      • The Hindu
      • Mumbai (Bombay)
      • Shinn, Marybeth
      • New York University
      • Families
      • Prevention of Homelessness: Overview
      • Research on Homelessness: Overview
      • Snow, David A.
      • University of California, Irvine
      • Survival Strategies
      • Speak, Suzanne
      • University of Newcastle upon Tyne
      • Housing and Homelessnes in Developing Nations
      • Spinnewijn, Freek
      • FEANTSA
      • FEANTSA
      • Stax, Tobias Børner B.
      • Danish National Institute of Social Research
      • Copenhagen
      • Denmark
      • Sullivan, Mary
      • Worcester Family Health Center
      • Service Utilization
      • Swain, Stacy E.
      • Boston Health Care for the
      • Homeless Program
      • Boston
      • Tepper, Paul
      • The Weingart Center
      • Los Angeles
      • Thomas, Susan
      • Hollins University
      • Child Support
      • Tipple, Graham
      • University of Newcastle upon Tyne
      • Housing and Homelessness in Developing Nations
      • Tompsett, Carolyn J.
      • Wayne State University
      • Public Opinion
      • Toro, Paul A.
      • Wayne State University
      • African-Americans
      • Egypt
      • Homelessness, Patterns of
      • Images of Homelessness in the Media
      • Public Opinion
      • Torquati, Julia C.
      • University of Nebraska, Lincoln
      • Parenting
      • Tosi, Antonio
      • Polytechnic of Milan
      • Italy
      • Tsemberis, Sam
      • Pathways to Housing, Inc.
      • Harm Reduction
      • Housing First” Approach
      • Vazquez, Carmelo
      • Universidad Complutense de Madrid
      • Stressful Life Events
      • Wamiti, Maurice
      • Nairobi, Kenya
      • Nairobi
      • Weinreb, Linda
      • University of Massachusetts Medical
      • School
      • Disorders and Health Problems: Overview
      • Weinstein, Bernard L.
      • University of North Texas
      • Dallas
      • Weitzman, Beth C.
      • New York University
      • New York City
      • Williams, Brett
      • American University
      • Gentrification
      • Williams, Francine
      • Policy Research Associates, Inc.
      • National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness
      • Winarski, James T.
      • Advocates for Human Potential, Inc.
      • Outreach
      • Wolf, Judith
      • Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction
      • Netherlands
      • Yochelson, Bonnie
      • New York Historical Society
      • Photography
      • Ziebarth, Ann C.
      • University of Minnesota
      • Housing, Affordable
      • Zywiak, William H.
      • Decision Sciences Institute
      • Alcohol and Drugs

      Introduction

      There is nothing new about homelessness. There have been homeless people for some 10,000 years—from the time when humans built their first permanent homes in the first towns of the Fertile Crescent. The historical record, novels and poems, and sacred texts tell us the stories of beggars, wandering ascetics, penniless friars, displaced peasants, lost soldiers, street youths, vagrants, new arrivals in the city, and displaced workers.

      Homelessness has changed over the years. In the United States, during the late nineteenth century, it was hoboes and tramps who drew the attention of the public, the police, and then the social reformers of the Progressive Era. From the 1920s through the Great Depression, attention shifted to the skid rows, home to transient workers and retired single men. The decline of skid rows in the 1970s was followed by a new era of homelessness with many formerly institutionalized people—who had untreated or poorly treated emotional disorders—winding up on the streets of America. In the 1980s, the nature of homelessness changed again. Growing economic inequality, racism, a permanent decrease in the number of well-paid unskilled jobs, and a lack of affordable housing combined to make several million people—many of them African-American women and their children—homeless on America's streets, in shelters, in motels, and in substandard and temporary apartments. This pattern continues in 2004.

      Homelessness is not just a U.S. problem, although when viewed cross-culturally, it becomes a more complex issue. In many developed nations, homeless families, many of them immigrants, are the major issue. In the developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the homeless are often women and their children, youths, and migrants from rural areas who have come to cities looking for work and opportunity. The emergence of many cities in developing nations as major regional or global commercial centers has made the problem even worse, by increasing the appeal of cities as employment centers to the rural poor while at the same time providing less and less affordable housing and support services for immigrants.

      The goal of the Encyclopedia of Homelessness is to summarize our knowledge of homelessness. This includes describing the patterns of homelessness in the past, focusing on the recent and current situation in the United States, and sampling homelessness around the world. Entries cover causes; history; legal issues, advocacy, and policy; legislation and programs; lifestyle and health problems; organizations; research; services and service settings; size and perceptions; subpopulations and lifestyles; and world issues and perspectives. Descriptive articles cover homelessness today in eight major American cities and more than thirty cities and nations around the world. These entries allow for quick and easy comparisons.

      Homelessness is one of the least understood social issues. The public image of homelessness and public perceptions of the nature and causes of homelessness have little relation to the reality of the situation. Most Americans have little or no contact with homeless people. Encounters on the street are quick and awkward and immediately pushed out of one's consciousness. I vividly remember that when I was doing anthropological research posing as a panhandler near the Bowery in the early 1970s, passersby simply did not seem to know that I existed. In that guise, I had no place and therefore no existence in their social and physical world. This avoidance of the homeless has made it easy for misconceptions to develop and persist—misconceptions that are routinely reinforced by the depictions of the homeless by the news media, on television, and in film.

      Homelessness in the United States has changed dramatically since my research in 1971 on the transition of skid rows like the Bowery. This was a time when skid row was just about gone, and a few years before the homeless population went from being single, old men to younger men, the deinstitutionalized mentally ill, and the working poor who could not find affordable housing. Still, there are commonalities from the past to the present, including health problems, violence, inadequate housing, lack of jobs, difficulties with law enforcement, and a continuing avoidance of homeless people by most of American society. At the same time, as this encyclopedia shows, there are solutions and potential solutions at hand, and our understanding of homelessness in its various forms is more complete and more policy-directed than in the past.

      Despite the changing nature of homelessness, when I tell people about this encyclopedia, they are usually surprised to hear that it is not mainly about drunken old men on the Bowery. They are even more surprised to hear that it contains much about families and children, African-American women in the United States and other Western nations, street children, and immigrant families in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. And, they think the homeless is an issue only in poor neighborhoods in large cities. Sure, they know about Construct, Inc,. in our small town of Great Barrington, Massachusetts, and its annual Walk for the Homeless, but they never realized that their donations actually help provide food and shelter for homeless people in our affluent community. They are also unaware that the rapidly rising housing prices in response to the housing boom created by well-off second-home owners and retirees has produced an affordable housing crisis and more homelessness in the rural Berkshires of western Massachusetts.

      A major purpose of this encyclopedia is to correct these false images and misconceptions and beliefs from the past by providing readers with a comprehensive, accurate, and up-to-date description of homelessness in the twenty-first century.

      Audience

      As a topic of considerable current urgency, with a rich history and drawing the attention of experts from different disciplines and perspectives, the Encyclopedia of Homelessness meets the needs of a broad audience. This includes sociologists, anthropologists, economists, historians, and other social scientists; social policy analysts and planners who develop control and prevention programs; program administrators; physicians, social workers and lawyers who provide advocacy and services; journalists; and students in high school through graduate school in history, social studies, and the social sciences.

      Scope and Breadth

      Homelessness is a complex topic, and experts have yet to agree on a single definition or criterion to measure homelessness (see entry on Homelessness, Definitions and Estimates of). To some extent, this is because the nature and severity of homelessness as a social issue has changed over time, has varied over place, and has been studied or dealt with by different groups of experts. Homelessness has been a topic of interest for religious organizations, journalists, social reformers, public policy analysts, filmmakers, photographers, poets, novelists, songwriters, anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, historians, geographers, physicians, government officials, law enforcements agents, attorneys, and social workers.

      The contributors to this work come from many of these disciplines and several others, and they bring different perspectives to homelessness. These varying perspectives are apparent in many of the more focused entries, while a broader, interdisciplinary perspective defines the more general overview entries on topics such as prevention, health, and services.

      The issue of homelessness cannot be addressed apart from the related issue of housing. This is true everywhere today, but especially so outside the United States where homelessness is often defined as a lack of housing or suitable housing. In the Western world, it is clear that a lack of affordable housing is one the leading contributing causes to homelessness today, and solving homeless will require providing affordable housing for all.

      Global coverage is a hallmark of Berkshire Publishing encyclopedias, and this one is no different. Two general overviews—Homelessness, International Perspectives on, and Housing and Homelessness in Developing Nations—address the major patterns and issues of homelessness. These are supplemented by several dozen focused entries on international organizations and homelessness in a sample of nations and cities. In addition, information on homelessness beyond the United States is provided in each of the five appendixes.

      The entries cover the following eleven general topics.

      Homelessness in the United States

      These entries examine the nature of homelessness in the United States in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Covered are the number of homeless, characteristics of homeless populations, subgroups, lifestyles and lifestyle issues, and perceptions of the homeless.

      Homelessness in U.S. History

      These entries cover homelessness in the past including hobo, tramp, and skid row culture, with an emphasis on social history and within the context of key events and processes in American history.

      Research on Homelessness

      Studying homelessness is not easy, and multi-method approaches often produce more trustworthy and richer conclusions than do single-method approaches such as a questionnaire. These entries cover research strategies and methods used in studying homelessness. The strategies and methods are defined and described, and much space is given to their role and contribution to our understanding of homelessness.

      Causes of Homelessness

      These entries cover the factors and processes that are commonly cited as leading causes of homelessness.

      The editors recognize that homelessness has multiple causes, which may vary over time, place, and form of homelessness. The entries define and describe causal factors or processes, review evidence relating them to homelessness, and discuss controversies and implications for preventing homelessness.

      Health Issues

      The homeless experience high levels of social, emotional, and physical problems. These entries define and describe these problems, discuss their effects on the homeless, and review the causes of the problems and efforts to eliminate or treat them.

      Organizations

      For many centuries, there have been organizations whose missions and activities have an impact on homelessness. The number of such organizations today, their missions, and the issues they address are broader than ever. More than a dozen organizations are covered here, with an emphasis on the issues they address and the services and programs they provide. Inclusion here is not meant to imply that these are the “most important” organizations. While we do include major organizations, the goal is also to include a sampling of organizations that deal with a wide range of issues.

      Cities and Nations

      These entries provide summaries of the nature of homelessness in a sample of nations and cities around the world. The entries define homelessness in the national or urban setting being discussed, describe the key features of the homeless population, review causes, and discuss prevention and service initiatives.

      Services and Service Settings

      These entries concern service approaches and programs designed to alleviate problems experienced by the homeless and to prevent homelessness. Different approaches and programs aimed at different populations (families, children, men, etc.) are covered, their rationales explained, and research on their effectiveness reviewed.

      Housing

      As discussed above, housing issues and homelessness are interrelated. These entries focus on housing and its relationship to homelessness, various types of housing and housing programs, and legal and economic issues that influence the interaction between housing and homelessness.

      Legal Issues, Advocacy, and Policy

      These entries concern policies and initiatives meant to prevent homelessness or to protect or improve the lives of the homeless. The entries define and describe the particular policies and initiatives, and trace their development. Key people and organizations are identified and discussed.

      Legislation and Programs

      Entries in this category concern the relationship between homelessness and the federal, state, or local governments. The entries cover particular laws and programs and trace their development. Key people and organizations are identified and their roles discussed.

      Illustrative Material and Appendixes

      In addition to the entries, the encyclopedia contains sidebars of additional and primary source material, photos and illustrations, and five appendixes. The appendixes are particularly important because they provide additional information that makes this encyclopedia a rich resource on homelessness. In compiling the appendixes, we sought to add material that is not readily or meaningfully available elsewhere and to direct readers to other important resources. The appendixes are:

      • Bibliography of Autobiographical and Fictional Accounts of Homelessness
      • Filmography of American Narrative and Documentary Films about Homelessness
      • Directory of Street Newspapers
      • Documentary History of Homelessness
      • Master Bibliography of Publications on Homelessness

      Finally, it needs be mentioned that several navigational aids are provided for users including blind entries, cross-references to entries, a list of entries, a reader's guide to the content, a list of contributors, and a detailed index in Volume II.

      Acknowledgments

      In some ways, this project was a natural for both Berkshire Publishing and Sage given my research on homelessness, Berkshire's interest in pressing global issues, and Sage's role as a leading publisher of books and journals in the social and policy sciences. I want to especially thank Sage VP Blaise Simqu for his strong backing for the project and Rolf Janke of Sage Reference for suggesting it and shepherding it through the acquisitions process.

      As far as research and planning go, homelessness is a relatively small field of inquiry. Most people active in the field know each other's work, and most know and have worked with one another. There is much collaboration, mutual respect, and sharing of one's work. Given this culture of homelessness studies, it was easy to form an editorial board composed of nearly all the leading researchers in the field. Once we talked to a few potential editorial board members, they began talking to each other and then others and in some sense formed the board almost by themselves. The few who could not find time to serve on the editorial board did make time to write an entry or two.

      Once the editorial board was formed, the editors quickly and with much cooperation revised the preliminary entry list into the final one and recommended people (including themselves) to write the entries. As the project moved forward, they also helped revise and streamline the list. I also want to acknowledge the efforts of the contributors—several of whom were willing to write more than one article, some who also helped find other contributors, and some outside the United States who worked hard to make our coverage as global as possible.

      In-house, George Woodward, the project's initial coordinator, played the lead role in getting the project moving. When he moved west, his place was filled ably by Marcy Ross, who took the project to completion and also managed the editorial process as she does for all our projects. Last, I need to thank our in-house photographer, Karen Christensen, who supplied photos taken in the United States, England, Italy, and Greece.

      David Levinson

      About the Editors

      General Editor

      David Levinson, Ph.D., is a cultural anthropologist and president of the Berkshire Publishing Group. Prior to founding BPG in 1996 with Karen Christensen, he was at the Human Relations Area Files at Yale University. He has a B.A. in psychology (Montclair State University), an M.P.A. (Wagner School, New York University), and a Ph.D. in anthropology (SUNY/Buffalo). He conducted ethnographic research on the Bowery and in Newark, New Jersey, in 1971–1972 and 1984 and a survey of homelessness in U.S. cities in 1972. The results of this research were published in Urban Anthropology and the International Journal of Social Psychiatry and reported elsewhere. Other research has been on family relationships, the treatment of alcoholism, ethnic relations, and social theory. He is the author of Family Violence in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Sage 1989) and Religion: A Cross-Cultural Dictionary (1995) and the editor or coeditor of several major multi-volume academic encyclopedias, including the Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family (1995), Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment (Sage 2002), and the Encyclopedia of Community (Sage 2003). His books and reference works have won numerous awards including Choice best academic and best reference, Booklist editor's choice, Library Journal best reference, and RUSA best reference.

      Editorial Board

      Susan Barrow, Ph.D, is an anthropologist who works as a research scientist at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. She received her doctorate from Brandeis University and has spent the last twenty-five years researching the circumstances of homelessness in the urban United States. Her studies have combined survey techniques and other quantitative methods with ethnographic approaches to documenting both the experiences of people who are homeless and the shelters, outreach, social service, and mental health programs that they encounter. Her first research on homelessness focused on street outreach programs and other emerging models of service delivery developed in response to the homelessness crisis in New York City. Since then, she has conducted studies in shelters for unaccompanied men and women, drop-in centers, transitional housing sites, and an array of supported and supportive housing programs for formerly homeless adults in New York and several other U.S. cities. Her current work focuses on kin networks and parent-child separations in homeless families.

      Ellen Bassuk, M.D., is cofounder and president of the National Center on Family Homelessness, a nonprofit organization that conducts research, policy analysis, program development and support, and public education on issues pertaining to homelessness and extreme poverty, and related social services. She received her degree in medicine from the Tufts Medical School. Her research interests and writings focus on the risks of family homelessness; the impact of homelessness on the mental and physical health of women and their children; the relationship among mental illness, substance abuse, family violence, and social support in poor families; and the impact of welfare reform on low-income families. She served as director of Psychiatric Emergency Services at the Beth Israel Hospital, is a board-certified psychiatrist, and holds an academic appointment as Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. She has received many research grants, has served on national and regional health policy committees, and has held numerous consultancies. She is the former editor of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. She has received numerous awards and honors in recognition of her work, including the Outstanding Psychiatric Award from the Massachusetts Psychiatric Society, the Sanctity of Life Award from Brandeis University, and an honorary degree, Doctor of Public Service, from Northeastern University.

      Jim Baumohl, Ph.D., is Professor of Social Work and Social Research at Bryn Mawr College in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. He is also director of the Ph.D. program in the School of Social Work and Social Research. He earned undergraduate, M.S.W., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley, and before turning to full-time academic employment in 1986, he held jobs as a street worker, a shelter director, a tenant organizer, and a wine merchant, among others. Prior to joining the Bryn Mawr faculty in 1990, he taught at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. Since 1973, he has written extensively about homelessness, welfare policy, and the history of alcohol and drug treatment and control policy. He is the editor of Homelessness in America (1996), a benefit book for the National Coalition for the Homeless, and an editor of the interdisciplinary and international quarterly, Contemporary Drug Problems. He teaches courses on social welfare history and policy, social theory, addiction, and disability.

      Martha Burt, Ph.D, is the director of the Social Services Research Program at the Urban Institute. She received her Ph.D. in sociology in 1972, from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Since then she has been involved in research and evaluation pertaining to a wide variety of populations and issues. She recently completed her third book on homelessness, Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter or Affordable Housing? (2001), based on analyses and interpretation of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients. She is also the author of the federal report of the same survey, Homelessness Programs and the People They Serve (1999). She has just finished a project for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, assessing continuums of care throughout the country (Evaluating Continuums of Care for Homeless People, 2002), and projects on the effects of health insurance on homeless people's receipt of health care and on the homeless service system in the District of Columbia. She is working on a project on the role of supportive services in maintaining chronically homeless people in housing. Her work on homelessness began in 1983 with an examination of the administrative structure of the first two waves of FEMA's Emergency Food and Shelter Program. In 1987, she directed the first national survey of homeless individuals. That study focused on soup kitchen and shelter users in cities with a population of more than 100,000 and is reported in America's Homeless: Numbers, Characteristics, and the Programs That Serve Them (1989). In 1992, she published Over the Edge: The Growth of Homelessness in the 1980s, which analyzes why homelessness became a major social problem in that decade. Also in 1992 (and again in 1994), she compiled Practical Methods for Counting Homeless People: A Manual for State and Local Jurisdictions, which has been widely disseminated and used. She has presented papers at a number of European conferences on homelessness, and continues to be involved in research and policy work on homelessness and residential instability.

      Robert Drake, M.D., is the Andrew Thomson Jr. Professor of Psychiatry and Community and Family Medicine at Dartmouth Medical School and director of the New Hampshire–Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center. He was educated at Princeton, Duke, and Harvard Universities. In addition to working actively as a clinician in community mental health centers for the past twenty years, he has been developing and evaluating innovative community programs for persons with severe mental disorders. He is well known for his work in co-occurring substance use disorder and severe mental illness. Some of his recent work has focused on vocational rehabilitation. He is the author of more than 200 publications, which cover diverse aspects of adjustment and quality of life among persons with severe mental disorders and those in their support systems.

      Irene Glasser, Ph.D., is a senior planning/research analyst with the Community Renewal Team, Inc., in Hartford, Connecticut, which is the oldest community action agency in continual existence in the United States. She received her Ph.D. in anthropology and her M.S.W. from the University of Connecticut. Her research specialties include homelessness, treatment outcome research for the addictions, cross-national comparisons of urban poverty, the history of single-room occupancy hotels, and mothers in prison. She was a professor in anthropology at Eastern Connecticut State University, where she directed the Canadian Studies Program. She completed the Research Fellowship at the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies at Brown University and is now a training faculty for the Center. She has published widely on topics of urban poverty and homelessness. In all of her work, she integrates qualitative and quantitative methods of research, placing the data in the broadest historical, social, and cultural context.

      Kim Hopper, Ph.D., is a medical anthropologist who works as a research scientist at the Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, where he codirects the Center for the Study of Issues in Public Mental Health. He is also Associate Professor at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University. Since 1979, he has done ethnographic and historical research on psychiatric care and on homelessness, chiefly in New York City. Active in homeless advocacy efforts since 1980, he is a cofounder of both the National Coalition for the Homeless and the New York Coalition for the Homeless. He is the author of Reckoning With Homelessness (2003), as well as the coeditor of the upcoming Recovery from Schizophrenia: An International Perspective.

      Paul Koegel, Ph.D., is a medical and urban anthropologist who serves as associate director of RAND Health, a $45 million program of health services research at the RAND Corporation. His research has focused primarily on the adaptation of marginal populations to contemporary urban settings and how the systems of care that are mandated to assist them either facilitate or hinder that adaptation. Throughout his twenty-five-year research career, he has addressed questions related to these issues with regard to several populations, including adults with mental retardation, homeless individuals, adults with serious mental illness, and substance abusers. He has done so using multiple methods, including the qualitative methods associated with anthropology, epidemiological methods, evaluation techniques, and health services methods and perspectives. His intimate knowledge of and experience with each of these paradigms has enabled him to effectively triangulate multiple methods in his research and has made him an attractive collaborator for quantitatively oriented investigators eager to blend qualitative methods into their research efforts. His work on homelessness, mental illness, and substance abuse has involved international collaborations.

      Kenneth L. Kusmer, Ph.D., is Professor of History at Temple University, where he teaches American social history, African-American history, and recent American history. A graduate of Oberlin College, he received an M.A. from Kent State University, where he studied with August Meier, and a Ph.D. in history from the University of Chicago, where he studied with Neil Harris, John Hope Franklin, and John Coatsworth. He is the author of A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870–1930 (1978), and Down and Out, On the Road: The Homeless in American History (2001), the first scholarly history of homelessness (and the response to the homeless) that covers the entire span of American history from the colonial period to the present. He also edited Black Communities and Urban Development in America, 1720–1990 (1991). He has published more than twenty-five scholarly articles and fifty book reviews on a wide range of topics in American social, ethnic, and African-American history, and has lectured extensively throughout the United States and Western Europe. He has taught at Temple University since 1976 and has also been a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1987–1988, he held the Bancroft Chair in American History at the University of Goettingen, Germany, and, during the spring semester, 2001, he was Senior Fulbright Lecturer at the University of Genoa, Italy.

      Gretchen Noll is deputy director of programs at the National Network for Youth and oversees the day-to-day operations of the Network's HIV prevention portfolio. As deputy director of one of the nation's leading HIV prevention initiatives for youth in high-risk situations, she has designed and implemented many capacity-building projects for youth workers, teachers, health department personnel, and community leaders. She often consults for foundations, national organizations, government, and community-based organizations on a broad range of issues, including adolescent sexual health, youth development, the specialized needs of runaway and homeless youth and sexual minority youth, service standards, and the professional development of youth workers. She has broad experience in working with community-based agencies to plan programs and develop policy and has worked with runaway and homeless youth service providers, domestic violence professionals, and educators.

      Debra J. Rog, Ph.D., is a Senior Research Associate with Vanderbilt University's Institute for Public Policy Studies and has been the director of the Washington office of the Center for Mental Health Policy since 1990. She received her Ph.D. in social psychology from Vanderbilt University and has more than 20 years of experience designing and implementing evaluation and applied research studies in a range of settings involving issues of mental health, poverty, homelessness, and housing and services for vulnerable populations. Just prior to joining VIPPS, she served as the associate director in the NIMH Office of Programs for the Homeless Mentally Ill on a three-year Special Expert appointment, where she developed the first research and multi-site evaluation initiatives for programs serving homeless persons with severe mental illness funded under the Stewart B. McKinney Act. Currently, she is the principal investigator of a Coordinating Center for the Center for Mental Services' Housing Initiative for Persons with Serious Mental Illness; a Coordinating Center for the Centers for Mental Health Services; Substance Abuse Treatment's Homeless Families Initiative; and two foundation-funded, cross-site evaluations of local collaboratives focused on violence prevention. She has been coeditor of the Applied Social Research Methods Series since 1980, a series that has produced over fifty volumes on both quantitative and qualitative research topics. She is also the coeditor of the Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods (1997) and a coauthor of Applied Research Design (1993).

      Marybeth Shinn, Ph.D, is Professor of Psychology at New York University. She was president of the Society for Community Research and Action in 1990–1991, and received that organization's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Theory and Research in 1996. She and her colleagues have conducted numerous studies of homelessness in New York, including both surveys and evaluations of intervention programs. Other research interests include welfare reform, community contexts of human welfare, social policy, and social intervention. She has authored numerous articles on these topics, which have appeared in such journals as the American Journal of Public Health, the Annual Review of Psychology, and the Handbook of Community Psychology. In addition, she has served as associate editor for the American Journal of Community Psychology (1986–1988, 1993–1997).

    • Appendix 1: Bibliography of Autobiographical and Fictional Accounts of Homelessness

      Books
      Aaron, C. (1986). Lackawanna. New York: Lippincott.
      Alger, H. (1895). Adrift in the city. New York: Street and Smith.
      Alger, H., Jr. (1899). Jed the poorhouse boy. Philadelphia: Henry T. Coates.
      Algren, N. (1935). Somebody in boots. New York: The Vanguard Press.
      Anderson, L. (2001). Autobiography. New York: Routledge.
      Ashleigh, C. (1930). Rambling kid. London: Faber.
      Auster, P. (1989). Moon palace. New York: Penguin Books.
      Auster, P. (1999). Timbuktu. New York: Picador USA.
      Bailey, W. (1973). Bill Bailey came home: As a farm boy, as a stow-away at the age of nine, a trapper at the age of fifteen, and a hobo at the age of sixteen. Logan: Utah State University Press.
      Barlow, W. The diary of William Barlow, workhouse master of Bishop's Stortford (1848–1850). Retrieved December 27, 2003, from http://www.megroloz.com/diarindex.html
      Barth, C. P. (1969). Hobo trail to nowhere. Philadelphia: Whitmore.
      Beedon, D. (1973). Basic training: A pseudo sophisticated guide to the proper technique of traveling by freight train in the USA based mainly on the experiences of one person who has hopped many freights and digs it. Unpublished manuscript.
      Benson, B. (1942). Hoboes of America: Sensational life story and epic of life on the road.
      Benson, B. (1942). 500,000 miles without a dollar. New York.
      Best, E. (1988). Sharecropper's son (Down in Arkansas). Arkansas: Heritage Press.
      Black, J. (2000). You can't win. San Francisco: Nabot Books. (Original work published 1926)
      Blum, P. (1894). The life of a tramp and a trip through hell. Florida: Warnock.
      Booth, W. (1890). In darkest England and the way out. N.p.
      Botkin, B. A., & Harlow, F. F. (1953). A treasury of railroad folklore: The stories, tall tales, traditions, ballads, and songs of the American railroad man. New York: Crown.
      Brown, E. A. (1913). “Broke”: The man without the dime. Chicago: Browne & Howell.
      Brown, J. (n.d.) I was a tramp. London: Selwyn & Blount.
      Burn, B. (1998). Shelter: One man's journey from homelessness to hope. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
      Burn, J. D. (1978). Autobiography of a beggar boy. Edited by David Vincent. London: Europa Publications, Ltd. (Original work published 1855)
      Callaghan, T. (1983). Tramp's chronicle. Stocksfield, UK: Oriel Press.
      Chelemedos, P. (1980). Peter, the odyssey of a merchant mariner. Seattle, WA: Peanut Butter.
      Cotton, E. J. (Zebu Recchia). (2002). Hobo: A young man's thoughts on trains and tramping in America, New York: Harmony Books.
      Craik, D. M. M. (1856). John Halifax, gentleman.
      Crampton, F. (1956). Deep enough: A working stiff in the western miners' camp. Denver: Sage.
      Crane, S. (1893). Maggie: A girl of the streets. New York: W.W. Norton.
      d'Autremont, H. (1989). Rails north. New York: Vantage Press.
      Davies, W. H. (1897). The autobiography of a supertramp. London: McKenzie Flowers.
      Davies, W. H. (1970). The adventures of Johnny Walker, tramp. London: A.C. Fitfield. (Original work published 1926)
      Dickens, C. (2003). Oliver Twist. New York: Fine Communications. (Original work published 1839)
      Dillof, R. (1981). Hobo. New York: Tower Books.
      Donohue, T. E. (1996). In the open: Diary of a homeless alcoholic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Douglass, W. O. (1974). Go east, young man. New York: Dell.
      Dreiser, T. (1900). Sister Carrie. New York: W.W. Norton.
      Drew, B. (Ed.). (1995). The Texas stories of Nelson Algren. Austin: University of Texas Press.
      Duarte, C. (1990). Odella: A hidden survivor. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
      Edge, W. (1927). The main stem. New York: Vanguard Press.
      Eighner, L. (1993). Travels with Lizbeth: Three years on the road and on the streets. New York: Fawcett Columbine.
      Ellison, R. (1952). Invisible man. New York: Vintage Books.
      Ellison, R. (1996). Flying home and other stories. New York: Random House.
      Etulain, R. (Ed.). (1977). Jack London on the road: The tramp diary and other hobo writings. Logan: Utah State University Press.
      Faulkner, W. (1932). Light in August. New York: Vintage Books.
      Flynt, J. (1899). Tramping with tramps. New York: Century.
      Foster, W. Z. (1939). Pages from a worker's life. New York: International Publishers.
      Fox, E. (1989). Tales of an American hobo. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
      Fow, T. (1985). Hobo signs: A compilation of hobo signs for those who may one day find them useful. Munchen, Germany: Kunstraum Munchen.
      Gracey, E. L. (1999). From a 13-year-old hobo to an entrepreneur. Reno, NV: E.L. Gracey.
      Graham, M., & Hemming, R. J. (1990). Tales of the iron road: My life as king of the hobos. New York: Paragon House.
      Guthrie, W. (1983). Bound for glory. New York: New American Library. (Original work published 1943)
      Haywood, B. (1929). Bill Haywood's book: The autobiography of William D. Haywood. New York: International Publishers.
      Hennessy, D. (1926). On the bum. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius.
      Hinkle, R. (1991). Polk County vagabond: A hobo autobiography.
      Hoboes from Hell. (n.d.). Hoboes from Hell. Santa Cruz, CA: Lee.
      Hofvendahl, R. (1995). A land so fair and bright. San Jose, CA: Russ Hofvendahl.
      Holm, M., & Clay, D. (1999). Once a hobo: The autobiography of Monte Holm. Ann Arbor, MI: Proctor.
      Homeless, J. (1994). My life on the street: Memoirs of a faceless man. Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon Press.
      Howells, W. D. (1884). The undiscovered country. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
      Huelin, F. (1973). “Keep moving”: An odyssey by Frank Huelin. Sydney, Australia: Australasian Book Society.
      Hyde, J. (1983). Memoirs of a teenage hobo in the thirties (Rev. ed.) Carlton Press.
      Irwin, G. (1930). The American tramp and underworld slang. New York: Sears.
      Jackson, J. (1957). Overland Slim the maverick: The seven ages of the eventful life of a genuine American hobo. New York: Greenwich.
      Jacobs, H. (1861). Incidents in the life of a slave girl. New York: Oxford University Press.
      Jenkins, J. (1975). Diary of a Welsh swagman, 1869–1894. Abridged and notated by W. Evans. South Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan.
      Jodrey, B. (2002). Diary of a hobo. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation.
      Keeley, S. (Ed.). (1986). Hobo life in America: Training manual. Lansing, MI: Lansing Community College.
      Kennedy, W. (1983). Ironweed. New York: Penguin Books.
      Kerouac, J. (1989). Lonesome traveler. New York: Grove Press. (Original work published 1960)
      Kerouac, J. (1991). On the road. New York: Penguin.
      Kerr, L. (1930). Back door guest. New York: Arno Press.
      Knibbs, H. (1914). Songs of the outlands: Ballads of the hoboes and other verse. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
      Knibbs, H. (1930). Songs of the lost frontier. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
      Kromer, T. (1986). Waiting for nothing and other writings. Edited by A. D. Casciato & J. L. West III. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
      Laws, W. (1910). Life of a tramp. Chicago: M. A. Donohue.
      Leeflang, G. (1984). American travels of a Dutch hobo, 1923–1926. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
      Leen, D. (1992). The freight hopper's manual for North America: Hoboing in the 21st century. Seattle: Ecodesigns Northwest.
      Lever, C. (The Tilbury Tramp). (1845). Tales of the trains. London: W.S. Orr.
      Lindsay, V. N. (1916). A handy guide for beggars, especially those of the poetic fraternity; being sundry explorations, made while afoot and penniless in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. New York and Boston: Macmillan.
      Livingston, L. R. [A-no 1]. (1917). From coast to coast with Jack London. Erie, PA: The A-no. 1 Publishing Company.
      Lomax, A. (1960). The folk songs of North America in the English language. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Reprinted in 1975 by Dolphin Books.
      London, J. (1907). The road. New York: MacMillan.
      Love, E. (1957). Subways are for sleeping. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
      Lummis, C. F. (1892). A tramp across the continent. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.
      Lynn, E. (1917). The adventures of a woman hobo. New York: George H. Doran.
      Mathers, M. (1973). Riding the rails. Boston: Gambit.
      McLean, G. (1999). Riding on top: Memoirs of a modest master hobo. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford.
      Mearns, A. (1883). The bitter cry of outcast London: Articles from the Pall-Mall Gazette of October 1883 & articles by Lord Salisbury, Joseph Chamberlain, etc. Retrieved December 27, 2003, from http://www.attackingthedevil.co.uk/otherworks/outcast.html
      Meriwether, L. (1889). The tramp at home. New York: Harper & Brothers.
      Metzger, W. (1994). Hobo story. Manhattan Beach, CA: Softspin Press.
      Mullin, G. H. (1925). Adventures of a scholar-tramp. New York and London: The Century Co.
      O'Donnell, J. (1938). Hobo lore. New York: WPA. Unpublished document in Library of Congress, Washington, DC, Archive of Folk Song.
      Orwell, G. (1968). Down and out in Paris and London. London: Penguin.
      Peele, J. R. (1907). From North Carolina to southern California without a ticket, and how I did it, giving my exciting experiences as a “hobo.” Tarboro, NC: Edwards & Broughton.
      Phillips, R. “Ramblin.” (1994). Hobo king Ramblin Rudy.
      Pinkerton, A. (1878). Strikers, communists, tramps and detectives. New York: Trows; G. W. Carlton & Co.; Arno Press; and The New York Times.
      Pugh, D., & Tietjen, J. (1997). I have arrived before my words: Autobiographical writings of homeless women. Alexandria, VA: Charles River Press.
      Reitman, B. L. (1937). Sister of the road: The autobiography of Box-Car Bertha as told to Dr. Ben L. Reitman. New York: Harper & Row.
      S., T., & Bolnick, J. P. (2000). Living at the edge of the world: A teenager's survival in the tunnels of Grand Central Station. New York: St. Martin's Press.
      Schockman, C. (1937). We turned hobo. Columbus, OH: F. J. Heer.
      Seeger, P. (1972). The incomplete folksinger. New York: Simon & Schuster.
      Simenon, G. (1973). Maigret and the bum. Trans. by J. Stewart. New York: HBJ.
      Simenon, G. (1996). Murder: Four great Inspector Maigret novels. New York: Galahad Books.
      Sinclair, A. (1963). The hallelujah bum. London: Faber and Faber.
      Sinclair, U. (2002). The jungle. New York: W.W. Norton. (Original work published 1906)
      Snead, J. (1986). Figures of division. New York: Methuen.
      Southworth, E. D. E. N. (1888). The hidden hand or, Capitola the Madcap. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
      Stamper, J. (1966). Less than dust: The memoirs of a tramp. London: Hutchinson.
      Steinbeck, J. (1937). Of mice and men. Viking Press.
      Steinbeck, J. (1976). Grapes of wrath. New York: Penguin Books. (Original work published 1939)
      Stevens, I. L. (1982). Fishbones, hoboing in the 1930's. Corrina, ME: Author.
      Stringer, L. (1998). Grand Central winter: Stories from the street. New York: Seven Stories Press.
      Terkel, S. (1970). Hard times: An oral history of the Great Depression. New York: Pantheon Books.
      Trench, S. (1968). Bury me in my boots. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
      Trollope, Frances. (1843). Jessie Phillips: A tale of the present day. N.p.
      Tully, J. (1925). Beggars of life: A hobo autobiography. New York: A. & C. Boni; London: Chatto & Windus.
      Twain, M. (1987). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Penguin Books. (Original work published 1884)
      Twain, M. (2003). The prince and the pauper. West Berlin, NJ: Townsend Press. (Original work published 1881)
      Vaughn, J. B. (1975). The wandering years. Saanichton, Canada: Hancock House.
      Vonnegut, K., & Stringer, L. (1999). Like shaking hands with God: A conversation about writing. New York: Seven Stories Press.
      Vose, J. D. (1981). Diary of a tramp. St. Ives, UK: United Writers.
      Warner, S. (1850). The wide, wide world. New York: The Feminist Press.
      Wilcox, F. (1984). Here among the sacrificed. Port Townsend, WA: Empty Bowl.
      Willard, J. F. (1968). The little brother; A story of tramp life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Gregg Press.
      Willeford, C. R. (1988). I was looking for a street. Woodstock, VT: Countryman Press.
      Williams, C. (Ed.). (1995). Around the jungle fire: A collection of original hobo poetry. Deerfield, IL: Hobo Press.
      Williams, V. (1957). The fruit tramp. New York: Harper.
      Wojnarowicz, D. (1996). The waterfront journals. New York: Grove Press.
      Worby, J. (1942). The other half: The autobiography of a tramp. New York: Arden.
      Wren, D. A. (1987). White collar hobo—The travels of Whitey Williams. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
      Yancey, Mrs. D. K. (1909). The tramp woman, a book of experiences. St. Louis, MO: Britt.
      Plays
      Gregory, Lady Augusta. (1908). The workhouse ward.
      Nevinson, M. W. (1911) In the workhouse—A play.
      Smith, J. W. (1993). Riot or this bloody crew—A play based on the Selbourne and Headley Workhouse Riots of 1830.

      Appendix 2: Filmography of American Narrative and Documentary Films on Homelessness

      Narrative Film: 1896–1910

      A Sweet Little Home in the Country. (1902). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      The Accommodating Cow. (1902). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Almost a King. (1903). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Bad Soup. (1903). Siegmund Lubin.

      Burlesque Tramp Burglars. (1905). Lux.

      The Clubman and the Tramp. (1908). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Cohen's Advertising Scheme. (1904). Edison Mfg. Co.

      The Cook's Revenge. (1901). Siegmund Lubin.

      A Delusion. (1902). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Dog Factory. (1904). Edison Mfg. Co.

      Down Where the Wurzburger Flows. (1903). Edison Mfg. Co.

      Easy Money. (1908). Siegmund Lubin.

      Foxy Grandpa Shows the Boys a Trick or Two with the Tramp. (1902). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      The Fraudulent Beggar. (1901). Siegmund Lubin.

      The Golf Girls and the Tramp. (1902). Edison Mfg. Co.

      Halloween Night at the Seminary. (1904). Edison Mfg. Co.

      Happy Childhood. (1903). Seigmund Lubin.

      Happy Hooligan April-Fooled. (1901). Edison Mfg. Co.

      Hooligan at the Sea Shore. (1901). Edison Mfg. Co.

      How Happy Jack Got a Meal. (1909). Siegmund Lubin.

      How the Tramp Got Lunch. (1909). Edison Mfg. Co.

      How They Fired the Bum. (1900). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Hubby to the Rescue. (1904). Siegmund Lubin.

      Lunch Time. (1908). Siegmund Lubin.

      A Magical Tramp. (1908). Selig Polyscope Co.

      The Magical Tramp. (1903). Siegmund Lubin.

      Meandering Mike. (1901). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      On a Milk Diet. (1902). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      On the Benches of the Park. (1901). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Only a Tramp. (1909). Hepworth Mfg. Co.

      Pie, Tramp and the Bulldog. (1901). Edison Mfg. Co.

      Poor Algy. (1905). Edison Mfg. Co.

      Pranks of Buster Brown and His Dog Tige. (1904). Edison Mfg. Co.

      A Scarecrow Tramp. (1903). Edison Mfg. Co.

      The Sleeper. (1902). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Spirits in the Kitchen. (1899). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Then the Tramp He Woke Up. (1908). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      The Tramp and the Bather. (1897). American Mutoscope Co.

      The Tramp and the Burglar. (1900). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      The Tramp and the Crap Game. (1900). Edison Mfg. Co.

      The Tramp and the Giant Firecracker. (1898). American Mutoscope Co.

      The Tramp and the Muscular Cook. (1898). American Mutoscope Co.

      The Tramp and the Nursing Bottle. (1901). Edison Mfg. Co.

      The Tramp and the Purse. (1908). Hepworth Mfg. Co.

      The Tramp Caught a Tartar. (1898). American Mutoscope Co.

      The Tramp Gets Whitewashed. (1900). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      The Tramp Hypnotist. (1908). Selig Polyscope Co.

      Tramp in a Millionaire's Bed. (1897). American Mutoscope Co.

      The Tramp in the Barber Shop. (1903). Siegmund Lubin.

      Tramp in the Haunted House. (1900). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      The Tramp in the Kitchen. (1898). Edison Mfg. Co.

      A Tramp in the Well. (1900). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Tramp on a Farm. (1904). Paley and Steiner.

      The Tramp Trapped. (1898). American Mutoscope Co.

      Tramping on a Rolling Globe. (1903). Siegmund Lubin.

      The Tramp's Dinner. (1897). American Mutoscope Co.

      The Tramp's Dream. (1899). Siegmund Lubin.

      The Tramp's Dream. (1907). Hepworth Mfg. Co.

      The Tramp's Dream of Wealth. (1907). Hepworth Mfg. Co.

      The Tramp's First Bath. (1903). Siegmund Lubin.

      The Tramp's Last Bite. (1898). American Mutoscope Co.

      The Tramp's Miraculous Escape. (1901). Edison Mfg. Co.

      The Tramp's Nap Interrupted. (1901). Siegmund Lubin.

      The Tramp's Revenge. (1905). Siegmund Lubin.

      The Tramp's Strategy That Failed. (1901). Edison Mfg. Co.

      The Tramp's Surprise. (1903). Siegmund Lubin.

      The Tramp's Unexpected Skate. (1901). Edison Mfg. Co.

      The Ugly Tempered Tramp. (1900). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      The Vanishing Tramp. (1908). Selig Polyscope Co.

      Weary Raggles. (1898). American Mutoscope Co.

      When We Were Twenty-One. (1900). American Mutoscope and Biograph Co.

      Wrestling Pony and Man. (1896). American Mutoscope Co.

      Narrative Film: 1911–1928

      According toHoyle. (1922). David Butler Productions.

      Beggars of Life. (1928). Paramount Famous Lasky Corp.

      Blue Blazes. (1922). Doubleday Productions.

      Buchanan's Wife. (1918). Fox Film Corp.

      Bucking the Line. (1921). Fox Film Corp.

      Burn ‘Em Up Barnes. (1921). Mastodon Films.

      The Circus. (1928). Charles Chaplin Productions.

      The City of Comrades. (1919). Goldwyn Pictures Corp.

      The City of Purple Dreams. (1918). Selig Polyscope Co.

      The Clean Heart. (1924). Vitagraph Co. of America.

      Come Again Smith. (1919). Jesse D. Hampton Productions.

      The Derelict. (1917). Fox Film Corp.

      The Desert Flower. (1925). First National Pictures.

      The Dixie Merchant. (1926). Fox Film Corp.

      The Docks of New York. (1928). Paramount Famous Lasky Corp.

      The Fibbers. (1917). Essanay Film Mfg. Co.

      The Five Dollar Baby. (1922). Metro Pictures Corp.

      Framing Framers. (1917). Triangle Film Corp.

      Free Air. (1922). Outlook Photoplays.

      Good Morning, Judge. (1928). Universal Pictures.

      He Comes Up Smiling. (1918). Douglas Fairbanks Pictures Corp.

      The Idle Class. (1921). First National.

      The Innocent Cheat. (1921). Ben Wilson Productions.

      The Kid. (1921). First National.

      Kid Auto Races at Venice. (1914). Keystone.

      The Lights of New York. (1922). Fox Film Corp.

      The Limited Mail. (1925). Warner Brothers Pictures.

      Love Aflame. (1917). Universal Film Mfg. Co.

      The Love Net. (1918). World Film Corp.

      Loves' Old Sweet Song. (1923). Norca Pictures.

      Miss Nobody. (1926). First National Pictures.

      The Old Homestead. (1915). Famous Players Film Co.

      Outcast. (1922). Famous Players-Lasky.

      Pals First. (1918). Yorke Film Co.

      The Princess of Patches. (1917). Selig Polyscope Co.

      The Red Lily. (1924). Metro-Goldwyn Pictures.

      Smoldering Embers. (1920). Frank Keenan Productions, Inc.

      The Street of Forgotten Men. (1925). Famous Players-Lasky.

      That Something. (1920). Hermann Film Corp.

      Thou Shalt Not Kill. (1915). Circle Film Corp.

      The Tramp. (1915). Essanay.

      The Vagabond. (1916). Lone Star-Mutual.

      A Yellow Streak. (1915). Columbia Pictures Corp.

      Narrative Film: 1929–1945

      The Bowery. (1933). 20th Century Pictures, Inc.

      Boy Slaves. (1939). RKO Radio Pictures, Inc.

      Chicken Wagon Family. (1939). 20th Century Fox.

      City Limits. (1934). Monogram Pictures Corp.

      The Courageous Dr. Christian. (1940). Stephens-Lang Productions.

      Cross Streets. (1934). Invincible Pictures Corp.

      East of the River. (1940). Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.

      Exposed. (1938). Universal Pictures Co.

      Father Steps Out. (1941). Monogram Productions Inc.

      The Ferocious Pal. (1934). Sol Lesser.

      Friendly Neighbors. (1940). Republic Pictures Corp.

      The Girl from Avenue A. (1940). 20th Century Fox.

      Girls of the Road. (1940). Columbia Pictures Corp.

      The Grapes of Wrath. (1940). 20th Century Fox.

      The Great McGinty. (1940). Paramount Pictures, Inc.

      Hallelujah, I'm a Bum. (1933). Feature Productions, Inc.

      He Learned About Women. (1932). Paramount Publix Corp.

      I Am a Criminal. (1938). Monogram Pictures Corp.

      Johnny Come Lately. (1943). Cagney Productions, Inc.

      Lady for a Day. (1933). Paramount Pictures.

      Man's Castle. (1933). Columbia Pictures Corp.

      Midnight Court. (1937). Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.

      Modern Times. (1936). Charles Chaplin Film Corp.

      Mountain Rhythm. (1939). Republic Pictures Corp.

      My Man Godfrey. (1936). Universal.

      Newsboys' Home. (1938). Universal.

      One More Spring. (1935). Fox Film Corp.

      Street of Memories. (1940). 20th Century Fox.

      The Struggle. (1932). D. W. Griffith, Inc.

      Sullivan's Travels. (1941). Paramount Pictures, Inc.

      Tomorrow's Children. (1934). Foy Productions, Ltd.

      Under Age. (1941). Columbia Pictures Corp.

      The Way of All Flesh. (1940). Paramount Pictures, Inc.

      What a Man. (1930). Sono-Art Productions.

      Wild Boys of the Road. (1933). Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.

      Working Girls. (1931). Paramount Publix Corp.

      Narrative Film: 1946–1979

      Across the River. (1965). Debema Productions.

      Barefoot in the Park. (1967). Paramount Pictures.

      Bound For Glory. (1976). MGM/UA.

      The Checkered Coat. (1948). 20th Century Fox.

      The Daughter of Rosie O'Grady. (1950). Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.

      The Enormous Midnight. (1967). Junque Films.

      Emperor of the North. (1973). 20th Century Fox.

      Follow That Dream. (1962). Mirisch Co.

      The Giving. (1991). Northern Arts Entertainment.

      The Hostage. (1966). Heartland Productions.

      Imitation of Christ. (1970). Andy Warhol.

      The Incident. (1967). Moned Associated, Inc.

      Indecent Desires. (1968). Mostest Productions.

      The Man Who Wagged His Tail. (1961). Falco Films.

      Midnight Cowboy. (1969). MGM/United Artists.

      Oliver Twist. (1948). Home Vision.

      The Panic in Needle Park. (1971). 20th Century Fox.

      Pocketful of Miracles. (1961). MGM.

      Salt of the Earth. (1953). Independent Productions Corp.

      Surfside Sex. (1967). Howard Farber Films Distribpix, Inc.

      Travelin' Trains. (n.d.). Eric Moffad and Green Frog Video.

      Yellow Bird. (1969). Century Cinema Corp.

      Narrative Film: 1980–2002

      A Hobo's Christmas. (1987). Bridgestone Group.

      The Billion Dollar Hobo. (1998). United American Video.

      Bobby G. Can't Swim. (1999). Cineblast Productions Inc.

      Catching Out. (2003). Worthy Entertainment.

      The Caveman's Valentine. (2000). Universal.

      The Children of Times Square. (1986). ABC.

      The City/La Ciudad. (1999). North Star Films.

      Curly Sue. (1991). Warner Bros.

      Dennis the Menace. (1993). Warner Bros.

      Down and Out in Beverly Hills. (1986). Touchstone Pictures.

      Fisher King. (1991). Columbia.

      Home Alone II. (1992). 20th Century Fox.

      I Am Sam. (2001). Warner Bros.

      Life or Something Like It. (2002). 20th Century Fox.

      Life Stinks. (1991). MGM.

      On the Right Track. (1981). 20th Century Fox.

      Stone Pillow. (1985). Gaylord Productions/Schaefer-Karpf Productions/CBS.

      Suspect. (1987). Tri-Star.

      Trading Places. (1983). Paramount.

      With Honors. (1994). Warner Bros.

      Docudrama

      Samaritan: The Mitch Snyder Story. (1986). CBS Television.

      Documentary Film

      101 Rent Boys. (2000). Cinemax.

      Almost Home. (1995). Fanlight Productions.

      The American Hobo. (2003). Super Chief Films.

      Back Wards to Back Streets. (1987). Public Policy Productions.

      Dark Days. (2000). Picture Farm.

      Down and Out in America. (1986). Lee Grant.

      The Heart of Loisaida. (1979). Reaven and Matias.

      Home. (1986). Cobo, Hill, and Johnson.

      Home Less Home. (1991). Bill Brand Productions.

      Homeless '99. (1999). Film Foetus, Inc.

      The Homeless Home Movie. (1997). Pat Hennessey.

      Hope on the Street. (2003). KQED.

      Housing Court. (1985). Sarokin and Matias.

      It Was a Wonderful Life: Hidden Homeless Women. (1993). Michele Ohayon.

      Jupiter's Wife. (1994). Michel Negroponte.

      On the Bowery. (1955). Lionel Rogosin.

      Orphan Trains. (1995). PBS.

      Out in the Cold. (2002). Martin Bedogne and Eric Criswell.

      Repetition Compulsion. (1997). Ellie Lee.

      Riding the Rails. (1999). PBS.

      Shadow Children. (1991). Peregrine Productions.

      Shelter. (1997). KCTS/TV.

      Skid Road. (1990). KCTS/TV.

      Squatters. (1984). Charles Koppelman.

      Streetwise. (1985). Angelika Films/Joseph Saleh.

      Takeover: Heroes of the New American Depression. (1990). Peter Kinoy and Pamela Yates.

      Taylor's Campaign. (1997). Raindog Films.

      Temporary Dwellings. (1991). Michael Regis Hilow.

      The Young on the Run. (1989). Gary R. Thieman.

      Compiled by Amanda F. Grzyb (with additional suggestions by David Levinson).

      Appendix 3: Directory of Street Newspapers

      Argentina

      Diagonal. Libertad 246 1 B, Buenos Aires. http://www.periodicodiagonal.org.ar

      Hecho. Pasaje San Lorenzo 371, Buenos Aires. http://www.hechoenbsas.com

      Australia

      Big Issue Australia. GPO Box 4911 VV, Melbourne, Victoria 3001. http://www.bigissue.org.au

      Austria

      Asfalter. Glockengasse 10, 5020 Salzburg. http://www.asfalter.at

      Augustin. 1040 Wien, Mostgasse 7/3. http://www.augustin.bus.at

      Megaphon. Steyrergasse 147, A-8010 Graz. http://www.megaphon.at

      Brazil

      Ocas. Rua Sampaio Moreira, 110-casa 9, Brasilia. http://www.ocas.org.br

      Canada

      Calgary Street Talk. 128 7th Avenue, SE, Calgary, Alberta T2G OH5. http://www.calgarystreettalk.com

      La Quete. 729, cote d'Abraham; 2 estage, Quebec, (Quebec) G1R 1A2. http://www.archipelentraide.com/laquete/accueil.htm

      L'Itineraire. 1907 rue Amherst, Montréal, Québec H2L 3L7.

      Long Haul. c/o End Legislated Poverty, 211–456 West Broadway, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Y 1R3.

      Our Voice. 10527–96th Street, Edmonton, Alberta T5H 2H6. http://www.bissellcentre.org/ourvoice/

      Street Feat. Bloomfield Centre; #214 2786 Agricola Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3K 4EL. http://www.streetfeat.ns.ca/

      Czech Republic

      Novy Prostor—No Borders. Pod Svahem 147 00, Praha 4. http://1street.cz/

      Denmark

      Hus Forbi. Copenhagen. http://www.husforbi.dk/

      Gambia

      Mango News. GTC office, Bakadaji Hotel, PO Box 4587 Bakau, The Gambia.

      Germany

      Asphalt. Knochenhauerstr. 42 30159 Hannover. http://www.asphalt-magazin.de/BISS, Munich. http://www.biss-magazin.de/

      Hempels Strassenmagazin. Schaßstraße 4, 24103 Kiel. http://hempels-ev.de/

      Hinz & Kunzt. Altstädter Twiete 1–5 20095 Hamburg. http://www.hinzundkunzt.de/hk/

      Tagessatz. Obere Karspüle 18 37073 Göttingen. http://www.tagessatz.de/content/start.html

      Trott War. Hauptstatter Str. 138a 70178 Stuttgart. http://www.trott-war.de/

      Italy

      Terre di Mezzo +Altreconomia. p.za Naples n. 30/6 20146 Milan. http://www.terre.it/daylite.htm

      Namibia

      Big Issue Namibia. Windhoek. http://www.bigissue.com/tbint.html

      Netherlands

      Straatnieuws. Utrecht. http://www.straatnieuws.nl/

      Z Magazine. Amsterdam. http://www.zmagazine.nl/zmag/

      Russia

      Depths. St. Petersburg. http://www.nadne.ru

      Depths Siberia. Novosibirsk. http://www.nadne.ru

      South Africa

      Big Issue Cape Town. PO Box 5094, Cape Town 8000. Email: bissuect@iafrica.com

      Homeless Talk. Johannesburg. http://www.homelesstalk.org.za

      Spain

      Milhistorias (y la tuya). Madrid. Email: tc@rais-tc.org

      Sweden

      Aluma. Göran Olsgatan 1, 211 22 Malmö. http://www.aluma.nu/

      Faktum. Stampgatan 50. 411 01 Göteborg. http://www.faktum.nu

      Situation Stockholm. Döbelnsgatan 52; Box 190 26, 104 32 Stockholm. http://www.situationstockholm.se

      Switzerland

      Surprise. Steinenschanze 4, CH-4051 Basle. http://www.surprise-ch.org

      Ukraine

      Way Home. 42 Bolshaya Arnautskaya Str., Box 25, Odessa, Ukraine 65011. http://www.wayhome.org.ua

      United Kingdom

      Big Issue. 1–5 Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, London SW8 2LN. http://www.bigissue.com

      Big Issue in Scotland. Mic Village, 71 Oxford Street, Glasgow G5 9EP. http://www.bigissuescotland.com

      Big Issue in the North. 135/141 Oldham Street, Manchester M4 1LL. http://www.bigissueinthenorth.com

      United States

      Arizona

      City Life News. P.O. Box 7971, Tucson, AZ 85725. http://www.tucsonmarchforlife.org/news.htm

      California

      Homeward. A Street Journal, P.O. Box 2430, Sacramento, CA 95812. http://users.cwnet.com/shochome/homeward/index.html

      L.A. Can. 548 S. Spring St; #935, Los Angeles, CA 90013.

      Making Change. P.O. Box 3622, Santa Monica, CA 90408.

      Poor Magazine. 255 9th Street, San Francisco, CA 94103. http://www.poormagazine.org

      Street Forum. P.O. Box 16111, Stanford, CA 94309.

      Street Light. 4019 Goldfinch, PM Box #255, San Diego, CA 92103.

      Street Scene. 6043 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90028–5459.

      Street Sheet. 468 Turk Street, San Francisco, CA 94102. http://www.sf-homeless-coalition.org

      Street Spirit. 65 Ninth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103–1401.

      Colorado

      Denver Voice. P.O. Box 40726, Denver, CO 80204. http://www.eoncity.net/cactionnow/id33.htm

      Connecticut

      Center Talk. 900 Grand Avenue; 2nd floor, New Haven, CT 06511–4974.

      District of Columbia

      Peace Times. P.O. Box 26048, Washington, DC 20001.

      Florida

      Homeless Voice. P.O. Box 292577, Davie, FL 33329–2577. http://www.homelessvoice.org/

      Georgia

      Atlanta Union of the Homeless Newsletter. 363 Georgia Avenue, SE; 2nd floor, Atlanta, GA 30312–3139.

      Illinois

      Hasta Cuando & Mesh. 1638 W. Greenleaf; #3-B, Chicago, IL 60626.

      Journal of Ordinary Thought. 1313 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. http://www.jot.org

      StreetWise. 1331 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60605. http://www.streetwise.org/

      Kansas

      Change of Heart. 2905 Moccasin Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049.

      Kentucky

      Lexington Homeless Voice. P.O. Box 324, Lexington, KY 40588. http://www.fchap.org/

      Street News. 712 E. Muhammad Ali Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40202. http://www.homelesscoal.org/

      Maryland

      Loaves and Fishes. P.O. Box 808, Elkton, MD 21922–0808. http://www.meetingground.org/

      Street Voice. P.O. Box 39521, Baltimore, MD 21212–4195.

      Massachusetts

      Homeless People's Network. 102-R Prospect Street; 3rd floor, Somerville, MA 02143. http://aspin.asu.edu/hpn/

      Spare Change News. 1151 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. http://www.homelessempowerment.org/

      Survival News. 95 Standard Street, Mattapan, MA 02126.

      What's Up. 23 Dartmouth Street, Boston, MA 02116. http://www.whatsupmagazine.org/

      Minnesota

      Minnesota Crossroads. P.O. Box 14324, St. Paul, MN 55114. http://www.openskypress.org/

      Missouri

      What's Up Magazine. P.O. Box 3209, St. Louis, MO 63130. http://www.whatsupstl.com/

      Nevada

      Voice. 1581 N. Main Street, Las Vegas, NV 89101.

      New Hampshire

      Under the Bridge Street News. P.O. Box 3431, Manchester, NH 03105–3431. http://www.geocities.com/nhutbp2001/welcome.html

      New Mexico

      Your Voice. 1112 San Pedro NE; #230, Albuquerque, NM 87110.

      New York

      BIG News. 302 E. 45th St, 4th floor, New York, NY 10017. http://www.mainchance.org/bignews/index.html

      Street News. 15 Gloria Court, Port Richmond, NY 10302. http://hometown.aol.com/streetnews143/streetnews.htm

      Upward. 302 E. 45th St. 4th Floor, New York, NY 10017.

      North Carolina

      News From Our Shoes. P. O. Box 411, Raleigh, NC 27602. http://www.newsfromourshoes.com/

      Ohio

      Homeless Grapevine. 2012 West 25th Street; #717, Cleveland, OH 44113–4131. http://www.neoch.org/grapevine.htm

      StreetVibes. 1506 Elm Street, Cincinnati, OH 45210. http://homeless.cincy.com/pages/content/streetvibes.html

      Oregon

      Street Roots. 1231 SW Morrison St., Portland, OR 97205. http://www.streetroots.org

      Appendix 4: Documentary History of Homelessness

      The topic of homelessness (including wanderlust, begging, vagrancy, hobos, tramps, and skid row) has a rich and deep documentary history. These documents, dating back well over 2,000 years, include sacred texts, laws, edicts, declarations, poems, ballads, traveler's tales, social welfare surveys, sociological and anthropological reports, magazine articles, fiction and nonfiction written by the homeless, judicial briefs and decisions, and statements of government and organizational policy.

      The following collection of twenty-three documents, included here either in whole or in part, provides only a sampling of this rich history. The documents pertain mainly to homelessness in the United States and Britain, with some additional material from Germany and Italy and several recent documents also pertaining to Europe as well as to international efforts. The earliest is from the Book of Genesis in the Old Testament, while the most recent is the 2003 U.S. Conference of Mayors' call to end homelessness in ten years.

      Some of these are not easily available, and several older ones are in obscure publications now out of print. They have never been pulled together as a collection, and as a group they tell us something about the lives of homeless people over time and about societal perceptions of and responses to homelessness. Several of the documents are included in part because they are related to and inform our understanding of other documents, and all the documents provide primary source content relevant to entries in the encyclopedia. Each document is preceded by a short introduction that discusses why the document is important in the history of homelessness, places the document in its historical context, and cross-references to relevant entries in the encyclopedia.

      The documents, in chronological order, are the following:

      Document 1. Biblical Passages Relevant to Homelessness.

      Document 2. Chaucer, Geoffrey. (c. 1383). “The Begging Friar and the Pardoner.” Canterbury Tales. In Ribton-Turner, C. J. (1887). A History of Vagrants and Vagrancy and Beggars and Begging. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 576–577.

      Document 3. Three Classification Schemes (1500, 1561, 1627).

      • Germany in 1500. Luther, Martin. (1528). The Book of Vagabonds and Beggars. Translated by J. C. Hotten, 1860. In Ribton-Turner, pp. 544–546.
      • London in 1561. The Fraternitye of Vacabondes. (1575/1561). London: Iohn Awdeley. In Ribton-Turner, pp. 593–595.
      • Venice in 1627. Nobili, Giacinto. (1627). II Vagabondo overo sferza de Bianti e Vagabondi. In Ribton-Turner, pp. 557–560.

      Document 4. Harman, Thomas. (c. 1567). A Caveat or Warening for Commen Corsetors, vulgarely called Vagabones. In Ribton-Turner, C. J. (1887). A History of Vagrants and Vagrancy and Beggars and Begging. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 468–469.

      Document 5. An Act for the Relief of the Poor. Anno xliii. Reginæ ELIZABETHÆ. CAP. II. (1601).

      Document 6. “The Cunning Northern Beggar.” From the Roxburghe Collection of Ballads, compiled by Robert Harley, London. (c. 1635). In Ribton-Turner, C. J. (1887). A History of Vagrants and Vagrancy and Beggars and Begging. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 609–612.

      Document 7. Chambers, James. (1820). “The Poor Poetaster.” The Political Works of James Chambers, Itinerant Poet, With the Life of the Author, pp. 133–142. Ipswich: Printed and sold by the editor, C. Ragan.

      Document 8. The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834—An Act for the Amendment and better Administration of the Laws relating to the Poor in England and Wales. (1835). London: George Eyre and Andrew Spottiswoode, Printers to the King's most Excellent Majesty.

      Document 9. Mayhew, Henry. (1861–1862). London Labour and the London Poor; A Cyclopædia of the Condition and Earnings of Those That Will Work, Those That Cannot Work, And Those That Will Not Work. London: Griffin, Bohn and Company.

      Document 10. Riis, Jacob. (1890). How the Other Half Lives. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

      Document 11. Booth, Charles. (1902–04). Life and Labour of the People in London. London; pp. 204–237. Reprinted by AMS Press, Inc., 1970.

      Document 12. Higgs, Mary. (1906). Glimpses into the Abyss, pp. 224–231; 319–327. London: P. S. King & Son.

      Document 13. Rice, Stuart A. (1918). The Homeless. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 77(166), 140–153.

      Document 14. Stiff, Dean (Nels Anderson). (1930). The Milk And Honey Route. New York: The Vanguard Press.

      Document 15. Gibbs, Philip. (1935). England Speaks, pp. 30–43. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company.

      Document 16. Benson, Ben. (1937). “How to go to California without a Dollar.” The Hobo News (Spring).

      Document 17. Camp La Guardia News, IV(IV), May, 1937.

      Document 18. United States Fair Housing Act. Sec. 800. [42 USC 3601 note].

      Document 19. Summary of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (U.S. Public Law 100–77, 42 U.S.C. 119).

      Document 20. European Social Charter (revised). (1966). Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 3.V. 1996.

      Document 21. Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements of 1996.

      Document 22. Resolutions of the United Nations Housing Rights Programme. (April–May 2003):

      • “Women's equal ownership, access to and control over land and the equal rights to own property and to adequate housing.”
      • “Adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living.”
      • “Global campaigns on secure tenure and urban governance.”

      Document 23. U.S. Conference of Mayors. Resolution No. 22. Endorsing 10 Year Planning Process to End Chronic Homelessness. 71st annual meeting, June 2003, Denver, Colorado.

      Document 1: Biblical Passages Relevant to Homelessness

      The relationship between religion and homelessness is one that has received relatively little attention in the study of homelessness but, nonetheless, is one that is old and deep in the human experience. The notions of being cast out, wandering, begging, lost in the wilderness, and pilgrimage play prominent roles in world religions including Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam. So, too, does the idea of caring for the poor and homeless and aiding the sick and disabled. The selections that follow are from the Old and New Testaments (KJV) and touch on several of these themes including being cast out, wandering in the wilderness, being homeless, and caring for the poor and homeless.

      See entries:

      Genesis 3

      1 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?

      2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:

      3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.

      4 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:

      5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

      6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

      7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.

      8 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.

      9 And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?

      10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.

      11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?

      12 And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.

      13 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

      14 And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:

      15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

      16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.

      17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;

      18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;

      19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.

      20 And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.

      21 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.

      22 And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:

      23 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.

      24 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.

      Genesis 4

      1 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.

      2 And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

      3 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.

      4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:

      5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

      6 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen?

      7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.

      8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

      9 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?

      10 And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.

      11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;

      12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond [some translations use the word “vagrant”] shalt thou be in the earth.

      Genesis 21

      1 And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken.

      2 For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him.

      3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac.

      4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him.

      5 And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him.

      6 And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me.

      7 And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should have given children suck? for I have born him a son in his old age.

      8 And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned.

      9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.

      10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.

      11 And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight because of his son.

      12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called.

      13 And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.

      14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba.

      15 And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs.

      16 And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bow shot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept.

      17 And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is.

      18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation.

      19 And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink.

      20 And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer.

      Deuteronomy 8

      1 All the commandments which I command thee this day shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the LORD sware unto your fathers.

      2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and to prove thee, to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his Commandments, or no.

      3 And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD doth man live.

      4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell, these forty years.

      5 Thou shalt also consider in thine heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee.

      Deuteronomy 15

      11 For the poor shall never cease out of the land: there-fore I command thee, saying, Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land.

      Deuteronomy 24

      14 Thou shalt not oppress an hired servant that is poor and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or of thy strangers that are in thy land within thy gates:

      15 At his day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he is poor, and setteth his heart upon it: lest he cry against thee unto the LORD, and it be sin unto thee.

      16 The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers: every man shall be put to death for his own sin.

      17 Thou shalt not pervert the judgment of the stranger, nor of the fatherless; nor take a widow's raiment to pledge:

      18 But thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt, and the LORD thy God redeemed thee thence: therefore I command thee to do this thing.

      19 When thou cuttest down thine harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go again to fetch it: it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow: that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thine hands.

      20 When thou beatest thine olive tree, thou shalt not go over the boughs again: it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.

      21 When thou gatherest the grapes of thy vineyard, thou shalt not glean it afterward: it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.

      22 And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt: therefore I command thee to do this thing.

      Deuteronomy 26

      12 When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be filled;

      Leviticus 19

      33 And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him.

      34 But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.

      Leviticus 23

      22 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest: thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am the LORD your God.

      Psalm 107

      1 O give thanks unto the LORD, for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever.

      2 Let the redeemed of the LORD say so, whom he hath redeemed from the hand of the enemy;

      3 And gathered them out of the lands, from the east, and from the west, from the north, and from the south.

      4 They wandered in the wilderness in a solitary way; they found no city to dwell in.

      5 Hungry and thirsty, their soul fainted in them.

      6 Then they cried unto the LORD in their trouble, and he delivered them out of their distresses.

      7 And he led them forth by the right way, that they might go to a city of habitation.

      8 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men!

      9 For he satisfieth the longing soul, and filleth the hungry soul with goodness.

      10 Such as sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, being bound in affliction and iron;

      11 Because they rebelled against the words of God, and contemned the counsel of the most High:

      12 Therefore he brought down their heart with labour; they fell down, and there was none to help.

      13 Then they cried unto the LORD in their trouble, and he saved them out of their distresses.

      14 He brought them out of darkness and the shadow of death, and brake their bands in sunder.

      15 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men!

      16 For he hath broken the gates of brass, and cut the bars of iron in sunder.

      17 Fools because of their transgression, and because of their iniquities, are afflicted.

      18 Their soul abhorreth all manner of meat; and they draw near unto the gates of death.

      19 Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble, and he saveth them out of their distresses.

      20 He sent his word, and healed them, and delivered them from their destructions.

      21 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men!

      22 And let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving, and declare his works with rejoicing.

      23 They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters;

      24 These see the works of the LORD, and his wonders in the deep.

      25 For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof.

      26 They mount up to the heaven, they go down again to the depths: their soul is melted because of trouble.

      27 They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wit's end.

      28 Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses.

      29 He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thereof are still.

      30 Then are they glad because they be quiet; so he bringeth them unto their desired haven.

      31 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men!

      32 Let them exalt him also in the congregation of the people, and praise him in the assembly of the elders.

      33 He turneth rivers into a wilderness, and the watersprings into dry ground;

      34 A fruitful land into barrenness, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein.

      35 He turneth the wilderness into a standing water, and dry ground into watersprings.

      36 And there he maketh the hungry to dwell, that they may prepare a city for habitation;

      37 And sow the fields, and plant vineyards, which may yield fruits of increase.

      38 He blesseth them also, so that they are multiplied greatly; and suffereth not their cattle to decrease.

      39 Again, they are minished and brought low through oppression, affliction, and sorrow.

      40 He poureth contempt upon princes, and causeth them to wander in the wilderness, where there is no way.

      41 Yet setteth he the poor on high from affliction, and maketh him families like a flock.

      42 The righteous shall see it, and rejoice: and all iniquity shall stop her mouth.

      43 Whoso is wise, and will observe these things, even they shall understand the lovingkindness of the LORD.

      1 Samuel 2

      7 The LORD maketh poor, and maketh rich: he bringeth low, and lifteth up.

      8 He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the LORD's, and he hath set the world upon them.

      9 He will keep the feet of his saints, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness; for by strength shall no man prevail.

      Isaiah 58

      7 Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? when thou seest the naked, that thou cover him; and that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh?

      8 Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring forth speedily: and thy righteousness shall go before thee; the glory of the LORD shall be thy rear guard.

      9 Then shalt thou call, and the LORD shall answer; thou shalt cry, and he shall say, Here I am. If thou take away from the midst of thee the yoke, the putting forth of the finger, and speaking vanity;

      10 And if thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul; then shall thy light rise in obscurity, and thy darkness be as the noon day:

      11 And the LORD shall guide thee continually, and satisfy thy soul in drought, and make fat thy bones: and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters fail not.

      Matthew 5

      1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him:

      2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,

      3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

      4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be Comforted.

      5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.

      6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.

      7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

      8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

      9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.

      10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

      11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.

      12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

      13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

      14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.

      15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.

      16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

      17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.

      18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

      19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

      20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

      21 Ye have heard that it was said of them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

      22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

      23 Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;

      24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.

      25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.

      26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.

      27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:

      28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.

      29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

      30 And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

      31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:

      32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.

      33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:

      34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:

      35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.

      36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.

      37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

      38 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:

      39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.

      40 And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also.

      41 And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.

      42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.

      43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.

      44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;

      45 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.

      46 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?

      47 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?

      48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

      Matthew 25

      31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:

      32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:

      33 And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left.

      34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:

      35 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in:

      36 Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me.

      37 Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink?

      38 When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee?

      39 Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee?

      40 And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.

      41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:

      42 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink:

      43 I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not.

      44 Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?

      45 Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.

      46 And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

      Luke 2
      The Birth of Jesus

      1 In those days Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world.

      2(This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria.)

      3 And everyone went to his own town to register.

      4 So Joseph also went up from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to Bethlehem the town of David, because he belonged to the house and line of David.

      5 He went there to register with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him and was expecting a child.

      6 While they were there, the time came for the baby to be born,

      7 and she gave birth to her firstborn, a son. She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.

      Luke 4

      1 And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness,

      2 Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.

      3 And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.

      4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.

      5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.

      6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it.

      7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.

      8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

      9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence:

      10 For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee:

      11 And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

      12 And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.

      13 And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.

      Document 2: Chaucer, Geoffrey. (c. 1383). “The Begging Friar and the Pardoner”

      The wandering, begging religious figure is a common feature of many religions including Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism. This early account of the begging friar from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales also describes a Pardoner, who gave indulgences in return for contributions to the church.

      The Begging Friar and the Pardoner

      A Frere ther was, a wanton and a mery,

      A Limitour, a ful solempne man …

      Thereto he strong was a champioun,

      And knew wel the taverns in every toun,

      And every hosteler and gay tapstere,

      Better than a lazar or a beggere,

      For unto swiche a worthy man as he

      Accordeth nought, as by his faculte,

      To haven with sike lazars acquaintance.

      It is not honest, it may not avance,

      As for to delen with no swiche pouraille,

      But all with riche, and sellers of vitaille.

      And over all, ther as profit shuld arise,

      Curteis he was, and lowly of servise.

      Ther n'as no man nowher so virtuous.

      He was the beste begger in all of his hous:

      And gave a certaine ferme for the grant,

      None of the bretheren came in his haunt.

      For though a widewe hadde but a shoo,

      (So plesant was his In principio)

      Yet wold he have a ferthing or he went …

      With him ther rode a gentil PARDONERE,

      Of Rouncevall, his frend and his compere

      That streit was comen from the court of Rome …

      His wallet lay beforne him in his lappe

      Bret-ful of pardon come from Rome al hote …

      But of his craft, fro Berwike unto Ware,

      Ne was ther swiche an other pardonere.

      For in his male he hadde a pilwebere,

      Which, as he saide, was oure ladies veil:

      He saide, he hadde a gobbet of the seyl

      Thatte seinte Peter had, whan that he went

      Upon the see, till Jesu Crist him hent.

      He had a crois of laton ful of stones,

      And in a glas he hadde pigges bones.

      But with these relikes, whanne that he fond

      A poure person dwelling up on lond,

      Upon a day he gat him more moneie

      Than that the persone gat in monethes tweie.

      And thus with fained flattering and japes,

      He made the persone, and the peple, his apes.

      Document 3. Three Classification Schemes

      Germany in 1500. Luther, Martin. (1528). The Book of Vagabonds and Beggars

      London in 1561. The Fraternitye of Vacabondes. (1575/1561). London: Iohn Awdeley

      Venice in 1627. Nobili, Giacinto. (1627)

      Attempts to classify the homeless into categories seems to have been always part of efforts to explain, punish, and prevent homelessness and care for the homeless. The three schemes presented here are from obscure documents relating to London and Germany in the sixteenth century and Venice in the seventeenth.

      All of these have been reprinted in Ribton-Turner, C. J. (1887). A History of Vagrants and Vagrancy and Beggars and Begging. London: Chapman & Hall. Later attempts at classification can be found in Documents 9 and 12.

      See entries:

      The Mendicant Brotherhood (1500)

      Here follows a pretty little book, called Liber Vagatorum, written by a high and worthy master, nominee Expertus in Truffis, to the praise and glory of God, sibi in refrigerium et solacium, for all persons' instruction and benefit, and for the correction and conversion of those that practise such knaveries as are shown hereafter; which little book is divided into three parts. Part the first shows the several methods by which mendicants and tramps get their livelihood, and is subdivided into xx chapters, et paulo plu—for there are xx ways, et ultra, whereby men are cheated and fooled. Part the second give some notabilia which refer to the means of livelihood afore-mentioned. The third part presents a vocabulary of their language or gibberish, commonly called Red Welsh or Beggar lingo.

      The beggars are divided into the following classes:

      The Bregers, or beggars who simply ask an alms for God's or the Holy Virgin's sake.

      The Stabulers, or bread gatherers, who beg bread from the peasants and have their hats and cloaks full of signs of all the saints.

      The Lossners, or liberated prisoners, who pretend they have been captives among the infidel for several years.

      The Klenkners, or cripples, who sit at the church doors and attend fairs and church gatherings, with real or simulated sore or broken limbs.

      The Dobissers or Dopfers, or church mendicants, carrying about an image of the Virgin or some other saint, passing themselves off as friars, and begging money or contributions of various kinds for a church or chapel.

      The Kammesierers, or learned beggars. Young scholars or young students on the tramp.

      The Vagierern (strollers), clad in yellow garments, who profess to exorcise the devil for hail, for storm, and for witchcraft.

      The Grantners, or knaves with the falling sickness.

      The Dutzers, who pretend to have been ill for a long time, and say that they must obtain a certain sum in alms from each of three pious men each day.

      The Schleppers, or false begging priests.

      The Gickisses, or blind beggars.

      The Schwanfelders or Blickschlahers, or naked beggars.

      The Voppers, or demoniacs, for the most part women, who allow themselves to be led in chains as if they were raving mad.

      The Dallingers, or hangmen, who pretend to do penance for having been hangmen.

      The Dutzbetterins, or lying-in women, who pretend to have been recently confined, or that they have been pregnant with a monster which they must support.

      The Suntvegers, or pretended murderers, who say they have taken a man's life in self-defence, and unless they bring money at the right time they will have their heads cut off.

      The female Suntvegers, who pretend they formerly had led a loose life of which they now repent.

      The Bil-wearers or pretended pregnant women.

      The Jungfrauen (virgins), or pretend lepers.

      The Mumsen, beggars who go about under the pretence of begging.

      The Ubern Sonzen Ganger, or pretended noblemen and knights, who say they have suffered by war, fire, or captivity, or have been driven away and lost all they had.

      The Kandierers, or pretended mercers, who make people believe they had once been merchants over the sea.

      The Veranerins, or baptized Jewesses, who have turned Christians.

      The Christianiers Calmierers, or pretended pilgrims.

      The Seffers, or salvers, who smear themselves all over with salve as if their mouth and face had broken out in sores.

      The Schweigers, or jaundiced, who smear themselves with dung to give themselves the appearance of the yellow sickness, or other dreadful disease.

      The Burkhart, who tie their hands to their throat and say they have St. Anthony's penance or that of any other saint.

      The Platschierers, or blind harpers, who play on the lute in front of churches and tell lies as to the origin of their blindness.

      The Fraternity of Vagabonds (1561)

      The Fraternitye of Vacabondes. As wel of ruflyng Vacabondes, as of beggarly, of women as of men, of Gyrles as of Boyes, with their proper names and qualities. With a description of the Crafty Company of Cousoners and Shiftrs.

      Wherunto also is adioyned the XXV. Orders of Knaues otherwise called a Quartern of Knaues. Confirmed for ever by Cocke Lorell. Imprinted at London by Iohn Awdeley, 1575, (originally published about 1561).

      An Abraham Man

      An Abraham man is he that walketh bare armed, and bare legged, and fayneth hum selfe mad, and caryeth a packe of wool, or a stycke with baken on it, or such luke toy, and nameth himselfe poore Tom.

      A Ruffeler

      A Ruffeler goeth with a weapon to seeke seruice, saying he hath bene a Seruitor in the wars, and beggeth for his reliefe. But his chiefest trade is to robbe poore wayfaring men and market women.

      A Prygman

      A Prygman goeth with a stycke in hys hand like an idle person. His propertye is to steale cloathes of the hedge, which they call storing of the Rogeman: or else filtch Poultry, carrying them to the Alehouse, which they call the Bowsyng In, & ther syt playing at cardes and dice, tyl that is spent which they haue so filched.

      A Whipiacke

      A Whypiacke is one, that by coulor of a counterfaite Lisence (which they call a Gybe, and the seales they call Iarckes) doth vse to beg lyke a Maryner. But his chiefest trade is to rob Bowthes in a Faire, or to pilfer ware from staules, which they cal heauing of the Bowth.

      A Frater

      A frater goeth with a like Lisence to beg for some Spittlehouse or Hospital. Their pray is commonly upon poore women as they go and come to the Markets.

      A Quire Bird

      A Quire bird is one that came lately out of prison, & goeth to seek seruice. He is commonly a stealer of Horses, which they terme a Priggar of Paulfreys.

      An Vpright Man

      An Vpright man is one that goeth with the trunchion of a staffe, which staffe they cal a Filtchman. This man is of so much authority, that meeting with any of his profession, he may cal them to accompt, & commaund a share or snap vnto him selfe, of al that they haue gained by their trade in one moneth. And if he doo them wrong, they haue no remedy against him, no though he beate them as he useth commonly to do. He may also commaund any of their women, which they call Doxies, to serue his turne. He hath ye chiefe place at any market walke, & other assembles, & is not of any to be controlled.

      A Curtall

      A Curtall is much like the Vpright man, but hys authority is not fully so great. He vseth commonly to go with a short cloke, like to grey Friers, & his woman with him in like liuery, which he calleth his Altham if she be hys wife, & if she be his harlot, she is called his Doxy.

      A Palliard

      A Palliard is he that goeth in a patched cloke, and hys Doxy goeth in like apparel.

      An Irish Toyle

      An Irish Toyle is he that carieth his ware in hys wallet, as laces, pins, poyntes, and such like. He vseth to shew no wares vntill he haue his almes. And if the good man and wife be not in the way, he procureth of the children or seruants a fleece of wool, or the worth of xijd. Of some other thing, for a peniworth of his wares.

      A Iack Man

      A Iackeman is he that can write and reade, and somtime speake latin. He vseth to make counterfaite licenses which they call Gybes, and sets to Seales, in their language called Iarkes.

      A Swygman

      A Swygman goeth with a Pedlers pack.

      A Washman

      A Washman is called a Palliard, but not of the right making. He vseth to lye in the hye way with lame or sore legs or armes to beg. These men ye right Pilliards wil often times spoile, but they dare not complain. They be bitten with Spickworts, and somtime with rats bane

      A Tinkard

      A Tinkard leueth his bag a sweating at the Alehouse, which they terme their Bowsing In, and in the meane season goeth abrode a begging.

      A Wylde Roge

      A wilde Roge is he that hath no abiding place but by his coulour of going abrode to beg, is commonly to seeke some Kinsman of his, and all that be of hys corporation be properly called Roges

      A Kitchen Co

      A Kitchen Co is called an ydle runagate Boy.

      A Kitchen Mortes

      A Kitchen Mortes is a Gyrle, she is brought at her full age to the Vpright man to be broken, and so she is called a Doxy, vntil she come to ye honor of an Altham.

      Doxies

      Note especially all which go abroade working laces and shirt stringes, they name them Doxies.

      A Patriarke Co

      A Patriarke Co doth make marriages, & that is until death depart the married folke, which is after this sort: When they come to a dead Horse or any dead Catell, then they shake hands and so depart euery one of them a seuerall way.

      The Company of Cousoners and Shifters

      Under this head are described The CURTESY MAN who will humble salutations and low curtesy begs on behalf of “certaine of us … which haue come lately from the wars, … wher as we haue bene welthely brought up.” The CHEATOUR OF FINGERER. A professional gamester disguised as a countryman who with the aid of a confederate fleeces young men at taverns, and the RING FALLER who drops gilt copper rings in the streets and claims half the estimated value from the finder.

      Troll Hazard of Tritrace

      Troll hazard of tritrace, is he that goeth gaping after his Master, looking to and fro tyl he haue lost him. This Knaue goeth gasynge about lyke a foole at euery toy, and then seeketh in euery house lyke a Maisterles dog, and when his Maister nedeth him, he is to seeke.

      Obloquim

      Obloquium is hee that wyll take a tale out of his Maisters mouth and tell it him selfe. He of right may be called a malapert knaue.

      II Vagabondo Overo Sferza De Bianti E Vagabondi (1627)

      In 1627, Giacinto Nobili, a Dominican mock of Viterbo, who wrote under the pseudonym of Rafaele Frianoro, published at Venice, under Papal sanction, a work entitled Il Vagabondo overo sferza de Bianti e Vagabondi, the materials of which he appears to have drawn from some of the arch-vagabonds of the period. He divides vagabonds into thirty-four classes:

      Bianti, or Blessed, bearers of false bulls, indulgences, relics, &c.

      Felsi, or Cozeners, or false prophets, who gave out that they were inspired by God and gifted with the spirit of prophecy. They declared that there were concealed treasures in houses guarded by evil spirits, which could only be discovered through the medium of the sacrifices, prayers, and fastings of their confraternity, and that to search for these treasures in any other way would be to risk one's life.

      Affrati, or false monks, who, though they had never been ordained, nevertheless had the hardihood to celebrate mass, saying wherever they went that it was their first mass, in order to obtain more in alms or offerings. The Inquisition made short work of these rascals whenever they fell into its power.

      Falsi Bordoni, or false pilgrims, who sold medals and shells and solicited alms because they said they could not conscientiously live on their own means during their pilgrimage, through fear or breaking their vow.

      Acaptosi, or Redeemed Slaves, who pretended to have escaped from slavery and wanted money to redeem their relations.

      Affarfanti, or Charlatans, who invented miraculous events, stating that they had committed monstrous sins for which they had been punished by incurable disorders, until they were healed of them through having made a vow to wander through the world, for the purpose of recounting the effects of divine justice and of God's infinite mercy towards miserable sinners.

      Accoponi, or Ulcerated, who made ulcers on their legs with powder, toast, and hare's blood.

      Allacrimanti, or Weepers, who owed their name to the facility with which they shed tears at will, principally in the presence of women. They did not solicit anything, but always had their arms extended to receive offerings.

      Ascioni, or Stupid, who simulated madmen, or deaf and dumb people. They did not ask for anything, but kept their hands extended to receive alms.

      Accadenti, or Epileptics, who pretended to have fits whenever they were in the midst of a number of people from whom it seemed likely they would get alms.

      Cagnabaldi, or Exchangers, who persuaded people to exchange pearls, rings, &c., for pinchbeck.

      Mutatori, or Lenders, who professed to lend money without interest.

      Attremanti, or Tremblars, who shook in every limb, pretending to be impotent or paralytic.

      Admiranti, or Reciters of False Miracles, who pretended that an image of the virgin, or some other saint in a distant locality, had shed tears, or sweated, or inclined its head; they then sold a facsimile of it, which they declared had worked a miracle.

      Acconii, or Image-bearers of Saints, who carried images of the saints on their breasts to be kissed by the faithful.

      Attarantati, or Bitten, who pretended to be bitten by tarantulas, and to be in consequence smitten with a form of madness. They indulged in the most extravagant capers and did not solicit anything; the companion who conducted them, however, accepted alms.

      Appezzenti, or Bread-eaters, who pretended to eat nothing else. They sold all the whole loaves they collected and eat only the pieces.

      Cocchini, or tattered rogues, answering to our shallow coves or shivering jimmies, who went naked, even in winter, and collected clothes and money, though they pretended to prefer nudity and poverty for the love of God.

      Spettrini, or False Priests, resembling the English frater, who pretended to collect for hospitals, and pocketed the money.

      Iucchi or Ribattezzati, Christianised or Rebaptised Jews, visions or incredible miracles. In every town they came to they caused themselves to be rebaptised, and by this means drew valuable gifts from their sponsors and others.

      Falpatori, or Masters of Arts, aged or impotent rascals, who taught children the art of cheating.

      Affarinati, or Flourerers, who begged flour to make holy wafers to be used at the celebration of masses for the living and dead.

      Allampadati, or Lampists, who during Passion Week and at the great festivals begged oil for the lamps which are lighted in front of the host, or the images of the virgin.

      Reliquiarii, or Vendors of False Relics.

      Pauliani, or Paulists, who pretended to descend from the Apostle Paul, and drove away snakes and eat and drank venomous things, for which they swallowed antidotes beforehand.

      Allacerbanti or Protobianti, or Head Rogues, who often cheated one another.

      Calcidiarii, or Advisers of Pregnant Women, who made pregnant women believe that they would miscarry or meet with other misfortunes unless they made offerings of tapers, wine, bread, and anything else in season, which these rascals appropriated.

      Lotori, or Bathers, who pretended to be in possession of miraculous water which would make infants grow to an extraordinary degree, or cause them to die.

      Crociarii, or Saffroners, rogues who sold saffron in places where it did not exist, and cheated people as to its value.

      Comparizanti, or Searchers for Godfathers, who endeavored to relieve themselves of the expenses of childbirth and nursing, and at the same time to curry favour with the rich by making them sponsors for their children.

      Affamiglioli, or Fathers of Families who carried about a number of children.

      Poveri Vergognosi, or Respectable Poor ashamed to beg.

      Morghigeri, or Bellringers, who carried a lamp and a bell and asked alms for their prayers.

      Testatori, or Testators, who pretended to be ill and bequeath money to their protectors.

      Religious superstition appears to have been the keynote of most of these forms of rascality.

      Document 4: Harman, Thomas. (c. 1567). “A Caveat or Warening for Commen Corsetors, vulgarely called Vagabones”

      Variously referred to as an argot, cant, or lexicon, the real or imagined unique languages attributed to traveling and homeless people over the centuries by observers have always fascinated the public. Believing that these peoples spoke “secret” languages both romanticized the traveling way of life and helped to mark travelers as a separate category of people. There is reason to believe that the lexicon attributed to traveling peoples, hoboes, tramps, and others was perhaps less important to the people themselves than to outsiders. All social groups that persist over time whether they be occupational, ethnic, fraternal, etc., develop and use their own lexicon in private. Traveling peoples were no different.

      The following list of terms is believed to be the first written list produced in England, by Thomas Harman in 1566 or 1567. Harman was one of a number of pamphleteers in Elizabethan England who studies and wrote of the underlife—beggars, thieves, prostitutes, cheats—of the time. His work and that of others are Considered to be early forms of the novel and the rich descriptions of social life influenced Shakespeare and other dramatists and writers.

      Another example of argot for hoboes and tramps in the United States in the early twentieth century is provided in Document 13.

      See entries:

      Nab, a head. Nabchet, a hat or cap. Glasyers, eyes. A smelling chete, a nose. Gan, a mouth. A commission, a shierte Drawers, hosen. A mofling chete, a napkin. A belly chete, an apern. Dudes, clothes. A lag of dudes, a bucke of clothes. A slate of slates, a sheete or sheets. Lybbege, a bed. Bunge, a purse. Lowre, money. Mynt, golde. A bord, a shylling. Halfe a borde, sixpence. Flagg, a groate. A wyn, a penny. A make, a halfe peny. Bowse, drynke. Bene, good. Benshyp, very good. Bufe, a dog. The lightmans, the daye. The darkemans, the nyght. Rome vyle, London. Dewse a vyle, the countrey. Rome mort, the Quene. A gentry cofe, a noble or gentleman. A gentry morte, a noble or gentle woman. The quyer cuffyn, the Justicer of peace. The Harman beck, the counstable. The harmans, the stockes. Quyerkyn, a pryson house. Quier crampringes, boltes or fetters. Tryninge, hanginge. Chattes, the gallowes. A prattling chete, a tounge. Crashing chetes, teeth. Hearing chetes, eares. Fambles, handes. A fambling chete, a rynge on thy hand Quier, nought. A gage, a quarte pot. A skew, a cuppe. Pannam, bread. Cassan, cheese. Yaram, mylke. Lap, butter milke or whey. Pek, meate. Poppelars, porrage. Ruff pek, baken. A grunting chete or a patricos kynchen, a pyg. A cakling chete, a cocke or capon. A Margery prater, a hen. A roger or tyb of the buttery, a goose. A quakinge chete or a red shanke, a drake or duck. Grannam, corne. A lowhinge chete, a cowe. A bleting chete, a calfe or sheepe. The high pad, the high waye. The ruffmans, the wodes or bushes. Crassinge chetes, apels, peares, or anye other frute. To fylche, to beate, to stryke, to robbe. To nyp a bounge, to cut a pursse. To skower the cramp rings, to weare boltes or fetters. To heve a bough, to robbe or rifle a boeweth. To cly the gerke, to be whipped. To cutte benle, to speake gently. To cutte bene whydds, to speake or geve good wordes. To cutte guyre whyddes, to geve evell wordes or evell language. To cutte, to saye. Quaromes, a body. Prat, a buttocke. Stampes, legges. A caster, a cloke. A togeman, a cote. A prauncer, a horse. Autem, a church. Salomon, a alter or masse. Patrico, a priest. Nosegent, a nunne. A gybe, a writing. A larke, a seale. A ken, a house. A staulinge ken, a house that wyll receave stolen ware. A bousing ken, a ale house. A lypken, a house to lye in. A lybbege, a bedde. Glymmar, fyre. Rome bouse, wyne. Lage, water. A skipper, a barne. Strommell, strawe. A gentry cofes ken, a noble or gentleman's house. A gygger, a doore. To towre, to see. To bowse, to drynke. To maunde, to aske or require. To stall, to make or ordaine. To cante, to speake. To myll a ken, to robbe a house. To prygge, to ride. To dup the gyger, to open the door. To couch a hogshead, to lye down and sleepe. To nygle, to have to do with a woman carnally. Stow you, holde your peace. Bynge a waste, go you hence. To the ruffian, to the devell. The ruffian cly the, the devyll take thee. The following cant words are also used in the work, although not included in the vocabulary: Abraham men, those that feign themselves to have been mad. Autem mortes, married women, “they be as chaste as a cow.” Baudye baskets, women who go with baskets and cap cases on their arms. Beck, a constable. Bena bowse, good drink. Beray dung, dirty. Booget, a traveling tinker's basket. Bottel of strawe, a truss. Bucks, baskets. Chete, a thing. Clapper dudgeon, another name for a palliard. Cly, to take, or have. Cofe, an individual. Cranke, the falling evil. Cuffin, a man. Dell, a young wench. Dock, to deflower. Doxes, unchaste girls. Factors, tax-gatherers. Frater, a pretended collector of alms from some benevolent object. Freshe water mariners, sham sailors. Gerry, excrement. Gyllot, a prostitute. Jarkeman, one who makes writings and set seals for licenses and passports. Kynchin co., a young boy brought up to vagabondage. Kynching morte, a little girl brought up to vagabondage. Lycke, to beat. Lyp, to lie down. Morte, a woman. Nase, drunken. Pallyard, a beggar with manufactured sores. Pelte, clothes. Prigger of prauncers, a horse stealer. Prygges, a name applied to drunken tinkers. Quire bird, one who has lately come out of prison. Rome, good. Togemans, a cloak. Watch: my watch, me; our watch, us. Whyddes, words. Whip Jacke, a sham sailor. Wylde roge, a born beggar.
      Document 5: An Act for the Relief of the Poor. Anno xliii. Reginæ ElizabethÆ. Cap. II. (1601)

      The notion that the local community should support the poor in the community goes back nearly 2,000 years in England. It reflected the communal nature of life in rural England, which called for cooperation particularly in farming. From the fourteenth into the sixteenth centuries, wool was England's major farm product with large tracts of grazing land held by wealthy families and worked by local peasants. Those who could not find work became homeless and moved about the countryside and moved to cities in search of work or charity. Population growth and famine in the late 1500s dramatically increased the number of wandering poor, many of whom could no longer be supported under the traditional system.

      The official reaction was a series of “Poor Laws” enacted from 1563 to 1601 during the Elizabethan period. The Act for the Relief of the Poor of 1601 brought together the new policies of these earlier acts and remained the law until replaced in 1834 by the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 (See Document 8). The 1601 Act distinguished between the deserving (the elderly and the very young, the infirm, and families who occasionally found themselves in financial difficulties due to a change in circumstance) and the undeserving (criminals such as highwaymen or pickpockets, migrant workers who roamed the country looking for work, and beggars) poor. The Act also codified the 1572 compulsory local poor law tax, the 1576 idea of workhouses for the poor, and the 1597 post of overseer of the poor.

      These laws were the first step in creating a welfare state in England, with the government (now the local governments and in the twentieth century the county governments) responsible for the poor. The new laws did not alleviate poverty and by the early nineteenth century poverty and homelessness had become so severe that local communities could no longer cope. A new law in 1834 reformed the system and when it too proved inadequate, another new system was promulgated in 1929.

      See entries:

      An Act for the Relief of the Poor (1601)

      Be it enacted by the Authority of this present Parliament, That the Churchwardens of every Parish, and four, three or two substantial Housholders there, as shall be thought meet, having respect to the Proportion and Greatness of the Same Parish and Parishes, to be nominated yearly in Easter Week, or within one Month after Easter, under the Hand and Seal of two or more Justices of the Peace in the same County, whereof one to be of the Quorum, dwelling in or near the same Parish or Division where the same Parish doth lie, shall be called Overseers of the Poor of the same Parish: And they, or the greater Part of them, shall take order from Time to Time, by, and with the Consent of two or more such Justices of Peace as is aforesaid, for setting to work the Children of all such whose Parents shall not by the said Churchwardens and Overseers, or the greater Part of them. be thought able to keep and maintain their Children: And also for setting to work all such Persons, married or unmarried, having no Means to maintain them, and use no ordinary and daily Trade of Life to get their Living by: And also to raise weekly or otherwise (by Taxation of every Inhabitant, Parson, Vicar and other, and of every Occupier of Lands, Houses, Tithes impropriate, Propriations of Tithes, Coal-Mines, or saleable Underwoods in the said Parish, in such competent Sum and Sums of Money as they shall think fit) a convenient Stock of Flax, Hemp, Wool, Thread, Iron, and other necessary Ware and Stuff, to set the Poor on Work: And also competent Sums of Money for and towards the necessary Relief of the Lame, Impotent, Old, Blind, and such other among them being Poor, and not able to work, and also for the putting out of such Children to be apprentices, to be gathered out of the same Parish, according to the Ability of the same Parish, and to do and execute all other Things as well for the disposing of the said Stock, as otherwise concerning the Premisses, as to them shall seem convenient:

      II. Which said Churchwardens and Overseers so to be nominated, or such of them as shall not be let by Sickness or other just Excuse, to be allowed by two such Justices of Peace or more as is aforesaid, shall meet together at the least once every Month in the Church of the said Parish, upon the Sunday in the Afternoon, after Divine Service, there to consider of some good Course to be taken, and of some meet Order to be set down in the Premisses; and shall within four Days after the End of their Year, and after other Overseers nominated as aforesaid, make and yield up to such two Justices of Peace, as is aforesaid, a true and perfect Account of all Sums of Money by them received, or rated and sessed and not received, and also of such Stock as shall be in their Hands, or in the Hands of any of the Poor to work, and of all other Things concerning their said Office, and such Sum or Sums of Money as shall be in their Hands, shall pay and deliver over to the said Churchwardens and Overseers, newly nominated and appointed as aforesaid; upon Pain that everyone of them absenting themselves without lawful Cause as aforesaid from such Monthly Meeting for the Purpose aforesaid, or being negligent in their Office, or in the Execution of the Orders aforesaid, being made by and with the Assent of the said Justices of Peace, or any two of them before-mentioned, to forfeit for every such Default of Absence or Negligence twenty Shillings.

      III. And be it also enacted, That if the said Justices of Peace do perceive, that the Inhabitants of any Parish are not able to levy among themselves sufficient Sums of Money for the Purposes aforesaid; That then the said two Justices shall and may tax, rate and assess, as aforesaid, any other of other Parishes, or out of any Parish, within the Hundred where the said Parish is, to pay such Sum and Sums of Money to the Churchwardens and Overseers of the said poor Parish, for the said Purposes, as the said Justices shall think fit, according to the Intent of this Law: And if the said Hundred shall not be thought to the said Justices able and fit to relieve the said several Parishes not able to provide for themselves as aforesaid; then the Justices of Peace, at their General Quarter-Sessions, or the greater Number them, shall rate, and assess as aforesaid, any other of other Parishes, or out of any Parish within the said County, for the Purposes aforesaid, as in their Discretion shall seem fit.

      IV. And that it shall be lawful, as wall for the present as subsequent Churchwardens and Overseers or any of them, by Warrant, from any two such Justices of Peace as is aforesaid, to levy as well the said Sums of Money and all Arrearages, of everyone that shall refuse to Contribute according as they shall be assessed, by Distress and Sale of the Offenders Goods, as the Sums of Money or Stock which shall be behind on any Account to be made as aforesaid, rendering to the Parties the Overplus, and in Defect of such Distress, it shall be lawful for any such two Justices of the Peace, to commit him or them to the common Gaol of the County, there to remain without Bail or Mainprize, until payment of the said Sum, Arrearages and Stock: and the said Justices of Peace or any of them, to send to the House of Correction or common Gaol, such as shall not employ themselves to work, being appointed thereunto as aforesaid: and also any such two Justices of Peace to commit to the said Prison every one of the said Churchwardens and Overseers, who shall refuse to account, there to remain without Bail or Mainprize, until he have made a true Account, and satisfied and paid so much as upon the said Account shall be remaining in his Hands.

      V. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Churchwardens and Overseers, or the greater Part of them, by the Assent of any two Justices of the Peace aforesaid, to bind any such Children as aforesaid to be Apprentices, where they shall see Convenient, till such Man-child shall come to the Age of four and twenty Years, and such Woman-child to the Age of one and twenty Years, or the Time of her Marriage; the same to be as effectual to all Purposes as if such Child were of full Age, and by Indenture of Covenant bound him or her self. And to the Intent that necessary Places of Habitation may more conveniently be provided for such poor impotent People; Be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that it shall and may be lawful for the said Churchwardens and Overseers, or the greater Part of them, by the Leave of the Lord or Lords of the Manor, whereof any Waste or Common within their Parish is or shall be Parcel, and upon Agreement before with him or them made in Writing, under the Hands and Seals of the said Lord or Lords, or otherwise, according to any Order to be set down by the Justices of Peace of the said County at the General Quarter Sessions, or the greater Part of them, by like Leave and Agreement of the said Lord or Lords in Writing under his or their Hands and Seals, to erect, build and set up in fit and convenient Places of Habitation, in such Waste or Common, at the general Charges of the Parish or otherwise of the Hundred or County as aforesaid, to be taxed, rated and gathered in Manner before expressed, Convenient Houses of Dwelling for the said impotent Poor; and also to place Inmates or more Families than one in one Cottage or House; one Act made in the one and thirtieth Year of her Majesty's Reign, intituled, An Act against the erecting and maintaining of Cottages, or any Thing therein contained, to the contrary notwithstanding: Which Cottages and Places for Inmates shall not at any Time after be used or employed to or for any other Habitation, but only for Impotent and Poor of the same Parish, that shall be there placed from Time to Time by the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the same Parish, or the most Part of them, upon the Pains and Forfeitures contained in the said former Act made in the said one and thirtieth Year of her Majesty's Reign.

      VI. Provided always, That if any Person or Persons shall find themselves grieved with any Sess or Tax, or other Act done by the said Churchwardens, and other Persons, or by the said Justices of Peace; that then it shall be lawful for the Justices of Peace at their General Quarter Sessions, or the greater Number of them, to take such Order therein as to them shall be thought convenient; and the same to conclude and bind all the said Parties.

      VII. And be it further enacted, That the Father and Grandfather, and the Mother and Grandmother, and the Children of every poor, old, blind, lame, and impotent Person or other poor Person not able to work, being of a sufficient Ability, shall, at their own Charges, relieve and maintain every such poor Person in that Manner, and according to that Rate, as by the Justices of Peace of that County where such sufficient Persons dwell, or the greater Number of them, at their General Quarter Sessions shall be assessed; upon Pain that every one them shall forfeit twenty Shillings for every Month, which they shall fail therein.

      VIII. And be it further hereby enacted, That the Mayors, Bailiffs, or other Head Officers of every Town and Place Corporate and City within this Realm, being Justice or Justices of Peace, shall have the same Authority by Virtue of this Act, within the Limits and Precincts of their Jurisdictions, as well out of Sessions, as at their Sessions, if they hold any, as is herein limited, prescribed and appointed to Justices of the Peace of the County, or any two or more of them, or to the Justices of Peace in their Quarter-Sessions, to do and execute for all the Uses and Purposes in this Act prescribed, and no other Justice or Justices of Peace to enter or meddle there: and that every Alderman of the City of London within his Ward, shall and may do and execute in every Respect so much as is appointed and allowed by this Act to be done and executed by one or two Justices of Peace of any County within this Realm.

      IX. And be it also enacted, That if it shall happen any Parish to extend itself into more Counties than one, or Part to lie within the Liberties of any City, Town, or Place Corporate, and Part without, that then, as well the Justices of Peace of every County, as also the Head Officers of such City, Town or Place Corporate, shall deal and intermeddle only in so much of the said Parish, as lieth within their Liberties, and not any further: And every of them respectively within their several Limits, Wards, and Jurisdictions, to execute the Ordinances before-mentioned concerning the Nomination of Overseers, the Consent to binding Apprentices, the giving Warrant to levy Taxations unpaid, the taking account of Churchwardens and Overseers, and the committing to Prison such as refuse to account, or deny to pay the Arrearages due upon their Accounts; and yet nevertheless, the said Churchwardens and Overseers, or the most Part of them, of the said Parishes that do extend into such several Limits and Jurisdictions, shall, without dividing themselves, duely execute their Office in all Places within the said Parish, in all Things to them belonging, and shall duly exhibit and make one Account before the said Head Officers of the Town or Place Corporate, and one other before the said Justices of Peace, or any such two of them, as is aforesaid.

      X. And further be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if in any Place within this Realm there happen to be hereafter no such Nomination of Overseers yearly, as is before appointed, That then every Justice of Peace of the County, dwelling within the Division where such default of Nomination shall happen, and every Mayor, Alderman and Head Officer of City, Town or Place Corporate, where such Default shall happen, shall lose and forfeit for such default five Pounds, to be employed towards the Relief of the Poor of the said Parish or Place Corporate, and to be levied as aforesaid, of their Goods, by Warrant from the General Sessions of the Peace of the said County, or of the same City, Town, or Place Corporate, if they keep Sessions.

      XI. And be it also enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that all Penalties and Forfeitures, before-mentioned in this Act to be forfeited by any Person or Persons, shall go and be employed to the Use of the Poor of the same Parish, and towards a Stock and Habitation for them, and other necessary Uses and Relief, as before in this Act are mentioned and expressed; and shall be levied by the said Churchwardens and Overseers, or one of them, by Warrant from any two such Justices of Peace, or Mayor, Alderman, or Head Officer of City, Town or Place Corporate respectively within their several Limits, by Distress and Sale thereof, as aforesaid; or in Defect thereof it shall be lawful for any two such Justices of Peace, and the said Aldermen and Head Officers within their several Limits, to commit the Offender to the said Prison, there to remain without Bail or Mainprize till the said Forfeitures shall be satisfied and paid.

      XII. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the Justices of Peace of every County or Place Corporate, or the more Part of them, in their General Sessions to be holden next after the Feast of Easter next, and so yearly as often as they shall think meet, shall rate every Parish to such a weekly Sum of Money as they shall think convenient; so as no Parish be rated above the Sum of Sixpence, nor under the Sum of a Halfpenny, weekly to be paid, and so as the total Sum of such Taxation of the Parishes in every County amount not above the rate of Two-pence for every Parish within the said County: Which Sums so taxed shall be yearly assessed by the Agreement of the Parishioners within themselves, or in Default thereof, by the Churchwardens and Petty Constables of the same Parish, or the more Part of them: Or in Default of their Agreement, by the Order of such Justice or Justices of Peace as shall dwell in the same Parish, or (if none be there dwelling) in the Parts next adjoining.

      XIII. And if any Person shall refuse or neglect to pay any such Portion of Money so taxed, it shall be lawful for the said Churchwardens and Constables, or any of them, or in their Default, for any Justice of Peace of the said Limit, to levy the same by Distress and Sale of the Goods of the Party so refusing or neglecting, rendering to the Party the Overplus: And in Default of such Distress, it shall be lawful to any Justice of that Limit to commit such Person to the said Prison, there to abide without Bail or Mainprize till he have paid the same.

      XIV. And be it also enacted, That the said Justices of Peace at their General Quarter-Sessions to be holden at the Time of such Taxation, shall set down what competent Sums of Money shall be sent quarterly out of every County or Place Corporate, for the Relief of the poor Prisoners of the King's Bench and Marshalsea, and also of such Hospitals and Almshouses as shall be in the said County, and what Sums of Money shall be sent to every one of the said Hospitals and Alms-houses, so as there be sent out of every County yearly twenty Shillings at the least, to each of the said Prisons of the King's Bench and Marshalsea; which Sums ratably to be assessed upon every Parish, the Churchwardens of every Parish shall truly collect and pay over to the High Constables, in whose Division such Parish shall be situate, from Time to Time, quarterly, ten Days before the End of every quarter; and every such Constable at every such Quarter-Sessions in such County, shall pay over the same to such two Treasurers, or to one of them, as shall by the more Part of the Justices of Peace of the County be elected to be the said Treasurers, to be chosen by the Justices of Peace of the said County, City or Town, or Place Corporate, or of others which were sessed and taxed at five Pounds Lands, or ten Pounds Goods, at the least, at the Tax of Subsidy next before the Time of the said Election to be made; and the said Treasurers so elected to continue for the Space of one whole Year in their Office, and then to give up their Charge, with a due Account of their Receipts and Disbursements, at the Quarter-Sessions to be holden next after the feast of Easter in every Year, to such others as shall from Year to Year, in Form aforesaid, successively be elected Treasurers for the said County, City, Town or Place Corporate; which said Treasurers, or one of them, shall pay over the same to the Lord Chief Justice of England, and Knight Marshal for the Time being, equally to be divided to the Use aforesaid, taking their Acquittance for the same, or in Default of the said Chief Justice, to the next antientest Justice of the King's Bench, as aforesaid: And if any Churchwarden or High Constable, or his Executors or Administrators, shall fail to make Payment in Form above specified, then every Churchwarden, his Executors or Administrators, so offending shall forfeit for every Time the Sum of Ten Shillings; and every High Constable, his Executors or Administrators, shall forfeit for every Time the Sum of twenty Shillings: the same Forfeitures, together with the Sums behind, to be levied by the said Treasurer and Treasurers by way of Distress and Sale of the Goods as aforesaid, in Form aforesaid, and by them to be employed towards the charitable Uses comprised in this Act.

      XV. And be it further enacted, That all the Surplusage of Money which shall be remaining in the said Stock of any County, shall by Discretion of the more Part of the Justices of Peace in their Quarter Sessions, be ordered, distributed and bestowed for the Relief of the Poor Hospitals of that County, and of those that shall sustain Losses by Fire, Water, the Sea, or other Casualties, and to such other charitable Purposes, for the Relief of the Poor, as to the more Part of the said Justices of Peace shall seem convenient.

      XVI. And be it further enacted, That if any Treasurer elected shall willfully refuse to take upon him the said Office of Treasurership, or refuse to distribute and give Relief or to account, according to such Form as shall be appointed by the more Part of the said Justices of Peace, that then it shall be lawful for the Justices of Peace in their Quarter-Sessions, or in their Default, for the Justices of Assize, at the Assizes to be holden in the same County, to fine the same Treasurer by their Discretion; The same Fine not to be under three Pounds, and to be levied by Sale of his Goods, and to be prosecuted by any two of the said Justices of Peace whom they shall authorise. Provided always, That this Act shall not take Effect until the Feast of Easter next.

      XVII. And be it enacted, That the Statute made in the nine and thirtieth Year of her Majesty's reign, intituled, An Act for the Relief of the Poor, shall continue and stand in Force until the Feast of Easter next; and that all Taxations heretofore imposed and not paid, nor that shall be paid before the said Feast of Easter next, and that all Taxes hereafter before the said Feast to be taxed by Virtue of the said former Act, which shall not be paid before the said Feast of Easter, shall and may after the said Feast of Easter be levied by the Overseers and other Persons in this Act respectively appointed to levy Taxations, by Distress, and by such Warrant in every Respect, as if they had been taxed and imposed by Virtue of this Act' and were not paid.

      XVIII. Provided always, That whereas the Island of Fowlness in the County of Essex, being environed with the Sea, and having a Chapel of Ease for the Inhabitants thereof, and yet the said Island is no Parish, but the Lands in the same are situated within divers Parishes far distant from the said Island; Be it therefore enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the said Justices of Peace shall nominate and appoint Inhabitants within the said Island, to be Overseers for the poor People dwelling within the said Island, and that both they the said Justices and the said Overseers shall have the same power and authority to all Intents, Considerations and Purposes for the Execution of the Parts and Articles of this Act, and shall be subject to the same Pains and Forfeitures, and likewise that the Inhabitants and Occupiers of Lands there shall be liable and chargeable to the same Payments, Charges, Expences and Orders, in such Manner and Form as if the same Island were a Parish: In Consideration whereof, neither the said Inhabitants, or Occupiers of Land within the said Island, shall not be compelled to contribute to the Relief of the Poor of those Parishes wherein their houses or lands which they occupy within the said Island are situated, for or by Reason of their said Habitations or Occupyings, other than for the Relief of the poor People within the said Island, neither yet shall the other Inhabitants of the Parishes wherein such Houses or Lands are situated, be compelled, by Reason of their Resiancy or Dwelling, to contribute to the Relief of the poor Inhabitants within the said Island.

      XIX. And be it further enacted, That if any action of Trespass or other Suit shall happen to be attempted and brought against any Person or Persons, for taking of any Distress, making of any Sale, or any other Thing doing, by Authority of this present Act, the Defendant or Defendants in any such Action or Suit shall and may either plead Not guilty, or otherwise make Avowry, Cognisance or Justification for the Taking of the said Distresses, Making of Sale, or other Things doing by Virtue of this Act, alledging in such Avowry, Cognisance, or Justification, that the said Distress, Sale, Trespass or other Thing, whereof the Plaintiff or Plaintiffs complained, was done by Authority of this Act, and according to the Tenor, Purport and Effect of this Act, without any Expressing or Rehearsal of any other Matter or Circumstance Contained in this present Act: To which Avowry, Cognisance or Justification, the Plaintiff shall be admitted to reply, That the Defendant did take the said Distress, made the said Sale, or did any other Act or Trespass supposed in his Declaration, of his own Wrong, without any such Cause alledged by the said Defendant; whereupon the Issue in every such Action shall be joined, to be tried by Verdict of twelve Men, and not otherwise, as is accustomed in other Personal actions: And upon the Trial of that Issue the whole Matter to be given on both parties in Evidence, according to the very truth of the Same; and after such Issue tried for the Defendant, or Nonsuit of the Plaintiff after Appearance, the same Defendant to recover treble Damages, by reason of his wrongful Vexation in that Behalf, with his Costs also in that Part sustained, and that to be assessed by the same Jury, or Writ to enquire of the Damages, as the same shall require.

      XX. Provided always, That this Act shall endure no longer than to the End of the next Session of Parliament.

      Document 6: “The Cunning Northern Beggar”

      From the Roxburghe Collection of Ballads, compiled by Robert Harley. (c. 1635)

      This ballad collected from northern England in the 1600s is an early example of homeless autobiography. It should be read with James Chambers “The Poor Poetaster” in Document 7.

      See entries:

      The Cunning Northern Beggar
      The Cunning Northerne Begger, Who all the By-standers doth earnestly pray, To bestow a penny upon him to-day. To the Tune of Tom of Bedlam. I am a lusty begger And live by others giving, I scorne to worke But by the highway lurke, And beg to get my living: I'le ‘ith wind and weather, And weare all ragged Garments, Yet though I'm bare, I' free from care; A fig for high preferments. For still will I cry good your worship good sir, Bestow one poore denied sir; Which when I've got At the Pipe and Pot, I soone will it casheere sir. I have my shifts about me, Like Proteus often changing My shape when I will, I alter still, About the Country ranging; As soone as I a Coatch see, Or Gallants by come riging, I take my Crutch And rouse from my Couch, Whereas I lay abiding. And still doe I cry, &c. Now like a wandring Souldier (That has ‘ith Warres bin maimed, With the shot of a Gunne) To Gallants I runne And begg Sir helpe the lamed, I am a poore old Souldier, And beter times once viewed, Though bare now I goe, Yet many a foe, By me hath bin subdued. And therefore I cry, &c. Although I nere was further Then Kentish Street in Southwarke, Nor ere did see A Battery Made against any Bulwarke, But with my Trulls and Doxes, Lay in some corner lurking, And nere went abroad But to beg on the road, To keepe my selfe from working. And always to cry, &c. Anon I'm like a saylor, And weare old Canvas cloathing, And then I say The Dunkerks away, Tooke all and left me nothing: Six ships set all upon us, ‘Gainst which wee bravely ventur'd, And long withstood, Yet could doe no good, Our ship at length they enter'd. And therefore I cry good your worship good sir Bestow one poore denier sir: Which when I've got, At the Pepe and Pot, &c. The second part. To the same tune. Sometime I like a Criple, Upon the ground lye crawling, For money I begge, As wanting a legge To beare my corps from falling, Then seeme I weake of body, And long t' have been diseased, And make complaint, As ready to faint, And of my griefes increased, And faintly I cry good your worship good sir, Bestow one poore denier sir, Which when I've got, At the Pipe and Pot, I soone will it casheere sir. My flesh I so can temper, That it shall seeme to feister, And looke all or'e Like a raw sore, Whereupon I sticke a plaister. With blood I daub my face then, To faigne the falling sicknesse, That in every place They pitty my case, As if it came through weakenesse, And then I doe cry, &c. Then as if my sight I wanted, A boy doth walke beside me, Or else I doe Grope as I goe Or have a Dog to guide me: And when I'm thus accounted, To th’ highway side I hye me And there I stand With cords in my hand, And beg of all comes nye me. And earnestly cry good for worship good sir Bestow one poore denier, &c. Next to some country fellow, I presently am turned, And cry alacke With a child at y back, My house and goods were burned: Then me my Doxes followes, Who for my wifes believed, And along wee two Together goe, With such mischances grieved. And still we doe cry good your worship, &c. What though I cannot labour, Shall I therefore pine with hunger No, rather then I Will starve where I lye. I'le beg of the money monger. No other care shall trouble My minde, or griefe disease me, Though sometimes the slash I get, or the lash, Twill but a while displease me, And still I will cry good your worship good sir Bestow one, &c. No tricks at all shall scape me But I will by my maunding Get some reliefe To ease my griefe, When by the highway standing: Tis better be a Begger, And aske of kinde goode fellows And honestly have What we doe crave Then steale and go to ‘th’ Gallowes. Therefore ‘Ile cry good your worship good sir, Bestow one poore denier sir. Which when I've got At the Pipe and Pot, I soone will it casheere sir. FINIS.
      Document 7: Chambers, James. (1820). “The Poor Poetaster”

      From The Political Works of James Chambers, Itinerant Poet, With the Life of the Author

      In his poem, “The Poor Poetaster,” poet James Chambers (b. 1748) provides much detail about the lives of the poor and homeless in England in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. A poetaster is an inferior poet.

      See entries:

      To the Reader

      Many, probably, on hearing the character and appearance of the Author of these Poems, may prepossess themselves very unfavourably as to the worth of them. But as prejudice (as many of his readers will doubtless allow from experience) is often erroneous, and reversed, after an accurate examination, it is earnestly hoped, and sanguinely anticipated, that it will, after a perusal, meet with a defeat, however obdurately it may be implanted in the mind, when candour, with deliberate and unbiased feelings advances, and foil the abrupt conceptions originating in an unreasonable and ungrounded opinion.

      The author truly lives in a despicable state of wretchedness, appareled in the most unsightly, and filthy rags; but as the addition of fine splendid robes conveys no refinement of sentiment to the wearer, neither can the tattered weeds of indigence smother, enervate, or contract the genuine vigor of poetic effusion, emanating from real genius.

      We mean no disparagement to virtuous wealth, but poverty is by no means degenerating or lessening to the mind of the owner.

      Pigmies are pigmies still, tho' perch'd on Alps, And pyramids are pyramid in vales. Each man makes his own stature. Virtue alone Outbinds the pyraminds, her monuments shall last When Egypts fall. Young

      Since then the garb cannot delineate the mind, affluence add, nor indigence diminish, (when combined with content,) the sterling flowings of the heart, impartiality, prompted by humanity, will admit of no such obstacles to a circumstanced candid decision.

      Some Christians shun a nightly Fair, And say there works of darkness are, Ebriety and fornication Abound in this our christian nation, Blasphemy, luxury, and pride, Disgrace the Fairs at Whitsuntide. I hope, my friends each vice will cease, And Fairs and Markets not disgrace, That virtues in their stead may reign, And discord ne'er our bosoms pain, With plenty may we be supplied, And peace enjoy at Whitsuntide.
      The Poor Poetaster
      I, the poor Poetaster, bewail my hard fate, Sad losses and cares have depress'd me of late, My cash is dispers'd, friends seem to turn foes, I've walk'd till I'm weary, and worn out my clothes. My stockings are torn as I walk in the dirt, And some months I've existed without any shirt. My feet they go wet, and my neck takes much cold, And rustics despise me because mean and old; As to pay for a bed I've of late not been able, By permission I've slept on some straw in a stable; Friends lent me a cloth to preserve me from harm, In sharp freezing weather I sometimes lie warm; I lodg'd in a calf's-crib by leave of a friend, Gelid snow and short straw did promiscuously blend; The boys did insult me, they filched my store, They my property spoil-'tis my fate to be poor: From place then to place I was harass'd about, Ston'd, robb'd, and insulted by every base lout; While I was at Church they play'd a sad joke, They stole all my nets, and my pitcher they broke; I mov'd to a whin-shed, ‘twas worse still indeed, They filch'd my good books, now I've not one to read; Into a cold pig-stye I sometimes did creep, Undress'd me, and there on the damp floor did sleep, Stones came in the day, and snow in the night, Which hurt me and chill'd me, forbidding delight, Dire foes to insult me exerted their spite; When under a corn-hole I often reclin'd, There was a low ceiling was nightly confin'd, A bed in the straw-stack I made down below, The rain pour'd upon me-I'm sprinkled with snow; Ye gentry, who on a soft down bed repose, Consider poor bards who in gelid air dose; On Sunday when I to sacred courts went, Louts and morts, to filch from me, the precious hours spent; Again in the hog's cote I slept among strife, Was mobb'd out of town, and escap'd for my life’ In barns I'm surrounded too oft by the mob, And slyly they enter, they spoil and they rob. A farmer of late was to me very kind, For in his new building by leave I reclin'd; I, by a dire scold, was chas'd out with all speed, As they wanted the place the turkies to feed; By hurry and bustle my money I lost, I'm cashless and starving-how poor bards are cross'd; My writings I lately had dropp'd near the yard, Of them I've not heard-sure my fate it is hard; In a large open shed I reclin'd day and night, The muse to invoke, to rhyme verses, and write; In a wagon I take my nocturnal repose, No covering alas! but my old tatter'd clothes, No blanket nor rug, me to screen from the storm, Keen pinching air breathes-how can one lay warm; My sufferings are grievous in these trying times, Though noted for making and speaking of rhymes, And tho’ some friends in Suffolk still kindly behave, Yet I'm so reduc'd, I this country must leave, Yet favours I'd prize, and most grateful would be To gentry benign, who shew kindness to me; If life should permit, soon to Ipswich I'll go, In search of new friends, and to Colchester too: Good Christians, no doubt, of compassionate heart, Will sympathize with me-choice favours impart; Should schemes prove abortive, to Cambridge I'll go, Relate my sad tale of ineffable woe, Perhaps I a weekly collection may find, My frame to sustain, and to sooth my sad mind; If Providence kind, recent friends does not raise, I in a dread workhouse must finish my days, Must cease turning verses, and nodding choice twine, While some fellow-mortals in these branches shine. ‘Tis true workhouse rulers plain viands prepare, And paupers industrious in wholesome food share, A hot dinner three times a week they provide, Good pudding and meat, and some butter besides, Each one that's mature has a pint of small beer, Of ale each a pint, three or four times a year; Half a bed on a garret, with covering warm, Would there be my lot, to defend me from harm, By day I must dwell where there's many a wheel, And a female's employ'd to sit down and reel, A post with two ringles is fix'd in the wall, Where orphans when lash'd, loud for mercy do call’ Depriv'd of fresh air, I must there commence spinner, If I fail of my task, I lose a hot dinner’ Perhaps at the whipping post then shall be flogg'd, And lest I escape my leg must be clogg'd, While tyrants oppress I must still be their slasve, And cruelly used, though well I behave; 'midst swearing and brawling my days I must spend, In sorrow and anguish my life I must end; Of this cruelty I've had experience before, And wish, their keen lash to come under no more; The young, they encourag'd the old to abuse, They both youth and age do inhumanly use, Friendless orphans they beat, while for mercy they'd cry'd, The blood it gush'd forth-they in agony dy'd, Dropp'd down on the floor, no more did they rise, Which struck timid minds with a sudden surprise’ I too was abus'd, ‘twill again be the case, If a great happy change has not taken place’ For numbers of years I have versus compos'd, In hopes to find solace, ere life shall be clos'd, A baleful requital for all labours past ‘Twill be, if in prison I breathe out my last; If I must submit, then farewell blooming trees, Farewell gliding streamlets, and zephyr's soft breeze, I now bid adieu to the cool sylvan shades, Adieu! tuneful muses, and fine florid glades, Farewell all connections in country and town! Farewell worthy gentry, of fame and renown! Kind neighbours farewell! you no more will me see, If those direful mansions reserv'd are for me; But sure wealthy friends, when they see I look old, And view my bare limbs thus expos'd to the cold, Replete with philanthropy soon will be kind, Impart some relief to compose my sad mind Procure me a dwelling-place and a good fire, With all needful blessings, this life can desire, I then would not envy the rich nor the great, But strive to prepare for a more blissful state. I wish for a garden, fruit trees, and a vine, And though on coarse viands and herbage I dive, Secure in my dwelling none dare me molest, A hymn I'd compose, in tranquility rest; The Scriptures I'd search, which are worthy esteem, And moments most precious I'd strive to redeem; Rich grace and free mercy should then be my theme, In bright vernal hours-when by power divine, Sol's clear fulgid rays most pellucid shall shine; When gay florid scenes decorate fertile fields, Meads beauties display-each bright scene solace yields, When cheer'd plumed choirists their dulcet notes raise, In accents melodious chant heaven's high praise, I'd walk for fresh air in the fine open glades, And crop precious herbs in the cool sylvan shades, To plant in my garden, selecting the best For chemists of art, to distil or digest; Or anodynes form, which will give present ease, I'd exert every nerve, the kind gentry to please, Yet tho'worthy friends I've express'd my desire, All hope still declines this my wish to acquire, I'm incessantly troubled, while foes me oppress- From gentry benign, I'd solicit redress; From this wretched station, kind friends, me release, Sarcasms and insults obtrude on my peace; Confine me in prison, recluse from man's sight, That I, like JOHN BUNYAN, experience may write, Or study Acrostics, or various kinda, Fair Ladies to please, and sooth gentlemen's minds; Plain verses and sonnets in gaol I might rhyme, The lone muse assisting, I'd this spend my time, Or like one in Newgate, replenish'd by Lore, Who took a survey of America's shore, Surmounded dire foes, and increased his store; Or let me exist in a drear exile state, I'd either prefer to my sufferings of late; But rather than pass through more drear scenes of woe, Or into some mansions of industry go, 'mongst Belial's sons of contention and strife, To breathe out the transient remains of my life; In a neat market town I'll reside for awhile, There friends t' oblige, fleeting moments beguile, A chamber or garret I'll cease to refuse, Like a mean Grub-street bard there in solitude muse.
      Document 8: The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834

      An Act for the Amendment and better Administration of the Laws relating to the Poor in England and Wales

      This act is one of the most significant pieces of social legislation in British history as it did away with a mix of poor laws dating back nearly 500 years and replaced them with a unified strategy for helping the poor and dealing with poverty that was based on the Union workhouse. The 1601 Poor Law Act (see Document 5) placed responsibility for caring for the poor with the local parish, and local homeowners were expected to provide for the poor, who often lived in their own homes in the community. The 1834 Act changed the system by stipulating that the poor receiving parish assistance (orphans, widows, unmarried poor women, the aged, infirm, homeless) had to now live in workhouses and perform work. Parishes were also allowed to form unions to build and manage workhouses. Life was often grim and work hard in workhouses and they were roundly criticized by social reformers. The Local Government Act of 1929 abolished them and the care of the poor was given over to the counties.

      See entries:

      An Act for the Amendment and better Administration of the Laws relating to the Poor in England and Wales (14th August 1834)

      WHEREAS it is expedient to alter and amend the Laws relating to the Relief of poor Persons in England and Wales: Be it therefore enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That it shall be lawful for His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, by Warrant under the Royal Sign Manual, to appoint Three fit Persons to be Commissioners to carry this Act into execution, and also from Time to Time, at pleasure, to remove any of the Commissioners for the Time being, and upon every or any Vacancy in the said Number of Commissioners, either by Removal or by Death or otherwise, to appoint some other fit Person to the said Office; and until such Appointment it shall be lawful for the surviving or Continuing Commissioners or Commissioner to act as if no such Vacancy had occurred.

      2. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners shall be styled “The Poor Law Commissioners for England and Wales;” and the said Commissioners, or any Two of them, may sit, from Time to Time as they deem expedient, as a Board of Commissioners for carrying this Act into execution; and the said Commissioners acting as such Board shall be and are hereby empowered, by Summons under their Hands and Seal, to require the Attendance of all Such Persons as they may think fit to call before them upon any Question or Matter connected with or relating to the Administration of the Laws for the Relief of the Poor, and also to make any Inquiries and require any Answer or Returns as to any such Question or Matter, and also to administer Oaths, and examine all such Persons upon Oath, and to require and enforce the Production upon Oath of Books, Contracts, Agreements, Accounts, and Writings, or Copies thereof respectively, in anywise relating to any such Question or Matter; or, in lieu of requiring such Oath as aforesaid, the said Commissioners may, if they think fit, require any such Person to make and subscribe a Declaration of the Truth of the Matters respecting which he shall have been or shall be so examined: Provided always, that no such Person shall be required, in obedience to any such Summons, to go or travel more than Ten Miles from the Place of his Abode: Provided also, that nothing herein contained shall extend or be deemed to extend to authorize or empower the said Commissioners to act as a Court of Record, or to require the Production of the Title, or of any Papers or Writings relating to the Title of any Lands, Tenements, or Hereditaments not being the Property of any Parish or Union.

      3. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners shall cause to be made a Seal of the said Board, and shall cause to be sealed or stamped therewith all Rules, Orders, and Regulations made by the said Commissioners in pursuance of this Act; and all such Rules, Orders, and Regulations, or Copies thereof, purporting to be sealed or stamped with the Seal of the said Board, shall be received as Evidence of the same respectively, without any further Proof thereof; and no such Rule, Order, or Regulation, or Copy thereof, shall be valid, or have any Force or Effect, unless the same shall be so sealed or stamped as aforesaid.

      4. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners shall make a Record of their Proceedings, in which shall be entered in Writing a Reference to every Letter received, from whence, its Date, the Date of its Reception, and the Subject to which it relates, and a Minute of every Letter written or Order given by the said Commissioners, whether in answer to such Letters received or otherwise, with the Date of the same, and a Minute of the Opinion of each of the Members of the Board of Commissioners, in case they should finally differ in Opinion upon any Order to be given or other Proceeding of the Board; and such Record shall be submitted to One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State once in every Year, or as often as he shall require the same.

      5. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners shall, once in every Year, submit to One of the Principal Secretaries of State a general Report of their Proceedings; and every such general Report shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament within Six Weeks after the Receipt of the same by such Principal Secretary of State if Parliament be then sitting, or if Parliament be not sitting then within Six Weeks after the next Meeting thereof.

      6. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners shall from Time to Time or at such Times as any One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State shall direct, give to the Principal Secretary of State requiring the same such Information respecting their Proceedings, or any Part thereof; as the said Principal Secretary of State shall require.

      7. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners shall and they are hereby empowered from Time to Time to appoint such Persons as they may think fit to be Assistant Commissioners for carrying this Act into execution, at such Places and in such Manner as the said Commissioners may direct, and to remove such Assistant Commissioners, or any of them, at their Discretion, and on every or any Vacancy in the said Office of Assistant Commissioner, by Removal or by Death or otherwise, to appoint, if they see fit, some other Person to the said Office: Provided always, that it shall not be lawful for the said Commissioners to appoint more than Nine such Assistant Commissioners to act at anyone Time, unless the Lord High Treasurer, or the Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury for the Time being, or any Three or more of them, shall consent to the Appointment of a greater Number.

      8. And be it further enacted, That no Commissioner or Assistant Commissioner appointed as aforesaid shall during his Continuance in such Appointment be capable of being elected or sitting as a Member of the House of Commons.

      9. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners may and they are hereby empowered from Time to Time to appoint a Secretary, Assistant Secretary or Secretaries, and all such Clerks, Messengers, and Officers as they shall deem necessary, and from Time to Time, at the Discretion of the said Commissioners, to remove such Secretary, Assistant Secretary or Secretaries, Clerks, Messengers, and Officers, or any of them, and to appoint others in their Stead: Provided always, that the Amount of the Salaries of such Secretary, Assistant secretary or Secretaries, Clerk, Messengers, and Officers shall from Time to Time be regulated by the Lord High Treasurer, or the Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, or any Three or more of them.

      10. And be it further enacted, That no Commissioner to be appointed by His Majesty, nor any Assistant Commissioner, Secretary, or other Officer or Person to be appointed by the said Commissioners, under and by virtue of the Provisions of this Act, shall Continue to hold his respective Office or exercise any of the Powers given by this Act for a longer Period than Five Years next after the Day of the passing of this Act, and thenceforth until the End of the then next Session of Parliament; and from and after the Expiration of the said Period of Five Years, and of the then next Session of Parliament, so much of this Act as enables His Majesty to appoint any Commissioner” or Commissioners shall cease to operate or have any Effect whatever.

      11. And be it further enacted, That every Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner to be appointed from Time to Time as aforesaid shall, before he shall enter upon the Execution of his Office, take the following Oath before One of the Judges of His Majesty's Courts of King's Bench or Common Pleas, or One of the Barons of the Court of Exchequer; (that is to say,)

      ‘I A. B. do swear, That I will faithfully, impartially, and honestly, according to the best of my Skill and Judgment, execute and fulfill all the Powers and Duties, of a Commissioner [or Assistant Commissioner, as the Case may be,] under an Act, passed in the Fifth Year of the Reign of King William the Fourth, intituled [here, set forth the Title of this Act ].’

      And the Appointment of every such Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner, together with the Time when and the Judge or Baron before whom he shall have taken the Oath aforesaid, shall be forthwith published in the London Gazette; and a Notification of such Appointment and of the taking of such Oath shall from Time to Time be sent, under the Hands and Seal of the said Commissioners, to the Clerk of the Peace of every County in England and Wales, who shall and is hereby required as soon as conveniently may be to cause the same to be advertized once in some Newspaper published or circulated in such County; and such Notification as aforesaid shall be kept and preserved by such Clerk of the Peace with the Records of such County.

      12. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners to delegate to their Assistant Commissioners, or to any of them, such of the Powers and Authorities hereby given to the said Commissioners (except the powers to make General Rules) as the said Commissioners shall think fit; and the Powers and Authorities so delegated, and the Delegation thereof, shall be notified in such Manner, and such Powers and Authorities shall be exercised at such Places, for such Periods, and under such Circumstances, and subject to such Regulations as the said Commissioners shall direct; and the said Commissioners may at any Time revoke, recall, alter, or vary all or any of the Powers and Authorities which shall be so delegated as aforesaid, and, notwithstanding the Delegation thereof, may act as if no such Delegation had been made; and the said Assistant Commissioners may and are hereby empowered to summon before them such Persons as they may think necessary for the Purpose of being examined upon Oath (which Oath such Assistant Commissioners are hereby empowered to administer) upon any Question or Matter relating to the Poor or their Relief or for the Purpose of producing and verifying upon Oath any Books, Contracts, Agreements, Accounts, and Writings, or Copies of the Same, in anywise relating to such Question or Matter, and not relating to or involving any Question of Title to any Lands, Tenements, or Hereditaments not being the Property of any Parish or Union, as such Assistant Commissioners may think fit, but so that no such Person shall be required, in obedience to any such Summons, to go or travel more, than Ten Miles from the Place of his Abode; provided nevertheless, that in lieu of requiring such Oath as aforesaid the said Assistant Commissioners may, if they think fit, require such Person to make and subscribe a Declaration of the Truth of the Matters respecting which he shall have been or shall be so examined; and all Summonses and Orders made by any such Assistant Commissioner in pursuance or exercise of such delegated Powers and Authorities shall be obeyed, performed, and carried into effect by all Persons as if such Summons or Order had been the Summons or Order of the said Commissioners, and the Breach, Nonobservance, or Nonperformance thereof shall be punishable in like Manner.

      13. And be it further enacted, That if any Person, upon any Examination under the Authority of this Act, shall willfully and corruptly give false Evidence, he shall be deemed guilty of Perjury, and if any Person shall make or subscribe a false Declaration, he shall, on being convicted thereof, suffer the Pains and Penalties of Perjury, and if any Person shall wilfully refuse to attend in obedience to any Summons of any Commissioner or Assistant Commissioner, or to give Evidence, or shall wilfully alter, suppress, conceal, destroy, or refuse to produce any Books, Contracts, Agreements, Accounts, and Writings, or Copies of the same, which may be so required to be produced before the said Commissioners or Assistant Commissioners, every Person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a Misdemeanor.

      14. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, in any Case where they see fit, to order and allow such Expences of Witnesses, and of or attending the Production of any Books, Contracts, Agreements, Accounts, or writings, or Copies thereof, to or before the said Commissioners or Assistant Commissioners, as such Commissioners may deem reasonable, to be paid as follows; that is to say, out of the Poor Rates of the respective Parish or Union which in the Opinion of the said Commissioners shall be interested or concerned in such Attendance or Production respectively in all Cases in which such Witnesses shall not go or travel more than Ten Miles from the respective Parish or Union which shall be interested or concerned as aforesaid, and in all other Cases the Expences so ordered or allowed shall be deemed as Part of the incidental Expences attending the Execution of this Act, and be paid accordingly.

      15. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act the Administration of Relief to the Poor throughout England and Wales, according to the existing Laws, or such Laws as shall be in force at the Time being, shall be subject to the Direction and Control of the said Commissioners; and for executing the Powers given to them by this Act the said Commissioners shall and are hereby authorized and required, from Time to Time as they shall see Occasion, to make and Issue all such Rules, Orders, and Regulations for the Management of the Poor, for the Government of Workhouses and the Education of the Children therein, and for the Management of Parish poor Children under the Provisions of an Act made and passed in the Seventh Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Regulation of Parish poor Children of the several Parishes therein mentioned within the Bills of Mortality, and the superintending, inspecting, and regulating of the Houses wherein such poor Children are kept and maintained, and for the apprenticing the Children of poor Persons, and for the Guidance and Control of all Guardians, Vestries, and Parish Officers, so far as relates to the Management or Relief of the Poor, and the keeping, examining, auditing, and allowing of Accounts, and making and entering into Contracts in all Matters relating to such Management or Relief, or to any Expenditure for the Relief of the Poor, and for carrying this Act into execution in all other respects, as they shall think proper; and the said Commissioners may, at their Discretion, from Time to Time suspend, alter, or rescind such Rules, Orders, and Regulations, or any of them: Provided always, that nothing in this Act contained shall be construed as enabling the said Commissioners or any of them to interfere in any individual Case for the Purpose of ordering Relief.

      16. And be it further enacted, That no General Rule of the said Commissioners shall operate or take effect until the Expiration of Forty Days after the same, or a Copy thereof, shall have been sent, signed and sealed by the said Commissioners, to One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State; and if at any Time after any such General Rule shall have been so sent to such Principal Secretary of State, His Majesty, with the Advice of His Privy Council, shall disallow the same or any Part thereof, such General Rule, or the Part thereof so disallowed, shall not come into operation, if such Disallowance be notified to the said Commissioners at any Time during the said Period of Forty Days, but if such Disallowance be made at any Time after that Period, such Disallowance shall, by One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, be notified to the said Commissioners, and from and after such Disallowance shall have been so notified then such General Rule, so far as the same shall have been so disallowed, shall cease to operate, subject however and without Prejudice to all Acts and Transactions under or in virtue of the same previously to such Disallowance having been so notified.

      17. And be it further enacted, That all General Rules for the Time being in force at the Commencement of every Session of Parliament, and which shall not previously have been submitted to Parliament, shall from Time to Time, within One Week after the Commencement of every such Session, be laid by One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State before both Houses of Parliament.

      18. And be it further enacted, That a written or printed Copy of every Rule, Order, or Regulation of the said Commissioners shall, before the same shall come into operation in any Parish or Union, be sent by the said Commissioners, by the Post, or in such Manner as the Commissioners shall think fit, sealed or stamped with their Seal, addressed to the Overseers of such Parish, the Guardians of such Union or their Clerk, and to the Clerk to the Justices of the Petty Sessions held for the Division in which such Parish or Union shall be situate; and such Overseers, Guardians, or their Clerk, and Clerks to the Justices aforesaid, are hereby required to keep and preserve, notify, and give Publicity to such Rules, Orders, and Regulations, in such Manner as the said Commissioners shall direct, and also to allow every Owner of Property or his Agent, or any Rate-payer, in every such Parish or Union, to inspect the same at all reasonable Times, free of any Charge for such Inspection, and to furnish Copies of the same, being paid for such Copies at and after the Rate of Three-pence for every Folio of Seventy-two Words, and to allow Copies or Extracts thereof to be taken on being paid for so doing after the Rate of Three Halfpence for every Folio of Seventy-two Words; and in case any such Overseer, Guardian, Clerk, or Clerk to the Justices, to whom such Rules, Order, or Regulations, or Copies thereof, shall be sent as aforesaid, shall neglect to keep and preserve, notify and give Publicity to the same in the Mode prescribed or directed by the said Commissioners, or shall refuse such Inspection, or to furnish or allow such Copies thereof to be taken as aforesaid, every Person so offending shall for every such Offence be subject and liable to a Penalty not exceeding the Sum of Ten Pounds nor less than Forty Shillings, to be recoverable in the same Manner as any Penalties are by this Act directed to be recovered: Provided also, that if any such Rule shall after the same shall have come into operation be disallowed in manner herein-before mentioned, or revoked by the said Commissioners, then and in every such Case the said Commissioners shall send, by the Post, or in such Manner as they shall think fit, to every Parish or Union affected by the said Rule, Notice of such Disallowance or Revocation; such Notice of Disallowance or Revocation to be addressed, kept, preserved, notified, and publicly inspected, and Copies thereof furnished or allowed to be taken, in such and the same Manner and subject to the same Penalties as are herein-before mentioned respecting the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners.

      19. And be it further enacted, That no Rules, Orders, or Regulations of the said Commissioners, nor any Bye Laws at present in force or to be hereafter made, shall oblige any Inmate of any Workhouse to attend any Religious Service which may be celebrated in a Mode contrary to the Religious Principles of such Inmate, nor shall authorize the Education of any Child in such Workhouse in any Religious Creed other than that professed by the Parents or surviving Parent of such Child, and to which such Parents or Parent shall object, or, in the Case of an Orphan, to which the Godfather or Godmother of such Orphan shall so object: Provided also, that it shall and may be lawful for any licensed Minister of the Religious Persuasion of any Inmate of such Workhouse, at all Times in the Day, on the Request of such Inmate, to visit such Workhouse for the Purpose of affording Religious Assistance to such Inmate, and also for the Purpose of instructing his Child or Children in the Principles of their Religion.

      20. And be it further enacted, That no Order or Regulation made by any Assistant Commissioner shall be in force unless and until the same shall have been adopted by the said Commissioners, and sealed or stamped with their Seal, and thereupon every: such Order or Regulation shall be considered as made by the said Commissioners; and that no Rule, Order, or Regulation of the said Commissioners, except Orders made in answer to the Statements and Reports hereinafter authorized to be made by Overseers or Guardians to the said Commissioners, shall be in force until the Expiration of Fourteen Days after a written or printed Copy of the same shall have been sent by the said Commissioners, sealed or stamped, and addressed as lastly hereinbefore is mentioned.

      21. And be it further enacted, That, except where otherwise provided by this Act, all the Powers and Authorities given in and by a certain Act of Parliament passed in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor, and in and by a certain other Act passed in the Fifty-ninth Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty, intituled An Act to amend the Laws for the Relief of the Poor, and all Acts for amending such Acts respectively, and also all the Powers and Authorities given by every other Act of Parliament, general as well as local, for or relating to the building, altering, or enlarging of Poorhouses and Workhouses, and to the acquiring, purchasing, hiring, holding, selling, exchanging, and disposing thereof—or of Land whereon the same may have been or may hereafter be erected, and of preparing such Houses for the Reception of poor Persons, and the dieting, clothing, employing, and governing of such Poor, and the raising or borrowing of Money for any of the Purposes aforesaid, and for repaying the same, and all Powers of regulating and conducting all other Workhouses whatsoever, and of governing, providing for, and employing the Poor therein, and all Powers auxiliary to any of the Powers aforesaid, or in any way relating to the Relief of the Poor, shall in future be exercised by the Persons authorized by Law to exercise the same, under the Control, and subject to the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners; and the said Commissioners and Assistant Commissioners respectively, and every of them, shall be entitled to attend at every parochial and other local Board, and Vestry, and take Part in the Discussions, but not to vote at such Board or Vestry: Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to give the said Commissioners or Assistant Commissioners any power to order the building, purchasing, hiring, altering, or enlarging of any Workhouse, or the purchasing or hiring of any Land at the Charge or for the Use of any Parish or Union, save and except so far as such powers are expressly given by this Act.

      22. And whereas by the said Act made and passed in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third it is (among other things) enacted, that the Rules, Orders, and Regulations specified and contained in the Schedule thereunto annexed should be duly observed and enforced at every Poorhouse or Workhouse to be provided by virtue of the said Act, with such Additions as should be made by the Justices of the Peace of the Limit wherein such House or Houses should be situate, at some Special Session, provided that such Additions should not be contradictory to the Rules, Orders, and Regulations established by that Act, and provided that the same should not be repealed by the Justices at their Quarter Sessions of the Peace; and it is expedient that such Additions, or other Rules, Orders, or Regulations, under that or any local or other Act, should not in future be made without the Sanction of the said Commissioners; be it therefore enacted, That no Additions or Alterations shall hereafter be made to or in the Rules, Orders, and Regulations contained in the Schedule to the said recited Act, and no Rules, Orders, and Regulations shall hereafter be made under the Authority of the said recited Act, or of any Act made for altering, amending, or extending the same, or any local or other Act relating to Poorhouses, Workhouses, or the Relief of the Poor, until the same shall have been submitted to and approved and confirmed by the said Commissioners; and that the same, when so confirmed, shall be legally valid and binding upon all Persons; and no Justice or Justices shall have Power to repeal the same.

      23. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, and they are hereby empowered, from Time to Time when they may see fit, by any Writing under their Hands and Seal, by and with the Consent in Writing of a Majority of the Guardians of any Union, or with the Consent of a Majority of the Rate-payers and Owners of Property entitled to vote in manner herein-after prescribed, in any Parish, such lastmentioned Majority to be ascertained in manner provided in and by this Act, to order and direct the Overseers or Guardians of any Parish or Union not having a Workhouse or Workhouses to build a Workhouse or Workhouses, and to purchase or hire Land for the Purpose of building the same thereon, or to purchase or hire a Workhouse or Workhouses, or any Building or Buildings for the Purpose of being used as or converted into a Workhouse or Workhouses; and, with the like Consent, to order and direct the Overseers or Guardians of any Parish or Union having a Workhouse or Workhouses, or any Buildings capable of being Converted into a Workhouse or Workhouses, to enlarge or alter the same in such Manner as the said Commissioners shall deem most proper for carrying the Provisions of this Act into execution, or to build, hire, or purchase any additional Workhouse or Workhouses, or any Building or Buildings for the Purpose of being used as or converted into a Workhouse or Workhouses, or to purchase or hire any Land for building such additional Workhouse or Workhouses thereon, of such Size and Description, and according to such Plan, and in such Manner as the said Commissioners shall deem most proper for carrying the Provisions of this Act into execution; and the Overseers and Guardians to whom any such Order shall be directed are hereby authorized and required to assess, raise, and levy such Sum or Sums of Money as may be necessary for the Purposes specified in such Order, by such Powers, Ways, and Means as are now by Law given to or vested in Churchwardens and Overseers or Guardians of the Poor for purchasing or hiring Land, or for building, hiring, and maintaining Workhouses for the Use of the Poor, in their respective Parishes or Unions, or to borrow Money for such Purposes under the Provisions of this or any other Act or Acts.

      24. And be it further enacted, That for the better and more effectually securing the Repayment of any Sum or Sums of Money which may be borrowed for the Purposes aforesaid, with Interest, it shall be lawful for the said Overseers or Guardians to charge the future Poor Rates of such Parish or Union with the Amount of such Sum or Sums of Money: Provided always, that the Principal Sum or Sums to be raised for such Purposes, whether raised within the Year or borrowed, shall in no Case exceed the average annual Amount of the Rates raised for the Relief of the Poor in such Parish or Union for Three Years ending at the Easter next preceding the raising of such Money; and that any Loan or Money borrowed for any of the Purposes aforesaid shall be repaid by annual Installments of not less than One Tenth of the Sum borrowed, with Interest on the same, in anyone Year.

      25. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, and they are hereby empowered, without requiring any such Consent as aforesaid, by any Writing under the Hands and Seal of the said Commissioners, to order and direct the Overseers or Guardians of any Parish or Union having a Workhouse or Workhouses, or any Building capable of being converted into a Workhouse or Workhouses, to enlarge or alter the same, according to such Plan and in such Manner as the said Commissioners shall deem most proper for carrying the Provisions of this Act into execution; and the Overseers or Guardians to whom any such Order shall be directed are hereby authorized and required to assess, raise, and levy such Sum or Sums of Money as may be necessary for the Purposes specified in such Order, by such Powers, Ways, and Means as are now by Law given to or vested in Churchwardens and Overseers or Guardians of the Poor for altering, enlarging, and maintaining Workhouses for the Use of the Poor in their respective Parishes or Unions: Provided always, that the Principal Sum or Sums to be raised for such Purposes, and charged upon any Parish, shall not exceed in the whole the Sum of Fifty Pounds, nor in any such Case exceed One Tenth of the average annual Amount of the Rates raised for the Relief of the Poor in such Parish for the Three Years ending at the Easter next preceding the raising of such Money.

      26. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, by Order under their Hands and Seal, to declare so many Parishes as they may think lit to be united for the Administration of the Laws for the Relief of the Poor, and such Parishes shall thereupon be deemed a Union for such Purpose, and thereupon the Workhouse or Workhouses of such Parishes shall be for their common Use; and the said Commissioners may issue such Rules, Orders, and Regulations as they shall deem expedient for the Classification of such of the Poor of such united Parishes in such Workhouse or Workhouses as may be relieved in any such Workhouses and such Poor may be received, maintained, and employed in any such Workhouse or Workhouses as if the same belonged exclusively to the Parish to which such Poor shall be chargeable; but, notwithstanding such Union and Classification, each of the said Parishes shall be separately chargeable with and liable to defray the Expence of its own Poor, whether relieved in or out of any such Workhouse.

      27. And be it further enacted, That in any Union which may be formed under this Act it shall be lawful for any Two of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace usually acting for the District wherein such Union may be situated, at their just and proper Discretion, to direct, by Order under their Hands and Seals, that Relief shall be given to any adult Person who shall from old Age or Infirmity of Body be wholly unable to work, without requiring that such Person shall reside in any Workhouse: Provided always, that One of such Justices shall certify in such Order of his own Knowledge, that such Person is wholly unable to work, as aforesaid; and provided further, that such Person shall be lawfully entitled to Relief in such Union, and shall desire to receive the same out of a Workhouse.

      28. And be it further enacted, That when any Union of Parishes for the Administration of the Laws for the Relief of the Poor shall be proposed to be made or shall be made under the Provisions of this Act, it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, and they are hereby required, from Time to Time, by such Means and in such Manner as they may think fit, to inquire into and ascertain the Expence incurred by each Parish proposed to form Part of such Union for the Relief of the Poor belonging to such Parish, whether such Relief shall have been given in or out of any Workhouse, for the Three Years ending on the Twenty-fifth Day of March next preceding such Inquiry, and thereupon the said commissioners shall proceed to calculate and ascertain the annual average Expence of each Parish for that Period; and the several Parishes included or proposed to be included in such Union shall from the Time of effecting the same contribute and be assessed to a Common Fund for purchasing, building, hiring, or providing, altering or enlarging, any Workhouse or other Place for the Reception and Relief of the Poor of such Parishes, or for the Purchase or renting of any Lands or Tenements, under and by virtue of the Provisions of this Act, of or for such Union, and for the future upholding and maintaining of such Workhouses or Places aforesaid, and the Payment or Allowance of the Officers of such Union, and the providing of Utensils and Materials for setting the Poor on work therein, and for any other Expence to be incurred for the common Use or Benefit or on the common Account of such Parishes, in the like Proportions as on the said annual Average of the said Three Years such Relief had cost each such Parish separately, until such Average shall be varied or altered as herein-after provided: Provided always, and the said Commissioners are hereby authorized, if they shall so think fit, but not otherwise, from Time to Time, either upon the Application of the Guardians of such Union or of the Overseers of any Parish forming Part of the same, or without such Application, to cause a like Inquiry and Calculation to be made and Average ascertained for the Three Years ending on the Twenty-fifth Day of March next preceding such Inquiry; and from and after the ascertaining of any such Average, or of any succeeding Average, the respective Parishes of such Union shall contribute and be assessed to the common Fund thereof, for the Purposes aforesaid, in the Proportions which the Expence of such Parishes shall be found to have borne to each other during such Period upon the Average which shall have been so last ascertained, until a like Inquiry shall be again made, and a new Average and Proportion ascertained for the future Assessment of such Parishes.

      29. And whereas in divers Unions formed under the said recited Act made and passed in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor, or under Local Acts of Incorporation, the whole of the Expence as well of upholding the united Workhouses therein as of maintaining and relieving the Poor of the respective Parishes of such Unions, is assessed upon such Parishes in the respective Proportions fixed at the Period when such Unions were formed, and in others a Part of such Expences is so levied, and a Part subjected to Variations at stated Periods: And whereas some of the Parishes of such Unions have contributed and still continue to contribute, as their fixed Proportion of the general Fund, a Sum much larger and others a Sum much less than the actual Expence incurred for the Relief of the Poor belonging to them respectively; for Remedy thereof be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, as soon as conveniently may be after the passing of this Act, to cause an Inquiry to be made and an Account rendered, as far as it may be practicable to render the same, by the Visitors, Directors, acting Guardians, or other Officers of such Parishes or Unions respectively, of the Expence incurred for the Relief of the Poor belonging to each Parish within any such Union, whether such Poor shall have been relieved in or out of such Parish respectively, or in or out of any united Workhouse, and whether such Expence has been paid by the general Fund of such Union or the parochial funds of any of the Parishes thereof, or by any private Rate, or general Subscription in lieu of a Rate among the Rate-payers of any such Parish, and whether passed through the Books or paid under the Control or the Managers or Officers of such Union, or not, for the Period of Three Years ending on the Twenty-fifth Day of March One thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, including therein a due Proportion of the Expence of maintaining the united Workhouses and Establishment of such Union, calculated according to the actual Expence otherwise incurred for the Relief of the Poor belonging to each such Parish; and the average annual Amount of such Expence shall be deemed and taken to have been the annual Expence incurred by such Parish on account of its Poor, notwithstanding such Parish may have contributed a greater or smaller Sum than such annual Average to the general Funds of the Union during such Period; and such annual Average, so ascertained as aforesaid, shall, if the said Commissioners shall see fit, and to such Extent only as they may direct, be deemed and taken as the fixed Proportion to be Contributed and paid by each such Parish respectively towards a common Fund for the future hiring, maintaining, and upholding, repairing, altering, or enlarging of any Workhouse, and the renting of any Land used by such Union at the passing of this Act, and for the purchasing, building, hiring, maintaining, upholding, repairing, altering, or enlarging of any new Workhouse or Workhouses, or other Place for the Reception and Relief of the Poor belonging to the Parishes of such Union, and for the renting or Purchase of any Lands or Tenements under or by virtue of the Provisions of this Act, and the Payment or Allowance of any Officers of such Union, and the providing of Utensils or Materials for setting the Poor on work therein, and for any other Expence to be in future incurred for the common Use or Benefit of such Parishes, and in addition to the Cost or Proportion of Cost of the Poor of such Parishes who shall be maintained or relieved in or out of any Workhouse of such Union, for which each such Parish shall in future be charged separately; any Provision or Enactment in the said recited Act or in any such Local Acts to the contrary notwithstanding: Provided always, and the said Commissioners are hereby authorized, if they see fit, but not otherwise, upon the Application of the Guardians of any such last-mentioned Union, or of the Overseers of any Parish forming Part of the same, or without such Application, from Time to Time to cause all Inquiry and Calculation to be made, and Average ascertained, for the Three Years ending on the Twenty-fifth Day of March next preceding such Inquiry, of the Expence incurred by each such Parish, as well in respect of its Contribution to such common Fund as of the Cost or Proportion of Cost of its Poor which shall have been maintained or relieved in or out of any Workhouse of such Union during such Period of Three Years; and from and after the ascertaining of such Average or of any succeeding Average the respective Parishes of such Union shall contribute and be assessed to the common Fund thereof, for the Purposes of which such common Fund is herein-before declared to be applicable, in the Proportions which the Expence of such Parishes shall be found to have borne to each other during such Period, upon the Average which shall have been so last ascertained, until a like Inquiry shall be again made, and a new Average and Proportion ascertained for the future Assessment of such Parishes to such common Fund: Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall extend to any Parishes already formed or hereafter to be formed into a Union for the Purposes of Settlement or rating, or where the annual Assessment is directed to be indifferently proportioned between the several Parishes coming such Union.

      30. And for facilitating the Inquiries directed by this Act, be it enacted, That unless and until they shall be proved to the Satisfaction of the said Commissioners to be incorrect, the Returns made to Parliament of the Sums expended for the Relief of the Poor of any Parish for the last Three Years previous to the passing of this Act shall be deemed to be the actual Expence incurred by each such Parish respectively during that Period for the Purposes aforesaid, and on account of the Poor belonging to such Parish respectively, and shall be taken as the Ground on which such Averages shall be calculated and ascertained.

      31. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act so much of the said recited Act made and passed in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor, as provides that no Parish, Township, Hamlet, or Place which shall be situate more than Ten Miles from any Poorhouse or Workhouse to be provided under the Authority of that Act shall be permitted to be united for the Purposes therein mentioned with the Parishes, Townships, Hamlets, and Places which shall establish such Poorhouse or Workhouse as therein mentioned, and as limits the Class or Description of Persons who shall be sent to such Poorhouse or Workhouse; and so much of a certain Act made and passed in the Fifty-sixth Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to repeal certain Provisions in Local Acts for the Maintenance and Management of the Poor, as repeals all Enactments and Provisions contained in any Act or Acts of Parliament since the Commencement of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the First, whereby any Parish, Township, or Hamlet at a greater Distance than Ten Miles from any House of Industry or Workhouse shall thereafter be empowered or authorized to become Contributors to or to take the Benefit of such House of Industry or Workhouse, shall be and the same is hereby repealed.

      32. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, from Time to Time, as they may see fit, by Order under their Hands and Seal, to declare any Union, whether formed before or after the passing of this Act, (except when united for the Purposes of Settlement or rating,) to be dissolved, or any Parish or Parishes, specifying the same, to be separated from or added to any such Union, and, as the Case may be, such Union shall thereupon be dissolved, or such Parish or Parishes shall thereupon be separated from or added to such Union accordingly; and the said Commissioners shall in every such Case frame and make such Rules, Orders, and Regulations as they may think fit for adapting the Constitution, Management, and Board of Guardians of every such Union, from or to which there shall be such Separation or Addition as aforesaid, to the altered State of the same, and every such Union shall after any such Alteration be constituted, managed, and governed as if the same had been originally formed in such altered State; and in case any Union shall be wholly or partially dissolved as aforesaid, then the Parishes constituting, or, in case of a partial Dissolution, separated from any such Union, shall thenceforth be subject to be reunited, or united with other Parishes or Unions, or otherwise dealt with according to the Provisions of this Act as the said Commissioners shall think fit: Provided always, that in every such Case the said Commissioners shall and they are hereby required to ascertain the proportionate Value to every Parish of such Union of the Workhouses or other Property held or enjoyed by such Union for the Use of the Poor or Benefit of the Rate-payers therein, and also the proportionate Amount chargeable on every Parish in respect of all the Liabilities of such Union existing at the Time of such Dissolution or Alteration of the same, and the said Commissioners shall thereupon fix the Amount to be received, or paid or secured to be paid, by every Parish affected by such Alteration; and the Sum to be received, if any, by such Parish, shall be paid, or, as the said Commissioners shall direct, he secured to be paid, to the Overseers or Guardians of the same, for the Benefit of such Parish, and in diminution of the Rates thereof and of the Expence attending such Alteration; and the Sum to be so paid or secured to be paid by every such Parish shall be raised, under the Direction of the said Commissioners, by the Overseers or Guardians of such Parish, or charged on the Poor Rates of such Parish, as the said Commissioners may see fit, and shall be paid or secured for the Use and Benefit of the Union from which the same Parish shall have been so separated, or of the Persons or Parishes otherwise entitled thereto, as the Case may be: Provided always, that no such Dissolution or Alteration of the Parishes constituting any such Union, nor any Addition thereto as aforesaid, shall in any Manner prejudice, vary, or affect the Rights or Interests of Third Persons, unless such Third Persons, by themselves or their Agents, shall consent in Writing to such Dissolution or proposed Alteration or Addition; and that no such Dissolution, Alteration, or Addition shall take place or be made unless a Majority of not less than Two Thirds of the Guardians of such Union shall also concur therein; and ill every such Case, when the said Majority of the Guardians of such Union shall so concur in such proposed Alteration, the Terms on which such Concurrence shall have been given, if approved by the said Commissioners, shall be binding and conclusive on the several Parishes of such Union.

      33. And be it further enacted, That in any Union already formed or which may hereafter be formed in pursuance of or under the Provisions of this Act it shall and may be lawful for the Guardians elected by the Parishes forming such Union, by any Writing under the Hands of all such Guardians, to agree, subject to the Approbation of the said Commissioners, for or on behalf of the respective Parishes forming such Union, that for the Purposes of Settlement such Parishes shall be considered as One Parish; and in such Case such Agreement, having been first signed by the said Guardians, shall be signed and sealed by the said Commissioners, and One Part thereof shall be deposited with the said Commissioners, and a Counterpart or Counterparts thereof, signed by the said Guardians, and signed and sealed by the said Commissioners, deposited with the Clerk of the Peace of the County, Riding, Division, District, or Liberty in which the Parishes of such Union shall be respectively situate; and the said Clerk of the Peace shall and is hereby required, upon the Receipt of such Agreement, or Counterpart or Counterparts thereof, to file the same with the Records of such County, Riding, Division, District, or Liberty; and from and after the depositing of the same as aforesaid the said Agreement shall for ever thereafter be binding on each of such Parishes, and shall not be revoked or annulled; and the Settlement of a poor Person in anyone of the Parishes of such Union shall be considered, as between such Parishes, a Settlement in such Union, and the Expence of maintaining, supporting, and relieving every such poor Person, and all other Expences of maintaining, supporting, and relieving the Poor to which anyone of such Parishes shall be liable after the depositing of such Agreement, Part or Counterpart, as aforesaid, or of ascertaining, litigating, or adjudging the Settlement of any poor Person in any of such Parishes, shall form Part of the general Expences and be paid out of the common Funds of such Union: Provided always, that wherever such Agreement is entered into as aforesaid the Rate or Proportion of Contribution to such common Funds to be thereafter paid by each of the Parishes of such Union shall be ascertained and fixed in like Manner as in and by this Act is provided for in Cases where any Union of Parishes is made or proposed to be made under the Provisions thereof, and shall not be subject to further Variation.

      34. And be it further enacted, That where the Parishes of any Union shall be situate within the same County, Riding, Division, District, or Liberty, under the Jurisdiction of the same Justices of the Peace, it shall and may be lawful for the Guardians elected by the Parishes forming such Union, by any Writing under the Hands of all such Guardians, to agree, with the Approbation of the said Commissioners, for or on behalf of the respective Parishes for which they shall so act as Guardians, that, for the Purposes of raising in common the necessary Funds for the Relief of the Poor of such Union, such Parishes shall be considered One Parish; and in such Case such Agreement, having been first signed by the said Guardians, shall be signed and sealed by the said Commissioners, and One Part thereof deposited with the said Commissioners, and a Counterpart or Counterparts thereof signed by the said Guardians, and signed and sealed by the said Commissioners, deposited with the Clerk of the Peace of the County, Riding, Division, District, or Liberty, Counties, District, or Districts, in which the said Parishes of such Union shall be situate; and the said Clerk or Clerks of the Peace shall and is and are hereby required upon the Receipt of such Agreement, Part or Counterpart, to file the same with the Records of such County, Riding, Division, District, or Liberty, or Counties, District, or Districts; and from and after the depositing and filing of such last-mentioned Agreement or Counterpart, the same shall be for ever binding upon such Parishes, and shall not be revoked or annulled.

      35. And be it further enacted, That from and after such depositing and filing of the said Agreement, Part or Counterpart, the said Guardians shall, under such Regulations as the said Commissioners shall in that respect prescribe, proceed to ascertain and assess the Value of the Property in the several Parishes of such Union rateable to the Relief of the Poor, and to cause to be made such Surveys and Valuations of the said Property, or any Part thereof, as may be necessary, from Time to Time, to make a fair and just Assessment upon the said united Parishes in respect of such Property so rateable as aforesaid; and all Rates grounded on every such Valuation or Assessment shall be made, allowed, published, and recovered in such and the same Manner as Rates for the Relief of the Poor are now by Law made, allowed, published, and recovered; and the Rate-payers shall have the like Power of Appeal against such last-mentioned Rates as any Persons now have against Rates made for the Relief of the Poor.

      36. And be it further enacted, That from and after any such common Rate shall have come into operation the Proportions of Contribution fixed at the Period of uniting such Parishes, or existing at the Time of such last-mentioned Agreement for a common Rate, shall wholly cease; and all Expenditure in respect of the Poor of such Union or chargeable in any way on the Poor Rates of the respective Parishes thereof, shall be deemed and be the common Expenditure of such Union, and be chargeable upon and paid out of the common or general Fund to be raised upon such Parishes under such common Rate, according to the Valuation or Assessment of the rateable Property in such Parishes so ascertained, confirmed, and allowed by the said Justices from Time to Time in manner herein-before provided: Provided-always, that the Expence of every such Valuation shall at all Times be a Charge on the common Rate of such Parishes: Provided always, that in case any Parish of any Union, at the Period of entering into such Agreement for the Purposes of Settlement or a common Rate, shall not be represented by a Guardian elected solely by such Parish, such Parish shall not be bound by any such Agreement, unless a Majority of the Owners of Property and Rate-payers in such Parish, entitled to vote in the Manner provided by this Act, shall, by their Votes in Writing, testify their Assent to such Agreement in such Form as the said Commissioners shall prescribe; and in case such Assent shall not be so given, such Parish shall be wholly omitted from such Agreement, and be liable to pay such Proportion only of the common Assessment as it was bound to pay upon the forming of the Union of such Parishes.

      37. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act no Union or Incorporation of Parishes shall be formed under the Provisions of the said Act made and passed in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, without the previous consent of the said Commissioners, testified under their Hands and Seal.

      38. And be it further enacted, That where any Parishes shall be united by Order or with the Concurrence of the said Commissioners for the Administration of the Laws for the Relief of the Poor, a Board of Guardians of the Poor for such Union shall be constituted and chosen, and the Workhouse or Workhouses of such Union shall be governed, and the Relief of the Poor in such Union shall be administered, by such Board of Guardians; and the said Guardians shall be elected by the Rate-payers, and by such Owners of Property in the Parishes forming such Union as shall in manner herein-after mentioned require to have their Names entered as entitled to vote as Owners in the Books of such Parishes respectively; and the said Commissioners shall determine the Number and prescribe the Duties of the Guardians to be elected in each Union, and also fix a Qualification without which no Person shall be eligible as such Guardian, such Qualification to consist in being rated to the Poor Rate of some Parish or Parishes in such Union, but not so as to require a Qualification exceeding the annual Rental of Forty Pounds, and shall also determine the Number of Guardians which shall be elected for any One or more of such Parishes, having due Regard to the Circumstances of each such Parish: provided always, that One or more Guardians shall be elected for each Parish included in such Union; and such Guardians, when so elected; shall continue in Office until the Twenty-fifth Day of March next following their Appointment, or until others are appointed in their Stead, and on such Twenty-fifth Day of March, or if that Day should fall on a Sunday or Good Friday then on the Day next following, or within Fourteen Days next after the said Twenty-fifth Day of March in every Year, such Guardians shall go out of Office, and the Guardians for the ensuing Year shall be chosen; and in the event of any Vacancy occurring in such Board by the Death, Removal, or Resignation, or Refusal or Disqualification to act, of any elected Guardian between the Periods of such first and the next and any subsequent annual Election, or in case the full Number of Guardians shall not be duly elected at such subsequent Election of Guardians for the Time being, the other or remaining Members of the said Board shall continue to act until the next Election, or until the Completion of the said Board, as if no such Vacancy had occurred, and as if the Number of such Board were complete; and every Justice of the Peace residing in any such Parish, and acting for the County, Riding, or Division in which the same may be situated, shall be an ex officio Guardian of such united or common Workhouses, and shall, until such Board of Guardians shall be duly elected and constituted as aforesaid, and also, ill case of any Irregularity or Delay in any subsequent Election of Guardians, receive and carry into effect the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners; and after such Board shall be elected and constituted as aforesaid every such Justice shall ex officio be and be entitled, if he think fit, to act as a Member of such Board, in addition to and in like Manner as such elected Guardians: Provided always, that, except where otherwise ordered by the said Commissioners, and also except for the Purpose of consenting to the Dissolution or Alteration of any Union or any Addition thereto, or to the Formation of any Union for the Purposes of Settlement of rating, no ex officio or other Guardian of any such Board as aforesaid shall have Power to act in virtue of such Office except as a Member and at a Meeting of such Board; and no Act of any such Meeting shall be valid unless Three Members shall be present and Concur therein: Provided also, that nothing herein contained shall prevent such Owners and Rate-payers from reelecting the same Persons or any or either of them to be Guardians for the Year next ensuing, nor from electing as a Guardian any Person who may already have been chosen as a Guardian of any other Parish.

      39. And be it further enacted, That if the said Commissioners shall, by any Order under their Hands and Seal, direct that the Administration of the Laws for the Relief of the Poor of any single Parish should be governed and administered by a Board of Guardians, then such Board shall be elected and constituted, and authorized and entitled to act, for such single Parish, in like Manner in all respects as is herein-before enacted and provided in respect to a Board of Guardians for united Parishes; and every Justice of the Peace resident therein, and acting for the County, Riding, or Division in which the same is situated, shall be and may act as an ex officio Member of such Board.

      40. And be it enacted, That in all Cases of the Election of Guardians under this Act, or wherever the Consent of the Owners of Property or Rate-payers in any Parish or Union shall be required for any of the Purposes of this Act except when otherwise expressly provided for in this Act, the Votes of such Owners and Rate-payers shall he given or taken in Writing, collected, and returned in such Manner as the said Commissioners shall direct; and in every such Case the Owner, as well as the Rate-payer, in respect of any Property in such Parish or Union, shall be entitled to vote, and the Owner shall have the same Number and Proportion of Votes respectively as is provided for Inhabitants and other Persons in and by an Act made and passed in the Fifty-eighth Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the Regulation of Parish Vestries, and in and by an Act to amend the same, made and passed in the Fifty-ninth Year of His said late Majesty; and the Ratepayers: under Two hundred Pounds shall each have a single Vote; and the Rate-payers rated at Two hundred Pounds or more, but under Four hundred Pounds, shall each have Two Votes, and the Rate-payers rated at Four hundred Pounds or more shall each have Three Votes; and the Majority of the Votes of such Owners and Ratepayers which shall be actually collected and returned shall ill every such Case be binding on such Parish; and for the Purpose of ascertaining the Number of Votes to which each such Owner shall be entitled, the aggregate Amount of the Assessment for the time being of any Property belonging to such Owner in such Parish, or on any Person or Persons in respect of the same, to the Poor Rate, shall be deemed to be and be taken as the annual Value of such Property to such Owner; and where any such Owner shall be the bond fide Occupier of any such Property, he shall be entitled to vote as well in respect of his Occupation as of his being such Owner: Provided always, that it shall be lawful for any Owner from Time to Time, by Writing under his Hand, to appoint any Person to vote as his Proxy; and every such Appointment shall remain ill force until revoked or recalled by such Owner; but no Owner shall be entitled to vote, either ill Person or Proxy, unless he shall, previous to the Day on which he shall claim to vote, have given a Statement in Writing of his Name and Address, and the Description of the Property in the Parish as Owner whereof, or Proxy for the Owner whereof, he claims to vote, and if such Proxy, the original or an attested Copy of the Writing appointing him such Proxy, to the Overseers of such Parish; and the said Overseers are hereby required to enter in the Rate Books of such Parish, or in some other Book to be from Time to Time provided for that Purpose, the Names and Addresses of the Owners and Proxies who shall send such Statements, and the Assessment of the Hate for the Relief of the Poor of the Property in respect whereof they respectively claim to vote: Provided also, that every Person who shall not vote, or who shall not comply with the Directions to be made by the said Commissioners for the giving, taking, or returning of Votes, shall be omitted in the Calculation of Votes, and considered as having had no Vote on the Question whereon he might have voted: Provided also, that no Person shall be deemed a Rate-payer, or be entitled to vote, Or do any other Act, Matter, or Thing as such, under the Provisions of this Act, unless he shall have been rated to the Relief of the Poor for the whole Year immediately preceding his so voting or otherwise acting as such Rate-payer, and shall have paid the Parochial Rates and Assessments made and assessed upon him for the Period of One whole Year, as well as those due from him at the Time of so voting or acting, except such as shall have been made or become due within the Six Months immediately preceding such voting or acting: Provided always, that in Cases of Property belonging to any Corporation Aggregate, or to any. Joint Stock or other Company, no Member of such Corporation, or Proprietor of or interested in such Joint Stock or other Company, shall be entitled to vote as such Owner in respect thereof; but any Officer of such Corporation, joint Stock or other Company, whose Name shall be entered by the Direction of the governing Body of such Corporation or Company in the Books of the Parish, in the Manner herein-before directed with respect to the Owner of Property, shall be entitled to vote in respect of such Property in the same Manner as if he Were the Owner thereof.

      41. And be it further enacted, That all Elections of Guardians, Visitors, and other Officers, for the Execution of any of the Powers or Purposes of the said recited Act made and passed in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor, or of any Local Act of Parliament relating to Poorhouses, Workhouses, or the Relief of the Poor, or any Act to alter or amend the same respectively, shall hereafter, so far as the said Commissioners shall direct, be made and conducted according to the Provisions of this Act: Provided always, that it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, if they shall so think fit, from Time to Time, with the Consent of the Majority of the Owners of Property and Rate-payers of any Parish, or of any Union now existing or to be formed under the Provisions of this Act, to alter the Period for which the Guardians to be appointed under the Provisions of this Act for such Parish or Union, or any of them, would under the Provisions of this Act hold Office, for such other Period or Periods as to the said Commissioners, with such Consent as aforesaid, shall seem expedient, and also to make such Alterations in the Number, Mode of Appointment, Removal, and Period of Service of the Guardians, or any of them, of any Parish, or of any Union now existing or to be formed under the Provisions of this Act, as to the said Commissioners, with such Consent as aforesaid, shall seem expedient.

      42. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners may and are hereby authorized, by Writing under their Hands and Seal, to make Rules, Orders, and Regulations, to be observed and enforced at every Workhouse already established by virtue of the said recited Act made and passed in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor, or any General or Local Act of Parliament, or hereafter to be established by virtue of such Acts or of any of them, or of this or any other Act of Parliament relating to the Relief of the Poor, for the Government thereof; and the Nature and Amount of the Relief to be given to and the Labour to be exacted from the Persons relieved, and the Preservation therein of good Order, and from Time to Time to suspend, alter, vary, amend, or rescind the same, and make any new or other Rules, Orders, and Regulations, to be observed and enforced as aforesaid, as they from Time to Time shall think fit, and to alter, at their Discretion, any of the Rules, Orders, and Regulations contained in the Schedule to the said recited Act, and also to alter or rescind any Rules Orders, and Regulations heretofore made in pursuance of the said recited Act, or any Local Act of Parliament relating to Workhouses or the Relief of the Poor; and that all Rules, Orders, and Regulations to be from Time to Time made by the said Commissioners under the Authority of this Act shall be valid and binding, and shall be obeyed and observed as if the same were specifically made by and embodied in this Act, subject nevertheless to the said Power of the said Commissioners from Time to Time to rescind, amend, suspend, or alter the same: Provided always, that if any such Rule, Order, or Regulation shall be, at the Time of issuing the same, directed to and affect more than One Union, the same shall be considered as a General Rule, and subject and liable to all the Provisions in this Act contained respecting General Rules.

      43. And be it further enacted, That where any Rules, Orders, or Regulations, or any Bye Laws, shall be made or directed by the said Commissioners to be observed It or enforced in any Workhouse, it shall and may be lawful for any Justice of the Peace acting in and for the County, Place, or Jurisdiction in which Such Workhouse shall be situate, to visit, inspect, and examine such Workhouse at such Times as he shall think proper, for the Purpose of ascertaining whether such Rules, Orders, Regulations, or Bye Laws are or have been duly observed and obeyed in such Workhouse, as well as for such other Purposes as Justices are now authorized to visit Workhouses under and by virtue of a certain Act made and passed in the Thirtieth Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to empower Justices and other Persons to visit Parish Workhouses or Poorhouses, and examine and certify the State and Condition of the Poor therein to the Quarter Sessions; and if in the Opinion of such Justice such Rules, Orders, Regulations, or Bye Laws, or any of them, have not been duly observed and obeyed in such Workhouse, it shall be lawful for such Justice to summon the Party offending in such respect to appear before any Two Justices of the Peace to answer any Complaint touching the Non-observance of such Rules, Orders, Regulations, and Bye Laws, or any of them, and upon Conviction before such Two Justices of the Party so offending such Party shall forfeit and be liable to such Penalties and Punishments as are hereinafter prescribed and provided against Parties wilfully neglecting or disobeying the Rules, Orders, or Regulations of the said Commissioners: Provided always, that where no such Rules, Orders, Regulations, or Bye Laws shall have been directed by the said Commissioners to be enforced and observed in the Workhouse of any Parish, nothing in this Act contained shall be construed to restrain or prevent any Justice of the Peace, Physician, Surgeon, or Apothecary, or the Officiating Clergyman of any Parish, from visiting such Workhouse, and examining and certifying the State and Condition of the same and of the Poor therein, in such Manner as they or any of them are authorized to do in and by the said last-recited Act.

      44. Whereas the Jurisdiction of certain Cities, Boroughs, and Corporate Towns is not always co-extensive with the Parish in which it exists; be it therefore enacted, That every House or Building which shall be erected, purchased, or hired as and for a Workhouse, together with all Premises and Appurtenances thereto belonging, and the Land or Lands occupied therewith, shall be deemed and held to be within and subject to the local Jurisdiction of such incorporated City, Borough, or Town to which they may respectively belong, though the same may be situated ill such Part of the respective Parishes as may not be within the chartered Boundaries thereof.

      45. And be it further enacted, That nothing in this Act contained shall authorize the Detention in any Workhouse of any dangerous Lunatic, insane Person, or Idiot, for any longer Period than Fourteen Days; and every Person wilfully detaining in any Workhouse any such Lunatic, insane Person, or Idiot, for more than Fourteen Days, shall be deemed guilty of a Misdemeanor: Provided always, that nothing herein Contained shall extend to any Place duly licensed for the Reception of Lunatics and other insane Persons, or to any Workhouse being also a County Lunatic Asylum.

      46. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, as and when they shall see fit, by Order under their Hands and Seal, to direct the Overseers or Guardians of any Parish or Union, or of so many Parishes or Unions as the said Commissioners may in such Order specify and declare to be united for the Purpose only of appointing and paying Officers, to appoint such paid Officers with such Qualifications as the said Commissioners shall think necessary for superintending or assisting in the Administration of the Relief and Employment of the Poor, and for the examining and auditing, allowing or disallowing of Accounts in such Parish or Union, or united Parishes, and otherwise carrying the Provisions of this Act into execution; and the said Commissioners may and they are hereby empowered to define and specify and direct the Execution of the respective Duties of such Officers, and the Places or Limits within which the same shall be performed, and direct the Mode of the Appointment and determine the Continuance in Office or Dismissal of such Officers, and the Amount and Nature of the Security to be given by such of the said Officers as the said Commissioners shall think ought to give Security, and, when the said Commissioners may see Occasion, to regulate the Amount of Salaries payable to such Officers respectively and the Time and Mode of Payment thereof, and the Proportions in which such respective Parishes or Unions shall contribute to such Payment; and such Salaries shall be chargeable upon and payable out of the Poor Rates of such Parish or Union, or respective Parishes, in the Manner and Proportions fixed by the said Commissioners, and shall be recoverable against the Overseers or Guardians of such Parish or Union, or Parishes, by all such Ways and Means as the Salaries of Assistant Overseers or other paid Officers of any Parish or Union are recoverable by Law; and all such Payments shall be valid, and shall be allowed in the Accounts of the Overseers or Guardians paying the same.

      47. And be it further enacted, That every Overseer, Treasurer, or other Person having the Collection, Receipt, or Distribution of the Monies assessed for the Relief of the Poor in any Parish or Union, or holding or accountable for any Balance or Sum of Money, or any Books, Deeds, Papers, Goods, or Chattels relating to the Relief of the Poor, or the Collection or Distribution of the Poor Rate of any Parish or Union, shall once in every Quarter, in addition to the annual Account now by Law required, and where the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners shall have come in force, then as often as the said Rules, Orders, and Regulations shall direct, but not less than once in every Quarter, make and render to the Guardians, Auditors, or such other Persons as by virtue of any Statute or Custom, or of the said Rules, Orders, or Regulations, may be appointed to examine, audit, allow, or disallow such Accounts, or in default of any such Guardian, Auditor, or other Person being so appointed as aforesaid, then to the Justices of the Peace at their Petty Sessions for the Division in which such Parish or Union shall be situate, a full and distinct Account in Writing of all Monies, Matters, and Things committed to their Charge, or received, held, or expended by them on behalf of any such Parish or Union, and if thereunto required by the Justices, Guardians, Auditors, or other Persons authorized in that Behalf, shall verify on Oath the Truth of all such Accounts and Statements from Time to Time respectively, or subscribe a Declaration to the Truth thereof, in manner and under the Penalties in this Act provided for Parties giving false Evidence or refusing to give Evidence under the Provisions of this Act; and all Balances due from any Guardian, Treasurer, Overseer, or Assistant Overseer, or other Person having the Control and Distribution of the Poor Rate, or accountable for such Balances, may be recovered in the same Manner as any Penalties and Forfeitures are recoverable under this Act: Provided nevertheless, that no such Proceeding shall exonerate or discharge the Liability of the Surety of any such Treasurer, Overseer, Assistant Overseer, or other Person as aforesaid.

      48. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners may and they are hereby authorized and empowered, as and when they shall think proper, by Order under their Hands and Seal, either upon or without any Suggestion or Complaint in that Behalf from the Overseers or Guardians of any Parish or Union, to remove any Master of any Workhouse, or Assistant Overseer, or other paid Officer of any Parish or Union, whom they shall deem unfit for or incompetent to discharge the Duties of any such Office, or who shall at any Time refuse or wilfully neglect to obey and carry into effect any of the Rules, Orders, Regulations, or Bye Laws of the said Commissioners, whether such Union shall have been made or such Officer appointed before or after the passing of this Act, and to require from Time to Time the Persons competent in that Behalf to appoint a fit and proper Person in his Room; and that any Person so removed shall not be competent to be appointed to or to fill any paid Office connected with the Relief of the Poor in any such Parish or Union, except with the Consent of the said Commissioners under their Hands and Seal: Provided always, that no Person shall be eligible to hold any Parish Office, or have the Management of the Poor in any way whatever, who shall have been convicted of Felony, Fraud, or Perjury.

      49. And be it further enacted, That any Contract which shall be entered into by or on behalf of any Parish or Union, for or relating to the Maintenance, Clothing, Lodging, Employment, or Relief of the Poor, or for any other Purpose relating to or connected with the general Management of the Poor, which shall not be made and entered into in conformity with the Rules, Orders, or Regulations of the said Commissioners in that Behalf in force at the Time of making and entering into the same, or otherwise sanctioned by them, shall be voidable, and, if the said Commissioners shall so direct, shall be null and void; and all Payments made under or in pursuance of any Contract not made and entered into in conformity with such Rules, Orders, or Regulations at any Period after the said Commissioners shall have declared the same to be null and void as aforesaid, shall be disallowed in passing the Accounts of the Overseer, Guardian, or other Officer by whom such Payments shall have been made.

      50. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act a certain Act made and passed in the Forty-fifth Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to amend an Act made in the Ninth Year of King George the First, for amending the Laws relating to the Settlement, Employment, and Relief of the Poor, so far as the same respects Contracts to be entered into for the Maintenance and Employment of the Poor, shall be and the same is hereby repealed: Provided always, that nothing in this Act contained shall extend or be construed to extend to affect or make void any Bond or other Security which shall have been entered into or given before the passing of this Act, under or in pursuance of the Provisions of the said Act hereby repealed.

      51. And be it further enacted, That so much of a certain Act made and passed in the Fifty fifth Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to prevent poor Persons in Workhouses from embezzling certain Property provided for their Use; to alter and amend so much of an Act of the Thirty-sixth Year of His present Majesty as restrains Justices of the Peace from ordering Relief to poor Persons in certain Cases for a longer Period than One Month at a Time; and for other Purposes therein mentioned, relating to the Poor, as inflicts a Penalty on Persons having the Management of the Poor if concerned in providing or in any Contract for the Supply of any Goods, Materials, or Provisions for the Use of any Workhouse or Workhouses, or otherwise for the Support or Maintenance of the Poor for their own Profit, and all Remedies for the Recovery of such Penalties, shall apply and the same are hereby extended and made applicable to every Commissioner, Assistant Commissioner, Guardian, Treasurer, Master of a Workhouse, or other Officer to be appointed under the Provisions of this Act.

      52. And whereas a Practice has obtained of giving Relief to Persons or their Families who, at the Time of applying for or receiving such Relief were wholly or partially in the Employment of Individuals, and the Relief of the able-bodied and their Families is in many Places administered in Modes productive of Evil in other respects: And whereas Difficulty may arise in case any immediate and universal Remedy is attempted to be applied in the Matters aforesaid; be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, by such Rules, Orders, or Regulations as they may think fit, to declare to what Extent and for what Period the Relief to be given to able-bodied Persons or to their Families in any particular Parish or Union may be administered out of the Workhouse of such Parish or Union, by Payments in Money, or with Food or Clothing in Kind, or partly in Kind and partly in Money, and in what Proportions, to what Persons or Class of Persons, at what Times and Places, on what Conditions, and in what Manner such Out-door Relief may be afforded; and all Relief which shall be given by any Overseer, Guardian, or other Person having the Control or Distribution of the Funds of such Parish or Union, contrary to such Orders or Regulations, shall be, and the same is hereby declared to be unlawful, and shall be disallowed in the Accounts of the Person giving the same, subject to the Exceptions hereinafter mentioned: Provided always, that in case the Overseers or Guardians of any: Parish or Union to which such Orders or Regulations shall be addressed or directed, shall, upon Consideration of the special Circumstances of such Parish or Union, or of any Person or Class of Persons therein, be of opinion that the Application and enforcing of such Orders or Regulations, or of any Part thereof, at the Time or in the Manner prescribed by the said Commissioners, would be inexpedient, it shall be lawful for such Overseers or Guardians to delay the Operation of such Orders or Regulations, or of any Part thereof, for any Period not exceeding the Space of Thirty Days, to be reckoned from the Day of the Receipt of such Orders or Regulations; and such Overseers or Guardians shall, Twenty Days at the least before the Expiration of such Thirty Days, make a Statement and Report of such special Circumstances to the said Commissioners; and an Relief which shall be given by such Overseers or Guardians, before an Answer to such Report shall have been returned by the said Commissioners, if otherwise lawful, shall not be deemed unlawful although the same shall have been given Contrary to such Orders or Regulations, or any of them; but in case the said Commissioners shall disapprove of such Delay, or think that for the future such Orders or Regulations ought to come into operation, notwithstanding the special Circumstances alleged by such overseer or Guardian, it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners, by a peremptory Order, to direct that from and after a Day to be fixed thereby such Orders and Regulations, or such Parts or Modifications thereof as they may think expedient and proper, shall be enforced and observed by such Overseers and Guardians; and if any Allowance be made or Relief given by such Overseers or Guardians after the said last-mentioned Period, contrary to any such last-mentioned Order, the Amount of the Relief or Allowance so given shall be disallowed in the Accounts of the Party giving the same: Provided also, that a quarterly Report of all such Cases as shall Occur in any Quarter shall at the End of every such Quarter, be laid by the said Commissioners before One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State: Provided also, that in case the overseers or Guardians of any Parish or Union in which such Orders or Regulations shall be in force shall depart from them or any of them in any particular Instance or Instances of Emergency, and shall within Fifteen Days after every such Departure report the same and the Grounds thereof to the said Commissioners, and the said Commissioners shall approve of such Departure, or if the Relief so given shall have: been given in Food, temporary Lodging, or Medicine, and shall have been so reported as aforesaid, then and in either of such Cases the Relief granted by such Overseers or Guardians, if otherwise lawful, shall not be unlawful or subject to be disallowed.

      53. And be it further enacted, That an Act passed in the Thirty-sixth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to amend so much of an Act made in the Ninth Year of the Reign of King George the First, intituled ‘An Act for amending the Laws relating to the Settlement, Employment, and Relief of the Poor,’ as prevents the distributing occasional Relief to poor Persons in their own Houses, under certain Circumstances and in certain Cases; and so much of an Act made and passed in the Fifty-fifth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to prevent poor Persons in Workhouses from embezzling certain Property provided for their Use, to alter and amend so much of art Act of the Thirty-sixth Year of His present Majesty as restrains Justices of the Peace from offering Relief to Poor Persons in certain Cases for a longer Period than One Month at a Time, and for other Purposes therein mentioned relating to the Poor, as extends the Period for which occasional Relief may be ordered by any Justice or Justices to poor Persons at their own Homes; and so much of the said Act made and passed in the Fifty-ninth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to amend the Laws for the Relief of the Poor, as empowers any Justice or Justices to order Relief in certain Cases for a limited Time, or in Cases of urgent Necessity, or in Cases where Parishes are under the management of Guardians, Governors, or Directors appointed by Special or Local Acts, or in Cases where Parishes have Dot a Select Vestry, shall be and the same are hereby repealed.

      54. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act, the ordering, giving, and directing of all Relief to the Poor of any Parish which, according to the Provisions of any of the said recited Acts, or of an Act passed in the First and Second Years of the Reign of His present Majesty, intituled An Act for the better regulating of Vestries, and for the Appointment of Auditors of Accounts in certain Parishes in England and Wales, or of this Act, or of any Local Acts, shall be under the Government and Control of any Guardians of the Poor, or of any Select Vestry, and whether forming Part of any Union or Incorporation or not, (but subject in all Cases to, and saving and excepting the Powers of, the said Commissioners appointed under this Act,) shall appertain and belong exclusively to such Guardians of the Poor or Select Vestry, according to the respective Provisions of the Acts under which such Guardians or Select Vestry may have been or shall be appointed; and it shall not be lawful for any Overseer of the Poor to give any further or other Relief or Allowance from the Poor Rate than such as shall be ordered by such Guardians or Select Vestry, except in Cases of sudden and urgent Necessity, in which Cases he is hereby required to give such temporary Relief as each Case shall require, in Articles of absolute Necessity, but not in Money, and whether the Applicant for Relief be settled in the Parish where he shall apply for Relief or not: Provided always, that in case such Overseer shall refuse or neglect to give such necessary Relief in any such Case of Necessity to poor Persons not settled nor usually residing in the Parish to which such Overseer belongs, it shall and may be lawful for any Justice of the Peace to order the said overseer, by Writing under his Hand and Seal, to give such temporary Relief in Articles of absolute Necessity, as the Case shall require, but not in Money; and in case such Overseer shall disobey such Order, he shall, on Conviction before Two Justices, forfeit any Sum not exceeding Five Pounds which such Justices shall order: Provided always, that any Justice of the Peace shall be empowered to give a similar Order for Medical Relief (only) to any Parishioner as well as Out-Parishioner, where any Case of sudden and dangerous Illness may require it; and any Overseer shall be liable to the same Penalties as aforesaid for disobeying such Order; but it shall not be lawful for any Justice or Justices to order Relief to any Person or Persons from the Poor Rates of any such Parish, except as herein-before provided.

      55. And be it enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act the Master of every Workhouse, or such other paid Officer of the Parish or Union as the said Commissioners may direct, shall, on such Day and in such Form as the said Commissioners shall appoint, take an Account of, and register in a Book to be provided at the Expence of the Parish or Union to which such Workhouse shall belong, and to be kept specially for that Purpose, the Name of every poor Person who shall on such Days be in the Receipt of Relief at or in such Workhouse, together with such Particulars respecting the Families and Settlement of every such poor Person, and his and their Relief and Employment, as the said Commissioners shall think fit; and in like Manner, on such Day as the said Commissioners shall appoint, the Overseer of the Poor of every such Parish shall register in a Book, to be provided and kept as aforesaid, the Name of every poor Person then in the Receipt of Relief in such Parish out of the Workhouse, together with such Particulars respecting the Family and Settlement of every such poor Person, and his and their Relief and Employments, as the said Commissioners shall think fit; and after such Account shall have been so taken and registered as aforesaid a similar Register and Account shall be kept by the like Persons respectively of all Persons who shall receive Relief at or in or out of a Workhouse, when and as often as such Relief shall be granted.

      56. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act all Relief given to or on account of the Wife, or to or on account of any Child or Children under the Age of Sixteen, not being blind or deaf and dumb, shall be considered as given to the Husband of such Wife, or to the Father of such Child or Children, as the Case may be, and any Relief given to or on account of any Child or Children under the Age of Sixteen of any Widow, shall be considered as given to such Widow: Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall discharge the Father and Grandfather, Mother and Grandmother, of any poor Child, from their Liability to relieve and maintain such poor Child in pursuance of the Provisions of a certain Act of Parliament passed in the Forty-third Year of the Reign of Her late Majesty Queen Elizabeth, intituled An Act for the Relief of the Poor.

      57. And be it further enacted, That every Man who from and after the passing of this Act shall marry a Woman having a Child or Children at the Time of such Marriage, whether such Child or Children be legitimate or illegitimate, shall be liable to maintain such Child or Children as a Part of his Family, and shall be chargeable with all Relief, or the Cost Price thereof, granted to or on account of such Child or Children until such Child or Children shall respectively attain the Age of Sixteen, or until the Death of the Mother of such Child or Children; and such Child or Children shall, for the Purposes of this Act, be deemed a Part of such Husband's Family accordingly.

      58. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act any Relief; or the Cost Price thereof, which shall be given to or on account of any poor Person above the Age of Twenty-one or to his Wife, or any Part of his Family under the Age of Sixteen, and which the said Commissioners shall by any Rule, Order, or Regulation declare or direct to be given or considered as given by way of Loan, and whether any Receipt for such Relief; or Engagement to repay the same, or the Cost Price thereof; or any Part thereof, shall have been given or not by the Person to or on account of whom the same shall have been so given, shall be considered and the same is hereby declared to be a Loan to such poor Person.

      59. And be it further enacted, That in all Cases where any Relief shall have been given by way of Loan, or where any Relief or the Cost Price thereof, shall be treated as a Loan, under the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners, or the Provisions of this Act, it shall be lawful for any Justice, upon the Application of the Overseers or Guardians of the Parish or Union providing such Relief; and upon Proof of the same having been given to or on account of any such Person, his Wife or Family as aforesaid, and of the same or any Part thereof still remaining due, to issue a Summons, requiring such Person, as well as the Master or Employer of such Person, or some Person on his Behalf, to appear before any Two Justices, at a Time and Place to be named in such Summons, to show Cause why, any Wages due, or which may from Time to Time become due, from such Master or Employer, should not be paid over in whole or in part to such Overseers or Guardians, and if no sufficient Cause be shown to the contrary, or if such Person, or some one on his Behalf, shall not appear on the Return of such Summons, then the said Justices shall, by Order under their Hands, direct the Master or Employer for the Time being from whom any Wages shall be due or from Time to Time become due or payable to such poor Person, to pay, either in one Sum or by such weekly or other Instalments as the said Justices shall in their Discretion think fit, taking into consideration the Circumstances of such poor Person and his Family, out of such Wages, to such Overseers or Guardians, the Amount of such Relief, or so much thereof as shall from Time to Time be due or unpaid; and the Payment to and Receipt of any such Overseer or Guardian shall be a good Discharge to such Master or Employer for so much of any such Wages as shall be so paid by virtue of any such Order; and if any such Master or Employer shall refuse or neglect to pay to the Overseer or Guardian producing any such Order the Money thereby directed to be paid, according to the Terms of such Order, and at the Periods thereby fixed for such Payment, the same may be levied and recovered, and the Payment thereof from Time to Time enforced against such Master or Employer, in such and the like Manner as Penalties and Forfeitures are recoverable under this Act.

      60. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act so much of an Act passed in the Forty-third Year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for consolidating and amending the several Laws for providing Relief for the Families of Militiamen in England when called out into actual Service, as directs Overseers of the Poor, by Order of some One Justice of the Peace, to pay to the Family of any Person serving or enrolled as a ballotted Man, Substitute, hired Man, or Volunteer in the Militia of England, a weekly Allowance, or as authorizes any Justice or Justices to order such Allowance to be paid under the Rules and Conditions in the said recited Act provided, or as in any way discharges such ballotted Man, Substitute, hired Man, or Volunteer from the liability to maintain or repay the Costs of Maintenance of his Family or any Part thereof, or as prevents such Families or any Part thereof from being removeable to their Place of legal Settlement, or sent to any Workhouse, by reason of their receiving any Allowance or being chargeable, shall be and the same is hereby repealed.

      61. And be it further enacted, That from and after the Period at which any Rule, Order, or Regulation of the said Commissioners shall come into Operation for the binding of poor Children Apprentices, in addition to such Assent or Consent, Order or Allowance of Justices, as are now required by Law, such Justices or any One Justice are and is hereby authorized and required to examine and ascertain whether the Rules, Orders, or Regulations of the said Commissioners then in force for the binding of poor Children Apprentices have been complied with, and to certify the same at the Foot of every such Contract or Indenture and of the Counterpart thereof, in such Form and Manner as the said Commissioners by such Rules, Orders, or Regulations may direct, and until so certified no such Contract or Indenture of Apprenticeship shall be valid: Provided nevertheless, that nothing in this Act, or in any Rule, Order, or Regulation of the said Commissioners, shall affect the Jurisdiction of any Justices of the Peace over any Master or Apprentice during the Period of Apprenticeship.

      62. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the Rate-payers in any Parish, and such of the Owners of Property therein as shall, in manner hereinbefore mentioned, have required their Names to be entered in the Rate Books of such Parishes respectively as entitled to vote as Owners, assembled at a Meeting to be duly convened and held for the Purpose, after public Notice of the Time and Place of holding such Meeting, and the Purpose for which the same is intended to be held, shall have been given in like Manner as Notices of Vestry Meetings are published and given, to direct that such Sum or Sums of Money, not exceeding Half the average yearly Rate for the three preceding Years, as the said Owners and Rate-payers so assembled at such Meeting may think proper, shall be raised or borrowed as a Fund, or in aid of any Fund or Contribution for defraying the Expences of the Emigration of poor Persons having Settlements in such Parish, and willing to emigrate, to be paid out of or charged upon the Rates raised or to be raised for the Relief of the Poor in such Parish, and to be applied under and according to such Rules, Orders, and Regulations as the said Commissioners Shall in that Behalf direct: Provided always, that no such Direction for raising Money for such Purpose as aforesaid shall have any Force or Effect unless and until confirmed by the said Commissioners, and that the Time to be limited for the Repayment of any Sum so charged on such Rates as aforesaid shall in no Case exceed the Period of Five Years from the Time of borrowing the same: Provided also, that all Sums of Money so raised as last hereinbefore mentioned, and advanced by way of Loan, for the Purposes of Emigration, or such Proportion thereof as the said Commissioners shall by any Rule, Order, or Regulation from Time to Time direct, shall be recoverable against any such Person, being above the Age of Twenty-one Years, who or whose Family, or any Part thereof, having consented to emigrate, shall refuse to emigrate after such Expences shall have been so incurred, or having emigrated shall return, in such and the like Manner as is hereinbefore provided with respect to Relief, or the Cost Price of Relief, given or considered to be given by way of Loan to any Person, his Wife or Family.

      63. And be it further enacted, That where it shall be lawful, under the Provisions of any of the herein-recited Acts, or of any Local Act, or of this Act, to raise or borrow any Sum or Sums of Money for the Purpose of purchasing, building, altering, or enlarging any Workhouse or Workhouses in any Parish or Union, or for purchasing Land whereon to build the same, or for defraying the Expences of the Emigration of poor Persons having Settlements in any Parish, and being willing to emigrate, it shall be lawful for the Overseers or Guardians of such Parish or Union, with the Consent of the said Commissioners, to be testified under their Hands and Seal, to make Application for an Advance of any Sum necessary for any such Purposes to the Commissioners appointed under an Act made and passed in the Fiftyseventh Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act to authorize the Issue of Exchequer Bills, and the Advance of Money out of the Consolidated Fund to a limited Amount, for the carrying on of Public Works and Fisheries in the United Kingdom, and Employment of the Poor in Great Britain, in manner therein mentioned, and of any Act or Acts passed for amending or continuing the same; and the said Exchequer Bill Loan Commissioners are hereby empowered to make such Advances, upon any such Application as aforesaid, upon the Security of the Rates for the Relief of the Poor in such Parish or Union, and without requiring any further or other Security than a Charge on such Rates.

      64. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act no Settlement shall be acquired by Hiring and Service, or by Residence under the same, or by serving an Office.

      65. And be it further enacted, That no Person under any Contract of Hiring, and Service not completed at the Time of the passing of this Act shall acquire, or be deemed or adjudged to have acquired, any Settlement by reason of such Hiring and Service, or of any Residence under the same.

      66. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act no Settlement shall be acquired or completed by occupying a Tenement, unless the Person occupying the same shall have been assessed to the Poor Rate, and shall have paid the same, in respect of such Tenement, for One Year.

      67. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act, no Settlement shall be acquired by being apprenticed in the Sea Service, or to a Householder exercising the Trade of the Seas, as a Fisherman or otherwise, nor by any Person now being such an Apprentice in respect of such Apprenticeship.

      68. And be it further enacted, That no Person shall be deemed, adjudged, or taken to retain any Settlement, gained by virtue of any Possession of any Estate or Interest in any Parish, for any longer or further Time than such Person shall inhabit within Ten Miles thereof; and in case such Person shall cease to inhabit within such Distance, and thereafter become chargeable, such Person shall be liable to be removed to the Parish wherein previously to such Inhabitancy he may have been legally settled, or in case he may have subsequently to such Inhabitancy gained a legal Settlement in some other Parish, then to such other Parish.

      69. And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this Act so much of any Act or Acts of Parliament as enables any single Woman to charge any Person with having gotten her with any Child of which she shall then be pregnant, or as renders any Person so charged liable to be apprehended or committed, or required to give Security, on any such Charge, or as enables the Mother of any Bastard Child or Children to charge or affiliate any such Child or Children on any Person as the reputed or putative Father thereof, or as enables any Overseer or Guardian to charge or make Complaint against any Person as such reputed or putative Father, and to require him to be charged with or contribute to the Expences attending the Birth, Sustentation, or Maintenance of any such Child or Children, or to be imprisoned or otherwise punished for not Contributing thereto, or as in any way renders such reputed or putative Father liable to Punishment or Contribution as such, or as enables Churchwardens and Overseers, by the Order of any Two Justices of the Peace, Confirmed by the Sessions, to take, seize, and dispose of the Goods and Chattels, or to receive the annual Rents or Profits of the Lands of any putative Father of Bastard Children, and so much of any such Act or Acts as renders an unmarried Woman with Child liable as such to be summoned, examined, or removed, or as renders the Mother of any Bastard liable as such to be imprisoned or otherwise punished, shall, so far as respects any Child which shall be likely to be born or shall be born a Bastard after the passing of this Act, or the Mother or putative Father of such Child, be and the same is hereby repealed.

      70. And be it further enacted, That every Security given or Recognizance entered into by any Person or Persons, or his or their Surety, before the passing of this Act, to indemnify any Parish or Place as to any Child or Children likely to be born a Bastard or Bastards, whereof any single Woman shall be pregnant at the Time of the passing of this Act, or to abide and perform such Order or Orders as might have been made touching such Child or Children, pursuant to an Act made and passed in the Eighteenth Year of the Reign of Her said late Majesty Queen Elizabeth, concerning Bastards begotten and born out of lawful Matrimony, shall be and the same are hereby declared null and void; and every Person who shall at the Time of the passing this Act be in Custody upon the Commitment of any Justice or Justices for not having given such Security or entered into such Recognizance shall be discharged (upon the Application of such Person) by any One of the Visiting Justices of the Gaol in which such Person shall be in Custody under any such Commitment.

      71. And be it further enacted, That every Child which shall be born a Bastard after the passing of this Act shall have and follow the Settlement of the Mother of such Child until such Child shall attain the Age of Sixteen, or shall acquire a Settlement in its own Right, and such Mother, so long as she shall be unmarried or a Widow, shall be bound to maintain such Child as a Part of her Family until such Child shall attain the Age of Sixteen; and all Relief granted to such Child while under the Age of Sixteen shall be considered as granted to such Mother: Provided always, that such Liability of such Mother as aforesaid shall cease on the Marriage of such Child, if a Female.

      72. And be it enacted, That when Any Child shall hereafter be born a Bastard, and shall by reason of the Inability of the Mother of such Child to provide for its Maintenance become chargeable to any Parish, the Overseers or Guardians of such Parish, or the Guardians of any Union in which such Parish may be situate, may, if they think proper, after diligent Inquiry as to the Father of such Child, apply to the next General Quarter Sessions of the Peace within the Jurisdiction of which such Parish or Union shall be situate, after such Child shall have become chargeable, for an Order upon the Person whom they shall charge with being the putative Father of such Child to reimburse such Parish or Union for its Maintenance and Support; and the Court to which such Application shall be made shall proceed to hear Evidence thereon, and if it shall be satisfied, after hearing both Parties, that the Person so charged is really and in Truth the Father of such Child, it shall make such Order upon such Person in that respect as to such Court shall appear to be just and reasonable under all the circumstances of the Case: Provided always, that no such Order shall be made unless the Evidence of the Mother of such Bastard Child shall be corroborated in some material Particular by other Testimony to the Satisfaction of such Court: Provided also, that, such Order shall in no Case exceed the actual Expence incurred or to be incurred for the Maintenance and Support of such Bastard Child while so chargeable, and shall continue in force only until such Child shall attain the Age of Seven Years, if he shall so long live: Provided also, that no Part of the Monies paid by such putative Father in pursuance of such Order shall at any Time be paid to the Mother of such Bastard Child, nor in any way be applied to the Maintenance and Support of such Mother.

      73. And be it enacted, That no such Application shall be heard at such Sessions unless Fourteen Days Notice shall have been given under the Hands of such Overseers or Guardians to the Person intended to be charged with being the Father of such Child of such intended Application; and in case there shall not, previously to such Sessions, have been sufficient Time to give such; Notice, the hearing of such Application shall be deferred to the next ensuing General Quarter Sessions: Provided always, that whenever such Application shall be heard the Costs of the Maintenance of such Bastard Child shall, in case the Court shall think fit to make an Order thereon, be calculated from the Birth of such Bastard Child, if such Birth shall have taken place within Six Calendar Months previous to such Application being heard, but if such Birth shall have taken place more than Six Calendar Months previously to such Application being heard, then from the Day of the Commencement of Six Calendar Months next preceding the hearing of such Application: Provided also, that if upon the hearing of such Application the Court shall not think fit to make any Order thereon, it shall order and direct that the full Costs and Charges incurred by the Person so intended to be charged in resisting such Application shall be paid by such Overseers or Guardians.

      74. And be it enacted, That if such Person so intended to be charged shall not appear by himself or his Attorney at the Time when such Application shall come. on to be heard before such Court, according to such Notice, such Court shall nevertheless proceed to hear the same, unless such Overseers or Guardians shall produce an Agreement under the Hand of such Person to abide by such Order as such Court shall make thereon without the hearing of Evidence by such Court: Provided always, that such Court may, notwithstanding such Agreement, require that Evidence shall be given in support of such Application, if it thinks fit, before such Order is made.

      75. And be it enacted, That whenever such Overseers or Guardians shall have determined to make such Application as aforesaid it shall be lawful for One Justice of the Peace, at the Request of such Overseers or Guardians, to summon the Person so intended to be charged with being the Father of such Bastard Child to appear before him; and if such Justice shall be satisfied that such Person has any Intention to abscond or keep out of the way, in order to avoid the Consequences of such Application, such Justice may require such Person to enter into a Recognizance to appear and answer thereto, and in case such Person shall refuse or neglect to enter into such Recognizance, may commit such Person to the Gaol or House of Correction of the County, Riding, or Division within which such Parish shall be situate, until he shall enter into such Recognizance, or until such Application shall be heard.

      76. And be it enacted, That if at any Time after the Expiration of One Calendar Month after an Order shall have been made in pursuance of such Application it shall appear to One Justice, upon the Oath of any One of such Overseers or Guardians, that the Payments directed to be made by such Order have not been made according thereto, and are in arrear, it shall be lawful for such Justice or any other Justice by Warrant under his Hand and Seal to cause such putative Father of such Bastard Child to be brought before Two Justices of the Peace; and in case such putative Father shall refuse or neglect to make Payment of such Sum of Money as shall appear to such Justices to be due from him under such Order, together with the Costs of Apprehension, it shall be lawful for such or any Two Justices to proceed to recover such Sum and Costs by Distress and Sale of the Goods and Chattels of such putative Father, or by attaching the Wages of such putative Father for the Recovery of such Sun;! and Costs, in the same Manner as Wages may be attached under the Provisions of this Act.

      77. And be it further enacted, That it shall not be lawful for any Person hereafter to be appointed in any Parish or Union to any Office concerned in the Administration of the Laws for the Relief of the Poor, or for any Person who after the Twenty-fifth Day of March One thousand eight hundred and thirty-five shall fill any such Office, to furnish or supply, for his own Profit or on his own Account, any Goods, Materials, or Provisions ordered to be given in Parochial Relief, or to furnish or supply any Goods, Materials, or Provisions for or in respect of the Money ordered to be given in Parochial Relief to any Person in such Parish or Union; and every Person holding such Office shall, on Conviction before any Two Justices of the Peace, besubject to a Penalty of Five Pounds for such Offence, one Half of which Penalty shall be paid to the Informer, and the other Half in aid of the Poor Rates of such Parish or Union.

      78. And be it further enacted, That all Sums of Money which shall be assessed by any Justices of the Peace on the Father, Grandfather, Mother, Grandmother, Child, or Children of any poor Person, for the Relief or Maintenance of such poor Person, under or by virtue of the Provisions of a certain Act passed in the Forty-third Year of the Reign of Her late Majesty Queen Elizabeth, intituled An Act for the Relief of the Poor, or of any Act to amend the same, or of this Act, and all Penalties and Forfeitures to which any Person so assessed by such Justices for such Relief or Maintenance shall be liable for any Default in paying the same by virtue of the Provisions of any of the said recited Acts or of this Act, shall be recoverable against every Person so assessed or charged in like Manner as Penalties and Forfeitures are recoverable under the Provisions of this Act.

      79. And be it further enacted, That from and after the First Day of November One thousand eight hundred and thirty-four no poor Person shall be removed or removable, under any Order of Removal, from any Parish or Workhouse, by reason of his being chargeable to or relieved therein, until Twenty-one Days after a Notice in Writing of his being so chargeable or relieved, accompanied by a Copy or Counterpart of the Order of Removal of such Person, and by a Copy of the Examination upon which such Order was made, shall have been sent, by Post or otherwise, by the Overseers or Guardians of the Parish obtaining such Order, or any Three or more of such Guardians, to the Overseers of the Parish to whom such Order shall be directed: Provided always, that if such Overseers or Guardians as last aforesaid, or any Three or more of such Guardians, shall by Writing under their Hands agree to submit to such Order, and to receive such poor Person, it shall be lawful to remove such poor Person according to the Tenor of such Order, although the said Period of Twenty-one Days may not have elapsed: Provided also, that if Notice of Appeal against such Order of Removal shall be received by the Overseers or Guardians of the Parish from which such poor Person is directed in such Order to be removed within the said Period of Twentyone Days, it shall not be lawful to remove such poor Person until after the Time for prosecuting such Appeal shall have expired, or, in case such Appeal shall be duly prosecuted, until after the final Determination of such Appeal.

      80. And be it enacted, That the Overseers or Guardians of the Parish giving such Notice of Appeal, or their Attorney, or any other Person authorized by them, shall, until such Appeal shall have been heard and decided, at all proper Times have free Access to such poor Person for the Purpose of examining him touching his Settlement; and in case it shall be necessary for the more effectual Examination of such Person that he should be taken out of the removing Parish, such Overseers or Guardians shall be permitted to remove him therefrom for the Time which may be necessary for that Purpose: Provided always, that the Expence of such Removal, and of his Maintenance during the same, shall be defrayed by the appellant Parish.

      81. And be it further enacted, That after the First Day of November One thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, in every Case where Notice of Appeal against such Order shall be given, the Overseers or Guardians of the Parish appealing against such Order, or any Three or more of such Guardians, shall, with such Notice, or Fourteen Days at least before the first Day of the Sessions at which such Appeal is intended to be tried, send or deliver to the Overseers of the respondent Parish a Statement in Writing under their Hands of the Grounds of such Appeal; and it shall not be lawful for the Overseers of such appellant Parish to be heard in support of such Appeal unless such Notice and Statement shall have been so given as aforesaid: Provided always, that it shall not be lawful for the respondent or appellant Parish, on the hearing of any Appeal, to go into or give Evidence of any other Grounds of Removal, or of Appeal against any Order of Removal, than those set forth in such respective Order, Examination, or Statement as aforesaid.

      82. And be it further enacted, That upon every such Appeal the Court before whom the same shall be brought shall and may, if they think fit, order and direct the Parish against which the same shall be decided to pay to the other such Costs and Charges as may to such Court appear just and reasonable, and shall certify the Amount thereof; and in case the Overseers of the Poor of the Parish liable to pay the same shall, upon Demand, and upon the Production of such Certificate, refuse or neglect to pay the same, the Amount thereof may be recovered from such Overseer in the same Manner as any Penalties or Forfeitures are by this Act recoverable.

      83. And be it further enacted, That if either of the Parties shall have included in the Order or Statement sent as hereinbefore directed any Grounds of Removal or of Appeal which shall in the Opinion of the Justices determining the Appeal be frivolous and vexatious, such Party shall be liable, at the Discretion of the said Justices, to pay the Whole or any Part of the Costs incurred by the other Party in disputing any such Grounds, such Costs to be recovered in the Manner herein-before directed as to the other Costs incurred by reason of such Appeal.

      84. And be it further enacted, That the Parish to which any poor Person whose Settlement shall be in question at the Time of granting Relief shall be admitted or finally adjudged to belong shall be chargeable with and liable to pay the Cost and sixpence of the Relief and Maintenance of such poor Person, and such Cost and Expence may be recovered against such Parish in the same Manner as any Penalties or Forfeitures are by this Act recoverable: Provided always, that such Parish, if not the Parish granting such Relief, shall pay to the Parish by which such Relief shall be granted the Cost and Expence of such Relief and Maintenance from such Time only as Notice of such poor Person having become chargeable shall have been sent by such relieving Parish to the Parish to which such poor Person shall be so admitted or finally adjudged to belong: Provided always, that no Charges or Expences of Relief or Maintenance shall be recoverable under a suspended Order of Removal unless Notice of such Order of Removal, with a Copy of the same, and of the Examination upon which such Order was made, shall have been given within Ten Days of such Order being made to the Overseers of the Poor of the Parish to whom such Order is directed.

      85. And be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners and they are hereby empowered, from Time to Time as they may think fit, to require from all Persons in whom any Freehold, Copyhold, or Leasehold Estate, or any other Property or Funds belonging to any Parish, and held in Trust for or applicable to the Relief of the Poor, or which may be applied in diminution of the Poor Rate of such Parish, shall be vested, or who shall be in the Receipt of the Rents, Profits, or Income of any such Estate, Property, or Funds, a true and detailed Account in Writing of the Place where such Estate may be situate, or in what Mode or on what Security such other Property or Funds may be invested, with such Details of the Rents, Profits, and Income thereof, and of the Appropriation of the same, and of all such other Particulars relating thereto, as the said Commissioners may direct and require; and such. Statement or a true Copy thereof shall, under the Regulations of the said Commissioners, be open for the Inspection of the Owners of Property and Rate-payers in such Parish: Provided always, that nothing hereinbefore contained shall apply to any Funds raised from Time to Time by the voluntary Contributions of the Inhabitants of any Parish.

      86. And be it further enacted, That no Advertisement inserted by or under the Direction of the said Commissioners in the London Gazette or any Newspaper for the Purpose of carrying into effect any Provisions of this Act, nor any Mortgage, Bond, Instrument, or any Assignment thereof, given by way of Security, in pursuance of the Rules, Orders, or Regulations of the said Commissioners, and conformable thereto, nor any Contract or Agreement, or Appointment of any Officer, made or entered into in pursuance of such Rules, Orders, or Regulations, and conformable thereto, nor any other Instrument made in pursuance of this Act, nor the Appointment of any paid Officer engaged in the Administration. of the Laws for the Relief of the Poor, or In the Management or Collection of the Poor Rate, shall be charged or chargeable with any Stamp Duty whatever.

      87. And whereas by an Act passed in the Twentysecond Year of the Reign of King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor, the Visitor and Guardian of the Poor of any Parish, Township, or Place which shall adopt the Provisions of the said recited Act are authorized thereby to borrow Money at Interest, for the Purposes mentioned in the said Act, and to secure such Money by a Charge upon the Poor's Rates of such Parish, Township, or Place, in Sums not exceeding Fifty Pounds each, in a certain Form contained in the Schedule to the said Act, or to that or to the like Effect, and which Security is directed and allowed to be assigned by Indorsement on the Back thereof, in a certain Form also contained in the said Schedule, or to that or the like Effect: And whereas Doubts have arisen touching the Liability of such Securities as aforesaid, and the Assignments or Transfers thereof, to Stamp Duty, and it is expedient to remove the same; be it therefore enacted and declared, That no Bond or other Security at any Time heretofore or to be at any Time hereafter made or entered into in pursuance of the said recited Act, nor any Assignment or Transfer thereof, shall be charged or chargeable with, or be deemed to be or to have been subject or liable to, any Stamp Duty whatsoever; any thing in any Act contained to the contrary thereof notwithstanding.

      88. And be it further enacted, That the said Commissioners shall and may receive and send by the General Post, from and to Places within the United Kingdom, all Letters and Packets relating solely and exclusively to the Execution of this Act, free from the Duty of Postage, provided that such Letters and Packets as shall be sent to the said Commissioners be directed to the “Poor Law Commissioners” at their Office in London, and that all such Letters and Packets as shall be sent by the said Commissioners shall be in Covers, with the Words “Office of Poor Law Commissioners, pursuant to Act of Parliament passed in the Fifth Year of the Reign of His Majesty King William the Fourth,” printed on the same, and be signed on the Outside thereof, under such Words, with the Name of such Person as the said Commissioners, with the Consent of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, or any Three or more of them, shall authorize and appoint, in his own Handwriting, (such Name to be from Time to Time transmitted to the Secretaries of the General Post Office in London and Dublin,) and be sealed with the Seal of the said Commissioners, and under such other Regulations and Restrictions as the said Lords Commissioners, or any Three or more of them, shall think proper and direct; and the Person so to be authorized is hereby strictly forbidden so to subscribe or seal any Letter or Packet whatever, except such only Concerning which he shall receive the special Direction of his superior Officer, or which he shall himself know to relate solely and exclusively to the Execution of this Act; and if the Person so to be authorized, or any other Person, shall send, or cause or permit to be sent, under any such Cover, any Letter, Paper, or Writing, or any Enclosure, other than what shall relate to the Execution of this Act, every Person so offending shall forfeit and pay the Sum of One hundred Pounds, and be dismissed from his Office; one Moiety of the said Penalty to the Use of His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, and the other Moiety to the Use of the Person who shall inform or sue for the same, to be sued for and recovered in any of His Majesty's Courts of Record at Westminster for Offences committed in England, and in any of His Majesty's Courts of Record in Dublin for Offences committed in Ireland, and before the Sheriff or Stewartry Court of the Shire or Stewartry within which the Party offending shall reside, or the Offence shall be committed, for Offences committed ill Scotland; and if any Letter, Paper, or Writing, or other Enclosure, shall be sent under Cover to the said Commissioners, the same not relating solely and exclusively to the Execution of this Act, they are hereby strictly required and enjoined to transmit the same forthwith to the Secretary of the Post Office in London, with the Covers under which the same shall be sent, in order that the Contents thereof may be charged with the full Rates of Postage.

      89. And be it further enacted, That all Payments, Charges, and Allowances made by any Overseer or Guardian, and charged upon the Rates for the Relief of the Poor, contrary to the Provisions of this Act, or at variance with any Rule, Order, or Regulation of the said Commissioners made under the Authority of this Act, shall be and the same are hereby declared to be illegal, any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding; and every Justice of the Peace is hereby required to disallow as illegal and unfounded all Payments, Charges, or Allowances contrary to the Provisions of this Act, or to any such Rule, Order, or Regulation of the said commissioners, which shall be Contained in any Account of any Overseer of the Poor or Guardian which shall be presented for the Purpose of being passed or allowed: Provided always, that no Allowance by any Justice shall exonerate or discharge such Overseer or Guardian from any Penalty or legal Proceeding to which he may have rendered himself liable by having acted contrary to the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners, or to the Provisions of this Act.

      90. And be it further enacted, That the leaving of any Summons authorized to be issued by any Commissioner, Assistant Commissioner, or Justice of the Peace, under this Act, at the usual or last known Place of Abode of the Party to whom such Summons shall be directed, shall in every Case be deemed good and sufficient Service of such Summons

      91. And be it further enacted, That so much of an Act made and passed in the Sixth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Fourth, intituled An Act to repeal the Duties payable in respect (if the Spirits distilled in England, and of Licences for distilling, rectifying, or compounding such Spirits, and for the Sale of Spirits, and to impose other Duties in lieu thereof and to provide other Regulations for the Collection of the said Duties, and for the Sale of Spirits, and for the warehousing of such Spirits without Payment of Duty for Exportation, as provides that if any Master or Officer of any workhouse shall sell, use, lend, or give away, or knowingly permit or suffer any Spirits to be sold, used, lent, or given away, in any such Workhouse, or brought into the same, other than and except such Spirits as shall be prescribed or given by the Prescription and Direction of a Physician, Surgeon, or Apothecary, and to be supplied in pursuance of such Prescriptions from the Shop of some Apothecary, every such Master or such other Officer shall for every such Offence forfeit One hundred Pounds, and for the Second like Offence lose his Office; and so much of the said last-mentioned Act as provides that no Person shall carry or bring, or attempt to endeavour to carry or bring, any Spirits, except to be used in the way of Medicine, into any Workhouse, under the Pain of being imprisoned for every such Offence for any Time not exceeding Three Months; and also so much of the said last-mentioned Act as provides that every Master and chief Officer of every Workhouse shall procure One or more Copy or Copies of the Clauses in the said Act mentioned to be printed or fairly written and hung up in one of the most public Places in. the Workhouse, and renew the same from Time to Time, so that it may be always kept fair and legible on pain of forfeiting the Sum of Ten Pounds for every wilful Default; or as enables any Justice of the Peace to demand a Sight of such Copy so hung: up in some public Place, to convict such Master or Officer of such Default; shall be and the same is hereby repealed.

      92. And be it further enacted, That if any Person shall carry, bring, or introduce, or attempt or endeavour to carry, bring, or introduce, into any Workhouse now or hereafter to be established, any spirituous or fermented Liquor without the Order in Writing of the Master of such Workhouse, it shall be lawful for the Master of such Workhouse, or any Officer of the same acting under his Direction, to apprehend or cause to be apprehended such Offender, and to carry him or her before a Justice of the Peace, who is hereby empowered to hear and determine such Offence in a summary Way; and upon Conviction thereof the Party so offending shall forfeit and pay any Sum of Money not exceeding Ten Pounds for every such Offence, as such Justice may direct; and in default of Payment of the Penalty hereby imposed such Justice may and is hereby required to commit such Offender to the Common Gaol or House of Correction for the District in which such Workhouse shall be situate for any Space of Time not exceeding Two Calendar Months, unless such Penalty shall be sooner paid.

      93. And be it further enacted, That if any Master of a Workhouse shall order any spirituous or fermented Liquor to be carried, brought, or introduced into any Workhouse, except for the domestic Use of himself or of any Officer of the said Workhouse, or their respective Families, or except by and under the written Authority of the Surgeon of such Workhouse, or of any Justice visiting the same, or of the Guardians of such Workhouse, or in conformity with any Rules, Orders, or Regulations of the said Commissioners; or if any such Master or any other Officer of any Workhouse shall carry, bring, or introduce into such Workhouse, or sell, use, lend, or give away therein, or knowingly permit or suffer to be carried, brought, or introduced, or sold, used, lent, or given away therein, any spirituous or fermented Liquor, contrary to the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners; or shall punish with any corporal Punishment any adult Person in such Workhouse, or confine any such Person for any Offence or Misbehaviour for any longer Space of Time than Twenty-four Hours, or such further Space of Time as may be necessary in order to have such Person carried before a Justice of the Peace; or shall in any way abuse or ill-treat, or be guilty of any other Misbehaviour, or otherwise misconduct himself towards or with respect to any poor Person in such Workhouse; every such Master or Officer of a Workhouse so offending shall for every such Offence, upon the Complaint of the Overseers or Guardians of the Parish or Union to which such Workhouse shall belong, or of any such poor Person, and upon Conviction of such offence before any Two Justices, forfeit and pay such Sum of Money, not being more than Twenty Pounds, as such Justices may direct; and in default of Payment of the Penalty hereby imposed such Justices may and are hereby required to commit such Offender to the Common Gaol or House of Correction for the District in which such Workhouse shall be situate for any Space of Time not exceeding Six Calendar Months, unless such Penalty shall be sooner paid: Provided always, that if at the Time when any such Master or Officer of a Workhouse shall be so convicted of any such Offence there shall be due to him any Sum of Money or Salary in respect of his Employment as such Master or Officer of such Workhouse, or upon any Balance of Account from the Overseers or Guardians of the Parish or Union to which such Workhouse shall belong, it shall be lawful for such Justices, upon the Application of such Overseers or Guardians, by Order in Writing under their Hand to direct that such Sum of Money, Salary, or Balance, so far as the same shall extend, or a sufficient Part thereof, shall be retained and applied for the Use of such Parish or Union by such Overseers or Guardians, in payment or part Payment of any such Penalty; and such Order shall be a good and valid Discharge to such Overseers or Guardians for so much Money as may by such Order be directed to be so retained and applied against the Claim or Demand of the Master or other Officer of such Workhouse in respect of any such Sum of Money, Salary, or Balance.

      94. And be it further enacted, That the Master of every Workhouse shall cause One or more Copy or Copies of the Two preceding Clauses to be printed or fairly written, and hung up in One of the most public Places of such Workhouse, and renew the same from Time to Time, so that it be always kept fair and legible, on pain of forfeiting the Sum of Ten Pounds for every wilful Default.

      95. And be it further enacted, That in case any Overseer, Assistant Overseer, Master of a Workhouse, or other Officer of any Parish or Union, shall wilfully disobey the legal and reasonable Orders of such Justices and Guardians in carrying the Rules, Orders, and Regulations of the said Commissioners or Assistant Commissioners, or the Provisions of this Act, into execution, every such Offender shall, upon Conviction before any Two Justices, forfeit and pay for every such Offence any Sum not exceeding Five Pounds.

      96. Provided always, and be it further enacted, That no Overseer shall from henceforth be liable to any Prosecution or Penalty for not carrying into execution any illegal Order of such Justices or Guardians, any Law or Statute to the contrary notwithstanding.

      97. And be it further enacted, That if any Overseer, Assistant Overseer, Master of a Workhouse, or other paid Officer, or any other Person employed by or under the Authority of the said Guardians, shall purloin, embezzle, or wilfully waste or misapply any of the Monies, Goods, or Chattels belonging to any Parish or Union, every such Offender shall, besides and in addition to such Pains and Penalties as such Person so offending shall, independently of this Act, be liable to, upon Conviction before any Two Justices, forfeit and pay for every such Offence any Sum not exceeding Twenty Pounds, and also Treble the Amount or Value of such Money, Goods, or Chattels so purloined, embezzled, wasted, or misapplied; and every Person so convicted shall be for ever thereafter incapable of serving any Office under the Provisions of this or any other Act in relation to the Relief of the Poor.

      98. And be it further enacted, That in case any Person shall wilfully neglect or disobey any of the Rules, Orders, or Regulations of the said Commissioners or Assistant Commissioners, or be guilty of any Contempt of the said Commissioners sitting as a Board, such Person shall, upon Conviction before any Two Justices, forfeit and pay for the First Offence any Sum not exceeding Five Pounds, for the Second Offence any Sum not exceeding Twenty Pounds nor less than Five Pounds, and in the Event of such Person being Convicted a Third Time, such Third and every subsequent Offence shall be deemed a Misdemeanor, and such Offender shall be liable to be indicted for the same Offence, and shall on Conviction pay such Fine, not being less than Twenty Pounds, and suffer such Imprisonment, with or without hard Labour, as may be awarded against him by the Court by or before which he shall be tried and convicted.

      99. And be it further enacted, That all Penalties and Forfeitures by this Act inflicted or authorized to be imposed for any Offence against the same shall, upon Proof and Conviction of the Offences respectively before any Two Justices, either by the Confession of the Party offending, or by the Oath of any credible Witness or Witnesses, (which Oath such Justices are in every Case hereby fully authorized to administer,) or upon Order made as aforesaid, be levied, together with the Costs attending the Information, Summons, and Conviction, by Distress and Sale of the Goods and Chattels of the Offender or Person liable or ordered to pay the same respectively, by Warrant under the Hands of the Justices before whom the Party may have been convicted, or, on Proof of such Conviction, by a Warrant under the Hands of any Two Justices acting for the County, Riding, or Division (which Warrant such Justices are hereby empowered and required to grant); and the Overplus (if any), after such Penalties and Forfeitures, and the Charges of such Distress and Sale, are deducted, shall be returned, upon Demand, unto the Owner or Owners of such Goods and Chattels; and in case such Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures shall not be forthwith paid upon Conviction, then it shall be lawful for such Justices as aforesaid to order the Offender or Offenders so convicted to be detained. and kept in safe Custody until Return can be conveniently made to such Warrant of Distress, unless the Offender or Offenders shall give sufficient Security, to the Satisfaction of such Justices as aforesaid, for his or their Appearance before such Justices on such Day or Days as shall be appointed for the Return of such Warrant of Distress, such Day or Days not being more than Seven Days from the Time of taking any such Security, and which Security the said Justices as aforesaid are hereby empowered to take by way of Recognizance or otherwise; but if upon the Return of such: Warrant it shall appear that no sufficient Distress can be had thereupon, then it shall be lawful for any such Justices as aforesaid, as the Case may be, and they are hereby authorized and required, by Warrant or Warrants under their Hands, to cause such Offender or Offenders to be committed to the Common Gaol or House of Correction of the County, Riding, or Place where the Offender shall be or reside, there to remain; without Bail or Mainprize, for any Term not exceeding Three Calendar Months, unless such Penalties and Forfeitures, and all reasonable Charges attending the same, shall be sooner paid and satisfied; and the Penalties and Forfeitures; when so levied, shall be paid to or for the Use of the Parish or Union where such Offence shall have been committed, to be applied in aid of the Poor Rate of such Parish or Union.

      100. And be it further enacted, That no Owner of Property, Rate-payer or Inhabitant of ally Parish or Union shall be deemed an incompetent Witness in any Proceeding for the Recovery of any Penalty or Forfeiture inflicted or imposed for any Offence against this Act, notwithstanding such Penalty or Forfeiture, when recovered, shall be applicable in aid of the Poor Rate of such Parish or Union.

      101. And be it further enacted, That in all Cases in which any Penalty or Forfeiture is recoverable before the Justices of the Peace under this Act it shall and may be lawful for any Commissioner or Assistant Commissioner, or any Justice, to whom Complaint in Writing shall be made of any such Offence, to summon the Party complained against to appear before any Two Justices, and on such Summons the said Two Justices may hear and determine the Matter of such Complaint, and on Proof of the Offence convict the Offender, and. adjudge him to pay the Penalty or Forfeiture incurred, and proceed to recover the same.

      102. And be it further enacted, That where any Distress shall be made for any Sum of Money to be levied by virtue of this Act the Distress itself shall not be deemed unlawful, nor the Party making the same be deemed a Trespasser, on account of any Default or Want of Form in any Proceedings relating thereto, nor shall the Party distraining be deemed a Trespasser ab initio on account of any Irregularity which shall afterwards happen in making the Distress, but the Person aggrieved by such Irregularity may recover full Satisfaction for the special Damage in an Action on the Case: Provided always, that no Plaintiff shall recover in any Action for any Irregularity, Trespass, or wrongful Proceedings, if Tender of sufficient Amends shall be made, by or on behalf of the Party who shall have Committed or caused to be committed any such Irregularity, Trespass, or wrongful Proceedings, before such Action shall have been brought; and in case no such Tender shall have been made it shall and may be lawful for the Defendant in any such Action, by Leave of the Court where such Action shall depend, at any Time before Issue joined, to pay into Court such Sum of Money as he shall see fit, whereupon such Proceedings, or Orders and Judgment, shall be had, made, and given in and by such Court as in other Actions where the Defendant is allowed to pay Money into Court.

      103. Provided also, and be it further enacted, That if any Person or Persons shall find himself, herself, or themselves aggrieved by any Order or Conviction of any Justice or Justices, where such Person or Persons shall be convicted in any Penalty or Penalties exceeding Five Pounds, or if any Person shall find himself aggrieved by any Order made under the Provisions of this Act on such Person as the putative Father of any Bastard Child, it shall be lawful for such Person or Persons to appeal to any General or Quarter Sessions of the Peace to be held in and for the County, Riding, or Division in which such Order shall have been made or Conviction taken place within Four Calendar Months next after the Cause of Complaint shall have arisen, or if such Sessions shall be held before the Expiration of One Calendar Month next after such Cause of Complaint, then such Appeal shall be made to the next following Sessions, either of which Court of Sessions is hereby empowered to hear and finally determine the Matter of the said Appeal, and to make such Order therein as to them shall seem meet; which Order shall be final and conclusive to and upon all Parties; provided that the Person or Persons so appealing shall give or cause to be given at least Fourteen Days Notice in Writing of his, her, or their Intention of appealing as aforesaid, and of the Matter or Cause thereof, to the Respondent or Respondents, and within Five Days after such Notice shall enter into a Recognizance before some Justice of the Peace, with sufficient Securities, conditioned to try such Appeal at the then next General Sessions or Quarter Sessions of the Peace which shall first happen, and to abide the Order of and pay such Costs as shall be awarded by the Justices at such Quarter Sessions, or any Adjournment thereof; and such Justices, upon hearing and finally determining such Matter of Appeal, shall and may, according to their Discretion, award such Costs to the Party appealing or appealed against as they shall think proper; and their Determination in or concerning the Premises shall be conclusive and binding on all Parties to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever.

      104. And be it further enacted, That no Action or Suit shall be commenced against any Commissioner, Assistant Commissioner, or any other Person for any thing done in pursuance of or under the Authority of this Act, until Twenty-one Days Notice has been given thereof in Writing to the Party or Person against whom such Action is intended to be brought, nor after sufficient Satisfaction or Tender thereof shall have been made to the Party aggrieved, nor after Three Calendar Months next after the Act committed for which such Action or Suit shall be so brought; and every such Action shall be brought, laid, and tried where the Cause of Action shall have arisen, and not in any other County or Place; and the Defendant in such Action or Suit may plead the General Issue, and give this Act and any special Matter in Evidence at any Trial which shall be had thereupon; and if the Matter or Thing shall appear to have been done under or by virtue of this Act, or if it shall appear that such Action or Suit was brought before Twenty-one Days Notice thereof given as aforesaid, or that sufficient Satisfaction was made or tendered as aforesaid, or if any Action or Suit shall not be commenced within the Time before limited, or shall be laid in any other County than as aforesaid, then the Jury shall find a Verdict for the Defendant therein; and if a Verdict shall be found for such Defendant, or if the Plaintiff in such Action or Suit shall become Nonsuit, or suffer a Discontinuance of such Action, or if, upon any Demurrer in such Action, Judgment shall be given for the Defendant therein, then and in any of the Cases aforesaid such Defendant shall have Costs, Charges, and Expences as between Attorney and Client, and shall have such Remedy for recovering the same as any Defendant may have for his or her Costs in any other Case by Law.

      105. And be it further enacted, That no Rule, Order, or Regulation of the said Commissioners or Assistant Commissioners, or any of them, shall be removed or removeable by Writ of Certiorari into any Court of Record, except His Majesty's Court of King's Bench at Westminster; and that every Rule, Order, or Regulation which shall be removed by Writ of Certiorari into the said Court of King's Bench shall nevertheless, unless and until the same shall be declared illegal by that Court, continue in full force and virtue, and be obeyed, performed, and enforced, in such and the same Manner, and by such and the same Ways and Means, and as if the same had not been so removed.

      106. And be it further enacted, That no Application shall be made for any Writ of Certiorari for the Removal of any such Rule, Order, or Regulation, except to the Judges when sitting in the said Court, nor unless Notice in Writing shall have been left at the Office of the said Commissioners at least Ten Days previous to such Application being made, and in which Notice shall be set forth the Name and Description of the Party by or on behalf of whom and the Day on which it is intended to make such Application, together with a Statement of the Grounds thereof; and thereupon it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners to show Cause in the first Instance against such Application, and the Court may, if it shall so think fit, forthwith proceed to hear and determine the same upon the Grounds set forth in such Notice.

      107. And be it further enacted, That previous to any Writ of Certiorari being issued the Party or Parties applying for the same shall enter into a Recognizance, with sufficient Sureties, before One of His Majesty's Justices of the Court of King's Bench, or before a Justice of the Peace of the County or Place in which such Person shall reside, in the Sum of Fifty Pounds, with Condition to prosecute the same, at his or their Costs and Charges, with Effect, without any wilful or affected Delay, and in default thereof or in the Event of such Rule, Order, or Regulation being deemed legal, to pay the said Commissioners their full Costs, Charges, and Expences, to be taxed according to the Course of the said Court of King's Bench; and if the said Rule, Order, or Regulation, so removed by the said Writ of Certiorari into the said Court of King's Bench, shall be declared legal by the said Court, the Commissioners entitled to such Costs, within Ten Days after Demand made of the Person or Persons who ought to pay the said Costs, upon Oath made of the making such Demand and Refusal of Payment thereof, may recover the same in the same Manner as any Penalties and Forfeitures are recoverable under this Act.

      108. And be it further enacted, That if upon the Hearing of the Application the Court shall order a Writ of Certiorari to issue for bringing up any such Rule, Order, or Regulation, and the same, being brought into Court, shall be quashed as illegal, the said Commissioners shall forthwith notify the Judgment of the Court to all Unions, Parishes, or Places to which such Rule, Order, or Regulation shall have been directed, and the same shall from the Time of receiving such Notice respectively be deemed and taken to be null and void to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever: Provided that such Judgment shall not have the Effect of annulling any Contracts made in pursuance or upon the Authority of any such Rule, Order, or Regulation which at the Receipt of such Notice respectively shall have been executed by either of the contracting Parties: provided also, that no Person shall be liable to be prosecuted, either by Indictment or by Civil Action, for or in respect of any Act done by him before the Receipt, of such Notice, under the Authority and in pursuance of such Rule, Order, or Regulation.

      109. And be it further enacted, That in the Construction of this Act the Word “Auditor” shall be construed to mean and include every Person, other than Justices of the Peace acting in virtue of their Office, appointed or empowered to audit, control, examine, allow, or disallow the Accounts of any Guardian, Overseer, or Vestrymen, relating to the Receipt or Expenditure of the Poor Rate; the Words “General Rule” shall be construed to mean any Rule relating to the Management of the Poor or to the Execution of this Act which shall at the Time of issuing the same be addressed by the said Commissioners to more than One Union, or to more Parishes or Places than One not forming a Union, or not to be formed into or added to a Union under or by virtue of such Rule; the Word “Guardian” shall be construed to mean and include any Visitor, Governor, Director, Manager, Acting Guardian, Vestryman, or other Officer in a Parish or Union, appointed or entitled to act as a Manager of the Poor, and in the Distribution or ordering of the Relief to the Poor from the Poor Rate, under any General or Local Act of Parliament; the Words “Justice or Justices of the Peace” shall be construed to include Justices of the Peace of any County, Division of a County, Riding, Borough, Liberty, Division of a Liberty, Precinct, County of a City, County of a Town, Cinque Port, or Town Corporate, unless where otherwise provided by this Act; the Word “Oath” shall be construed to include the Affirmation of a Quaker, Separatist, or Moravian; the Words “Orders and Regulations” shall be construed to mean and include any Rule, Order, Regulation, or Bye Law relating to the Management or Relief of the Poor, or the Execution of this Act, which at the Time of issuing the same shall be addressed, directed, or applied to any One Parish or Union, or to any Number of Parishes which have been or by virtue of any Order shall be constituted a Union or added to a Union; the Word “Officer” shall be construed to extend to any Clergyman, Schoolmaster, Person duly licensed to practise as a Medical Man, Vestry Clerk, Treasurer, Collector, Assistant Overseer, Governor, Master or Mistress of a Workhouse, or any other Person who shall be employed in any Parish or Union in carrying this Act or the Laws for the Relief of the Poor into execution, and whether performing One or more of the above-mentioned Functions; the Word “Overseer” shall be construed to mean and include Overseers of the Poor, Churchwardens, so far as they are authorized or required by Law to act in the Management or Relief of the Poor, or in the Collection or Distribution of the Poor Rate, Assistant Overseer, or any other subordinate Officer, whether paid or unpaid, in any Parish or Union, who shall be employed therein in carrying this Act or the Laws for the Relief of the Poor into execution; the Word “Owner” shall be construed to include any Person for the Time being in the actual Occupation of any Property, rateable to the Relief of the Poor, and not let to him at Rack Rent, or any Person receiving the Rack Rent of any such Property, either on his own Account or as Mortgagee or other Incumbrancer in possession; and the Words “Rack Rent” shall be construed to mean any Rent which shall not be less than Two Thirds of the full improved net annual Value of any Property; the Word “Parish “shall be construed to include any Parish, City, Borough, Town, Township, Liberty, Precinct, Vill, Village, Hamlet, Tithing, Chapelry, or any other Place, or Division or District of a Place, maintaining its own Poor, whether parochial or extra-parochial; the Word “Person” shall be construed to include any Body Politic, Corporate, or Collegiate, Aggregate or Sole, as well as any Individual; the Word “Poor” shall be construed to include any Pauper or poor or indigent Person applying for or receiving Relief from the Poor Rate in England or Wales, or chargeable thereto; the Words “Poor Law,” or “Laws for the Relief of the Poor,” shall be construed to include every Act of Parliament for the Time being in force for the Relief or Management of the Poor, or relating to the Execution of the same, or the Administration of such Relief; the Words “Poor Rate” shall be construed to include any Rate, Rate in Aid, Mulct, Cess, Assessment, Collection, Levy, Ley, Subscription, or Contribution raised, assessed, imposed, levied, collected, or disbursed for the Relief of the Poor in any Parish or Union; that the Words “General Quarter Sessions” shall extend to and be construed to include General or Quarter, Sessions, or Adjournment thereof for any County, Division of a County, Riding, Borough, Liberty, Division of a Liberty, Precinct, County of a City, City, County of a Town, Cinque Port, or Town Corporate, unless where otherwise provided by this Act; the Word “Union” shall be construed to include any Number of Parishes united for any Purpose whatever under the Provisions of this Act, or incorporated under the said Act made and passed in the Twenty-second Year of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor, or incorporated for the Relief or Maintenance of the poor under any Local Act; the Words “united Workhouse” shall be construed to mean and include any Workhouse of a Union; the Word “Vestry” shall be construed to mean any open, customary, or Select Vestry, or any Meeting of Inhabitants Convened by any Notice such as would have been required for the assembling of a Meeting in Vestry, at which Meeting any Business relating to the Poor or the Poor Rate shall be transacted or taken into consideration, sofar as such Business is concerned; the Word “Workhouse” shall be construed to include any House in which the Poor of any Parish or Union shall be lodged and maintained, or any House or Building purchased, erected, hired, or used at the Expence of the Poor Rate, by any Parish, Vestry, Guardian, or Overseer, for the Reception, Employment, Classification, or Relief of any poor Person therein at the Expence of such Parish; and wherever in this Act, in describing any Person or Party, Matter or Thing, the Word importing the Singular Number or the Masculine Gender only is used, the same shall be understood to include and shall be applied to several Persons or Parties as well as one Person or Party, and Females as well as Males, and several Matters or Things as well as one Matter or Thing, respectively, unless there be something in the Subject or Context repugnant to such Construction.

      110. And be it further enacted, That this Act may be altered, amended, or repealed in this present Session of Parliament.

      Document 9: Mayhew, Henry. (1861–1862). London Labour and the London Poor; a Cyclopædia of the Condition and Earnings of Those That Will Work, Those That Cannot Work, and Those That Will Not Work

      Henry Mayhew (1812–1887) was one of seventeen children of a wealthy London family. Unable to find or sustain a suitable career, he moved to Paris and became part of a young literary circle that in 1841 founded Punch magazine. In 1849 he began researching and writing as series of articles on the poor of London for the Morning Chronicle newspaper. In 1850, he stopped writing the series but continued to write on the London poor until 1852. His work was collected and published in four volumes as London Labour and the London Poor in 1861 and 1862. Mayhew's work was controversial and path-breaking in that he took an ethnographic approach in actually visiting the poor districts of London, interviewing the poor, and letting their own words tell their stories in his articles. He also followed a geographic approach in studying crime among the poor and in Volume IV published a series of maps showing the distribution of crimes. The following selections are from that volume, Those That Will Not Work.

      See entries:

      Introduction and Classification by Henry Mayhew

      I enter upon this part of my subject with a deep sense of the misery, the vice, the ignorance, and the want that encompass us on every side—I enter upon it after much grave attention to the subject, observing closely, reflecting patiently, and generalizing cautiously upon the phenomena and causes of the vice and crime of this city—I enter upon it after a thoughtful study of the habits and character of the “outcast” class generally—I enter upon it, moreover, not only as forming an integral and most important part of the task I have imposed upon myself, but from a wish to divest the public mind of certain “idols” of the platform and conventicler—“idols” peculiar to our own time, and unknown to the great Father of the inductive philosophy—and “idols,” too, that appear to me greatly to obstruct a proper understanding of the subject. Further, I am led to believe that I can contribute some new facts concerning the physics and economy of vice and crime generally, that will not only make the solution of the social problem more easy to us, but, setting more plainly before us some of its latent causes, make us look with more pity and less anger on those who want the fortitude to resist their influence; and induce us, or at least the more earnest among us, to apply ourselves steadfastly to the removal or alleviation of those social evils that appear to create so large a proportion of the vice and crime that we seek by punishment to prevent.

      Such are the ultimate objects of my present labours: the result of them is given to the world with an earnest desire to better the condition of the wretched social outcasts of whom I have now to treat, and to Contribute, if possible, my mite of good towards the Common weal.

      But though such be my ultimate object, let me here confess that my immediate aim is the elimination of the truth; without this, of course, all other principles must be sheer sentimentality—sentiments being, to my mind, opinions engendered by the feelings rather than the judgment. The attainment of the truth, then, will be my primary aim; but by the truth. I wish it to be understood, I mean something more than the bare facts. Facts, according to my ideas, are merely the elements of truths, and not the truths themselves; of all matters there are none so utterly useless by themselves as your mere matters of fact. A fact, so long as it remains an isolated fact, is a dull, dead, uninformed thing; no object nor event by itself can possibly give us any knowledge, we must compare it with some other, even to distinguish it; and it is the distinctive quality thus developed that constitutes the essence of a thing—that is to say, that point by which we cognize and recognize it when again presented to us. A fact must be assimilated with, or discriminated fromm, some other fact or facts, in order to be raised to the dignity of a truth, and made to convey the least knowledge to the mind. To say, for instance, that in the year 1850 there were 26,813 criminal offenders in England and Wales, is merely to oppress the brain with the record of a fact that, per se, is so much mental lumber. This is the very mummery of statistics; of what rational good can such information by itself be to any person? who can tell whether the number of offenders in that year be large or small, unless they compare it with the number of some other year, or in some other country? but to do this will require another fact, and even then this second fact can give us but little real knowledge. It may teach us, perhaps, that the past year was more or less criminal than some other year, or that the people of this country, in that year, were more or less disposed to the infraction of the laws than some other people abroad; still, what will all this avail us? If the year which we select to Contrast criminally with that of 1850 be not itself compared with other years, how are we to know whether the number of criminals appertaining to it be above or below the average? or, in other words, how can the one be made a measure of the other?

      To give the least mental value to facts, therefore, we must generalize them, that is to say, we must contemplate them in connection with other facts, and so discover their agreements and differences, their antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. It is true we may frame erroneous and defective theories in so going; we may believe things which are similar in appearance to be similar in their powers and properties also; we may distinguish between things having no real difference; we may mistake concomitant events for Consequences; we may generalize with too few particulars, and hastily infer that to be common to all which is but the special attribute of a limited number; nevertheless, if theory may occasionally teach us wrongly, facts without theory or generalization cannot possibly teach us at all. What the process of digestion is to food, that of generalizing is to fact; for as it is by the assimilation of the substances we eat with the elements of our bodies that our limbs are enlarged and our whole frames strengthened, so is it by associating perception with perception in our brains that our intellect becomes at once expanded and invigorated. Contrary to the vulgar notion, theory, that is to say, theory in its true baconian sense, is not opposed to fact, but consists rather of a large collection of facts; it is not true of this or that thing alone, but of all things belonging to the same class—in a word, it consists not of one fact but an infinity. The theory of gravitation, for instance, expresses not only what occurs when a stone falls to the earth, but when every other body does the same thing; it expresses, moreover, what takes place in the revolution of the moon round our planet, and in the revolution of our planet and of all the other planets round the sun, and of all other suns round the centre of the universe; in fine, it is true not of one thing merely, but of every material object in the entire range of creation.

      There are, of course, two methods of dealing philosophically with every subject—deductively and inductively. We may either proceed from principles to facts, or recede from facts to principles. The one explains, the other investigates; the former applies known general rules to the comprehension of particular phenomena, and the latter classifies the particular phenomena, so that we may ultimately come to comprehend their unknown general rules. The deductive method is the mode of using knowledge, and the inductive method the mode of acquiring it.

      In a subject like the crime and vice of the metropolis, and the country in general, of which so little is known—of which there are so many facts, but so little comprehension—it is evident that we must seek by induction, that is to say, by a careful classification of the known phenomena, to render the matter more intelligible; in fine, we must, in order to arrive at a comprehensive knowledge of its antecedents, consequences, and concomitants, contemplate as large a number of facts as possible in as many different relations as the statistical records of the country will admit of our doing.

      With this brief preamble I will proceed to treat generally of the class that will not work, and then particularly of that portion of them termed prostitutes. But, first, who are those that will work, and who those that will not work? This is the primary point to be evolved.

      Of the Workers and Non-Workers

      The essential quality of an animal is that it seeks its own living, whereas a vegetable has its living brought to it. An animal cannot stick its feet in the ground and suck up the inorganic elements of its body from the soil, nor drink in the organic elements from the atmosphere. The leaves of plants are not only their lungs but their stomachs. As they breathe they acquire food and strength, but as animals breathe they gradually waste away. The carbon which is secreted by the process of respiration in the vegetable is excreted by the very same process in the animal. Hence a fresh supply of carbonaceous matter must be sought after and obtained at frequent intervals, in order to repair the continual waste of animal life.

      But in the act of seeking for substances fitted to replace that which is lost in respiration, nerves must be excited and muscles moved; and recent discoveries have shown that such excitation and motion are attended with decomposition of the organs in which they occur. Muscular action gives rise to the destruction of muscular tissue, nervous action to a change in the nervous matter; and this destruction and decomposition necessarily involve a fresh supply of nitrogenous matter, in order that the loss may be repaired.

      Now a tree, being inactive, has little or no waste. All the food that it obtains goes to the invigoration of its frame; not one atom is destroyed in seeking more: but the essential condition of animal life is muscular action; the essential condition of muscular action is the destruction of muscular tissue; and the essential condition of the destruction of muscular tissue is a supply of food fitted for the reformation of it, or—death. It is impossible for an animal—like a vegetable—to stand still and not destroy. If the limbs are not moving, the heart is beating, the lungs playing, the bosom heaving. Hence an animal, in order to continue its existence, must obtain its subsistence either by its own exertions or by those of others—in a word, it must be autobious or allobious.

      The procuration of sustenance, then, is the necessary condition of animal life, and constitutes the sole apparent reason for the addition of the locomotive apparatus to the vegetative functions of sentient nature; but the faculties of comparison and volition have been further added to the animal nature of Man, in order to enable him, among other things, the better to gratify his wants—to give him such a mastery over the elements of material nature, that he may force the external world the more readily to contribute to his support. Hence the derangement of either one of those functions must degrade the human being—as regards his means of sustenance—to the level of the brute. If his intellect be impaired, and the faculty of perceiving “the fitness of things” be consequently lost to him—or, this being sound, if the power of moving his muscles in compliance with his will be sufficient—then the individual becomes no longer capable, like his fellows, of continuing his existence by his own exertions.

      Hence, in every state, we have two extensive causes of allobiism, or living by the labour of others; the one intellectual, as in the case of lunatics and idiots, and the other physical, as in the case of the infirm, the crippled, and the maimed—the old and the young.

      But a third, and a more extensive class, still remains to be particularized. The members of every community may be divided into the energetic and the an-ergetic; that is to say, into the hardworking and the nonworking, the industrious and the indolent classes; the distinguishing characteristic of the anergetic being the extreme irksomeness of all labour to them, and their consequent indisposition to work for their subsistence. Now, in the circumstances above enumerated, we have three capital causes why, in every State, a certain portion of the community must derive their subsistence from the exertions of the rest; the first proceeds from some physical defect, as in the case of the old and the young, the super-annuated and the sub-annuated, the crippled and the maimed; the second from some intellectual defect, as in the case of lunatics and idiots; and the third from some moral defect, as in the case of the indolent, the vagrant, the professional mendicant, and the criminal. In all civilized countries, there will necessarily be a greater or less number of human parasites living on the sustenance of their fellows. The industrious must labour to support the lazy, and the sane to keep the insane, and the able-bodied to maintain the infirm.

      Still, to complete the social fabric, another class requires to be specified. As yet, regard has been paid only to those who must needs labour for their living, or who, in default of so doing, must prey on the proceeds of the industry of their more active or more stalwart breathren. There is, however, in all civilized society, a farther portion of the people distinct from either of those above mentioned, who, being already provided—no matter how—with a sufficient stock of sustenance, or what will exchange for such, have no occasion to toil for an additional supply.

      Hence all society would appear to arrange itself into four different classes:—

      • Those that Will Work.
      • Those that Cannot Work.
      • Those that Will Not Work.
      • Those that Need Not Work.

      Under one or other section of this quadruple division, every member, not only of our community, but of every other civilized State, must necessarily be included; the rich, the poor, the industrious, the idle, the honest, the dishonest, the virtuous, and the vicious—each and all must be comprised therein.

      Let me now proceed specially to treat of each of these classes—to distribute under one or other of these four categories the diverse modes of living peculiar to the members of our own community, and so to enunciate, for the first time, the natural history, as it were, of the industry and idleness of Great Britain in the nineteenth century.

      It is no easy matter, however, to classify the different kinds of labour scientifically. To arrange the several varieties of work into “orders,” and to group the manifold species of arts under a few comprehensive genera—so that the mind may grasp the whole at one effort—is a task of a most perplexing character. Moreover, the first attempt to bring any number of diverse phenomena within the rules of logical division is not only a matter of considerable difficulty, but one, unfortunately, that is generally unsuccessful. It is impossible, however, to proceed with the present inquiry without making some attempt at systematic arrangement; for of all scientific processes, the classification of the various phenomena, in connection with a given subject, is perhaps the most important; indeed, if we consider that the function of cognition is essentially discriminative, it is evident, that without distinguishing between one object and another, there can be no knowledge, nor, indeed, any perception. Even as the seizing of a particular difference causes the mind to apprehend the special character of an object, so does the discovery of the agreements and differences among the several phenomena of a subject enable the understanding to comprehend it. What the generalization of events is to the ascertainment of natural laws, the generalization of things is to the discovery of natural systems. But classification is no less dangerous than it is important to science; for in precisely the same proportion as a correct grouping of objects into genera and species, orders and varieties, expands and assists our understanding, so does any erroneous arrangement cripple and retard all true knowledge. The reduction of all external substances into four elements by the ancients—earth, air, fire, and water—perhaps did more to obstruct the progress of chemical science than even a prohibition of the study could have effected.

      But the branches of industry are so multifarious, the divisions of labour so minutes and manifold, that it seems at first almost impossible to reduce them to any system. Moreover, the crude generalizations expressed in the names of several arts, render the subject still more perplexing.

      Some kinds of workmen, for example, are called after the articles they make—as saddlers, hatters, bootmakers, dress-makers, breeches-makers, stay-makers, lace-makers, button-makers, glovers, cabinet-makers, artificial-flower-makers, ship-buildings, organ-builders, boat-builders, nailers, pin-makers, basket-makers, pump-makers, clock and watch makers, wheel-wrights, ship-wrights, and so forth.

      Some operatives, on the other hand, take their names not from what they make, but from the kind of work they perform. Hence we have carvers, joiners, bricklayers, weavers, knitters, engravers, embroiderers, tanners, curriers, bleachers, thatchers, limeburners, glass-blowers, seamstresses, assayers, refiners, embossers, chasers, painters, paper-hangers, printers, book-binders, cabdrivers, fishermen, graziers, and so on.

      Other artizans, again, are styled after the materials upon which they work, such as tinmen, jewellers, lapidaries, goldsmiths, braziers, plumbers, pewterers, glaziers, etc., etc.

      And lastly, a few operatives are named after the tools they use; thus we have ploughmen, sawyers, and needlewomen.

      But these divisions, it is evident, are as unscientific as they are arbitrary; nor would it be possible, by adopting such a classification, to arrive at any practical result.

      Classification of the Workers and Non-Workers of Great Britain

      Those Who Will Work.

      • Enrichers, as the Collectors, Extractors, or Producers of Exchangeable Commodities.
      • Auxiliaries, as the Promoters of Production, or the Distributors of the Produce.
      • Benefactors, or those who confer some permanent benefit, as Educators and Curators engaged in promoting the physical, intellectual, or spiritual well-being of the people.
      • Servitors, or those who render some temporary service, or pleasure, as Amusers, Protectors, and Servants.

      Those Who Cannot Work.

      • Those who are provided for by some public Institution, as the Inmates of workhouses, prisons, hospitals, asylums, almshouses, dormitories, and refuges.
      • Those who are unprovided for, and incapacitated for labour, either from want of power, from want of means, or from want of employment.

      Those Who Will Not Work

      • Vagrants.
      • Professional Beggars.
      • Cheats.
      • Thieves.
      • Prostitutes. Those Who Need Not Work.
      • Those who derive their income from rent.
      • Those who derive their income from dividends.
      • Those who derive their income from yearly stipends.
      • Those who derive their income from obsolete or nominal offices.
      • Those who derive their income from trades in which they do not appear.
      • Those who derive their income by favour from others.
      • Those who derive their support from the head of the family.
      Document 10: Riis, Jacob. (1890). How the other Half Lives

      Jacob Riis (1849–1914) was a Danish immigrant who settled in New York in 1870. Poor and unemployed, Riis experienced poverty and homeless and often slept in police station lodging houses. Once he secured work as a police reporter for the New York Tribune in 1877, he devoted his career to documenting the life of poor and communicating their situation to the public. Riis was one the first reformers to view the poor as victims rather than as the cause of their own poverty.

      Riis was an innovative photographer as well as a reporter and in 1889 his illustrated report on poverty in the city was published in Scribner's Magazine and the following year as the booklength How the Other Half Lives. The book led to the closing of the worst of police lodging houses and became a classic in the study of poverty and the social reform movement. Riis studied, wrote about and lectured on the poor for the remainder of his life. His other publications include Children of the Poor (1892) and The Battle with the Slum (1902).

      The extract that follows provides a description of the lodging facilities available to the poor in the late nineteenth century in New York City.

      See entries:

      The Cheap Lodging-Houses
      • WHEN it comes to the question of numbers with this tramps' army, another factor of serious portent has to be taken into account: the cheap lodging-houses. In the caravan series that line Chatham Street and the Bowery, harboring nightly a population as large as that of many a thriving town, a home-made article of tramp and thief is turned out that is attracting the increasing attention of the police, and offers a field for the missionary's labors beside which most others seem of slight account. Within a year they have been stamped as nurseries of crime by the chief of the Secret Police, the sort of crime that feeds especially on idleness and lies ready to the hand of fatal opportunity. In the same strain one of the justices on the police court bench sums up his long experience as a committing magistrate: “The ten-cent lodging-houses more than counterbalance the good done by the free reading-room, lectures, and all other agencies of reform. Such lodging-houses have caused more destitution, more beggary and crime than any other agency I know of.” A very slight acquaintance with the subject is sufficient to convince the observer that neither authority overstates the fact. The two officials had reference, however, to two different grades of lodging-houses. The cost of a night's lodging makes the difference. There is a wider gap between the “hotel”—they are all hotels—that charges a quarter and the one that furnishes a bed for a dime than between the bridal suite and the every-day hall bedroom of the ordinary hostelry.
      • The metropolis is to lots of people like a lighted candle to the moth. It attracts them in swarms that come year after year with the vague idea that they can get along here if anywhere; that something is bound to turn up among so many. Nearly all are young men, unsettled in life, many—most of them, perhaps—fresh from good homes, beyond a doubt with honest hopes of getting a start in the city and making a way for themselves. Few of them have much money to waste while looking around, and the cheapness of the lodging offered is an object. Fewer still know anything about the city and its pitfalls. They have come in search of crowds, of “life,” and they gravitate naturally to the Bowery, the great democratic highway of the city, where the twenty-five-cent lodging-houses take them in. In the alleged reading-rooms of these great barracks, that often have accommodations, such as they are, for two, three, and even four hundred guests, they encounter three distinct classes of associates: the great mass adventurers like themselves, waiting there for something to turn up; a much smaller class of respectable clerks or mechanics, who, too poor or too lonely to have a home of their own, live this way from year to year; and lastly the thief in search of recruits for his trade. The sights the young stranger sees, and the company he keeps, in the Bowery are not of a kind to strengthen any moral principle he may have brought away from home, and by the time his money is gone, with no work yet in sight, and he goes down a step, a long step, to the fifteen-cent lodging-house, he is ready for the tempter whom he finds waiting for him there, reinforced by the contingent of ex-convicts returning from the prisons after having served out their sentences for robbery or theft. Then it is that the something he has been waiting for turns up. The police returns have the record of it. “In nine cases out of ten,” says Inspector Byrnes, “he turns out a thief, or a burglar, if, indeed, he does not sooner or later become a murderer.” As a matter of fact, some of the most atrocious of recent murders have been the result of schemes of robbery hatched in these houses, and so frequent and bold have become the depredations of the lodging-house thieves, that the authorities have been compelled to make a public demand for more effective laws that shall make them subject at all times to police regulation.
      • Inspector Byrnes observes that in the last two or three years at least four hundred young men have been arrested for petty crimes that originated in the lodginghouses, and that in many cases it was their first step in crime. He adds his testimony to the notorious fact that three-fourths of the young men called on to plead to generally petty offences in the courts are under twenty years of age, poorly clad, and without means. The bearing of the remark is obvious. One of the, to the police, well-known thieves who lived, when out of jail, at the Windsor, a well-known lodging-house in the Bowery, went to Johnstown after the flood and was shot and killed there while robbing the dead.
      • An idea of just how this particular scheme of corruption works, with an extra touch of infamy thrown in, may be gathered from the story of David Smith, the “New York Fagin,” who was convicted and sent to prison last year through the instrumentality of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Here is the account from the Society's last report:
      • “The boy, Edward Mulhearn fourteen years old, had run away from his home in Jersey City, thinking he might find work and friends in New York. He may have been a trifle wild. He met Smith on the Bowery and recognized him as an acquaintance. When Smith offered him a supper and bed he was only too glad to accept. Smith led the boy to a vile lodging-house on the Bowery, where he introduced him to his ‘pals’ and swore he would make a man of him before he was a week older. Next day he took the unsuspecting Edward all over the Bowery and Grand Street, showed him the sights and drew his attention to the careless way the ladies carried their bags and purses and the easy thing it was to get them. He induced Edward to try his hand. Edward tried and won. He was richer by three dollars! It did seem easy. ‘Of course it is,’ said his companion. From that time Smith took the boy on a number of thieving raids, but he never seemed to become adept enough to be trusted out of range of the ‘Fagin's’ watchful eye. When he went out alone he generally returned empty-handed. This did not suit Smith. It was then he conceived the idea of turning this little inferior thief into a superior beggar. He took the boy into his room and burned his arms with a hot iron. The boy screamed and entreated in vain. The merciless wretch pressed the iron deep into the tender flesh, and afterward applied acid to the raw wound.
      • “Thus prepared, with his arm inflamed, swollen, and painful, Edward was sent out every day by this fiend, who never let him out of his sight, and threatened to burn his arm off if he did not beg money enough. He was instructed to tell people the wound had been caused by acid falling upon his arm at the works. Edward was now too much under the man's influence to resist or disobey him. He begged hard and handed Smith the pennies faithfully. He received in return bad food and worse treatment.”
      • The reckoning came when the wretch encountered the boy's father, in search of his child, in the Bowery, and fell under suspicion of knowing more than he pretended of the lad's whereabouts. He was found in his den with a half dozen of his chums revelling on the proceeds of the boy's begging for the day.
      • The twenty-five cent lodging-house keeps up the pretence of a bedroom, though the head-high partition enclosing a space just large enough to hold a cot and a chair and allow the man room to pull off his clothes is the shallowest of all pretenses. The fifteen-cent bed stands boldly forth without screen in a room full of bunks with sheets as yellow and blankets as foul. At the ten-cent level the locker for the sleeper's clothes disappears. There is no longer need of it. The tramp limit is reached, and there is nothing to lock up save, on general principles, the lodger. Usually the ten- and seven-cent lodgings are different grades of the same abomination. Some sort of an apology for a bed, with mattress and blanket, represents the aristocratic purchase of the tramp who, by a lucky stroke of beggary, has exchanged the chance of an empty box or ashbarrel for shelter on the quality floor of one of these “hotels.” A strip of canvas, strung between rough timbers, without covering of any kind, does for the couch of the seven-cent lodger who prefers the questionable comfort of a red-hot stove close to his elbow to the revelry of the stale-beer dive. It is not the most secure perch in the world. Uneasy sleepers roll off at intervals, but they have not far to fall to the next tier of bunks, and the commotion that ensues is speedily quieted by the boss and his club. On cold winter nights, when every bunk had its tenant, I have stood in such a lodging-room more than once, and listening to the snoring of the sleepers like the regular strokes of an engine, and the slow creaking of the beams under their restless weight, imagined myself on shipboard and experienced the very real nausea of sea-sickness. The one thing that did not favor the deception was the air; its character could not be mistaken.
      • The proprietor of one of these seven-cent houses was known to me as a man of reputed wealth and respectability. He “ran” three such establishments and made, it was said, $8,000 a year clear profit on his investment. He lived in a handsome house quite near to the stylish precincts of Murray Hill, where the nature of his occupation was not suspected. A notice that was posted on the wall of the lodgers' room suggested at least an effort to maintain his up-town standing in the slums. It read: “No swearing or loud talking after nine o'clock.” Before nine no exceptions were taken to the natural vulgarity of the place; but that was the limit.
      • There are no licensed lodging-houses known to me which charge less than seven cents for even such a bed as this canvas strip, though there are unlicensed ones enough where one may sleep on the floor for five cents a spot, or squat in a sheltered hallway for three. The police station lodging-house, where the soft side of a plank is the regulation couch, is next in order. The manner in which this police bed is “made up” is interesting in its simplicity. The loose planks that make the platform are simply turned over, and the job is done, with an occasional coat of whitewash thrown in to sweeten things. I know of only one easier way, but, so far as I am informed, it has never been introduced in this country. It used to be practised, if report spoke truly, in certain old-country towns. The “bed” was represented by clothes-lines stretched across the room upon which the sleepers hung by the arm-pits for a penny a night. In the morning the boss woke them up by simply untying the line at one end and letting it go with its load; a labor-saving device certainly, and highly successful in attaining the desired end.
      • According to the police figures, 4,974,025 separate lodgings were furnished last year by these dormitories between two and three hundred in number, and, adding the 147,634 lodgings furnished by the stationhouses, the total of the homeless army was 5,121,659, an average of over fourteen thousand homeless men for every night in the year! The health officers, professional optimists always in matters that trench upon their official jurisdiction, insist that the number is not quite so large as here given But, apart from any slight discrepancy in the figures, the more important fact remains that last year's record of lodgers is an all round increase over the previous year's of over three hundred thousand, and that this has been the ratio of growth of the business during the last three years, the period of which Inspector Byrnes complains as turning out so many young criminals with the lodging-house stamp upon them. More than half of the lodging-houses are in the Bowery district, that is to say, the Fourth, Sixth, and Tenth Wards, and they harbor nearly three-fourths of their crowds. The calculation that more than nine thousand homeless young men lodge nightly along Chatham Street and the Bowery, between the City Hall and the Cooper Union, is probably not far out of the way. The City Missionary finds them there far less frequently than the thief in need of helpers. Appropriately enough, nearly one-fifth of all the pawn shops in the city and one-sixth of all the saloons are located here, while twenty-seven per cent of all the arrests on the police books have been credited to the district for the last two years.
      • About election time, especially in Presidential elections, the lodging-houses come out strong on the side of the political boss who has the biggest “barrel.” The victory in political contests, in the three wards I have mentioned of all others, is distinctly to the general with the strongest battalions, and the lodging-houses are his favorite recruiting ground. The colonization of voters is an evil of the first magnitude, nonetheless because both parties smirch their hands with it, and for that reason next to hopeless. Honors are easy, where the two “machines,” intrenched in their strongholds, outbid each other across the Bowery in open rivalry as to who shall commit the most flagrant frauds at the polls. Semi-occasionally a champion offender is caught and punished, as was, not long ago, the proprietor of one of the biggest Bowery lodging-houses. But such scenes are largely spectacular, if not prompted by some hidden motive of revenge that survives from the contest. Beyond a doubt Inspector Byrnes speaks by the card when he observes that “usually this work is done in the interest of some local political boss, who stands by the owner of the house, in case the latter gets into trouble.” For standing by, read twisting the machinery of outraged justice so that its hand shall fall not too heavily upon the culprit, or miss him altogether. One of the houses that achieved profitable notoriety in this way in many successive elections, a notorious tramps' resort in Houston Street, was lately given up, and has most appropriately been turned into a bar-factory, thus still contributing, though in a changed form, to the success of “the cause.” It must be admitted that the black tramp who herds in the West Side “hotels” is more discriminating in this matter of electioneering than his white brother. He at least exhibits some real loyalty in invariably selling his vote to the Republican bidder for a dollar, while he charges the Democratic boss a dollar and a half. In view of the well-known facts, there is a good deal of force in the remark made by a friend of ballot reform during the recent struggle over that hotly Contested issue, that real ballot reform will do more to knock out cheap lodging-houses than all the regulations of police and health officers together.
      • The experiment made by a well-known stove manufacturer a winter or two ago in the way of charity, might have thrown much desired light on the question of the number of tramps in the city, could it have been carried to a successful end. He opened a sort of breakfast shop for the idle and unemployed in the region of Washington Square, offering to all who had no money a cup of coffee and a roll for nothing. The first morning he had a dozen customers, the next about two hundred. The number kept growing until one morning, at the end of two weeks, found by actual count 2,014 shivering creatures in line waiting their turn for a seat at his tables. The shop was closed that day. It was one of the rare instances of too great a rush of custom wrecking a promising business, and the great problem remained unsolved.
      Document 11: Booth, Charles. (1902–1904). Life and Labour of the People in London

      Charles Booth (1840–1916) was a British businessman, politician and social reformer who from 1886 to 1903 organized and directed a major survey of the poor and working class in London. His method was the social survey interview conducted by trained assistants, several of whom went on to become leading citizens of Britain. Booth himself lived among the poor and with working families as a method of developing questions that accurately and fully addressed working class life. The statistical results of the research are summarized in several multi-volume collections, one of which is the two-volume Life and Labour of the People in London published in 1902–1904 and extracted below. The richer survey notes and comments compiled by his researchers remain unpublished as part of the Booth collection held by the Archives Division of the British Library of Political and Economic Science (London School of Economics). Booth was less successful as a politician in initiating programs for the poor but did succeed in laying the groundwork for a universal old-age pension system.

      Booth's survey was one of several conducted in Victorian England in the late nineteenth century. Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor (Document 9) is of the same genre as is Higgs's Glimpses into the Abyss (Document 12), although a more limited scale and with a rural focus.

      See entries:

      Common Lodging Houses

      In studying the picture of London poverty set forth in varied colours on the map, the eye readily notices those black spots which betoken a miserable combination of poverty, vice and crime. If a more minute acquaintance is made with these dark places it will be found that in not a few of them, houses exist for accommodating the poorer classes of Her Majesty's subjects, and known as “Registered Common Lodging-houses.” These houses are under the control of the local authority, which in the Metropolis is the Commissioner of Police, and are subject to periodical inspection by officers appointed for the purpose. They may be visited by these officers at any hour of the day or night, and they exist under strict conditions as to the number of lodgers that may be received, as to propriety regarding the separation of the sexes; as to the proper furnishing of the rooms; as to cleanliness, ventilation and other sanitary arrangements. Would that these regulations were always rigidly enforced! Sick persons can, at the option of the “deputy” in charge, be removed to the hospital or infirmary, and it is comparatively rare that anyone dies in a common lodging-house. The keepers also may be required to report regarding beggars and vagrants, but this provision is of little avail, if indeed it is ever made use of; they are also forbidden, under severe penalties, not always very effectual, to harbour thieves and such bad characters.

      The provision to be found in the Metropolis for those who are “homeless”—or perhaps it would be more accurate to say, those who enjoy no family life—has a wide range. From the luxury of the West End residential club to the “fourpenny doss” of Bangor Street or Short's Gardens is but a matter of degree. The club loafer in Piccadilly or Hyde Park Corner, and the unkempt and illclad vagabond sleeping away the summer day on the grass of St. James's Park, are often influenced by much the same desire—to attain the advantages of the associated life without the cares of housekeeping—and the election which the one has to undergo to pass as a “clubable” man finds its counterpart in the unwritten law which makes certain common lodging-houses accessible only to the “game ‘uns.”

      A proportion of those who make their home in the common lodging-houses do so of necessity, driven thereto by poverty, the victims of misfortune, or of irregularity or slackness of work. But many others voluntarily adopt this method of life; amongst them are men earning good wages—artisans, for instance, from the Midlands or the North—who seek a temporary abode while fulfilling engagements to work for short periods at a distance from their family or friends. Some inhabit these houses partly of necessity and partly of choice, and there are some again who have a particular motive of their own which differs altogether from the pressure of poverty, those who find it convenient to be able to shift their quarters at short notice and to preserve a stricter incognito than would be compatible with ordinary family life—individuals, who, abandoning potronymic and Christian name, adopt a varying soubriquet suited to, or known by, the company they frequent—passing perhaps as “the Slasher” in St. Giles's while recognized only as “Sir Garnett” in the lodginghouses of Westminster.

      According to the report of the Chief Commissioner of Police issued in 1998, there were 995 common lodging-houses registered in the Metropolis, or, if we include the 5 houses which are under separate jurisdiction in the City, there were in the whole of London exactly 1000 houses, with accommodation in all for 31,651 persons.

      It must not be supposed that all these houses, though under the same law, are of the same type or character. Some houses, though registered, are not labeled as “lodging-houses” but go by the more euphonious name of “chambers;” and in those of a better class, are to be found many young clerks and shop assistants who wish to husband their resources (instead of a wife), and so be able, as it is said, “to cut a dash” in some other direction.

      Some of the houses even aspire to the appellation of “hotel” and only differ from an ordinary hotel in the fact that several young men will occupy the same bedroom. In such chambers and “hotels” the sitting-rooms and smoking-rooms are often fairly good and the furniture comfortable, while meals of a superior quality are provided for the “young gentlemen” at prices varying from 4d to 1s, or even more. Accommodation of this kind is to be found in the neighbourhood of the large railway stations about the Euston Road, and near some of the suburban junctions used by travelers wishing to live cheaply while spending a few days in town. Many coffee-houses too, are registered, and let a few beds in connection with their other trade, reputably or otherwise—too often otherwise.

      There are also philanthropic institutions, such as servants' homes—shelters where some payment is required—which are registered in order to comply with the law, and others which, by providing supper, bed and breakfast at a nominal charge, seek to draw together and bring under religious influence those who seem to need ministration of all kinds, and who may be expected to listen more readily when warmed and fed. It is, however, not with any of these that we are here concerned. They have made use of the law, but it is not for their sake that the law exists.

      Still, however, there is, among legitimate specimens, a considerable variety, the difference showing itself in the character of the occupants and being connected in a general way with the neighbourhood in which the houses are situated.

      In parts of South London, for instance, many respectable single men who are employed in the large engineering works or elsewhere live permanently in this way. If they cannot live more cheaply, they have at any rate more independence and less responsibility than in ordinary lodgings. In East London, too, there are houses similarly occupied by dock labourers and warehouse porters in fairly regular employment. The difference in the character of these houses and their occupants in different localities is shown by the extent of their interConnection with pauperism, for while in certain unions the workhouse population is recruited largely from their inmates, in other districts, where also common lodginghouses are found, little or no such connection is to be traced. But the variation is still more marked if the houses are considered individually, and the more scattered they lie the more the individuality asserts itself, so that in a general way it may be said that where they are found in groups they mostly display those characteristics which we now propose to describe.

      Our study of the facts applies mainly to the following groups of common lodging-houses:

      Central London about 80 Houses in St. Giles's and the Strand
      East London about 150 Houses in Whitechapel
      South London about 65 Houses in Southwark
      West London about 25 Houses in Westminster
      West London about 55 Houses in Notting Hill

      and applies in greatest detail to the Central London section, as will be seen further on.

      In houses, such as we are concerned with, the kitchen is the common living room and provides the attraction of free social intercourse. A bright coke fire is kept burning day and night for cooking and general use. The furniture of this room, strong and of the roughest description, consists of a long table occupying the center of the room, with wooden benches on either side, and perhaps a few common chairs in addition. The cooking apparatus provided is of the simplest kind. A few frying-pans or gridirons serve in turn to prepare for table, herring, saveloy, rashers, steak, or other form of food belonging to a succession of guests. The quality or quantity of such food betokens as often reckless extravagance as extreme poverty, while the limited number of cooking utensils is used a source of discord. Of crockery there is next to none; a few old jam pots will often be the only provision for tea or coffee. Tin teapots are usually provided, but smaller articles, such as cutlery, are too portable to be used in common, and clasp knives will be produced from the pocket; spoons are not always thought of, and we have ample illustration of the fact that fingers were made before forks, whilst an old newspaper will often supply the want of a plate. Seated on and around the tables are to be seen groups of men engaged in games of chance or skill with dice or cards of an ancient appearance, or in recounting anecdotes and experiences too often ill-fitted for polite ears, varied with song, dance, and discussion—political or theological—while beer, gin, and tobacco abound. As the evening wears on, or morning approaches, the occupants drop off one by one to the sleeping rooms. These are usually, though not always, well-ventilated and contain rows of small iron bedsteads, arranged as in hospital wards, only closer together, the number in each room being carefully adapted to the cubic space required by law. The bedsteads are provided with mattress, rug or blanket, and sometimes also with sheets, which are changed once a week. Somewhere around the premises, oftenest in an outside shed, there is a supply of water, washing tubs, and towels for general use, and other conveniences are generally adequate. For the class of houses we are describing, the prices vary from 3d to 6d a night, the most usual charge being 4d. To each applicant for a night's lodging are given two numbers, one the number of his bed and the other of the room. Payment is required in advance, but some credit will be given to well-known customers who can be trusted to pay as circumstances permit. Weekly payment secures a reduction, equal usually to be one night or “Sunday free.” Any person able to pay can obtain a night's lodging, no question is asked, and names are not taken. A man may lodge for years in a house and only be known to the landlord of his “deputy” by the number of the bed he occupies or a nickname given by the other lodgers. The landlord undertakes no responsibility for the safety of a lodger's clothing or other property, unless specially deposited with him, and anything brought to the house is at the owner's risk. A man must be very sharp to remain long in such places without being the victim of some petty theft, and it sometimes happens that people are robbed of all their clothing while asleep in bed.

      All classes of the poor, from A through B and C to D and E, that is, from the disorderly non-industrial classes upwards through the casually and irregularly employed to those in receipt of constant pay, are to be found in these houses; but there can be no doubt that class A, the non-industrial and disorderly, predominates, and that classes B, C, D, and E, will each in turn account for a decreasing proportion.

      In the large group of common lodging-houses which we find in St. Clement's, Notting Hill, a considerable number of the inmates belong to classes B and C, and appear to earn a precarious living by hawking flowers, both cut and in pots, in the wealthy district of South Kensington, and by haymaking, fruit and hop-picking, while a still larger number, undoubtedly of class A, gain a livelihood by begging or levying blackmail as best they can in such localities as Queen's Gate, Gloucester Road, and Cromwell Road. They prowl about the richer squares or terraces, and round the stations of the District Railway Company, and too easily impose on the softhearted by glib tales of woe. In this group, and still more in that belonging to Westminster, are to be found discharged soldiers, as to whom more will be said in the next chapter. It would seem that they are mostly to be found in those houses which have for keeper or deputy a man who has also been in the service. Taking the group of houses which exist in St. Giles and round Covent Garden Market, we find that many of those who inhabit them are casual porters or labourers about the market, or small hawkers of fruit and flowers, while proximity to the theatres and advertising establishments makes these houses a convenient home for “Sandwich men” earning 1s or 1s 2d a day, or for those finding employment as theatrical “supers” at 1s 6d a night. There are also many chances of picking up sixpence or a shilling by finding carriages or calling cabs, which tend to make the neighbourhood of the Strand attractive to the denizens of the common lodging-house. In the Whitechapel district many porters and dock labourers would seem to reside permanently in these houses, which, there as elsewhere, are the resort of the most brutal of their class. The houses in Southwark do not seem to show any particular features; their character is certainly no better.

      While there are among the inhabitants of these houses many who never do an honest day's work of any kind, but live by gambling, thieving, or fraud, spending their lives alternately in the common lodging-house and the gaol, there are also a considerable number who excite our utmost pity—poor “derelicts of humanity” who, from sheer inability, whether mental or bodily, cannot work, or if they attempt to work are worse than useless. These would seem to spend their lives interchangeably between the common lodging-house, the night shelter, the casual ward, and the workhouse.

      Herein we find the connection between the inmates of common lodging-houses and the pauper class, a Connection not to be wondered at. But the extent of this connection is remarkable. The books of the relieving officer in a Central London Union show that out of 1518 persons admitted to the workhouse during the first nine months of 1889, no less than 746 came direct from common lodging-houses, only 16 came from houses where lodgers are taken in but which are not registered, 296 from casual wards as homeless persons, and only 460 from private houses. A similar examination of the books of an East End Union during four months ending February 18th, 1890, shows that out of 2654 persons, 1073 were from common lodging-houses; and in a West End Union, out of 1065 admitted, 616 came directly from these houses.

      The common lodging-houses for females only would appear to be almost entirely occupied by women of the lowest class—thieves, prostitutes, and beggars, with a very small proportion of casual earners such as crossingsweepers, basket-hawkers, charwomen, and, in the Notting Hill district, washerwomen. With regard to the houses for “married couples” the less said the better—there may be exceptions, but for the most part they are simply houses of accommodation, and a source of Contamination and degradation to the districts in which they are to be found; only to be tolerated in so far as, or so long as, their suppression might encourage still worse developments and exhibitions of vice. In considering the worst of the common lodging-houses, it must not be forgotten that the streets of “furnished apartments” provide a still lower depth, and that any shelter vice may seek is better than that open depravity of the streets, of which we frequently have such fearful revelations.

      In common lodging-houses social distinctions are recognized and even rigidly adhered to. The class divisions in this lowest society follow much the same lines as are to be found in the world outside. Though bearing all alike the stamp of poverty and suffering, the one as often as the other under the misfortune of detected crime, a man of education or literary attainments will hold himself far above the casual labourer or handicraftsman, and a broken-down clerk or shop-assistant would hesitate to frequent the company of common beggars.

      Among the better educated section of the class, the employment of addressing envelopes and circulars affords a means of living. This is the only form of employment carried on in the common lodging-houses (unless indeed the lucrative occupation of begging-letter writing, of which there is no end, be dignified with the name of employment), and a large number of men, amounting to some hundreds, are to be found in some of the better houses in St. Giles's and Whitechapel, thus engaged. By applying to one of the several large firms of envelope addressers, any man of sufficient education who presents a fairly respectable appearance can, as occasion serves, obtain his share of the work. A list of addresses is handed to him with a corresponding number of envelopes or wrappers. These are taken to the writing room provided at some of the better-class houses and there addressed. The pay is usually 3s per 1000; but under a process of competition, following the accustomed methods of “sweating,” this rate may, when work is slack, be reduced to 2s 6d or even 2s. This employment, as may be supposed, is irregular and precarious, being most active at election times. When pressure occurs the work may continue all night.

      The keepers of the low-class common lodginghouses can only be said to match the occupants. They, or rather their deputies, are too often men and women of the lowest grade whose ideas or morality and conduct are exceedingly elastic—nor is this to be wondered at, for any householder can register his house as a common lodging-house provided he complies with the statutory regulations. The certificate of character which may be demanded, signed by three inhabitant householders of the parish, is not difficult to obtain and is obviously of little value. Moreover it does not touch, except indirectly, upon the character of the deputy, the man with whom in most cases the actual management rests.

      Reform in respect of the conditions under which these houses are registered is much needed, and it is to be desired that the provisions of the Statutes with regard to harbouring thieves or reputed thieves, and the exercise of surveillance over known tramps and vagrants, could be more uniformly and firmly enforced, as also the regulations against overcrowding. Such reform should be in the direction of a more efficient and careful selection of those who are registered as keepers, and should be extended to their deputies. Provision, too, should be made on the plan adopted in Glasgow, and in some model common lodging-houses in London, for the presence of “warders,” or responsible persons to maintain order and decency at night, or when the houses are crowded. Especial regard also should be had to construction and means of exit. Many of these houses are existing side by side with one another or in close contiguity; and ample facilities exist for communication between them at the backs, or in some instances, certainly not long since, even if they no longer exist, by underground passages. If any individuals “wanted” by the police, word is rapidly passed from house to house, and it is a simple matter to elude pursuit. A rabbit tracked through the intricate windings of his “bury” has less chance of escape from a ferret, than a criminal from the hands of an officer of justice, when once he has found refuge in certain streets where these houses lie thick.

      It will have been seen that the St. Giles's district of Central London is one of the principal centers of Common lodging-house life, and during the last four years the St. Giles's Charity Organization Committee have had under consideration no less than 255 cases of people frequenting them; 157 of the number were actually living in these houses at the same, and either applied for assistance on their own initiative or were sent by charitable people and invited to tell their story. The remaining 98, who nearly all admitted that they had habitually lived in common lodging-houses, were selected from St. Giles's casual ward as, prima facie, capable of being assisted. This took place immediately after the Trafalgar Square excitement (of which the story is told in the next chapter), when the current chances of charitable relief seem to have attracted into the casual wards many of the class usually inhabiting common lodging-houses. Though facts regarding people of this description are exceedingly hard to ascertain with any degree of accuracy, the notes of cases recorded in the office of the committee make it possible to give some particulars of them, and they present a sad picture of misery and hopelessness, of vice and inability. Much trouble and pains were expended in trying to obtain the fullest information, as well as endeavoring to raise those who appeared capable of being helped to a condition of independence. Some refused to give information of any sort, others gave an inaccurate or false account of themselves, but some freely disclosed the true story of their lives. They were all asked to give names and addresses of references—former employers, friends, relatives, or anyone who might be able to give aid or information as to the past. Here, again, some refused or gave false references, whilst others genuinely complied. An analysis of the results will throw some light on the condition of the class generally:

      Of the whole number (255) 41 refused to give any account of themselves or did not accept the invitation to come to the office; 34, after giving a certain amount of information, disappeared; 11 gave false references; 76 could give no reference, or such as they gave proved worthless; and only in 93 cases was any information at all valuable or trustworthy to be obtained. Of these 93, so far as information by reference went, 58 had previously borne a good character, while that of the remainder was doubtful or bad. Of those who had borne a good character, 28 owed their miserable position entirely to bodily infirmity; 14 had sunk into it for no apparent reason—they were simply “rolling stones;” while with regard to the rest want of energy and faults of temper accounted for the position of some, leaving only a very small minority of cases where slackness of work in the particular trade followed could be justly reckoned as the cause. Indeed, very few even alleged slackness or want of work as a cause of their distress until this became the question of the day in connection with the Trafalgar Square disturbance. Of 35 bad or doubtful characters as to whom information was obtained, 9 were drunkards, 2 were thieves, and 1 woman was notoriously vicious. The 128 who refused inquiry, disappeared, or gave false references, must, we fear, most of them be added to the total of those whose antecedents would not bear investigation, making 197 out of 255.

      Of those who gave false references or refused to give any, the information obtained was derived from their own statements, some of which were no doubt worthy of credit, while others contained no more truth than it suited the narrator to furnish, but whatever reliance is to be placed on the statements made, they may be summarized for what they are worth, and may be of some value as far as they relate to matters as to which there could be little object in deceit:

      In 235 cases the people stated that they were

      Married men 28
      Single men 148
      Widowers 30
      Married women 7
      Single women 8
      Widows 14

      It will be seen that here is no family life.

      Out of 228 cases, in which the ages varied from 14 to 66, there were

      Under 25 41
      Between 25 and 40 104
      Between 40 and 60 74
      Over 60 9
      [Total] 228

      These figures, too, tell their story. Old people seldom remain to live this life. Before old age is reached the workhouse or infirmary draws a veil over the closing scene, for these unhappy victims of crime, vice, infirmity or misfortune.

      Including some of those whose failure in life was not attributable to bad character, there were in all 204 persons, whose condition might perhaps be accounted for, as follows:

      Confirmed loafing habits by preference 35
      Failure in trade-irregularity of employment 50
      Extravagance or improvidence of those who had been originally quite well off 9
      Drink 40
      Physical infirmity 39
      Mental incapacity, inability to learn 6
      Uncontrollable temper 2
      Thieves and confirmed beggars 19
      Young people deserted by their relations 3
      Lunatic 1
      [Total] 204

      A prevailing characteristic of most was the love of drink, but this was, with but little doubt, engendered as often as not by the unhappy circumstances of their surroundings, and it would hardly be fair to state it as a primary cause of failure, except in the 40 cases where it was distinctly ascertained. In only 40 cases was it Considered expedient to offer assistance, and it is doubtful if one-third of these have received any permanent benefit.

      If such as these are not chosen from the best of those who inhabit common lodging-houses, neither do they fully represent the worst or most hopeless cases, for criminals seek aid by more direct means, and those whose cases will not bear investigation soon learn the uselessness of any application, and pass the word to their friends that “it's no use telling lies to the like of them, they're sure to find you out.”

      On the whole, it must be said that the typical inhabitants of an ordinary common lodging-house belong to the lowest scale of humanity. Happily their numbers are small compared to the whole population, but that they have recently increased seems undeniable, and a fact which raises serious questions. The increase was very marked in 1888–9, and the police returns lately issued show a still further increase.

      It is noteworthy that the multiplication of this unsatisfactory class in London has been accompanied by an increase in that form of charity which supplies free food and shelter without discrimination. To say that this class is brought into existence by unwise or ill-regulated charity would be too much. The roots undoubtedly lie deeper, and more complicated causes are involved. But that such charity concentrates and aggravates the evil who can doubt?

      Homeless Men

      The homeless class, whether casual workers or vagrants, seem to have been the source of as much anxiety to our forefathers as to ourselves. There are in every generation those who, without any other special defect of character, have a roving disposition and a general distaste for a quiet regular life or regular employment, be it brain work or manual labour. Though at the outset, not necessarily either lazy or at all worthless, such men apt to drift into idle ways. The good intentions which may cause them to work, even vehemently, for a time, will not suffice to maintain that life of steady, unbroken, laborious routine which is demanded of those who would succeed. Failure is dubbed bad luck, habits of idleness follow in natural course, and at last these men become industrially, if not morally, worthless. In every generation, too, we find the race of “sturdy vagabonds and valiant beggars” ready to beg, borrow, and perhaps steal, rather than to work for their livelihood. These two classes, with the addition of those who from illness, infirmity, age, incompetence or misfortune, are thrown out of employment, are the sources whence homeless men are drawn.

      These men, of whom there are always a large number in London, with some women and a few children, are closely associated with the dwellers in common lodging-houses and occasionally sojourn there, or elsewhere in the poorest quarters of the Metropolis, when their funds permit this escape from the cold comfort of the embankment or the parks, the shelter of an archway, or hospitality of some open staircase, or from the regulations of night refuse and casual ward. They are not hopeful subjects; not easy to raise out of this existence when they have once settled down to it.

      Our ancestors took a severe view of vagrants of this description, and their presence doubtless at times threatened to become a serious social danger. In the reigns of the Tudors the desire to put an end to the vagrant difficulty is attested by the passing of Act after Act; the Tudor efforts culminating in the famous 43rd Elizabeth, reported to owe the outlines of its plan to the genius of Lord Bacon. But even his interference can hardly be said to have done much, and succeeding generations continued to legislate; planning, hoping and failing with depressing regularity. It is note-worthy how each in turn imagined that the fresh laws enacted would entirely suppress the evils at which they were aimed. Nevertheless, the evils still remain. By the formation of casual wards in 1864–5 it was no doubt hoped that the dream of the Poor Law Commissioners of 1834 would be at last fulfilled and that “the assurance that no one need perish from want would repress the vagrant and mendicant by disarming them of their weapon—the plea of impending starvation.” How remote is the realization of this dream needs no telling.

      The numbers of those resorting to casual wards apparently varies in different districts according to the terms of relief—the period of enforced detention, the task of work, or the convenience or inconvenience of the hours of discharge—all of which depend to some extent upon the decision of the local officials.

      The dread of the unknown made the bath formerly a terror to the sturdiest vagabond; now familiarity has produced liking rather than contempt. In winter, the bath, which is heated to the taste of the bather, is appreciated for its warmth, in summer for its cleansing properties. Skilly, too, is an attraction in the cold weather. Skilly for breakfast and supper, and the bath on admission, are now universal in the casual wards of London; though there are many other points in which the regulations vary. Oakum picking is usually preferred by the casual to stone breaking, the associated wards to the cellular system, and the experienced vagrant will wend his way to the places where he expects pea soup for dinner rather than to those wards in which bread and cheese constitute the bill of fare. Beggars will ever be choosers if they can. If in any district the casual ward regulations are exceptionally strict, they are thought to bear hardly upon the unfortunate and deserving, and a demand arises for a kinder regime such a philanthropic refuges and night shelters usually provide. With free lodgings and, perhaps, a good hunch of bread, to which in some cases may be added whatever else by way of food the man can bring in, with few questions asked, and with the hope of further charitable assistance, it is not surprising that some of the refugees should present no statistics beyond the report “we are always full.” “What, do work for my breakfast! No, thank you! I can get it without that,” exclaimed a sturdy vagabond who applied for money to get a night's lodging, and to whom the casual ward had been suggested. He had professed to have come up from the country to London to look for work. It can scarcely be denied that considerable inducement is offered to a very worthless class to come where so much provision is made for them, while even those disposed to work are tempted to return regularly to London as to a parent's roof after any temporary job elsewhere. For instance, there was the case of a man who had been in a refuge in London, and from there had obtained work in Wales. This job finished, instead of seeking fresh work in the country, or finding none to his hand, he came straight back to London, spending on his fare a large part of his earnings, and applied for re-admission at the refuge; while another, an emigrant to Australia, falling out of work there, contrived to return, and straightway repaired to the refuge which had sent him out.

      What manner of men are they to whom the night refuge, or casual ward, opens its doors? Let us test them by sample. From September 1888, to September 1889, 286 homeless men came before the St. James's Committee of the Charity Organization Society, sent chiefly from the Ham Yard Hospice-a refuge under careful management, where the rule is adopted of insisting upon investigation in every case. It is not an “average sample drawn from the bulk,” but itself a selection of the better material to be found amongst this class. The regulations of any refuge become known; those who shrink from investigation, or who simply do not care to waste their time by going where nothing is to be got, keep away. Amongst those who do come, some refuse from the first to give any information, and so drop out of the list, while others decline to submit to the preliminary conditions. Nor is the information, and so drop out of the list, while others decline to submit to the preliminary conditions. Nor is the information obtained about these naturally selected cases, either complete or altogether trustworthy. It must be taken for whatever its value may be. Willingness to submit to investigation is not always the prima facie evidence in a man's favour which it is often imagined to be, as men will often give references well knowing them to be false or unsatisfactory; they take their chance. Nor is refusal to answer questions in every instance as adverse a sign as might appear-a fact which only adds to the confusion. Another difficulty is looseness about names, not necessarily with intent to mislead, but obviously very misleading.

      Such as it is, here is the information in regard to these 286 men:

      As to Character.

      Good character 60
      Indifferent or fair 146
      None, doubtful or bad 80

      Among those accounted bad, drink or gambling will be in most cases the causa malorum. On the whole, considering how hard it is for “an empty sack to stand upright,” and how apt character is to wither under investigation, these figures seem rather favourable and so far as they go indicate that these unfortunate men may possibly have been, at the outset, no worse morally than those who succeed.

      As to Employment.

      Claiming some profession or trade 50
      Skilled labourers or artisans 95
      Unskilled labourers 130
      No particulars (except that of these, three were just out of prison) 11

      It is not easy to draw any very definite conclusions from such data, but the large proportion claiming a profession or trade (by trade is here meant buying and selling) is remarkable, and may perhaps be taken to support the view that want of mental capacity or of steadiness of character are the ruling causes of misfortune, for where most of anything is demanded there will the lack of it be most seriously felt.

      As to Age.

      From 20 to 25 years 55
      From 25 to 40 138
      From 40 to 60 74
      Over 60 5
      No age given 14

      The limit of age at the Hospice was sixty, which accounts for the small number over this age. Little reliance can usually be placed on statements of age, but, beyond the desire of a man who was otherwise ineligible to pass himself as below sixty, there seems no reason for falsification, and the large proportion of these men in the vigorous years of life is notable. The explanation probably lies in the extent to which this class, as it ages, settles down to workhouse life.

      As to Marriage.

      Single 191
      Married 60
      No particulars 35

      Though marriage is undoubtedly to some extent Connected with success, it is too much to suppose that these figures are correct. The proportion of those who are not and never have been married is unreasonable. It seems that married men in trouble will very often deny wife and children for the time.

      As to Birthplace.

      Londoners 62
      Other parts of England 134
      Scotch 17
      Irish 18
      Continental Foreigners 15
      Americans 5
      Indian or West Indies 7
      No particulars 28

      Homeless men are naturally wanderers. The proportion of Londoners shown here is possibly above what might ordinarily be expected in night refuges; many being at the time attracted from the regular population of the common lodging-houses into night shelters or the casual wards by exceptional chances of becoming in this way eligible for other forms of charitable relief.

      Figures such as these are not enough in themselves to take us very far, but to anyone who has tried to help men of this class to find work and so retrieve their position, they suggest a good deal, and some general conclusions may be reached.

      There are doubtless some good working men found on tramp who only need the opportunity of work to do well, but such individuals usually can and do “put themselves to labour” and trouble no one. Of those who fail to do this there are some-there may perhaps be many—who are respectable and willing to work, but lacking energy and “backbone,” can neither “go” nor “stay,” neither get work nor keep it; and on such the habit of a vagrant life grows. These can be helped by the strong hand of true friendship, but not I believe in any other way. Here is an instance: A man out of the St. Giles's casual ward was assisted to obtain work at a carriage builder's. For eighteen months it was never known when he took his wages on Saturday, whether he would come to work again on the Monday, and it was only by the unwearied efforts of a fellow-workman, through whose aid the work had been found, that he was induced to stick to his place. The man has literally been “dragged up” into regular work. When he did not appear, his friend would go to fetch him, and only after two years of this moral suasion, can it be reported that the man “is getting sensible”; he has taken a room of his own and is trying to be “a bit respectable.” Of such efforts we have rarely any record; such help from the strong to the weak may be often given, but its action will generally lie outside of any society for the relief of distress. It will be given to those who receive it by their intimates, those of their own class, their working fellows.

      Somewhat lower in the scale, morally, are those who, easy going and indolent, manage in some way to evade the pressure that drives others to labour. They may be capable enough. Their ideal is “to have a good master” in whose pleasant service “they would eat and drink of the best and no work would they do.”

      Then there are those who are “willing to do anything” and can do nothing; and saddest of all the men who can do just one thing and that a thing no longer wanted. For example, there was a man, with a wife and family, who had regular employment at one factory for twelve years in folding paper for packets of black lead. Machinery for this purpose was invented to which a boy could attend. The man was thrown out of his employment, and though still only twenty-eight could not adapt himself to other work. He has fallen into the ranks of the casual painters and has never had regular work since. In busy times he helps to lay on paint which he does not know how to mix, and in slack times does nothing.

      For such as these there is the casual labour market with its painful friction—a market of which the Convenience to the hirer depends on the extent of its unemployed margin; on the readiness, that is, with which “a man” can be produced at a moment's notice to perform some chance service for sixpence or a shilling; or to take a day's work, or a week's work, or work for the season, as the case may be; and, service rendered, pass quietly out of sight.

      Casual labour plays no small part in the life of a great city. We have seen it at the docks and at the market, and besides this the amount required at the West End during the London season is very great indeed. It is not only at the large firms, shops, hotels, clubs and theatres that extra hands are employed, but the impetus in every trade during the season carries the work downward, so to speak, in every branch, and in May and June many men with little skill and with short and indifferent characters, or with none at all, find it easy in London to obtain employment in various ways. The exhibitions, of which every year lately has had at least one, have been a fruitful source of chance work. Besides the numbers of attendants, porters, waiters, &c., the Roman Coliseum at the Italian Exhibition and the battle-scenes of the Irish have alone employed some hundreds of men while the representations lasted. The Gladiator of ancient Rome, could he have seen the travesty of his dying agonies, would probably fail to sympathize with the sufferings of his poor imitator, who when the weather was wet must lie prostrate on the damp ground till the time arrived for carrying from the arena the dead body of the man he was trying to represent.

      Whether the casual labour of the West End which hangs upon the skirts of wealth and ministers to luxury is an increasing element in London life, and whether the supply of such labour causes the demand for it or the demand the supply, may be hard to say. Increasing or not, and whatever its genesis, the thing is unwholesome and there is sadly too much of it.

      Among the saddest cases of those who look to casual labour are discharged soldiers, army reserve men; and their number seems to be steadily on the increase. In a report drawn up in 1887 it is stated that, out of 293 homeless men who came before the St. James's Committee in twelve months, 25 had been soldiers. In 1889 the returns show 77 out of 286, and of these 77 twenty stated that they had no work since they left the army. At the refuges army pensioners are most frequently found towards the end of the quarter; on receipt of their pension money they leave. After this is expended they may manage to exist on casual labour till towards the end of the next quarter, when they may again not know where to lay their heads. Of these 77 soldiers, thirty-six had left the army with distinctly good characters. There are few things more dispiriting than to watch the deterioration which befalls many of these soldiers, some of them quite young men still, often under thirty, with good Conduct badges and good discharges who, from having no settled employment, and missing the accustomed Control, gradually become more and more demoralized by the irregular life they lead. The deferred pay of £15 to £35 they seem to think will last forever, and until it is gone, often make no effort at all for the future. Realizing at last the hard facts of life for such as they, many of them feel bitter regret at having left the army and would fain re-enlist if they could.

      The cases we have described have been hitherto such as are more or less able and willing to work, but among the homeless there are still more difficult subjects. There are those who are disabled or incapacitated for labour by age or bodily or mental infirmity; for whom, if relatives or friends do not intervene, there is ultimately no resource but the workhouse. Finally there are the “sturdy vagabonds” who, with the aid of irregular chance jobs, lean permanently on charitable assistance, the “valiant beggars” who subsist for the most part on the alms they collect from the charity of the public.

      Here as with the casual workers we encounter a law of supply and demand, and again we do not know which evokes the other, the beggars or the charity; and again we can safely say that the relation, whatever its origin, is very unwholesome, and that there is far too much of it.

      It is, however, an easy matter to lay down principles and make classifications. The difficulty as usual lies in applying them. Who are the incapable? who the worthless? How can you safeguard charity from fraud and yet leave it one spark of generosity? How work on the “general lines of well-considered principle” and not destroy spontaneity? The quality of charity, like mercy, “is not strained.” One thing, however, we may say. There should be no careless giving. Let those who give awake to the responsibilities involved, and if they decline to accept the somewhat hard lines of thought-out principle, let them honestly seek their own experience. When they give, let them give sufficiently, and watch the consequences of every gift. […]

      There is now accommodation in the casual wards for about 1800 (1200 men and 600 women and children). On March 4th, 1888, the highest point was touched, when 1383 vagrants were received. In the refuges there is accommodation for about 1250 persons. None of the refuges are often full; the largest has not been full for many years.

      It will be remembered that the year 1886 was one of great trade depression, and that its winter was marked by serious distress among the poor of London. The Lord Mayor called for aid, and £80,000 was subscribed and distributed with most demoralizing effect. The fund served but to attract the worthless and unnerve the struggling poor, while it mocked both by its insufficiency.

      In 1887 trade did not improve, but as the year wore on, less food and money were given. It was the year of the Queen's Jubilee, remarkable for its long spell of splendid summer weather. The “unemployed” were very numerous, and more than ever habituated to idleness. The fine weather made camping-out pleasant rather than otherwise, and Trafalgar Square and St. James Park were occupied nightly; the police stepped among the sleeping groups; nothing was thought of it. The cost of the “doss” was saved, while a little money went a long way, for food was at its cheapest.

      When October came, the weather changed suddenly, and the nights were frosty. But already camping-out had grown into a habit, and the expense of the night's lodging had been dropped out of the budget. The poor folk still slept out, and were content to life with only a newspaper between them and the cold stones. This state of things attracted attention. The newspapers published accounts of it, and the public imagination was aroused. Here at any rate was genuine distress. Some charitable agencies distributed tickets for food or lodging, others the food itself, taking cart-loads of bread into the Square. An American is reported to have scrambled loose silver amongst the crowd.

      Under such stimulus the trouble grew worse, and again, as was the case with the Mansion House Fund, the organized societies for the relief of the poor had to push to the front and seek to deal with the distress and prevent the disorder which threatened as the result of its unregulated relief. Under their influence the mistake of 1886 was not repeated, but at the same time more rather than less was given, and we see in the swollen numbers of those who were admitted to the casual wards evidence, according to the point of view taken, either of the sad need of such provision or of its baneful influence.

      It is much to be feared that the more provision is made for the relief of this class, unless it be done with judgment, the greater will their numbers be. For whilst a man of simple vagabond habits is enabled to pass on from casual ward to refuge, and from one refuge to another during the winter, and to live by a few chance jobs of work in the summer, he will make no effort to improve; he is content with his position in life.

      To deal with this difficulty it would seem to be essential that there should be co-operation and communication between refuge and refuge, and between them and the work-houses and casual wards, and if possible a common basis of action. To differentiate the treatment of those who apply for aid, according to their character and the circumstances of their case, is the object to be aimed at. The State can treat the sick differently from the rest, and make distinctions according to age; it might perhaps go further in suiting the relief to the case relieved; but its rules must be in effect deterrent and its action can do but little in so lifting up the fallen that they may be able to walk once more amongst independent men; nor can its machinery be well adapted for giving temporary relief in such a way as to prevent a fall or tide over a time of difficulty. Such action lies in the field of private charity, and of this field refuges and night shelters are the last hedge. These refuges have a special work to do. To fill them night after night with those for whom nothing can be done beyond what the State is bound to do, is to mis-apply valuable resources most wastefully.

      It would not be desirable to assign any precise limits to the action of such institutions or to stereotype the methods pursued; but the means in each case should be strictly adapted to the ends. If it be temporary help that is aimed at, chronic cases should not share it; and still more should it be seen that the help given does not tend to make a chronic out of a temporary case. If the object be to give another chance under better auspices to those who have failed, but are honestly anxious to try again, a careful selection is imperatively necessary. A refuge having this aim cannot open its doors very widely.

      The basis of combined action must be a sifting and classification of all applicants, so that they may be dealt with in the manner most suited to their peculiarities. The lowest strata, cases apparently hopeless, can only be left to the casual wards, and to the casual wards all refuges should regulate any cases which seem prima facie unfit for their own action. Refuges would under these circumstances rightly be made superior in comfort to the casual wards, the occupants be allowed to remain in them for a longer time and given greater facilities of ingress and egress; and every care taken to avoid as much as possible anything tending to lower or degrade. Sedulously to protect those whom you seek to raise from the companionship of worthless characters is of the utmost importance. To attain this it would be necessary that every applicant should pass muster as prima facie suitable before admission, and until the prima facie case has been confirmed by inquiry, should be kept apart in some way. It might possibly be arranged that the reception of the doubtful but not hopeless cases should be the special duty of some refuges. They would provide as it were an ante-chamber to the house of help. It may be that the relieving officers might draw distinctions, and in place of the casual ward offer temporary accommodation in the workhouse to those who promised to be suitable cases for the helping hand of a refuge.

      It would be best that the organization for each union should center in the Parish offices; that the refuges should be represented, and that everyone for whom anything better could be done should be accommodated otherwise than in the casual wards, in private refuges, or in the house, as the case may be. The accommodation in the house, and in any refuges which undertook temporary cases pending inquiry, would be available for a few days only; inquiry made, each case would be relegated to some other agency—or branch of the same agency it might be—or discharged, and if so discharged would become a casual-ward case. Some such system is needed. It is pleaded that it is derogatory and a contamination for unfortunate but respectable men to pass the workhouse doors at all; and that they will rather starve than submit to such a condition. But it is a lesser evil that they, and all who are proper objects for private aid, should for once come in contact with their worthless companions in distress than that, as is now the case, they should never be separated from them; for at present there is little to choose between the company at any refuge and that of the casual wards; the same inmates are well-known at each. Nor would the pride of any refuse to take the course suggested if it were the regular method, and if it were well-known that every workhouse was the starting-point of private charity.

      To the action of such charity we assign no limits. It is not refuges alone that should associate themselves with the administration of the poor law. It is only in very various ways that the manifold troubles of poverty can be met. We do not wish to assert that any case is absolutely hopeless; we only ask that the means should be adapted to the end, and that each charitable society should deal only with such cases as come within its proper scope; that each individual attempt should Consciously range itself in line with other forms of public or private action, and so take its place in the general effort to deal with destitution.

      Since the foregoing was written an attempt has been made to place the various refuges in communication with each other, and a committee on which most of these institutions are represented was formed to discuss the possible lines of united action. As a first step in this direction a census was taken on the night of Friday, January 16th, 1891, of all who were sleeping in these places, the results of which are given below. There are nine refuges or shelters affording amongst them acCommodation for 818 men and 313 women, with further accommodation for 120 persons available for either sex according to the need. Thus there is room for 1,251 persons in all. Excepting the men's side of the Newport Market refuge, none of these places were quite full; some of them were less than half full. The rules of admission vary, but in every case some discretion is left with the acting superintendent, and I believe few, if any, were turned away on the night in question. On the whole the total numbers accommodated were 712 men, 193 women, and 33 children, or 938 persons in all. In the casual wards on the same night there were 688 men, 117 women, and four children, or 809 in all, the total accommodation being for 1800. As to the Salvation Army shelters no exact particulars were obtained. There are five of these shelters, one being in connection with a workshop, they stand on different ground from the refuges we are dealing with. I am informed, however, that they were by no means full at the time.

      It may be interesting to recall the night of January 16th. It was very cold. After an almost continuous frost of seven or eight weeks there had been a slight thaw, but the frost had set in again and hardened the surface of the still solid ice. Part of the Serpentine was illuminated for skating. It was not a night when anyone would wilfully walk the streets. Either on this night or the night before it was that the watchers of the Salvation Army reported 164 homeless men lingering in need of shelter on or near Blackfriars Bridge; about these men it was afterwards explained that they were drawn thither by the hope of receiving tickets for coffee and shelter distributed at that place by a missionary. Of these tickets 100 to 200 were given away on certain nights in each week during the winter. This may not be the only enterprise of the sort, and outside of all organized provision of shelter for the homeless in the London streets it is likely that in bitter frost and fog very many of those who have 4d to spare and happen to be out late themselves will give it, at whatever sacrifice of principle, to provide a bed for a shivering wayfarer. The chance of some such stroke of luck, once or perhaps twice repeated, which would send them money in hand to the warm kitchen of some Common lodging-house, may be enough to keep men in the streets at any rate till midnight. In such weather halfstarved, ill-clad men could hardly pass the whole night without food and shelter and survive, and we are assured by the police that throughout the long frost there have been no cases of death from exposure. It is probable that frost and snow bring as many advantages as disadvantages to the very casual or homeless class. The sweeping of snow for the vestries or in front of private houses or on the ice, the putting on and lending of skates, provides profitable employment, and may enable many to go to common lodging-houses who would otherwise have been found in the casual wards or refuges. It is also possible that the severe frost has this year prevented many from coming up to London to share in the Christmas festivities provided by the benevolent. At any rate it is undoubtedly a fact that the casual wards and refuges have been less full this winter than they have usually been at the same season in other years. For instance, as against 809 persons in the casual wards on Friday, January 16th, 1891, the number of the corresponding Friday of 1890 was 853. At the same time it may be stated that even when the strain is greatest the supply of free shelter at the refuges and casual wards invariably exceeds the demand. It may be mentioned that most of the refuges, especially the larger ones, are open only during the winter months.

      In addition to the refuges included in the census, there are some others which give shelter to special classes of persons, such for instance as the night reception houses in connection with some of the Rescue Homes.

      Document 12: Higgs, Mary. (1906). Glimpses into the Abyss

      Mary Higgs (1854–1937) was a social reformer in Victorian England. The daughter of a Congregational minister, she attended Girton College and Cambridge University and taught science in the 1870s and 80s. She married a Congregational minister in 1879 and in 1891 gave up teaching and began working to improve the lives of poor and homeless women. She posed as a poor woman seeking employment to better understand their situation. In addition to writing about poor women she was a social activist who founded a women's lodging house, was involved in founding the National Association for Women's Lodging Houses, and opened a school for mothers. In addition to Glimpses into the Abyss, she also wrote, among others, Five Days & Nights as a Tramp (1905); How to Deal with the Unemployed (1904); Mother Wareing (190?); Where Shall She Live? (1910).

      See entries:

      […] women's lodging houses, open even to the prostitute, but under the care of wise, motherly women. Here it was impossible for a girl even to keep her own property; there was not a locker or any place to put anything away. Girls slept with their hats on their beds for security. Every-thing was “borrowed” or “made off with.” A little care would keep a decent girl steady and safe, and bring many a wanderer back to goodness. Here everything tended to demoralisation. The sanitary arrangements were deficient. I cannot defend the shameless toilet in full view of an open door to the street, which we saw repeated, even to half-nudity, several times over. But this kitchen was the only place in which to wash and dress, and the door must needs be open. The constant talk was filthy—not on the part of all, but on that of many—and the life most were leading not in the least disguised. The more successful girls were sometimes out all night. Two or three came in very drunk and were piloted to bed by friends. Shameless expressions which cannot be repeated were used with regard to actions which decency conceals. Yet listening were other girls not so far gone in sin.

      A young girl in a shawl, hardly more than a child, came in apparently on an errand, and stayed some time. She was asked if she was going to “mash for a quid.” An old woman called “Old Mackintosh,” from her wearing a long mackintosh cloak, and also affectionately called “Ma,” was apparently the sport of the girls, and yet regarded with a sort of affection. They teased her and stole her things, and even hit her. She had a bad temper, and scolded, which afforded them amusement; but if they went too far they made it up by embracing her. Poor woman! I fear drink was her trouble. They said she had hardly anything under her cloak. She seemed ravenously hungry, and how she got her living I don't know. One or two elderly women were apparently not prostitutes, but earned money by cleaning. It was, however, rather difficult to settle how they lived. One woman was very coarse and fat, with an ugly scar on her shoulder, which she exhibited in the morning when she indulged in the luxury of “a good wash,” but was not clean. She put on a ragged bodice, the silk of which was hanging in shreds, and which had a big hole under the arm showing a great patch of bare flesh; yet over all she put a most respectable cloak, and a bonnet that would have done credit to a Quaker. I was astonished to see her emerge as almost a lady! Evidently the “clothes philosophy” is well understood in Slumdom for whatever purposes it is used. Indeed, it has given me somewhat of a shock to realise that many of these, even if dwellers in actual filth and disease, would not be distinguishable in any way from ordinary individuals.

      Nothing was more noticeable in both lodging-houses than the existence of at least three descriptions of prostitutes. There was the apparently quiet, modest one, whom you would take to be a respectable girl. One of these gave an account of how “her boy” had met her and spent an hour or two trying to persuade her to go away and get work. He even cried! But apparently he did not move her. She promised him as a put-off. This quiet sort of girl is most to lie dreaded; she may act as a tempter.

      There was, in the second place, the good-natured girl, naturally affectionate. “Everyone likes me wherever I go,” said the girl who had a home. This girl should have been a happy wife and mother. Her fate lies at the door of him who wronged her. Once in “the life,” the ties of friendship and a vivacious, sociable disposition would draw her to it again and again.

      The third kind may be the second gone to ruin, or those who, having had a worse bringing up, are naturally more shamelessly immoral. Drink has fascinations for them. They go “on the town” to get drink. One such, who was drunk over night, gave a long and involved history of her doings in the morning. She had received money and drink from three soldiers, but she declined to descend to the level of “Soldiers' Jinny,” whose unmentionable doings were related at length. She left them and got more drink, piloted a couple to a “safe house” and was tipped for it, was treated to “bottled stout” much to her disgust, as she preferred other drink—came along certain streets gloriously drunk, daring policemen, and arrived home happy, just sufficiently quarrelsome to get a free berth from everyone. She was a handsome dark girl of a low class. Her language was unspeakably foul, every sentence being interspersed with gory adjectives. She evidently expected admiration from her hearers for a sort of dare-devilry.

      It was pitiable, as the evening went on, to see the state of many. Two elderly women in the other room carried on a maudlin conversation, just on the edge of a quarrel, the substance of which was that they “understood one another,” and would not blab each other's secrets!

      All the time this was going on a man, and sometimes other men, were in the passage frequently. There was in this passage a locked door, constantly unlocked, leading to the next door men's lodging house. Apparently the husband caretaker in our house was also caretaker in this, hence comings and goings. I have no reason to suppose there was any illicit communication as regards the house itself; but girls were frequently asked for by name, and the presence of a man or men was not desirable. The caretaker himself was familiarly addressed as “Pa.”

      The hours slowly wore away. One girl sat patiently for eleven o'clock to strike. She “never went out till eleven,” she said. She was a quiet girl, not very good looking. About half-past eleven two girls in shawls came in and had something to eat. From conversation between them (they slept in our room), they seemed to be working girls who had been turned out of home. One worked at a mackintosh warehouse, the other, I think, at tin-plate. One at least intended to go to work in the morni