Encyclopedia of Health Services Research

Encyclopedia of Health Services Research

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Ross M. Mullner

  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
  • Publication Year: 2009 |
  • Online Publication Date: August 18, 2009 |
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412971942 |
  • Print ISBN: 9781412951791 |
  • Online ISBN: 9781412971942
  • View Hide Publication Details
    • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
    • Pub. Year: 2009 |
    • Online Pub. Date: August 18, 2009 |
    • DOI: 10.4135/9781412971942 |
    • Print ISBN: 9781412951791 |
    • Online ISBN: 9781412971942

Abstract

Today, as never before, healthcare has the ability to enhance the quality and duration of life. At the same time, healthcare has become so costly that it can easily bankrupt governments and impoverish individuals and families. Health services research is a highly multidisciplinary field, including such areas as health administration, health economics, medical sociology, medicine, political science, public health, and public policy. The Encyclopedia of Health Services Research is the first single reference source to capture the diversity and complexity of the field. With more than 400 entries, these two volumes investigate the relationship between the factors of cost, quality, and access to healthcare and their impact upon medical outcomes such as death, disability, disease, discomfort, and dissatisfaction with care.

Key Features

  • Access to Care
  • ...

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Access to Care
    • Accreditation, Associations, Foundations, and Research Organizations
    • Biographies of Current and Past Leaders - Current Leaders
    • Cost of Care, Economics, Finance, and Payment Mechanisms
    • Disease, Disability, Health, and Health Behavior
    • Government and International Healthcare Organizations
    • Health Insurance
    • Health Professionals and Healthcare Organizations
    • Health Services Research
    • Laws, Regulations, and Ethics
    • Measurement, Data Sources and Coding, and Research Methods
    • Outcomes of Care
    • Policy Issues, Healthcare Reform, and International Comparisons
    • Public Health
    • Quality and Safety of Care
    • Special and Vulnerable Groups
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z


      • Loading...
    • Editorial Board

      Editor

      Ross M. Mullner, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Associate Editors

      Tricia J. Johnson, Rush University Medical Center

      Robert F. Rich, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Editorial Board

      Lu Ann Aday, University of Texas School of Public Health

      Jeffrey A. Alexander, University of Michigan School of Public Health

      Ronald M. Andersen, University of California, Los Angeles

      Kyusuk Chung, Governors State University

      Kendon J. Conrad, University of Illinois at Chicago

      John G. Demakis, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Gregory S. Finlayson, University of Manitoba

      Jack Hadley, The Urban Institute

      Michael A. Morrisey, University of Alabama-Birmingham

      Steven M. Shortell, University of California, Berkeley

      Katherine Swartz, Harvard University

      Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      About the Editors

      Editor-in-Chief

      Ross M. Mullner is a health services researcher and a public health professional. For over 30 years, he has worked as an academic, healthcare administrator, and consultant. He is an associate professor of health policy and administration at the School of Public Health of the University of Illinois at Chicago. He also holds appointments in the University of Illinois's School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Administration, and the College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry. Before joining the faculty of the University of Illinois, he was Director of Research at the American Hospital Association's Healthcare Research and Educational Trust (HRET) and Associate Director of the Hospital Data Center. He has authored seven books and more than 90 articles in the areas of healthcare data, hospital financial management, and health insurance coverage. His work has appeared in journals such as New England Journal of Medicine, Health Services Research, Medical Care, and Social Science and Medicine. He is the associate editor of Journal of Medical Systems and has served on the editorial boards of Health Services Research, Inquiry, and Quality Management in Health Care. To keep abreast of the healthcare literature, he has written 45 book reviews for Library Journal, Choice, and Inquiry. He has served on a number of national boards and has been a consultant to a number of government and healthcare organizations, including the national Institute of Medicine (IOM), U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Joint Commission, and Cancer Treatment Centers of America. He recently served as special assistant to the director of the Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services. He has received a number of honors for his work, including being elected to Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare, Who's Who in America, and Who's Who in the World. He earned his bachelor's degree from Chicago State University, and two master's degrees and a doctoral degree from the University of Illinois.

      Associate Editors

      Tricia J. Johnson is a health economist and an academic. She is the director of the Center for Health Management and Policy Research and an assistant professor in the Department of Health Systems Management at Rush University. She is also an economist for Rush Medical Group at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. She is a 2008–2009 Fulbright Scholar to Austria at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, working with its Department of Economics, Institute for Social Policy and Research, and Institute for Health Care Management and Health Economics. Her research interests focus on economic issues related to healthcare providers and consumers, including the globalization of the healthcare industry and understanding the economic factors affecting consumers' healthcare decisions. She has an interest in understanding the drivers of healthcare utilization and expenditures, where her work has focused on the hospital environment, patient safety, and occupational injuries. In addition, she does work related to the cost-effectiveness of healthcare and community-based interventions. She is currently the principal investigator on a pro ject to examine how anticipated access to Medicare influences people's decisions about healthcare use prior to age 65, and how these decisions influence long-term health outcomes. She is also a coinvestigator on projects funded by the Cardinal Health Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, National Institute on Aging, and National Institute of Nursing Research. She has received grant funding from the World Bank and the Albanian Ministry of Health as well as the U.S. Department of Commerce for professional training programs in hospital and financial management. She earned her bachelor's degree from Coe College, a master's degree from the University of Iowa, and a doctoral degree from Arizona State University.

      Robert F. Rich is a political scientist and public policy analyst. He is the director of the Institute of Government and Public Affairs (IGPA) and professor of law, political science, medical humanities and social sciences, community health, and health policy and administration at the University of Illinois. In 2004, he was a visiting scholar at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law in Munich, Germany. In 2003, he was the Mercator Professor at the Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany, and he was also appointed a Permanent Fellow in the European Center for Comparative Government and Public Policy. Before joining the faculty of the University of Illinois, he served on the faculties of the Heinz School of Urban and Public Affairs at Carnegie-Mellon University, the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, and the University of Chicago. He is the author of seven books and more than 50 articles in the areas of health law and policy, federalism, information policy, and science and technology policy. His most recent book, Consumer Choice: Social Welfare and Health Policy, was published in 2005. He earned his bachelor's degree from Oberlin College and his master's degree and doctorate from the University of Chicago.

      Contributors

      Lu Ann Aday, University of Texas School of Public Health

      Gary L. Albrecht, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Lynn Allchin, University of Connecticut

      Ruth Ann Althaus, Ohio University

      Ketsya Manuella Amboise, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Association, American Osteopathic, American Osteopathic Association

      Halle R. Amick, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Ronald M. Andersen, University of California, Los Angeles

      Matthew M Anderson, Rush University

      Steven Andes, Independent Scholar

      Marcia Angell, Harvard University

      Richard J. Arnould, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      David J. Ballard, Baylor Health Care System

      Kieva A. Bankins, University of Maryland

      Renardis Banks, Rush Medical Center

      Richard E. Barrett, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Cathy Batscha, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Bernard H. Baum, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Anne R. Bavier, Saint Xavier University

      Ralph Bell, Governors State University

      William S. Bike, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Nick Black, University of London

      Imre Boncz, University of Pécs

      Carol A. Boyer, Rutgers University

      Tanguy Brachet, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

      Peter Broderick, Abt Associates Inc.

      Anne L. Buchanan, Saint Xavier University

      Peter P. Budetti, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

      Grace Budrys, De Paul University

      Elizabeth A. Calhoun, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Richard T. Campbell, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Michael F. Cannon, Cato Institute

      William R. Carpenter, University of North Carolina School of Public Health

      Jean Gayton Carroll, Independent Scholar

      Alwyn Cassil, Center for Studying Health System Change

      Gerard M. Castro, Joint Commission

      Dennis Cesarotti, Northern Illinois University

      Stacey Chamberlain, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Kayla Chase, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Lisa Chimento, Lewin Group

      Kyusuk Chung, Governors State University

      Carolyn M. Clancy, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

      J. Robert Clapp, Rush University Medical Center

      Richard L. Clarke, Healthcare Financial, Management Association

      Kimberly R. Clawson, Rush University Medical Center

      Kendon J. Conrad, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Karon Cook, University of Washington, Seattle

      Richard S. Cooper, Loyola Medical School

      Llewellyn J. Cornelius, University of Maryland

      Stephanie Y. Crawford, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Sergio Cristancho, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford

      Kevin Croke, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Ellen K. Cromley, Institute for Community Research

      Julie S. Darnell, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Pritha Dasgupta, Rush University Medical Center

      Guy David, University of Pennsylvania

      John M. Davis, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Gordon H. DeFriese, University of North Carolina

      John G. Demakis, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Della Derscheid, Mayo Medical Center

      Michael Dieter, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Benedict S. Dillon, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Valerie A. Dobiesz, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Xinjian Du, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Anna M. S. Duloy, University of Illinois at Chicago

      J. Andrew Dykens, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Chris T. Erb, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Paul J. Erickson, Independent Scholar

      Caswell A. Evans, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Rupert M. Evans, Governors State University

      Connie J Evashwick, St. Louis University

      Judith Feder, Georgetown University

      Joe Feinglass, Northwestern University

      Jennifer Feld, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Robert I. Field, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia

      Blair C. Filler, University of California, Los Angeles

      Capri Mara Fillmore, Medical College of Wisconsin

      Gregory S. Finlayson, University of Manitoba

      Heather Forst, Rush University

      Daniel M. Fox, Milbank Memorial Fund

      Sally A. Freels, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Richard Freeman, University of Edinburgh

      Kristen Friscia, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Kaori Fujishiro, National Institute for, Occupational Safety, and Health

      Sumul Gandhi, University of Illinois at Chicago

      David N. Gans, Medical Group Management Association

      Marcela Garces, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford

      Iris Garcia-Caban, Massachusetts Medicaid Office

      Andrew N. Garman, Rush University

      Thomas E. Getzen, Temple University

      Mary F. Giffin, U.S. Government, Accountability Office

      Blair D. Gifford, University of Colorado at Denver

      Darin P. Gonzalez, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Robert C. Good, Rush University

      Tiosha T. Goss, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Benn J. Greenspan, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Samuel N. Grief, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Sunanda Gupta, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Richard A. Guthmann, University of Illinois at Chicago

      James C. Hagen, Saint Xavier University

      Jane P. Hall, University of Technology

      Bethany Hardy, National Academy of Sciences

      Allen Harrison, Sinai Health System

      Kristin Hartsaw, DuPage County Health Department

      Memoona Hasnain, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Penny L. Havlicek, Governors State University

      Catherine Hawes, Texas A&M University Health Science Center

      Lorens A. Helmchen, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Klaus-Dirk Henke, Technical University of Berlin

      Laurie A. Hensley, Mount Sinai Hospital

      Elaine C. Hickey, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

      Molly Higham, Rush University

      James Hill, Pearson, Inc.

      Peter Hilsenrath, University of the Pacific

      Robert S. Hopkins, III, Baylor Health Care System

      Diane M. Howard, Rush University

      Alyssa Howell, Rush University

      William C. Hsiao, Harvard University

      Lynn Huls, Westbriar Consulting, LLC

      Li-Ching Hung, Mississippi State University

      Lee H. Igel, New York University

      L. Michele Issel, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Susan Jacobson, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Jayani Jayawardhana, Medical University of South Carolina

      Mark M. Jewell, EPI-Q, Inc.

      Ana P. Johnson, Queens University

      Tricia J. Johnson, Rush University Medical Center

      Michael C. Jones, Illinois Department Healthcare and Family Services

      Robert Kaestner, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Stuart Kantor, Urban Institute

      Angela M. Kargus, American Chiropractic Association

      Anjali Kartha, Rush University

      Achilles Katamba, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

      Michele A. Kelley, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Erin Hayes Kelly, Shriners Hospitals for Children of Chicago

      Tae Hyun Kim, Governors State University

      William C. Kling, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Elisa Stamm Kogan, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Gene J. Koprowski, Cancer Treatment Centers of America

      Richard Koss, Joint Commission

      Niranjana Kowlessar, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Joseph D. Kubal, Independent Scholar

      Frederick J. Kviz, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Kathryn Langley, University of Illinois at Chicago

      John N. Lavis, McMaster University

      Keon-Hyung Lee, Florida State University

      Katherine Lehman, American Health Care Association

      Jerrold B. Leikin, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare

      Scott M. Leikin, Highland Park Hospital

      Patrick Lenihan, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Stefan Leucht, Klinik und Poliklinik für, Psychiatrie und, Psychotherapie, Technische, Universität München

      Samuel Levey, University of Iowa

      Judith Levy, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Chunbo Li, Tongji University Hospital

      Richard C. Lindrooth, Medical University of South Carolina

      Christopher G. Lis, Cancer Treatment Centers of America

      Ilya Litvak, Case Western Reserve University

      Wei Liu, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Jerod Loeb, Joint Commission

      Kathleen N. Lohr, RTI International

      Helen Look, University of Michigan

      Anthony T. LoSasso, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Denise Love, National Assoc. of Health Data Organizations

      Harold S. Luft, University of California, San Francisco

      Jared Lane K. Maeda, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Grace Male, Aurora St. Luke's Medical, Center

      Ronald W. Manderscheid, Constella Group

      Willard G. Manning, University of Chicago

      Karl Matuszewski, University HealthSystem Consortium

      Jeffrey S. McCullough, University of Minnesota

      Robin B. McFee, Long Island Regional, Poison & Drug Information, Center

      Niccie L. McKay, University of Florida

      David Mechanic, Rutgers University

      Edward Mensah, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Ellen Meyer, American Public Health Association

      Patricia R. Meyers, Oak Lawn Writer's Group

      Lakisha C. Miller, Case Western Reserve, University School, of Medicine

      Arnold Milstein, Mercer Health & Benefits

      Janet B. Mitchell, RTI International

      Tara Moore, Rush University Medical Center

      Vincent Mor, Brown University

      Ophelia T. Morey, University of Buffalo

      Michael Morgenstern, Rush University

      Michael A. Morrisey, University of Alabama at Birmingham

      Deann Muehlbauer, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Benjamin C. Mueller, University of Illinois College of Medicine Rockford

      Ross M. Mullner, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Barbara Nail-Chiwetalu, University of New Mexico

      Imelda Namagembe, Case Western Reserve, University School, of Medicine

      Jack Needleman, University of California, Los Angeles

      Duncan Neuhauser, Case Western Reserve University

      Beth Newell, University of California, San Francisco

      Amie Lulinski Norris, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Daniel J. O'Brien, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Kevin O'Brien, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Jillian R. O'Neill, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Thomas W. O'Rourke, University of Illinois at Ubana-Champaign

      Mary C. Odwazny, Rush University Medical Center

      Javette C. Orgain, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Douglas Pace, National Commission for Quality Long-Term Care

      Erin R. Page, University of Chicago

      Lawrence M. Pawola, University of Illinois at Chicago

      David A. Pearson, Independent Scholar

      Lubina Perez, Advocate Healthcare

      Karen E. Peters, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Laura A. Petersen, Baylor College of Medicine

      Charles D. Phillips, Texas A&M Health, Science Center

      Frank S. Phillips, Rush University

      E. Carol Polifroni, University of Connecticut

      Heather M. Prendergast, University of Illinois Hospital

      Laurie Quinn, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Edward M. Rafalski, Alexian Brothers Hospital Network

      Lydia M. Reed, Association of University, Programs in Health, Administration

      Sang-O Rhee, Governors State University

      Thomas Rice, University of California, Los Angeles, Katie Rich, University of Connecticut

      Robert F. Rich, University of Illinois

      Thomas C. Ricketts, University of North Carolina

      Gary D. Rifkin, University of Illinois at Rockford

      Barth B. Riley, Chestnut Health Systems

      Daniel K. Roberts, Illinois College of Optometry

      Veronique Rodman, American Enterprise Institute

      Cherise Rosen, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Sara Rosenbaum, George Washington University

      Kristin Rosengren, Academy Health

      Emily Rosenthal, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Jason Rothstein, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Louis Rowitz, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Zepure Boyadjian Samawi, University of Connecticut

      Linda F. Samson, Governors State University

      Susan M. Sanders, Saint Xavier University

      Judith V. Sayad, University of Illinois at Chicago

      John Schrom, University of Illinois at Chicago

      John Henning Schumann, University of Chicago

      Sarah-Anne Henning Schumann, University of Chicago

      W. Richard Scott, Stanford University

      Andreea Seicean, Case Western Reserve University

      Sinziana Seicean, Case Western Reserve University

      Catherine Selden, U.S. National Library of Medicine

      Richard H. Sewell, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Heather Sherman, Joint Commission

      Alicia Shillington, EPI-Q, Inc.

      Elizabeth A. Skinner, Johns Hopkins University

      Jonathan Small, Institute for Healthcare Improvement

      Cary Stacy Smith, Mississippi State University

      Kat Song, Leapfrog Group

      Todd Stankewicz, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

      Barbara Starfield, Johns Hopkins University

      Gina Steiner, American Academy of Pediatrics

      Donald M. Steinwachs, Johns Hopkins University

      Greer W. P. Stevenson, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Nicole E. Stoller, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Heather Stuart, Queen's University

      Amy L. Sulkin, University of Illinois Medical Center

      Katherine Swartz, Harvard University

      Daniel Swartzman, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Susan M. Swider, Rush University Medical Center

      Raymond J. Swisher, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

      Elizabeth Tarlov, Hines VA Hospital

      Raymond Tatalovich, Loyola University Chicago

      Rima Tawk, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Bamidele Olusegun Tayo, Loyola University Medical Center

      Sharon Telleen, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Sarah Thomas, American Academy of Family Physicians

      Gregory Vachon, Northwestern Memorial Hospital

      Annette L. Valenta, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Vikrant Vats, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Kenneth L. Vaux, Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary

      Ann L. Viernes, Rush University Medical Center

      Rosemary Walker, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Lisa C. Wallis, Northeastern Illinois University

      Surrey M. Walton, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Thomas T. H. Wan, University of Central Florida

      Virginia Wang, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Teresa M. Waters, University of Tennessee

      Frances M. Weaver, Veterans Affairs

      Bryan J. Weiner, University of North Carolina School of Public Health

      Saul J. Weiner, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Cherie Weinewuth, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Bruce A. Weiss, Independent Scholar

      William D. White, Cornell University

      Curtis R. Winkle, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Gregory S. Wolfe, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Brad Wright, University of North Carolina

      Michelle Choi Wu, University of Illinois College of Nursing

      Xiaoyan Ying, Walgreens Health Services

      Luis L. Zegers-Febres, Acumanage, Inc.

      Introduction

      The Field

      There is a critical paradox at the very heart of modern healthcare. Today, as never before, healthcare has the ability to save lives and enhance the duration and quality of life. Advances in healthcare such as open-heart surgery, organ transplants, and test-tube babies stand at the forefront of human endeavor. At the same time, however, healthcare has become so enormously costly that it can easily bankrupt governments and impoverish families and individuals.

      America is facing a growing healthcare crisis. It spends more money on healthcare, in terms of both total amount and per capita spending, than any other nation on earth. Yet America has a relatively high infant mortality rate and a low life expectancy compared with other industrialized nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Many of America's hospitals and nursing facilities provide poor-quality healthcare. Medical errors and unsafe conditions are common, resulting in thousands of patient deaths annually. Millions of Americans are unable to access healthcare, especially those without health insurance and those who are underinsured. For many Americans, routine and preventive care is unaffordable. And many who do receive healthcare are unable to pay for it; healthcare expenses are the leading cause of bankruptcy in America. Although politicians, business leaders, health practitioners, and the general public all agree that America's current healthcare system needs to be reformed, there is no consensus on how to accomplish it.

      Health services research addresses these and other crucial issues. Specifically, the multidisciplinary field of health services research focuses on the study of the accessibility, costs, quality, and outcomes of healthcare. Access to healthcare includes everything that facilitates or impedes the use of healthcare services. Cost of healthcare includes the payments by insurers and individuals for healthcare services as well as the cost of lost wages and the societal cost of decreased productivity. Quality of healthcare encompasses elements of the structure, process, and outcomes of healthcare. Outcomes of healthcare include death, disease, disability, discomfort, and dissatisfaction with care. The overall aim of health services research is to improve the equity, efficiency, and effectiveness of healthcare, mainly by influencing and developing public policies.

      Rationale for This Encyclopedia

      This encyclopedia is needed and timely for three major reasons. First, the field of health services research has grown enormously over the past two decades, with an ever-widening range of topics being studied. Second, the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare have become increasingly complex. Third, because health services research is highly multidisciplinary, including areas such as health administration, health economics, medicine, medical sociology, political science, public policy, and public health, there is no single extant reference source that captures the diversity and complexity of the field. The Encyclopedia of Health Services Research was designed to fill this void. This encyclopedia is the first in the field, and it is one of the largest single works ever published on health services research. The encyclopedia is designed to be an introduction to the various topics of health services research for an audience including undergraduate students, graduate students, and lay audiences seeking nontechnical descriptions of the field and its practices. It is also useful for healthcare practitioners wishing to stay abreast of the changes and updates in the field and doctorate-level academics seeking a portal into a new specialty area.

      Content and Organization

      To help the reader navigate the encyclopedia, a detailed Reader's Guide comprising 16 sections is provided. Additionally, there is a list of the entries presented in alphabetical order. The individual entries range in length from approximately 500 words for the biographies of current and past leaders, to 1,000 words for associations, foundations, and research organizations, to 3,000 words for major concepts and topics such as health insurance, risk, and quality of healthcare. Each entry is designed to provide the reader with a basic description and understanding of the topic. Following each entry is a Further Readings and a Web Sites section that can take the reader to the next level.

      Although the field of health services is large, the encyclopedia attempts to be as comprehensive as possible without being overly redundant. To accomplish this, all entries include several associated topics and cross-references. In a small number of cases, a topic that was covered in the context of a larger topic did not receive its own entry; in those cases, the smaller topic is listed with a cross-reference to the entry in which it is discussed.

      How the Encyclopedia Was Created

      The encyclopedia was developed in six steps.

      First, leading health services researchers in the United States were invited to serve on the encyclopedia's advisory board. All the advisory board members are prestigious academicians, healthcare managers, and researchers who have published in the field of health services research. Two of the board members, Steven Shortell and Katherine Swartz, were former long-time editors of Health Services Research and Inquiry, respectively.

      Second, the encyclopedia's editors developed a draft list of topic headwords. To make sure the list was as comprehensive as possible, six journals that publish the majority of health services research articles were reviewed for the past 10 years. The journals included Health Affairs, Health Services Research, Inquiry, Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, Medical Care, and New England Journal of Medicine. The draft list was then reviewed by the entire advisory board, which made a series of additions and subtractions.

      Third, the editors and the advisory board identified and invited contributors. The editors also searched the literature to find individuals who published on certain topics and invited them to submit entries. The invited authors ranged from promising young doctoral students to the most well-known luminaries in the field.

      Fourth, all the contributors were given basic guidelines and instructions regarding the writing of their entries. In particular, they were encouraged to be as thorough as possible in describing the entire topic area and to write in clear, nontechnical, accessible language.

      Fifth, the editor and associate editors then reviewed all the entries and asked the authors for revisions as necessary.

      Sixth, the editors finalized the volumes and compiled the bibliography and appendix.

      Acknowledgments

      This encyclopedia is a testament to the efforts of a large number of dedicated and talented people. First, I would like to thank the advisory board for their time, effort, and encouragement, particularly Lu Ann Aday and Michael Morrisey. I am indebted to the many first-rate scholars and professionals who authored the entries. And, of course, I would like to thank the publishing team at Sage, particularly Jim Brace-Thompson, Carole Maurer, and Laura Notton.

      I also appreciate the advice, counsel, and friendship of my current and former colleagues at the University of Illinois School of Public Health: Gary Albrecht, Kendon Conrad, Gregory Finlayson, Sally Freels, Benn Greenspan, Louis Rowitz, and Richard Sewell. Special thanks also go to Kathryn Langley and Jared Lane K. Maeda for their editorial assistance.

      On a personal level, I want to thank my wife, Linda, for her unyielding support, and my two sons, Erik and Jason.

    • Annotated Bibliography

      Annotated bibliography

      This bibliography contains a list of core articles and books covering selected topics of health services research.

      • Health Services Research
        • General Works
        • Definitions, Scope, and Importance
        • History
        • Methods and Data
      • Access to Healthcare
        • General Works
        • Cultural Competency
        • Health Disparities
        • Inner-City Health
        • Rural Health
        • Safety Net
        • Uninsured Individuals
        • Vulnerable Populations
      • Costs, Economics, and Financing of Healthcare
        • General Works
        • Competition and Markets
        • Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
        • Cost of Healthcare and Illness
        • Developing Countries
        • Healthcare Financial Management
        • International Comparisons
        • Payment Mechanisms
        • Supply and Demand
      • Quality of Healthcare
        • General Works
        • Benchmarking and Comparative Data
        • Clinical Practice Guidelines and Disease Management
        • Decision Making and Clinical Support Systems
        • Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)
        • Health Literacy and Communication
        • Health Report Cards
        • Medical Errors
        • Medical Malpractice
        • Medical Practice Variations
        • Pain Management
        • Patient-Centered Care
        • Patient Safety
        • Patient Satisfaction
        • Quality Management
        • Volume-Outcome Relationship
      • Organizational Behavior and Structure of Healthcare
        • General Works
        • Clinical Coordination, Integration of Care, and Continuum of Care
        • Managed Care
        • Organizational Theory and Behavior
        • Ownership
      • Health Measurements, Methods, and Outcomes
        • General Works
        • Community-Based Participatory Research
        • Epidemiology
        • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
        • Health Measurement Scales
        • Health Surveys
        • Informatics
        • Longitudinal Analysis
        • Meta-Analysis
        • Outcomes Research
        • Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) and Research
        • Risk- and Case-Mix Adjustment
        • Small-Area Analysis
        • Statistical Process Control and Six Sigma Quality
        • Statistics
      • Health Policy
        • General Works
        • Healthcare Reform
        • Health Insurance
        • Law and Ethics
        • Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
        • Medicare
        • National Health Insurance
        • Rationing Healthcare
        • Regulation
      • Health Professionals and Healthcare Organizations
        • General Works
        • Academic Medical Centers
        • Dentistry
        • Emergency Care and Intensive-Care Units
        • Healthcare Administration and Management
        • Hospitals
        • Nursing
        • Pharmacists and Pharmacy
        • Physicians
        • Prepaid Group Practice
        • Primary Care
        • Veterans Administration (VA)
      • Public Health
        • General Works
        • Community and Population Health
        • Disaster Preparedness, Emergency Management, and Relief
        • Environmental Health
        • Evidence-Based Public Health
        • Global Health
        • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
        • Maternal and Child Health
      • Selective Diseases and Conditions
        • Acute and Infectious Diseases
        • AIDS/HIV
        • Asthma
        • Cancer
        • Chronic Diseases
        • Diabetes
        • Emerging Diseases
        • Heart Disease
        • Hypertension
        • Iatrogenic Diseases and Nosocomial Infections
        • Injuries and Trauma
        • Stroke
      • Mental Health and Behavioral Disorders
        • Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia
        • Depression
        • Mental Health
        • Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Nutrition
        • Substance Abuse
        • Tobacco Use
      • Aging, Disability, and Long-Term Care
        • Aging and the Elderly
        • Assisted Living
        • Disability
        • End-of-Life Care
        • Home Healthcare
        • Nursing Homes and Long-Term Care
      • Other
        • Bioterrorism
        • E-Health and Telemedicine
        • Fraud and Abuse
        • Future Trends
        • Genetics
        • Health Planning
        • Physician-Patient Relationship
        • Privacy, Confidentiality, and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
        • Program Evaluation
        • Technology Assessment
        • Women's Health Issues
      I. Health Services Research

      Health services research is the emerging field that addresses the complex issues related to the healthcare system and informs health policy and practice. Health services research examines important issues such as access, costs, quality, and outcomes of healthcare.

      1. General Works

      Academy Health. Federal Funding for Health Services Research. Washington, DC: Academy Health, 2005.

      Academy Health. Placement, Coordination, and Funding of Health Services Research Within the Federal Government. Washington, DC: Academy Health, 2005.

      Black, Nick, and Duncan Neuhauser. “Books That Have Changed Health Services and Health Care Policy,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 11(3): 180–83, July 2006.

      Burrows, C., and K. Brown. Eliciting Values in Health Services Research: Philosophies, Disciplines and Paradigms. Fairfield, Victoria, Australia: National Centre for Health Program Evaluation, 1991.

      Buxton, M., and S. Hanney. “How Can Payback From Health Services Research Be Assessed?” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 1(1): 35–43, January 1996.

      Choi, Thomas, and Jay N. Greenberg, eds. Social Science Approaches to Health Services Research. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1982.

      Committee on the Role of Institutional Review Boards in Health Services Research Data Privacy Protection, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Institutional Review Boards and Health Services Research Data Privacy: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Committee on the Role of Institutional Review Boards in Health Services Research Data Privacy Protection, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Protecting Data Privacy in Health Services Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Davis, Karen, and Cathy Schoen. Health Services Research and the Changing Health Care System. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 1996.

      Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Health Services Research: Report of a Study. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1979.

      Eagar, K., D. Cromwell, A. Owen, et al. “Health Services Research and Development in Practice: An Australian Experience,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 8(4 Suppl. 2): 7–13, October 2, 2003.

      Field, Marilyn, Robert E. Tranquada, and Jill C. Feasley, eds., and Committee on Health Services Research: Training and Work Force Issues, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Health Services Research: Work Force and Educational Issues. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995.

      Flook, E. Evelyn, and Paul J. Sanazaro, eds. Health Services Research and R & D in Perspective. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1973.

      Fracchia, G. N., and M. Theofilatou, eds. Health Services Research. Washington, DC: IOS Press, 1993.

      Ginzberg, Eli, ed. Health Services Research: Key to Health Policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

      Golder, Su, Kate Light, and Kath Wright. “Promoting Public Involvement in Health Services Research,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 11(3): 187–88, July 2006.

      Gray, Gerda L. Health Services Research and Development Abroad: A Selected Bibliography. Springfield, VA: Capital Systems Group, 1971. (Available through the National Technical Information Service, PB-207 847)

      Haas, Marion. “Health Services Research in Australia: An Investigation of Its Current Status,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 9(4 Suppl. 2): 3–9, October 2004.

      Hershey, John C., and William P. Pierskalla. Health Services Research and Health Policy: An Analysis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, National Health Care Management Center, 1979.

      Mainland, Donald, ed. Health Services Research, vols. 1–2. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, 1967. (Reprinted from the Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 44(3), July 1966 and 44(4), October 1966)

      McKinlay, John B., ed. Health Services Research: Planning, and Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981.

      Ong, Bie Nio. The Practice of Health Services Research. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1993.

      Peacock, Stuart, Jane Pirkis, and Jackie Cumming. “Health Services Research, Policy and Practice in Australia and New Zealand: A Coming of Age,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 9(4 Suppl. 2): 1–2, October 2004.

      Slaughter, P. M., E. M. Meslin, and C. D. Naylor. Ethics and Health Services Research: A Resource Bibliography. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Institute for Clinical Evaluation Sciences in Ontario, 1994.

      Sobo, Elisa J., and Paul S. Kurtin, eds. Child Health Services Research: Applications, Innovations, and Insights. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Taube, Carl A., David Mechanic, and Ann A. Hohmann, eds. The Future of Mental Health Services Research. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute of Mental Health, Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences, 1989.

      Thaul, Susan, Kathleen N. Lohr, and Robert E. Tranquada, eds., and Committee on Health Services Research: Training and Work Force Issues, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Health Services Research: Opportunities for an Expanding Field of Inquiry. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.

      Thompson, John D. Applied Health Services Research. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1977.

      Van Hoek, Robert. Health Care and the Role of Health Services Research. Michael M. Davis Lecture Series. Chicago: University of Chicago, Center for Health Administration Studies, 1973.

      White, Kerr L., Julio Frenk, Cosme Ordonez, et al., eds. Health Services Research: An Anthology. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1992.

      2. Definitions, Scope, and Importance

      Aday, Lu Ann. “Establishment of a Conceptual Base for Health Services Research,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6(3): 183–85, July 2001.

      Bice, Thomas W. “Social Science and Health Services Research: Contributions to Public Policy,” Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly/Health and Society 58(2): 173–200, 1980.

      Brook, Robert H. “Health Services Research: Is It Good for You and Me? Academic Medicine 64(3): 124–30, March 1989.

      Clancy, Carolyn M. “Health Services Research: From Galvanizing Attention to Creating Action,” Health Services Research 38(3): 777–82, June 2003.

      Field, Marilyn J., and Kathleen N. Lohr. “Health Services Research: An Expanding Field of Inquiry,” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 1(1): 61–65, September 1995.

      Lohr, Kathleen N., and Donald M. Steinwachs. “Health Services Research: An Evolving Definition of the Field,” Health Services Research 37(1): 15–17, February 2002.

      Mechanic, David. “Prospects and Problems in Health Services Research,” Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 56(2): 136–49, 1978.

      Shortell, Steven M., and J. P. LoGerfo. “Health Services Research and Public Policy: Definitions, Accomplishments, and Potential,” Health Services Research 13: 230–37, Fall 1978.

      Spitzer, W. O., and B. Starfield. “Health Services Research Can Make a Difference!” New England Journal of Medicine 297(25): 1046, December 22, 1977.

      3. History

      Anderson, Odin W. The Evolution of Health Services Research: Personal Reflections on Applied Social Science. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.

      Bonner, Thomas Neville. Iconoclast: Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Clinton, Jarrett J., and G. Hernandez. “AHCPR [Agency for Health Care Policy and Research] Background and History,” Decubitus 4(2): 22–26, May 1991.

      Codman, Ernest A. A Study in Hospital Efficiency: The First Five Years. Boston: Thomas Todd, 1916.

      Flexner, Abraham. Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation, 1910. New York: Carnegie Foundation, 1910.

      Flook, E. Evelyn, and Paul J. Sanazaro. “Health Services Research: Origins and Milestones.” In Health Services Research and R&D in Perspective, edited by E. Evelyn Flook and Paul J. Sanazaro, 1–81. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1973.

      Maynard, Alan, and Iain Chalmers, eds. Non-Random Reflections on Health Services Research: On the 25th Anniversary of Archie Cochrane's Effectiveness and Efficiency. London: BMJ Books, 1997.

      Naylor, David. “Humility, Perspective and Provocation: Reflecting on Codman,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6(4): 249–50, October 2001.

      Savedoff, W. D. “Kenneth Arrow and the Birth of Health Economics,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82(2): 139–40, February 2004.

      White, William D. Compelled by Data, John D. Thompson: Nurse, Health Services Researcher, and Health Administration Educator. New Haven, CT: Yale University, Yale School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 2003.

      4. Methods and Data

      Black, Charlyn. Data, Data, Everywhere: Improving Access to Population Health and Health Services Research Data in Canada, Final Report. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: University of British Columbia, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, 2005.

      Black, Nick, John Brazier, Ray Fitzpatrick, et al., eds. Health Services Research Methods: A Guide to Best Practice. London: BMJ Books, 1998.

      Boca, Del, and J. A. Noll. “Truth or Consequences: The Validity of Self-Report Data in Health Services Research on Addictions,” Addiction 95(Suppl. 3–11): 347–60, November 2000.

      Crombie, I. K., and H.T.O. Davies. Research in Health Care: Design, Conduct, and Interpretation of Health Services Research. New York: Wiley, 1996.

      DeFriese, Gordon H., Thomas C. Ricketts, and Jane S. Stein, eds. Methodological Advances in Health Services Research. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1989.

      Herman, P. M., K. D'Huyvetter, and M. J. Mohler. “Are Health Services Research Methods a Match for CAM [Complementary and Alternative Medicine],” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 12(3): 78–83, May-June 2006.

      Huston, Patricia, and C. David Naylor. “Health Services Research: Reporting on Studies Using Secondary Data Sources,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 155(12): 1697–702, December 15, 1996.

      Pope, Catherine, and Nick Mays. “Qualitative Research: Reaching the Parts Other Methods Cannot Research: An Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Health and Health Services Research,” British Medical Journal 311(6996): 42–45, July 1, 1995.

      Richetts, Thomas C., ed. Geographic Methods for Health Services Research: A Focus on the Rural-Urban Continuum. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994.

      Romeis, James C., Rodney M. Coe, and John E. Morley, eds. Applying Health Services Research to Long-Term Care. New York: Springer, 1996.

      Shi, Leiyu. Health Services Research Methods. Albany, NY: Delmar, 1997.

      Sibbald, William J., Julian F. Bion, and Jean-Louis Vincent, eds. Evaluating Critical Care: Using Health Services Research to Improve Quality. New York: Springer, 2002.

      Stange, Kurt C., Stephen J. Zyzanski, Tracy Fedirko, et al. “How Valid Are Medical Records and Patient Questionnaires for Physician Profiling and Health Services Research? A Comparison With Direct Observation of Patient Visits,” Medical Care 36(6): 851–67, June 1998.

      Von Korff, Michael, Mark P. Jensen, and Paul Karoly. “Assessing Global Pain Severity by Self-Report in Clinical and Health Services Research,” Spine 25(24): 3140–151, December 15, 2000.

      II. Access to Healthcare

      Access to healthcare is the ability to establish contact with and use the healthcare system and its services. There are about 47 million uninsured individuals in the United States, many of whom are unable to afford health insurance coverage and thus are unable to access the healthcare system.

      5. General Works

      Aday, Lu Ann, and Ronald Andersen. Development of Indices of Access to Medical Care. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1978.

      Aday, Lu Ann, Gretchen V. Fleming, and Ronald M. Andersen. Access to Medical Care in the U.S.: Who Has It, Who Doesn't. Chicago: Pluribus, 1984.

      Andersen, Ronald M. “Revisiting the Behavioral Model and Access to Medical Care: Does It Matter?” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 36(1): 1–10, March 1995.

      Center for Health Economics Research. Access to Health Care. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1993.

      Davis, Karen. “Inequality and Access to Health Care,” Milbank Quarterly 69(2): 253–73, 1991.

      Donatelle, Rebecca J. Access to Health. Reading, MA: Benjamin-Cummings, 2005.

      Eichhorn, Robert L., and Lu Ann Aday. The Utilization of Health Services: Indices and Correlates: A Research Bibiography. Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 1972.

      Gaskin, Darrell J. Access to Health Care in a Managed Care Environment. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 1999.

      Gulliford, Martin, J. Figueroa-Munoz, M. Morgan, et al. “What Does ‘Access to Health Care’ Mean?” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 7(3): 186–88, July 2002.

      Gulliford, Martin, and Myfanwy Morgan, eds. Access to Health Care. New York: Routledge, 2003.

      Jeffords, James M., ed. Ensuring Access to Affordable Health Care: Hearing Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate. Collingdale, PA: Diane, 2000.

      Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs, ed. Access, Quality and Satisfaction With Care: Concerns of Patients, Providers and Insurers. New York: JAI Press, 2007.

      Lillie-Blanton, Marsha, and Ana Alfaro-Correa. In the Nation's Interest: Equity in Access to Health Care Summary Report. Collingdale, PA: Diane, 1995.

      Lurie, Nicole, and Martha Ross. Health Status and Access to Care Among Low-Income Washington, DC Residents. A Research Brief for the DC Primary Care Medical Homes Project. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution/RAND, October 2006.

      Millman, Michael, ed., and Committee on Monitoring Access to Personal Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Access to Health Care in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993.

      Rank, Mark Robert. One Nation, Underprivileged: Why American Poverty Affects Us All. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Ricketts, T. C., and L. J. Goldsmith. “Access to Health Services Research: The Battle of the Frameworks,” Nursing Outlook 53(6): 274–80, November-December 2005.

      Secombe, Karen, and Kim A. Hoffman. Just Don't Get Sick: Access to Health Care in the Aftermath of Welfare Reform. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007.

      Sossin, Lorne Mitchell, ed. Access to Care, Access to Justice: The Legal Debate Over Private Health Insurance in Canada. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2005.

      Weinick, Robin M., Samuel Zuvekas, and Susan K. Drilea. Access to Health Care: Sources and Barriers, 1996. AHCPR Pub. No. 98-001. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1997.

      6. Cultural Competency

      Anand, Rohini. Cultural Competence in Health Care: A Guide for Trainers. 2d ed. Washington, DC: National MultiCultural Institute (NMCI), 1999.

      Betancourt, Joseph R., Alexander R. Green, and J. Emilio Carrillo. Cultural Competence in Health Care: Emerging Frameworks and Practical Approaches. New York: Commonwealth Fund, Quality of Care for Underserved Populations, 2002.

      Constantine, Madonna G., and Derald Wing Sue, eds. Addressing Racism: Facilitating Cultural Competence in Mental Health and Educational Settings. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006.

      Jandt, Fred E. An Introduction to Intercultural Communication. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007.

      Jeffreys, Marianne R. Teaching Cultural Competence in Nursing and Health Care: Inquiry, Action, and Innovation. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Keefe, Susan E., ed. Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005.

      Lattanzi, Jill Black, and Larry D. Purnell. Developing Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy Practice. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 2006.

      MacLachian, Malcolm. Culture and Health: A Critical Perspective Towards Global Health. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Morales, Leo S., Juan Antonio Puyol, and Ron D. Hays. Improving Patient Satisfaction Surveys to Assess Cultural Competence in Health Care. Oakland: California Health Care Foundation, 2003.

      Neuliep, James W. Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

      Purnell, Larry D., and Betty J. Paulanka. Guide to Culturally Competent Health Care. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 2005.

      Rees, Countney, Sonia Ruiz, Marsha Lillie-Blanton, et al. Compendium of Cultural Competence Initiatives in Health Care. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003.

      Rundie, Anne, Maria Carvalho, and Mary Robinson, eds. Cultural Competence in Health Care: A Practical Guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration. Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Services Through Medicaid Managed Care. Merrifield, VA: Health Resources and Services Administration, 2001.

      7. Health Disparities

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The National Healthcare Disparities Report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2005. (This is an annual report)

      Aizer, Anna, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Mark Stabile. Access to Care, Provider Choice, and Racial Disparities in Infant Mortality. NBER Working Paper No. 10445. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Allen, Carol Easley, et al. Eliminating Health Disparities: Conversations With Blacks in America. Santa Cruz, CA: ETR Associates, 2005.

      Applied Research Center. Closing the Gap: Solutions to Race-Based Health Disparities. Oakland, CA: Applied Research Center, 2005.

      Capitman, John A., Sarita Bhalotra, and Mathilda Ruwe. Cancer and Elders of Color: Opportunities for Reducing Health Disparities: Evidence Review and Recommendations for Research and Policy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005.

      Casper, Michele, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlas of Stroke Mortality: Racial, Ethnic, and Geographic Disparities in the United States. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2003.

      Chandra, Amitabh, and Jonathan Skinner. Geography and Racial Health Disparities. NBER Working Paper No. 9513. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.

      Curtis, Andrew, and Michael Leitner. Geographic Information Systems and Public Health: Eliminating Perinatal Disparity. Hershey, PA: IRM Press, 2006.

      Decker, Sandra L., and Dahlia K. Remler. How Much Might Universal Health Insurance Reduce Socioeconomic Disparities in Health? A Comparison of the U.S. and Canada. NBER Working Paper No. 10715. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Fogel, Robert W. Changes in the Disparities in Chronic Disease During the Course of the Twentieth Century. NBER Working Paper No. 10311. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Keppel, Kenneth G. Methodological Issues in Measuring Health Disparities. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 2, no. 141. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2005.

      Klick, Jonathan, and Sally L. Satel. The Health Disparities Myth: Diagnosing the Treatment Gap. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2006.

      LaVeist, Thomas A. Minority Populations and Health: An Introduction to Health Disparities in the United States. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Livingston, Ivor Lensworth, ed. Praeger Handbook of Black American Health: Policies and Issues Behind Disparities in Health. 2d ed. 2 vols. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

      Metrosa, Elene V., ed. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care. New York: Nova Science, 2006.

      Satcher, David, Rubens J. Pamies, and Nancy N. Woelfl, eds. Multicultural Medicine and Health Disparities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006.

      Shin, Peter, Karen Jones, and Sara Rosenbaum. Reducing Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: Estimating the Impact of High Health Center Penetration in Low-Income Communities. Washington, DC: George Washington University Medical Center, Center for Health Services Research and Policy, 2003.

      Smedley, Brian D., Adrienne Y. Stith, and Alan R. Nelson, eds., and Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2002.

      Swift, Elaine K., ed., and Committee on Guidance for Designing a National Healthcare Disparities Report, Institute of Medicine. Guidance for the National Healthcare Disparities Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2002.

      Thomson, Gerald E., Faith Mitchell, and Monique B. Williams, eds., and Committee on the Review and Assessment of the NIH's Strategic Research Plan and Budget to Reduce and Ultimately Eliminate Health Disparities, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished Business. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Weinick, Robin M., Samuel H. Zuvekas, and Joel W. Cohen. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Access to and Use of Health Care Services, 1977 to 1996,” Medical Care Research and Review 57(Suppl. 1): 36–54, 2000.

      8. Inner-City Health

      Andrulis, Dennis P., and Betsy Carrier. Managed Care in the Inner City: The Uncertain Promise for Providers, Plans, and Communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Commonwealth Fund, Task Force on Academic Health Centers. A Shared Responsibility: Academic Health Centers and the Provision of Care to the Poor and Uninsured: A Report of the Task Force on Academic Health Centers. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2001.

      Boger, John Charles, and Judith Welch Wegner, eds. Race, Poverty and American Cities. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

      Galea, Sandro, and David Vlahov. Handbook of Urban Health: Populations, Methods, and Practice. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Ginzberg, Eli, Howard Berliner, Mariam Ostow, et al., eds. Teaching Hospitals and the Urban Poor. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

      National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2001: With Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2001.

      Rodwin, Victor, and Michael K. Gusmano, eds. Growing Older in World Cities: New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.

      Vlahov, D., E. Gibble, N. Freudenberg, et al. “Cities and Health: History, Approaches, and Key Questions,” Academic Medicine 79(12): 1133–38, December 2004.

      9. Rural Health

      Anson, Roberto. State Offices of Rural Health: 50 Success Stories: A Sourcebook and Overview of Their Accomplishments. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration, Federal Office of Rural Health Policy, 2000.

      Casey, Michelle, Jill Klingner, and Ira S. Moscovice. Access to Rural Pharmacy Services in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Health Services Research and Policy, Rural Health Research Center, 2001.

      Committee on the Future of Rural Health Care, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Quality Through Collaboration: The Future of Rural Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Coward, Raymond T., Lisa A. Davis, Carol H. Gold, et al., eds. Rural Women's Health: Mental, Behavioral, and Physical Issues. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Farley, Donna O., Lisa R. Shugarman, Pat Taylor, et al. Trends in Special Medicare Payments and Service Utilization for Rural Areas in the 1990s. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2002.

      Gale, John, and Andrew Coburn. The Characteristics and Roles of Rural Health Clinics in the United States: A Chartbook. Portland: University of Southern Maine, Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Service, 2003.

      Gamm, Larry. Rural Healthy People 2010: A Companion Document to Healthy People 2010. College Station: Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, School of Rural Public Health, Southwest Rural Health Research Center, 2003.

      Gesler, Wilbert M., Donna J. Rabiner, and Gordon H. DeFriese, eds. Rural Health and Aging Research: Theory, Methods, and Practical Applications. Amityville, NY: Baywood, 1998.

      Glasgow, Nina, Lois Wright Morton, and Nan E. Johnson, eds. Critical Issues in Rural Health. Ames, IA: Blackwell, 2004.

      Grey, Michael R. New Deal Medicine: The Rural Health Programs of the Farm Security Administration. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Lee, Helen J., and Charlene A. Winters, eds. Rural Nursing: Concepts, Theory, and Practice. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Loue, Sana, and Beth E. Quill, eds. Handbook of Rural Health. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Martin, Philip, Michael Fox, and J. Edward Taylor. The New Rural Poverty: Agriculture and Immigration in California. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2006.

      Merchant, James, Christine Coussens, and Dalia Gilbert, eds., and Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Institute of Medicine. Rebuilding the Unity of Health and the Environment in Rural America: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Mosocovice, Ira S. Rural Health Networks: Evolving Organizational Forms and Functions. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Health Services Research and Policy, Rural Health Research Center, 2003.

      Office of Rural Health. Rural Health Dictionary of Terms, Acronyms, and Organizations. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Public Health Service, Office of Rural Health, 1997.

      Phillips, Charles D., Catherine Hawes, and Malgorzata Leyk Williams. Nursing Homes in Rural and Urban Areas, 2000. College Station, TX: Southwest Rural Health Research Center, 2003.

      Ricketts, Thomas C. Arguing for Rural Health in Medicare: A Progressive Rhetoric for Rural America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, 2002.

      Ricketts, Thomas C., ed. Rural Health in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

      Stensland, Jeffrey, and Ira S. Moscovice. Rural Hospitals' Ability to Finance Inpatient, Skilled Nursing, and Home Health Care. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Health Services Research and Policy, 2001.

      Teevans, James W. Forming Rural Health Networks: A Legal Primer. Washington, DC: Alpha Center, 1999.

      Wakefield, Mary K. Linking Rural Health Services Research With Health Policy. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Research Dissemination and Liaison, 2000.

      10. Safety Net

      Billings, John, and Robin M. Weinick. Monitoring the Health Care Safety Net. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 2003.

      Burt, Catharine W., and Irma E. Arispe. Characteristics of Emergency Departments Serving High Volumes of Safety-Net Patients. HHS Pub. No. (PHS) 2004–1726.

      Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2004.

      Fishman, Linda E., and James D. Bentley. “The Evolution of Support for Safety-Net Hospitals,” Health Affairs 16(4): 30–47, July-August 1997.

      Hartley, David, Erika C. Ziller, and Caroline MacDonald. Diabetes and the Rural Safety Net. Portland: University of Southern Maine, Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Services, Maine Rural Health Research Center, 2002.

      Lewin, Marion Ein, and Stuart Altman, eds., and Committee on the Changing Market, Managed Care, and the Future Viability of Safety Net Providers, Institute of Medicine. America's Health Care Safety Net: Intact but Endangered. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. (The report defines safety net providers as “those providers that organize and deliver a significant level of health care and other related services to the uninsured, Medicaid, and other vulnerable patients.”)

      National Advisory Committee on Rural Health. A Targeted Look at the Rural Health Care Safety Net: A Report to the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health, 2002.

      Ormond, Barbara A., Susan Wallin, and Susan M. Goldenson. Supporting the Rural Health Care Safety Net. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2000.

      Richardson, L. D., and U. Hwang. “America's Health Care Safety Net: Intact or Unraveling?” Academic Emergency Medicine 8(11): 1056–1063, November 1, 2001.

      Singer, Ingrid, James Kuzner, and Lynne Fagani. America's Safety Net Hospitals and Health Systems, 2000: Results of the 2000 Annual NAPH Member Survey. Washington, DC: National Association of Public Hospitals and Health System, 2002.

      Spillman, Brenda C., Stephen Zuckerman, and Bowen Garrett. Does the Health Care Safety Net Narrow the Access Gap? Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2003.

      Weinick, Robin M., and Peter Shin. Monitoring the Health Care Safety Net: Developing Data-Driven Capabilities to Support Policymaking. AHRQ Pub. No. 04-0037. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, 2004.

      Weissman, Joel S., and Arnold M. Epstein. Falling Through the Safety Net: Insurance Status and Access to Health Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

      11. Uninsured Individuals

      Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Coverage Matters: Insurance and Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

      Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Care Without Coverage: Too Little, Too Late. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

      Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Health Insurance Is a Family Matter. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

      Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2003.

      Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2004.

      Commonwealth Fund, Task Force on Academic Health Centers. A Shared Responsibility: Academic Health Centers and the Provision of Care to the Poor and Uninsured: A Report of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2001.

      Geyman, John P. Falling Through the Safety Net: Americans Without Health Insurance. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2005.

      Holahan, John, and Brenda Spillman. Health Care Access for Uninsured Adults: A Stronger Safety Net Is Not the Same as Insurance. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2002.

      Meyer, Jack A., and Elliot K. Wicks. Covering America: Real Remedies for the Uninsured. Washington, DC: Economic and Social Research Institute, 2002.

      Norton, E. C., and D. O. Staiger. “How Hospital Ownership Affects Access to Care for the Uninsured,” Rand Journal of Economics 25(1): 171–85, 1994.

      Polsky, Daniel, Jalpa Doshi, Jose Escarce, et al. The Health Effects of Medicare for the Near-Elderly Uninsured. NBER Working Paper No. 12511. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Sered, Susan Starr, and Rushika Fernandopulle. Uninsured in America: Life and Death in the Land of Opportunity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

      Stoll, Kathleen. Paying a Premium: The Added Cost of Care for the Uninsured. Washington, DC: Families USA, 2005.

      Swartz, Katherine. Reinsuring Health: Why More Middle-Class People Are Uninsured and What Government Can Do. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. The Uninsured and Rising Health Insurance Premiums. CBO Testimony Statement of Douglas Holtz-Eakin Before the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, March 9, 2004.

      12. Vulnerable Populations

      Aday, Lu Ann. At Risk in America: The Health and Health Care Needs of Vulnerable Populations in the United States. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Aguirre-Molina, Marilyn, Carlos W. Molina, and Ruth Enid Zambrana, eds. Health Issues in the Latino Community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Braithwaite, Ronald L., and Sandra E. Taylor, eds. Health Issues in the Black Community. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Chesnay, Mary de. Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing Theory, Practice, and Research. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Edleman, Peter, Harry J. Holzer, and Paul Offner. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2006.

      Hattery, Angela, and Earl Smith. African American Families: Issues of Health, Wealth, and Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007.

      Hogue, Carol J. R., Martha A. Hargraves, and Karen Scott Collins, eds. Minority Health in America: Findings and Policy Implications From the Commonwealth Fund Minority Health Survey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

      Iezzoni, Lisa I. More Than Ramps: A Guide to Improving Health Care Quality and Access for People With Disabilities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      King, Talmadge E., and Margaret B. Wheeler, eds. Medical Management of Vulnerable and Underserved Patients: Principles, Practice, and Populations. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007.

      LaVeist, Thomas A. Race, Ethnicity, and Health: A Public Health Reader. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Levin, Bruce Lubotsky, John Petrila, and Kevin D. Hennessy, eds. Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Loue, Sana. Assessing Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Health. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Melnick, Daniel, and Edward Perrin, eds., and Panel on HHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data, Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Improving Racial and Ethnic Data on Health: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      Mincy, Ronald B., ed. Black Males Left Behind. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2006.

      Rank, Mark Robert. One Nation, Underprivileged: Why American Poverty Affects Us All. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Reed, Wornie, William Darity Sr., and Norma L. Roberson. Health and Medical Care of African-Americans. Westport, CT: Auburn House, 1993.

      Rhoades, Everett R., ed. American Indian Health: Innovations in Health Care, Promotion, and Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Sandefur, Gary D., Ronald R. Rindfuss, and Barney Cohen, eds., and Committee on Population, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Changing Numbers, Changing Needs: American Indian Demography and Public Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

      Schulz, Amy J., and Leith Mullings, eds. Gender, Race, Class and Health: Intersectional Approaches. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Shi, Leiyu, and Gregory D. Stevens. Vulnerable Populations in the United States. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      III. Costs, Economics, and Financing of Healthcare

      Costs, economics, and financing of healthcare refer to the expenditures, scarcity in the allocation of healthcare resources, and the way healthcare is paid for. Economic principles are a useful tool to better understand how to control rising healthcare costs and how to finance healthcare.

      13. General Works

      Arrow, Kenneth J. “Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care,” American Economic Review 53(3): 941–73, December 1963.

      Culyer, Anthony J. The Dictionary of Health Economics. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2005.

      Culyer, Anthony J., and Joseph P. Newhouse, eds. Handbook of Health Economics. Handbooks in Economics Series, no. 17, vols. 1A–2A. New York: Elsevier, 2000.

      Cutler, David M., and Ernst R. Berndt, eds. Medical Care Output and Productivity. National Bureau of Economic Research Studies in Income and Wealth (NBER-IW). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

      Drummond, Michael F., and Alistair McGuire, eds. Economic Evaluation in Health Care: Merging Theory With Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Frank, Richard G., and Willard G. Manning, eds. Economics and Mental Health. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

      Fuchs, Victor R. The Health Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986.

      Getzen, Thomas E. Health Care Economics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

      Hammer, Peter J., Deborah Haas-Wilson, Mark A. Peterson, et al., eds. Uncertain Times: Kenneth Arrow and the Changing Economics of Health Care. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

      Jacobs, Phillip, and John Rapoport. The Economics of Health and Medical Care. 5th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Jones, Andrew M., ed. The Elgar Companion to Health Economics. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2006.

      Klarman, H. E. The Economics of Health. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965.

      Laxminarayan, Ramanan, ed. Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides: An Economic Approach. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Lee, Robert H. Economics for Healthcare Managers. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2000.

      Marcinko, David E., and Hope R. Hetico, eds. Dictionary of Health Economics and Finance. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Morreim, E. Haavi. Balancing Act: The New Medical Ethics of Medicine's New Economics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1995.

      Murphy, Kevin M., and Robert H. Topel, eds. Measuring the Gains From Medical Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

      Newhouse, Joseph P. Pricing the Priceless: A Health Care Conundrum. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.

      Pizzi, Laura T., and Jennifer H. Lofland, eds. Economic Evaluation in U.S. Health Care: Principles and Applications. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Rice, Thomas. The Economics of Health Reconsidered. 2d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press/Academy Health, 2003.

      Sloan, Frank. Valuing Health Care. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

      Wise, David A. Advances in the Economics of Aging. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

      Wonderling, David, Reinhold Gruen, and Nick Black. Introduction to Health Economics. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press, 2005.

      14. Competition and Markets

      Arnould, Richard J., Robert F. Rich, and William D. White, eds. Competitive Approaches to Health Care Reform. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 1993.

      Bovbjerg, R. R., and J. A. Marsteller. Health Care Market Competition in Six States: Implications for the Poor. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 1998.

      Cannon, Michael F., and Michael D. Tanner. Healthy Competition: What's Holding Healthcare Back and How to Free It. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2006.

      Casalino, L. P. “Markets and Medicine: Barriers to Creating a ‘Business Case for Quality,’” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46(1): 38–51, Winter 2003.

      Chiappori, Pierre-Andre, and Christian Gollier, eds. Competitive Failure in Insurance Markets: Theory and Policy Implications. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

      Coddington, Dean C., Keith D. Moore, and Elizabeth A. Fischer. Strategies for the New Health Care Marketplace: Managing the Convergence of Consumerism and Technology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Escarce, Jose J., Arvind K. Jain, and Jeannette Rogowski. Hospital Competition, Managed Care, and Mortality After Hospitalization for Medical Conditions: Evidence From Three States. NBER Working Paper No. 12335. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice. Improving Health Care: A Dose of Competition: A Report by the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice, July, 2004. Washington, DC: GPO, 2004.

      Frech, H. E. Competition and Monopoly in Medical Care. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 1996.

      Gaynor, Martin. What Do We Know About Competition and Quality in Health Care Markets? NBER Working Paper No. 12301. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Ginzberg, Eli. “The Potential and Limits of Competition in Health Care,” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 73(2): 224–36, Winter 1996.

      Greenberg, Warren, ed. “Competition in the Health Care Sector: Past, Present, and Future.” In Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the Bureau of Economics, Federal Trade Commission (March 1978). Germantown, MD: Aspen Systems, 1978.

      Greenberg, Warren, ed. Competition, Regulation, and Rationing in Health Care. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1991.

      Greenberg, Warren, ed. The Health Care Marketplace. New York: Springer, 1998.

      Institute of Medicine. Preparing for a Changing Healthcare Marketplace: Lessons From the Field. The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Lectures, 1993–1994. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995.

      Kessler, Daniel D., and Jeffrey J. Geppert. The Effects of Competition on Variation in the Quality and Cost of Medical Care. NBER Working Paper No. 11226. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Luke, Roice D., Stephen L. Walston, and Patrick Michael Plummer. Healthcare Strategy: In Pursuit of Competitive Advantage. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      McDonough, Mary. Can a Health Care Market Be Moral: A Catholic Vision. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2007.

      Musgrave, Frank W. The Economics of U.S. Health Care Policy: The Role of Market Forces. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2006.

      Ohsfeldt, Robert L., and John E. Schneider. The Business of Health: The Role of Competition, Markets, and Regulation. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2006.

      Pauly, Mark V. “Competition in Medical Services and the Quality of Care: Concepts and History,” International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 4(2): 113–30, June 2004.

      Peterson, Mark A., ed. Healthy Markets? The New Competition in Medical Care. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.

      Porter, Michael E., and Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg. Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006.

      Robinson, James C. The Corporate Practice of Medicine: Competition and Innovation in Health Care. Los Angeles: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 1999.

      Smith, P. C., ed. Reforming Markets in Health Care: An Economic Perspective. State of Health Series. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2000.

      White, William D. “Market Forces, Competitive Strategies, and Health Care Regulation,” University of Illinois Law Review 1: 137–66, 2004.

      Wieners, Walter W., ed. Global Health Care Markets: A Comprehensive Guide to Regions, Trends, and Opportunities Shaping the International Health Arena. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

      Zuckerman, Alan M. Improve Your Competitive Strategy: A Guide for the Healthcare Executive. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.

      Zuckerman, Alan M., and Russell C. Coile. Competing on Excellence: Healthcare Strategies for a Consumer-Driven Market. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      15. Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

      Brent, Robert J., ed. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Health Care Evaluation. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2003.

      Drummond, Michael F., and Alistair McGuire, eds. Economic Evaluation in Health Care: Merging Theory With Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Drummond, Michael F., Mark J. Sculpher, George W. Torrance, et al., eds. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Haddix, Anne C., Steven M. Teutsch, and Phaedra S. Corso, eds. Prevention Effectiveness: A Guide to Decision Analysis and Economic Evaluation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Harwood, Henrick J. Cost Effectiveness and Cost Benefit Analysis of Substance Abuse Treatment: A Bibliography. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2002.

      Harwood, Henrick J. Cost Effectiveness and Cost Benefit Analysis of Substance Abuse Treatment: A Literature Review. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2002.

      Miller, Wilhelmine, Lisa A. Robinson, and Robert S. Lawrence, eds. Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Morris, Stephen, Nancy J. Devlin, and David Parkin. Economic Analysis in Health Care. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

      Muennig, Peter. Designing and Conducting Cost-Effectiveness Analyses in Medicine and Health Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Neumann, Peter J. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Improve Health Care: Opportunities and Barriers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Olsen, Jan Abel, and Jeffrey Ralph James Richardson. Production Gains From Health Care: What Should Be Included in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. West Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia: National Centre for Health Program Evaluation, 1999.

      Petitti, Diana B. Meta-Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

      Sloan, Frank A., and Chee-Ruey Hsieh, eds. Pharmaceutical Innovation: Incentives, and Cost-Benefit Analysis in International Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Willan, Andrew R., and Andrew H. Briggs. Statistical Analysis of Cost-Effectiveness Data. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      16. Cost of Healthcare and Illness

      Akobundu, E., J. Ju, L. Blatt, et al. “Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods,” Pharmacoeconomics 24(9): 869–90, 2006.

      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Health Care Expenditure and the Burden of Disease Due to Asthma in Australia. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2005.

      Bodenheimer, Thomas. “High and Rising Health Care Costs. Part 1: Seeking an Explanation,” Annals of Internal Medicine 142(10): 847–54, May 17, 2005.

      Bodenheimer, Thomas. “High and Rising Health Care Costs. Part 2: Technologic Innovation,” Annals of Internal Medicine 142(11): 932–37, June 7, 2005.

      Bodenheimer, Thomas. “High and Rising Health Care Costs. Part 3: The Role of Health Care Providers,” Annals of Internal Medicine 142(12): 996–1002, June 21, 2005.

      Bodenheimer, Thomas, and Alicia Fernandez. “High and Rising Health Care Costs. Part 4: Can Costs Be Controlled While Preserving Quality?” Annals of Internal Medicine 143(1): 26–31, July 5, 2005.

      17. Developing Countries

      Baah, Asamoah. Health Economics: Identification of Needs in Health Economics in Developing Countries. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Task Force on Health Economics, 1995.

      Carrin, Guy. The Role of Health Economics in Developing Countries, With a Focus on Project Evaluation and Health Care Finance. Antwerp, Belgium: University of Antwerp, Centre for Development Studies, 1986.

      Jamison, Dean T., Joel G. Bremen, Anthony R. Measham, et al., eds. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Mills, Anne, and Kenneth Lee, eds. Health Economics Research in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

      Preker, Alexander S., Richard M. Scheffler, and Mark C. Bassett, eds. Private Voluntary Health in Development: Friend or Foe? Washington, DC: World Bank, 2007.

      Sorkin, Alan L. Health Economics in Developing Countries. Lexington, MA: Heath, 1976.

      William, Jack. Principles of Health Economics for Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1999.

      18. Healthcare Financial Management

      Aaron, Henry J. Serious and Unstable Condition: Financing America's Health Care. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1991.

      Baker, Judith J., and R. W. Baker. Health Care Finance: Basic Tools for Nonfinancial Managers. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Berger, Steven. Fundamentals of Health Care Financial Management: A Practical Guide to Fiscal Issues and Activities. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Berger, Steven. The Power of Clinical and Financial Metrics: Achieving Success in Your Hospital. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Cleverley, William O., and Andrew E. Cameron. Essentials of Health Care Finance. 6th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Committee on Public Financing and Delivery of HIV Care, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine. Public Financing and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Care: Securing the Legacy of Ryan White. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

      Donaldson, Cam, Karen Gerard, Stephen Jan, et al. Economics of Health Care Financing: The Visible Hand. 2d ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

      Eastaugh, Steven R. Health Care Finance and Economics. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Finkler, Steven A., and David M. Ward. Accounting Fundamentals for Health Care Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Finkler, Steven A., David M. Ward, and Judith J. Baker. Essentials of Cost Accounting for Healthcare Organizations. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Gapenski, Louis C. Healthcare Finance: An Introduction to Accounting and Financial Management. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Gapenski, Louis C. Cases in Healthcare Finance. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Gapenski, Louis C., and George H. Pink. Understanding Healthcare Financial Management. 5th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Hankins, Robert W., and Judith J. Baker. Management Accounting for Health Care Organizations: Tools and Techniques for Decision Support. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Kaufman, Kenneth. Best Practice Financial Management: Six Key Concepts for Healthcare Leaders. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Nowicki, Michael. The Financial Management of Hospitals and Healthcare Organizations. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press and the Healthcare Financial Management Association, 2004.

      Nowicki, Michael. Practice Problems and Case Study to Accompany the Financial Management of Hospitals and Healthcare Organizations. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Nowicki, Michael. HFMA's Introduction to Hospital Accounting. 5th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press and the Healthcare Financial Management Association, 2006.

      Pointer, Dennis D., and Dennis M. Stillman. Essentials of Health Care Organization Finance: A Primer for Board Members. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Wang, XiaoHu. Financial Management in the Public Sector. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2006.

      Wiener, Joshua M., Steven B. Clauser, and David L. Kennell, eds. Persons With Disabilities: Issues in Health Care Financing and Service Delivery. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.

      Young, David W. Management Accounting in Health Care Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      19. International Comparisons

      Aaron, Henry J., William B. Schwartz, and Melissa Cox. Can We Say No? The Challenge of Rationing Health Care. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

      Decker, Sandra L., and Dahlia K. Remler. How Much Might Universal Health Insurance Reduce socioeconomic Disparities in Health? A Comparison of the U.S. and Canada. NBER Working Paper No. 10715. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Roth, Julius A., ed. International Comparisons of Health Services. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987.

      Wise, David A., and Naohiro Yashiro, eds. Health Care Issues in the United States and Japan. National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report (NBER-C). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

      20. Payment Mechanisms

      Abood, Sheila, and David Keepnews. Understanding Payment for Advanced Practice Nursing Services. Washington, DC: American Nurses Publishing, 2002.

      Carter, Lucy R., and Sara S. Lankford. Physician's Compensation: Measurement, Benchmarking, and Implementation. New York: Wiley, 2000.

      Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment, and Performance Improvement Programs, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Rewarding Provider Performance: Aligning Incentives in Medicare. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2007.

      Kling, Arnold. Crisis of Abundance: Rethinking How We Pay for Health Care. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2006.

      Mays, Rick, and Robert A. Berenson. Medicare Prospective Payment and the Shaping of U.S. Health Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Miraldo, Marisa, Maria Goddard, and Peter C. Smith. The Incentive Effects of Payment by Results. CHE Research Paper 19. York, UK: University of York, Centre for Health Economics, 2006.

      Moreno, Jonathan D. Paying the Doctor: Health Policy and Physician Reimbursement. New York: Auburn House, 1991.

      Newhouse, Joseph P. “Medicare's Challenges in Paying Providers,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 35–44, Winter 2005–2006.

      Sood, Neeraji, Melinda Beeuwkes Buntin, and Jose J. Escarce. Does How Much and How You Pay Matter? NBER Working Paper No. 12556.

      Evidence From the Inpatient Rehabilitation Care Prospective Payment System. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Medicare's Physician Payment Rates and the Sustainable Growth Rate. Statement of Donald B. Marron, Acting Director, Before the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office, 2006.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. The Sustainable Growth Rate Formula for Setting Medicare's Physician Payment Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office, 2006.

      Vogenberg, F. Randy, ed. Understanding Pharmacy Reimbursement. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2006.

      Waters, Joanne M., and L. Lamar Blount. Mastering the Reimbursement Process. 4th ed. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2006.

      21. Supply and Demand

      Esposito, Domenico. Copayments and the Demand for Prescription Drugs. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Grossman, Michael. The Demand for Health: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.

      Kissick, William. Medicine's Dilemmas: Infinite Needs Versus Finite Resources. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994.

      Patrick, Donald L., and Pennifer Erickson. Health Status and Health Policy: Quality of Life in Health Evaluation and Resource Allocation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

      Richardson, Jeffrey Ralph James. Supply and Demand for Medical Care: Or, Is the Health Care Market Perverse? West Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia: National Centre for Health Program Evaluation, 2001.

      Richardson, Jeffrey Ralph James, and Stuart Peacock. Supplier Induced Demand Reconsidered. West Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia: National Centre for Health Program Evaluation, 1999.

      IV. Quality of Healthcare

      Quality of healthcare can have different meanings for different people, including healthcare providers, payers, and patients. Generally speaking, quality of healthcare refers to receiving the appropriate amount of care at the right time and in the right amount.

      22. General Works

      Adams, Karen, and Janet M. Corrigan, eds., and Committee on Identifying Priority Areas for Quality Improvement, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The National Healthcare Quality Report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2005. (This is an annual report)

      Asch, S. M., E. A. Kerr, J. Keesey, et al. “Who Is at Greatest Risk for Receiving Poor-Quality Health Care?” New England Journal of Medicine 354(11): 1147–56, March 16, 2006.

      Berwick, Donald M. Escape Fire: Designs for the Future of Health Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Berwick, Donald M., A. Blanton Godfray, and Jane Rosessner. Curing Health Care: New Strategies for Quality Improvement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.

      Bisognano, Maureen A., Paul E. Plsek, and Dan Schummers. 10 More Powerful Ideas for Improving Patient Care. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Bosk, Charles L. Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

      Brennan, Troyen A., and Donald M. Berwick. New Rules: Regulation, Markets, and the Quality of American Health Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

      Donabedian, Avedis. “Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care.” In Health Services Research, vol. 1, edited by D. Mainland, 166–203. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, 1967.

      Donabedian, Avedis. Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring. Vol. 1, The Definition of Quality and Approaches to Its Assessment. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1980.

      Donabedian, Avedis. Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring. Vol. 2, The Criteria and Standards of Quality. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1982.

      Donabedian, Avedis. Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring. Vol. 3, The Methods and Findings of Quality Assessment and Monitoring: An Illustrated Analysis. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1985.

      Donabedian, Avedis. “The Quality of Care: How Can It Be Assessed?” Journal of the American Medical Association 260(12): 1743–48, September 23, 1988.

      Donabedian, Avedis. An Introduction to Quality Assurance in Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Donaldson, Molla S., ed., and National Roundtable on Health Care Quality, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Collaboration Among Competing Managed Care Organizations for Quality Improvement: Summary of a Conference, November 13, 1997. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.

      Fottler, Myron D., Robert C. Ford, and Cherrill Heaton. Achieving Service Excellence: Strategies for Healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.

      Gawande, Atul. Complications: A Surgeon's Notes on Imperfect Science. New York: Picador, 2002.

      Goonan, Kathleen Jennison. The Juran Prescription: Clinical Quality Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

      Halvorson, George C., and George J. Isham. Epidemic of Care: A Call for Safe, Better, and More Accountable Health Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Hurtado, Margarita P., Elaine K. Swift, and Janet M. Corrigan, eds., and Committee on the National Quality Report on Health Care Delivery, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Envisioning the National Health Care Quality Report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001.

      Institute of Medicine. Fostering Rapid Advances in Health Care: Learning From System Demonstration. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2002.

      Institute of Medicine. Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      Institute of Medicine. Next Steps Toward Higher Quality Health Care. The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Lectures, 2005. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Isenberg, Steven F., and Richard E. Gliklich, eds. Profiting From Quality: Outcomes Strategies for Medical Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Kelly, Diane L. Applying Quality Management in Healthcare: A Systems Approach. 2d ed. Chicago: Association of University Programs in Health Administration and the Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Lloyd, Robert. Quality Health Care: A Guide to Developing and Using Indicators. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      McGlynn E. A., S. M. Asch, J. Adams, et al. “The Quality of Health Care Delivered to Adults in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine 348(26): 2635–45, June 26, 2003.

      Mechanic, David. “Improving the Quality of Health Care in the United States of America: The Need for a Multi-Level Approach,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 7(3 Suppl. 1): 35–39, July 2002.

      Millenson, Michael L. Demanding Medical Excellence: Doctors and Accountability in the Information Age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

      Montalvo, Isis, and Nancy Dunton, eds. Transforming Nursing Data Into Quality Care: Profiles of Quality Improvement in U.S. Healthcare Facilities. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association, 2007. (Available at http://nursingworld.org)

      Nelson, Eugene C., Paul B. Batalden, and Marjorie M. Godfrey. Quality by Design: A Clinical Microsystem Approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

      Ransom, Scott B., Maulik S. Joshi, and David B. Nash, eds. The Healthcare Quality Book: Vision, Strategy, and Tools. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Reinertsen, James L., and Wim Schellekens. 10 Powerful Ideas for Improving Patient Care. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Sherman, V. Clayton. Raising Standards in American Health Care: Best People, Best Practices, Best Results. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Spath, Patrice L. Leading Your Healthcare Organization to Excellence: A Guide to Using the Baldrige Criteria. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Walburg, Jan, ed. Performance Management in Health Care: Improving Patient Outcomes: An Integrated Approach. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      23. Benchmarking and Comparative Data

      Barnard, Cynthia. Benchmarking Basics: A Resource Guide for Healthcare Managers. Marblehead, MA: HCPro, 2006.

      Camp, Robert C. Benchmarking: The Search for Industry Best Practices That Lead to Superior Performance. Milwaukee, WI: American Society for Quality Press, 1989.

      Carter, Lucy R., and Sara S. Lankford. Physician's Compensation: Measurement, Benchmarking, and Implementation. New York: Wiley, 2000.

      Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Medicaid Managed Behavioral Health Care Benchmarking Project. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2003.

      Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Benchmarking in Health Care: Finding and Implementing Best Practices. Oakbrook Terrance, IL: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2000.

      Schilp, Jull Lenk, and Roy E. Gilbreath. Health Data Quest: How to Find and Use Data for Performance Improvement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

      Tweet, Arthur G., and Karol Gavin-Marciano. The Guide to Benchmarking in Healthcare: Practical Lessons From the Field. New York: Quality Resources, 1998.

      24. Clinical Practice Guidelines and Disease Management

      Bartell, Jessica, and Maureen Smith. “U.S. Physicians' Perceptions of the Effect of Practice Guidelines and Ability to Provide High-Quality Care,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 10(2): 69–76, April 2005.

      Disease Management Association of America. Dictionary of Disease Management Terminology: Including Extended Definitions of Frequently-Used Disease Management Terminology. Washington, DC: Disease Management Association of America, 2004.

      Eccles, M., N. Rousseau, and N. Freemantle. “Updating Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 7(2): 98–103, April 2002.

      Forman, Samuel, and Matthew Kelliher. Status One: Breakthroughs in High Risk Population Health Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui. Clinical Guidelines and Care Protocols. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006.

      Howe, Rufus S. The Disease Manager's Handbook. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Huber, Diane L., ed. Disease Management: A Guide for Case Managers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders, 2005.

      Margolis, Carmi Z., and Shan Cretin, eds. Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chicago: American Hospital Association, 1999.

      McManus, Carolyn A. Group Wellness Programs for Chronic Pain and Disease Management. St. Louis, MO: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.

      Muncey, Tessa, and Alison Parker, eds. Chronic Disease Management: A Practical Guide. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

      National Governors' Association. Disease Management: The New Tool for Cost Containment and Quality Care. Washington, DC: National Governors' Association, Center for Best Practices, Health Policy Studies Division, 2003.

      Nuovo, Jim, ed. Chronic Disease Management. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Patterson, Richard, ed. Changing Patient Behavior: Improving Outcomes in Health and Disease Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Randall, Michael D., and Karen E. Neil. Disease Management. Chicago: Pharmaceutical Press, 2003.

      Skolnik, Neil S., Doron Schneider, Richard Neill, et al., eds. Handbook of Essential Practice Guidelines in Primary Care. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2007.

      Todd, Warren E., and David Nash. Disease Management: A Systems Approach to Improving Patient Outcomes. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. An Analysis of the Literature on Disease Management Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office, 2004.

      Wakley, Gill, and Ruth Chambers, eds. Chronic Disease Management in Primary Care: Quality and Outcomes. Seattle, WA: Radcliffe, 2005.

      25. Decision Making and Clinical Support Systems

      Ankner, Gina M. Clinical Decision Making: Case Studies in Medical-Surgical Nursing. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2007.

      Berner, Eta S., ed. Clinical Decision Support Systems: Theory and Practice. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Eeckhoudt, Louis. Risk and Medical Decision Making. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2002.

      Flynn, Darren, et al. Non-Medical Influences Upon Medical Decision Making and Referral Behavior: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

      Freeman, Michael, ed. Ethics and Medical Decision-Making. Burlington, VT: Ashgate-Dartmouth, 2001.

      Gross, Richard. Making Medical Decisions: An Approach to Clinical Decision Making for Practicing Physicians. Philadelphia: American College of Medicine, 1999.

      Mack, Ken E., Mary Ann Crawford, and Mary C. Reed. Decision Making for Improved Performance. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Oster, Nancy, Lucy Thomas, and Doral Joseff. Making Informed Medical Decisions: Where to Look and How to Use What You Find. Cambridge, MA: O'Reilly, 2000.

      Parmigiani, Giovanni. Modeling in Medical Decision Making: A Bayesian Approach. New York: Wiley, 2002.

      Rao, Goutham. Rational Medical Decision Making. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007.

      Richardson, Betty Kehl. Clinical Decision Making: Case Studies in Psychiatric Nursing. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2007.

      Robinson, Denise L. Clinical Decision Making: A Case Study Approach. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 2002.

      Rothman, David J. Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making. 2d ed. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2003.

      26. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)

      Bland, J. Martin, and Janet Peacock. Statistical Questions in Evidence-Based Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Best Practices: Evidence-Based Nursing Procedures. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

      Boswell, Carol, and Sharon Cannon. Introduction to Nursing Research: Incorporating Evidence-Based Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Daly, Jeanne. Evidence-Based Medicine and the Search for a Science of Clinical Care. Berkeley: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2005.

      Gray, Denis Pereira. “Evidence-Based Medicine and Patient-Centered Medicine: The Need to Harmonize,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 10(2): 66–68, April 2005.

      Gray, J. A. Muir. Evidence-Based Healthcare: How to Make Health Policy and Management Decisions. 2d ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2001.

      Greenhalgh, Trisha. How to Read a Paper: The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine. 3d ed. Malden, MA: BMJ Books/Blackwell, 2006.

      Levin, Rona F., and Harriet R. Feldman, eds. Teaching Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: A Guide for Academic and Clinical Settings. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Melnyk, Bernadette M., and Ellen Fineout-Overholt. Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2005.

      Newell, Robert, and Philip Burnard. Research for Evidence-Based Practice. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006.

      Nordenstrom, Jorgen. Evidence-Based Medicine in Sherlock Holmes' Footsteps. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

      Pearson, Alan, John Field, and Zoe Jordon. Evidence-Based Clinical Medicine in Nursing and Health Care: Assimilating Research, Experience, and Expertise. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

      Roberts, Albert R., and Kenneth R. Yeager, eds. Evidence-Based Practice Manual: Research and Outcome Measures in Health and Human Services. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Sackett, David L., Sharon E. Straus, W. Scott Richardson, et al. Evidence-Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM. 2d ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

      Sackett, David L., William M. C. Rosenberg, J. A. Muir Gray, et al. “Evidence-Based Medicine: What It Is and What It Isn't,” British Medical Journal 312(7023): 71–72, January 13, 1996.

      Stanzak, Richard K. Bottom Line Medicine: A Layman's Guide to Evidence-Based Medicine. New York: Algora, 2006.

      Wulff, Henrik R., and Peter C. Gotzsche. Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 2000.

      27. Health Literacy and Communication

      Bennett, Peter, and Kenneth Calman. Risk Communication and Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

      Cohn, Kenneth H. Better Communication for Better Care: Mastering Physician-Administrator Collaboration. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Desmond, Joanne, and Lanny R. Copeland. Communication With Today's Patient: Essentials to Save Time, Decrease Risk, and Increase Patient Compliance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

      Greene, Jessica, Judith Hibbard, and Martin Tusler. How Much Do Health Literacy and Patient Activation Contribute to Older Adult's Ability to Manage Their Health? Washington, DC: AARP, 2005.

      Haider, Muhiuddin. Global Public Health Communication: Challenges, Perspectives, and Strategies. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Hibbard, Judith, Jessica Greene, and Martin Tusler. Identifying Medicare Beneficiaries With Poor Health Literacy Skills: Is a Short Screening Index Feasible? Washington, DC: AARP, 2005.

      Kickbusch, Ilona, Suzanne Wait, and Daniela Maag. Navigating Health: The Role of Health Literacy. London: International Longevity Centre, Alliance for Health and the Future, 2005.

      Kiefer, Kristen M. Health Literacy: Responding to the Need for Help. Washington, DC: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.

      Kraemer, Helena Chmura, Karen Kraemer Lowe, and David J. Kupfer. To Your Health: How to Understand What Research Tells Us About Risk. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Mayer, Gloria G., and Michael Villaire. Health Literacy in Primary Care: A Clinician's Guide. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Nielsen-Bohlman, Lynn, Allison M. Panzer, and David A. Kindig, eds., and Committee on Health Literacy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, Institute of Medicine. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

      Osborne, Helen. Health Literacy From A to Z: Practical Ways to Communicate Your Health Message. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Ray, Eileen Berlin, ed. Health Communication in Practice: A Case Study Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005.

      Schwartzberg, Jonathan B., Jonathan Van Geest, and Claire Wang, eds. Understanding Health Literacy: Implications for Medicine and Public Health. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2005.

      Thomas, Richard K. Health Communication. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Whitten, Pam, and David Cook. Understanding Health Communication Technologies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Woods, James R., and Fay A. Rozovsky. What Do I Say? Communicating Intended or Unanticipated Outcomes in Obstetrics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Zarcadoolas, Christina, Andrew F. Pleasant, and David S. Geer. Advancing Health Literacy: A Framework for Understanding and Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      28. Health Report Cards

      Atlantic Information Services. Health Care Report Cards: Profiles of All Major Report Cards, Performance Reports, Shopping Guide, and Consumer Satisfaction Surveys. 3d ed. Washington, DC: Atlantic Information Services, 1997.

      Chernew, Michael, Gautam Gowrisankaran, and Dennis P. Scanlon. Learning and the Value of Information: The Case of Health Plan Report Cards. NBER Working Paper No. 8589. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001.

      Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment, and Performance Improvement Programs, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement. Pathways to Quality Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Dafny, Leemore S., and David Dranove. Do Report Cards Tell Consumers Anything They Don't Already Know? The Case of Medicare HMOs. NBER Working Paper No. 11420. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.

      Dranove, David, Daniel Kessler, Mark McClellan, et al. Is More Information Better? The Effects of “Report Cards” on Health Care Providers. NBER Working Paper 8697. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.

      Ferris, Timothy G., Denise Dougherty, David Blumenthal, et al. “A Report Card on Quality Improvement for Children's Health Care,” Pediatrics 107(1): 143–55, January 2001.

      Fielding, Jonathan E., and Carol Sutherland. National Directory of Community Health Report Cards. Chicago: Health Research and Educational Trust, 1998.

      Hanes, Pamela P., and Merwyn R. Greenlick. Grading Health Care: The Science and Art of Developing Consumer Scorecards. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

      Kenkel, Paul J. Report Cards: What Every Health Provider Needs to Know About HEDIS and Other Performance Measures. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, 1995.

      Laschober, Mary. Hospital Compare Highlights Potential Challenges in Public Reporting for Hospitals. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 2006.

      Marshall, M., and H. Davies. “Public Release of Information on Quality of Care: How Are Health Services and the Public Expected to Respond?” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6(3): 158–62, July 2001.

      Mukamel, D. B., and A. I. Mushlin. “The Impact of Quality Report Cards on Choice of Physicians, Hospitals, and HMOs: A Midcourse Evaluation,” Joint Commission Journal of Quality Improvement 27(1): 20–27, January 2001.

      New York State Health Accountability Foundation. New York State HMO Report Card. New York: New York State Health Accountability Foundation, 2004.

      “The Public Uses Health System Report Cards to Make Decisions About Their Health Care,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 10(2): 126–27, April 2005.

      RAND Corporation. The First National Report Card on Quality of Health Care in America. RAND Health Research Highlights. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2006.

      Spath, Patrice L., ed. Provider Report Cards: A Guide for Promoting Health Care Quality to the Public. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      U.S. General Accounting Office. Physician Performance: Report Cards Under Development but Challenges Remain: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1999.

      29. Medical Errors

      Aspden, Philip, Julie A. Wolcott, J. Lyle Bootman, et al., eds., and Committee on Identifying and Preventing Medication Errors, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Preventing Medication Errors. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Banja, John. Medical Errors and Medical Narcissism. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Berlinger, Nancy. After Harm: Medical Error and the Ethics of Forgiveness. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Bogner, Marilyn Sue, ed. Human Error in Medicine. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994.

      Dhillon, B. S. Human Reliability and Error in Medical System. River Edge, NJ: World Scientific, 2003.

      Gibson, Rosemary, and Janardan P. Singh. Wall of Silence: The Untold Story of the Medical Mistakes That Kill and Injure Millions of Americans. Washington, DC: LifeLine Press, 2003.

      Kohn, Linda T., Janet M. Corrigan, and Molla S. Donaldson, eds., and Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2000.

      Kralewski, John, and Bryan E. Dowd. Drug Errors in Medical Practice: It's Dangerous Out There. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Division of Health Services Research and Policy, 2005.

      Merry, Allan, and Alexander McCall Smith. Errors, Medicine, and the Law. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

      Rosenthal, Marilynn M., and Kathleen M Sutcliffe, eds. Medical Error: What Do We Know? What Do We Do? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Rubin, Susan B., and Laurie Zoloth, eds. Margin of Error: The Ethics of Mistakes in the Practice of Medicine. Hagertown, MD: University Publishing Group, 2000.

      Sharon, Thomas A. Protecting Yourself in the Hospital: Insider Tips for Avoiding Hospital Mistakes for Yourself or Someone You Love. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

      Spath, Patrice L., ed. Error Reduction in Health Care: A System Approach to Improving Patient Safety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

      Wachter, Robert, and Kaveh G. Shojania. Internal Bleeding: The Truth Behind America's Terrifying Epidemic of Medical Mistakes. New York: Rugged Land, 2004.

      30. Medical Malpractice

      Acerbo-Kozuchowski, Nancy, and Kathleen Ashton. Medical Malpractice Claims Investigation. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      American College of Legal Medicine. The Medical Malpractice Survival Handbook. Philadelphia: Mosby-Elsevier, 2007.

      Anderson, Richard E., ed. Medical Malpractice: A Physician's Sourcebook. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2005.

      Baker, Tom. The Medical Malpractice Myth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

      Black, Carrie E. Academic Health Centers: Responses to the Malpractice Insurance Crisis. Washington, DC: Association of Academic Health Centers, 2005.

      Sage, William M., and Rogan Kersh, eds. Medical Malpractice and the U.S. Health Care System. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

      Tan, S. Y. Medical Malpractice: Understanding the Law, Managing the Risk. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2006.

      Youngson, Robert M., and Ian Schott. Medical Blunders: Amazing True Stories of Mad, Bad, and Dangerous Doctors. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

      31. Medical Practice Variations

      Andersen, Tavs Folmer, and Gavin Mooney, eds. Challenges of Medical Practice Variations. London: Macmillian, 1990.

      Ashton, Carol M., Nancy J. Petersen, Julianne Souchek, et al. “Geographic Variations in Utilization Rates in Veterans Affairs Hospitals and Clinics,” New England Journal of Medicine 340(1): 32–39, January 7, 1999.

      Davis, P., B. Gribben, A. Scott, et al. “The ‘Supply Hypothesis’ and Medical Practice Variation in Primary Care: Testing Economic and Clinical Models of Inter-Practitioner Variation,” Social Science and Medicine 50(3): 407–418, February 2000.

      Dranove, David, and William P. Rogerson. Geographic Variations in Medical Practice, External Efficiencies, and the Role of Practice Guidelines. Working Paper 95-15.

      Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, 1995.

      Elixhauser, A., D. R. Harris, and R. M. Coffey. Trends in Hospital Diagnoses: Regional Variations, 1980–87. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1995.

      Gold, Marsha. Geographic Variation in Medicare Per Capita Spending: Should Policy-Makers Be Concerned? Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2004.

      Miller, Mark E., John Holahan, and W. Pete Welch. Geographic Variations in Physician Service Utilization and Implications for Health Reform. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Health Policy Center, 1993.

      Wennberg, John E., and Megan M. Cooper, eds. The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care in the United States, 1998. Chicago: American Hospital Association Press, 1998.

      32. Pain Management

      Abrahm, Janet L. A Physician's Guide to Pain and Symptom Management in Cancer Patients. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Bonica, J. J. “History of Pain Concepts and Pain Therapy,” Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 58(3): 191–202, May 1991.

      Dormandy, Thomas. The Worst of Evils: The Fight Against Pain. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.

      Ferrari, Lynne R., ed. Anesthesia and Pain Management for the Pediatrician. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Grahek, Nikola. Feeling Pain and Being in Pain. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.

      Jay, Gary W., ed. Chronic Pain. New York: Informa Healthcare USA, 2007.

      Lee, John, and Andrew Baranowski, eds. Long-Term Pain: A Guide to Practical Management. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      Macintyre, Pamela E., and Stephen A. Schug. Acute Pain Management: A Practical Guide. 3d ed. New York: Elsevier Saunders, 2007.

      Schofield, Patricia A., ed. The Management of Pain in Older People. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

      Waldman, Steven D., ed. Pain Management. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier, 2007.

      33. Patient-Centered Care

      Brown, Judith Belle, Moira Stewart, and W. Wayne Weston, eds. Challenges and Solutions in Patient-Centered Care: A Case Book. Abingdon, UK: Radcliffe Medical Press, 2002.

      Couch, James B., ed. The Health Care Professional's Guide to Disease Management: Patient-Centered Care for the 21st Century. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, 1998.

      Earp, Joanne L., Elizabeth A. French, and Melissa B. Gilkey, eds. Patient Advocacy for Healthcare Quality: Strategies for Achieving Patient-Centered Care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Frampton, Susan B., Laura Gilpin, and Patrick A. Charmel, eds. Putting Patients First: Designing and Practicing Patient-Centered Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Gerteis, Margaret, Thomas L. Delbanco, and Jennifer Daley, eds. Through the Patient's Eyes: Understanding and Promoting Patient-Centered Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993.

      Gray, Denis Pereira. “Evidence-Based Medicine and Patient-Centered Medicine: The Need to Harmonize,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 10(2): 66–68, April 2005.

      Parsons, Mickey L., and Carolyn L. Murdaugh, eds. Patient-Centered Care: A Model for Restructuring. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, 1994.

      Rantz, Marilyn J., and Marcia K. Flesner. Person Centered Care: A Model for Nursing Homes. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association, 2004.

      Risner, Phyllis B., Claire Blust Rodehaver, and Robin G. Bashore, eds. Setting the PACE: Managing Transition to Patient-Centered Care. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1995.

      Smith, James Monroe, ed. Producing Patient-Centered Health Care: Patient Perspectives About Health and Illness and the Physician/Patient Relationship. Westport, CT: Auburn House, 1999.

      St. Joseph Hospital. Patient-Centered Care Manual for the Nursing Service Department, St. Joseph Hospital, Flint, Michigan. St. Louis, MO: Catholic Hospital Association, 1977.

      Stewart, Moira, Judith Belle Brown, W. Wayne Weston, et al., eds. Patient-Centered Medicine: Transforming the Clinical Method. 2d ed. Abingdon, UK: Radcliffe Medical Press, 2003.

      34. Patient Safety

      Aspden, Philip, Janet M. Corrigan, Julie Wolcott, et al., eds., and Committee on Data Standards for Patient Safety, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Patient Safety: Achieving a New Standard for Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

      Baciu, Alina, Kathleen Stratton, and Sheila P. Burke, eds., and Committee on the Assessment of the U.S. Drug Safety System, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Institute of Health. The Future of Drug Safety: Promoting and Protecting the Health of the Public. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Byers, Jacqueline Fowler, and Susan V. White, eds. Patient Safety: Principles and Practice. New York: Springer, 2004.

      Dankelman, Jenny, Cornelis A. Grimbergen, and Henk G. Stassen, eds. Engineering for Patient Safety: Issues in Minimally Invasive Procedures. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004.

      Lambert, Matthew. Leading a Patient-Safe Organization. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Leonard, Michael, Allan Frankel, and Terri Simmonds, et al. Achieving Safe and Reliable Healthcare: Strategies and Solutions. Chicago: Health Administration Press, Institute for Healthcare Improvement, and the American Organization of Nurse Executives, 2004.

      Lewis, Russell F., ed. The Impact of Information Technology on Patient Safety. Chicago: Healthcare Information and Management Systems, 2002.

      Morath, Julianne M., and Joanne E. Turnbull. To Do No Harm: Ensuring Patient Safety in Health Care Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Newhouse, Robin P., and Stephanie Poe, eds. Measuring Patient Safety. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Rozovsky, Fay A., and James R. Woods, eds. The Handbook of Patient Safety Compliance: A Practical Guide for Health Care Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Sandars, John, and Gary Cook, eds. ABC of Patient Safety. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

      Sharpe, Virginia A., ed. Accountability: Patient Safety and Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2004.

      Tamuz, M., and M. I. Harrison. “Improving Patient Safety in Hospitals: Contributions of High-Reliability Theory and Normal Accident Theory,” Health Services Research 41(4 pt. 2): 1654–76, August 2006.

      35. Patient Satisfaction

      Atlantic Information Services. A Guide to Patient Satisfaction Survey Instruments: Profiles of Patient Satisfaction Measurement Instruments and Their Use by Health Plans, Employers, Hospitals, and Insurers. Washington, DC: Atlantic Information Services, 1996.

      Bell, Ralph, and Michael J. Krivich. How to Use Patient Satisfaction Data to Improve Healthcare Quality. Milwaukee, WI: American Society for Quality Press, 2000.

      Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska, Farida K. Ejaz, and Perla Werner, eds. Satisfaction Surveys in Long-Term Care. New York: Springer, 2000.

      Morales, Leo S., Juan Antonio Puyol, and Ron D. Hays. Improving Patient Satisfaction Surveys to Assess Cultural Competence in Health Care. Oakland: California Health Care Foundation, 2003.

      Press, Irwin. Patient Satisfaction: Understanding and Managing the Experience of Care. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Sherman, Stephanie G., and V. Clayton Sherman. Total Customer Satisfaction: A Comprehensive Approach for Health Care Providers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

      36. Quality Management

      Clark, Gary B. Continuous Quality Improvement: Integrating Five Key Quality System Components: Approved Guideline. 2d ed. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2004.

      Harrigan, Mary Lou. Quest for Quality in Canadian Health Care: Continuous Quality Improvement. 2d ed. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Health Canada, 2000.

      Lighter, Donald, and Douglas C. Fair. Quality Management in Health Care: Principles and Methods. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      McLaughlin, Curtis P., and Arnold D. Kaluzny. Continuous Quality Improvement in Health Care. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Opus Communications. Continuous Quality Improvement for Long-Term Care. Marblehead, MA: Opus Communications, 2000.

      Sloan, M. Daniel. How to Lower Health Care Costs by Improving Health Care Quality: Results-Based Continuous Quality Improvement. Milwaukee, WI: American Society for Quality Control Quality Press, 1994.

      Wick, Gail S., ed. Continuous Quality Improvement: From Concept to Reality. Pitman, NJ: American Nephrology Nurses' Association, 1995.

      37. Volume-Outcome Relationship

      Freeman, Jenny, Jon Nicholl, and Janette Turner. “Does Size Matter? The Relationship Between Volume and Outcome in the Care of Major Trauma,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 11(2): 101–105, April 2006.

      Hewitt, Maria, and Diana Petitti, eds., National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine, and Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council. Interpreting the Volume-Outcome Relationship in the Context of Cancer Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Institute of Medicine. Interpreting the Volume-Outcome Relationship in the Context of Health Care Quality: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2000.

      Luft, Harold S., J. P. Bunker, and Allan C. Enthoven. “Should Operations Be Regionalized? The Empirical Relationship Between Surgical Volume and Mortality.” New England Journal of Medicine 301(25): 1364–69, December 20, 1979.

      Luft, Harold S., Deborah W. Garnick, David H. Mark, et al. Hospital Volume, Physician Volume, and Patient Oucomes: Assessing the Evidence. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1990.

      Shahian, D. M., and S. L. T. Normand. “The Volume-Outcome Relationship: From Luft to Leapfrog,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery 75(3): 1048–1058, March 2003.

      Urbach, D. R., R. Croxford, N. L. MacCallum, et al. “How are Volume-Outcome Associations Related to Models of Health Care Funding and Delivery? A Comparison of the United States and Canada,” World Journal of Surgery 29(10): 1230–33, October 2005.

      V. Organizational Behavior and Structure of Healthcare

      Organizational behavior and the structure of healthcare provide a theoretical basis for understanding the dynamic relationships between individuals and groups in healthcare organizational settings and how they operate within the structural components of an organization.

      38. General Works

      Aldrich, Howard E., and Martin Ruef. Organizations Evolving. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

      Barton, Phoebe Lindsey. Understanding the U.S. Health Services System. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Borkowski, Nancy. Organizational Behavior in Health Care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Buchanan, David A., Louise Fitzgerald, and Diane Ketley, eds. The Sustainability and Spread of Organizational Change: Modernizing Healthcare. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Clarke, Aileen, Pauline Allen, Stuart Anderson, et al., eds. Studying the Organisation and Delivery of Health Services: A Reader. Abingdon, UK: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group, 2004.

      Fulop, Naomi, eds. Studying the Organisation and Delivery of Health Services: Research Methods. Abingdon, UK: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group, 2001.

      Garber, Kim M., ed. The U.S. Health Care Delivery System: Fundamental Facts, Definitions, and Statistics. Chicago: Health Forum, AHA Press, 2006.

      Marszalek-Gaucher, Ellen, and Richard J. Coffey. Transforming Healthcare Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.

      McNulty, Terry, and Ewan Ferlie. Reeingineering Health Care: The Complexities of Organizational Transformation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Shi, Leiyu, and Douglas A. Singh. Delivering Health Care in America: A Systems Approach. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Shi, Leiyu, and Douglas A. Singh. Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Sultz, Harry A., and Kristina M. Young. Health Care USA: Understanding Its Organization and Delivery. 5th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Williams, Stephen J. Essentials of Health Services. 3d ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2005.

      39. Clinical Coordination, Integration of Care, and Continuum of Care

      Center for Healthcare Information Management. Integrating Clinical Information Across the Continuum of Care. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Healthcare Information Management, 1996.

      Ebeling, Toni. Nursing and the Continuum of Care. Chicago: American Hospital Publishing, 1998.

      Evashwick, Connie. Seamless Connections: Refocusing Your Organization to Create a Successful Continuum of Care. Chicago: American Hospital Publishing, 1997.

      Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Ethical Issues and Patient Rights Across the Continuum of Care. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 1998.

      Joint Commission Resources. Assessing Cognitive and Emotional Functioning Across the Continuum of Care. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources, 2003.

      Shepperd, S., and S. Richards. “Continuity of Care: A Chameleon Concept,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 7(3): 130–32, July 2002.

      Stout, Chris E. The Continuum of Care Clinical Documentation Sourcebook: A Comprehensive Collection of Inpatient, Outpatient, and Partial Hospitalization Forms, Handouts, and Records. New York: Wiley, 2000.

      Stout, Chris E., and Arthur E. Jongsma Jr. The Continuum of Care Treatment Planner. New York: Wiley, 1998.

      Tonges, Mary, ed. Clinical Integration: Strategies and Practices for Organized Delivery Systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

      40. Managed Care

      Altman, Stuart H., Uwe E. Reinhardt, and David Shactman. Regulating Managed Care: Theory, Practice, and Future Options. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Andrulis, Dennis P., and Betsy Carrier. Managed Care in the Inner City: The Uncertain Promise for Providers, Plans, and Communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Birenbaum, Arnold. Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.

      Donaldson, Molla S., ed., and National Roundtable on Health Care Quality, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Collaboration Among Competing Managed Care Organizations for Quality Improvement: Summary of a Conference, November 13, 1997. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.

      Edmunds, Margaret, Richard Frank, Michael Hogan, et al., eds., and Committee on Quality Assurance and Accreditation Guidelines for Managed Behavioral Health Care, Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Managing Managed Care: Quality Improvement in Behavioral Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

      Greenrose, Karen, Garry Carneal, and Kashmira Makwana, eds. Rise in Prominence: The PPO Story. Arlington, VA: American Association of Preferred Provider Organizations/URAC, 2000.

      Jacobson, Peter D. Strangers in the Night: Law and Medicine in the Managed Care Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Kongstvedt, Peter R. The Managed Health Care Handbook. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2001.

      Kongstvedt, Peter R. Essentials of Managed Health Care. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2003.

      Kongstvedt, Peter R. Managed Care: What It Is and How It Works. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Makover, Michael E. Mismanaged Care: How Corporate Medicine Jeopardizes Your Health. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998.

      Veeder, Nancy W., and Wilma Peebles-Wilkins. Managed Care Services: Policy, Programs, and Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      Wilkerson, John D., Kelly J. Devers, and Ruth S. Given. Competitive Managed Care: The Emerging Health Care System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.

      Wrightson, Charles William. Financial Strategy for Managed Care Organizations: Rate Setting, Risk Adjustment, and Competitive Advantage. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.

      41. Organizational Theory and Behavior

      Borkowski, Nancy. Organizational Behavior in Health Care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Mick, Stephen S., and Mindy E. Wyttenbach, eds. Advances in Health Care Organization Theory. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Miner, John B. Organizational Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2005.

      Miner, John B. Organizational Behavior 2: Essential Theories of Process and Structure. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2006.

      Miner, John B. Organizational Behavior 3: Historical Origins, Theoretical Foundations, and the Future. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2006.

      Scott, W. Richard, Martin Ruef, Peter J. Mendel, et al. Institutional Change and Healthcare Organizations: From Professional Dominance to Managed Care. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

      Vibert, Conor. Theories of Macro-Organizational Behavior: A Handbook of Ideas and Explanations. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2004.

      42. Ownership

      Crampton, Peter, Peter Davis, Roy Lay-Yee, et al. “Comparison of Private For-Profit With Private Community-Governed Not-For-Profit Primary Care Services in New Zealand,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 9(4 Suppl. 2): 17–22, October 2004.

      Duckett, S. “Does It Matter Who Owns Health Facilities?” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6(1): 59–62, January 2001.

      Eggleston, Karen. Hospital Ownership and Quality of Care: What Explains the Different Results? NBER Working Paper No. 12241. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Gray, Bradford H., ed. The New Health Care for Profit: Doctors and Hospitals in a Competitive Environment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1983.

      Gray, Bradford H., ed. The Profit Motive and Patient Care: The Changing Accountability of Doctors and Hospitals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

      Gray, Bradford H., ed., and Committee on Implications of For Profit Enterprise in Health Care, Institute of Medicine. For Profit Enterprise in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986.

      Maynard, Alan, ed. The Public-Private Mix for Health. Oxford, UK: Nuffield Trust/Radcliffe Publishing, 2005.

      Needleman, Jack. “The Role of Nonprofits in Health Care.” In Uncertain Times: Kenneth Arrow and the Changing Economics of Health Care, edited by Peter J. Hammer, Deborah Haas-Wilson, and Mark A. Peterson, 243–58. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

      Potter, Sharyn J. Can Efficiency and Community Service Be Symbiotic? A Longitudinal Analysis of Not-for-Profit and For-Profit Hospitals in the United States. New York: Garland, 2000.

      Robinson, James C. The Corporate Practice of Medicine: Competition and Innovation in Health Care. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

      Schlesinger, Mark, Shannon Mitchell, and Bradford H. Gray. “Public Expectations of Nonprofit and For-Profit Ownership in American Medicine: Clarifications and Implications,” Health Affairs 23(6): 181–91, November–December 2004.

      Silverman, Elaine, Jonathan S. Skinner, and Elliott S. Fisher. “The Association Between For-Profit Hospital Ownership and Increased Medicare Spending,” New England Journal of Medicine 341(6): 420–26, August 5, 1999.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Nonprofit Hospitals and the Provision of Community Benefits. Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office, 2006.

      Weiss, Lawrence D. Private Medicine and Public Health: Profits, Politics, and Prejudice in the American Health Care Enterprise. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.

      VI. Health Measurements, Methods, and Outcomes

      Health measurements and methods are the tools and techniques that are used to obtain information about the end results or outcomes of an individual's health and health status.

      43. General Works

      Berger, Steven. The Power of Clinical and Financial Metrics: Achieving Success in Your Hospital. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Block, Dale. Health Care Outcomes Management: Strategies for Planning and Evaluation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      DiIorio, Colleen Konicki. Measurement in Health Behavior: Methods for Research and Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Dlugacz, Yosef. Measuring Health Care: Using Quality Data for Operational, Financial, and Clinical Improvement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Institute of Medicine. Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, 2007.

      Kane, Robert L., and Rosalie A. Kane, eds. Assessing Older Persons: Measures, Meaning, and Practical Applications. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Kemm, John, Jayne Parry, and Stephen Palmer, eds. Health Impact Assessment: Concepts, Theory, Techniques and Applications. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Lloyd, Robert. Quality Health Care: A Guide to Developing and Using Indicators. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Nesbitt, Lori A. Clinical Research: What It Is and How It Works. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Ozcan, Yasar A. Quantitative Methods in Health Care Management: Techniques and Applications. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Ulin, Priscilla R., Elizabeth T. Robinson, and Elizabeth E. Tolley. Qualitative Methods in Public Health: A Field Guide for Applied Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      44. Community-Based Participatory Research

      Israel, Barbara A., Eugenia Eng, Amy J. Schulz, et al., eds. Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Minkler, Meredith, and Nina Wallerstein, eds. Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Viswanathan, Meera. Community-Based Participatory Research: Assessing the Evidence. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2004.

      45. Epidemiology

      Ahrens, Wolfgang, and Iris Pigeot. Handbook of Epidemiology. New York: Springer, 2004.

      Aschengrau, Ann, and George R. Seage. Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2003.

      Berkman, Lisa F., and Ichiro Kawachi, eds. Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Bhopal, Raj. Concepts of Epidemiology: An Integrated Introduction to the Ideas, Theories, Principles and Methods of Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Brownson, Ross C., and Diana B. Petitti, eds. Applied Epidemiology: Theory and Practice. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Cwikel, Julie G. Social Epidemiology: Strategies for Public Health Activism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

      Dever, G. E. Alan. Managerial Epidemiology: Practice, Methods and Concepts. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Fleming, Steven T., F. Douglas Scutchfield, and Thomas C. Tucker. Managerial Epidemiology. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2000.

      Fos, Peter J., David J. Fine, Brian W. Amy, et al. Managerial Epidemiology for Health Care Organizations. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Friedman, Daniel J., Edward L. Hunter, and R. Gibson Parish II. Health Statistics: Shaping Policy and Practice to Improve the Population's Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Gail, Mitchell H., and Jacques Benichou, eds. Encyclopedia of Epidemiologic Methods. New York: Wiley, 2000.

      Gerstman, B. Burt. Epidemiology Kept Simple: An Introduction to Traditional and Modern Epidemiology. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Gordis, Leon. Epidemiology. 4th ed. New York: W. B. Saunders, 2008.

      Gregg, Michael B. Field Epidemiology. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Hebel, J. Richard, and Robert J. McCarter. Study Guide to Epidemiology and Biostatistics. 6th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Holford, Theodore R. Multivariate Methods in Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Klein, John P., and Melvin L. Moeschberger. Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2003.

      Kleinbaum, David G., Kevin Sullivan, and Nancy Barker. A Pocket Guide to Epidemiology. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Kleinbaum, David G., Mitchell Klein Emory, and E. Rihl Pryor. Logistic Regression: A Self-Learning Text. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2002.

      Koepsell, Thomas D., and Noel S. Weiss. Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Last, John M., ed. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Merrill, Ray M., and Thomas C. Timmreck. Introduction to Epidemiology. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Oakes, J. Michael, and Jay S. Kaufman, eds. Methods in Social Epidemiology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Oleske, Denise M., ed. Epidemiology and the Delivery of Health Care Services: Methods and Applications. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2001.

      Rothman, Kenneth J. Epidemiology: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Savitz, David A. Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design and Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Selvin, Steve. Epidemiologic Analysis: A Case-Oriented Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      Selvin, Steve. Statistical Analysis of Epidemiologic Data. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Ziegler, Andreas, and Inke R. Konig. A Statistical Approach to Genetic Epidemiology: Concepts and Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2006.

      46. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

      Briggs, David J., Pip Forer, Lars Jarup, et al., eds. “GIS for Emergency Preparedness and Health Risk Reduction.” In Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Budapest, Hungary (April 22–25, 2001). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 2002.

      Cromley, Ellen K., and Sara L. McLafferty. GIS and Public Health. New York: Guilford Press, 2002.

      Curtis, Andrew, and Michael Leitner. Geographic Information Systems and Public Health: Eliminating Perinatal Disparity. Hershey, PA: IRM Press, 2006.

      Gatrell, Anthony, and Markku Loytonen, eds. GIS and Health. GISDATA 6. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1998.

      Khan, Omar A., and Ric Skinner, eds. Geographic Information Systems and Health Applications. Hershey, PA: Idea Group, 2003.

      Koch, Tom. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2005.

      Lang, Laura. GIS for Health Organizations. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2000.

      Melnick, Alan L. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems in Public Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2002.

      North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Using Geographic Information Systems Technology in the Collection, Analysis, and Presentation of Cancer Registry Data: A Handbook of Basic Practices. Springfield, IL: North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, 2002.

      47. Health Measurement Scales

      Bowling, Ann. Measuring Disease: A Review of Disease-Specific Quality of Life Measurement Scales. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press, 2001.

      McDowell, Ian. Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Streiner, David L., and Geoffrey R. Norman. Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to Their Development and Use. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      48. Health Surveys

      Aday, Lu Ann, and Llewellyn J. Cornelius. Designing and Conducting Health Surveys: A Comprehensive Guide. 3d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Andersen, Ronald, Judith Kasper, Martin R. Frankel, et al. Total Survey Error: Applications to Improve Health Surveys. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1979.

      Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska, Farida K. Ejaz, and Perla Werner, eds. Satisfaction Surveys in Long-Term Care. New York: Springer, 2000.

      Czaja, Ron, and Johnny Blair. Designing Surveys: A Guide to Decisions and Procedures. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005.

      DiIorio, Colleen Konicki. Measurement in Health Behavior: Methods for Research and Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Korn, Edward Lee, and Barry I. Graubard. Analysis of Health Surveys. New York: Wiley, 1999.

      Nosikov, Anatoliy, and Claire Gudex, eds. EUROHIS: Developing Common Instruments for Health Surveys. Tokyo, Japan: IOS Press, 2003.

      Sethi, Dinesh, S. Habibula, K. McGee, et al., eds. Guidelines for Conducting Community Surveys on Injuries and Violence. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004.

      49. Informatics

      Aalseth, Patricia. Codebusters Coding Connection: A Documentation Guide for Compliant Coding. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Aalseth, Patricia. Medical Coding: What It Is and How It Works. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Austin, Charles J., and Stuart B. Boxerman. Information Systems for Healthcare Management. 6th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      Brown, Gordon D., Tamara T. Stone, and Timothy B. Patrick. Strategic Management of Information Systems in Healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Burke, Lillian, and Barbara Weill. Information Technology for the Health Professions. 2d ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005.

      Committee on Data Standards for Patient Safety, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Key Capabilities of an Electronic Health Record System: Letter Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      DeLuca, Joseph M., and Rebecca Enmark. The CEO's Guide to Health Care Information Systems. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      DeLuca, Joseph M., and Rebecca Enmark Cagan. Investing for Business Value: How to Maximize the Strategic Benefits of Health Care Information Technology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

      Friedman, Charles P. Evaluation Methods in Biomedical Informatics. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Gartee, Richard. Electronic Health Records: Understanding and Using Computerized Medical Records. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

      Goldstein, Douglas E., Suniti Ponkshe, Peter J. Groen, et al. Medical Informatics 20/20: Quality and Electronic Health Records Through Collaboration, Open Solutions, and Innovation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Hannah, Kathryn J., Marion J. Ball, and Margaret J. Edwards. Introduction to Nursing Informatics. 3d ed. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Hanson, C. William. Healthcare Informatics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006.

      Harman, Laurinda Beebe. Ethical Challenges in the Management of Health Information. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett/American Health Information Management Association, 2006.

      Lehmann, Harold P., Patricia A. Abbott, Nancy K. Roderer, et al., eds. Aspects of Electronic Health Record Systems. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Lewis, Deborah. Consumer Health Informatics: Informing Consumers and Improving Health Care. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Lewis, Russell F., ed. The Impact of Information Technology on Patient Safety. Chicago: Healthcare Information and Management Systems, 2002.

      Lombardo, Joseph S., and David Buckeridge, ed. Disease Surveillance: A Public Health Informatics Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 2007.

      Osborn, Carol E. Statistical Applications for Health Information Management. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett/American Health Information Management Association, 2006.

      Roach, William H., Robert G. Hoban, Bernadette M. Broccolo, et al. Medical Records and the Law. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett/American Health Information Management Association, 2006.

      Skurka, Margaret A., ed. Health Information Management: Principles and Organization for Health Information Services. 5th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Sullivan, Frank. “What Is Health Informatics?” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6(4): 249–50, October 2001.

      Sullivan, Frank M., and Jeremy Wyatt. ABC of Health Informatics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006.

      Tan, Joseph K. H. Health Management Information Systems: Methods and Practical Applications. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2001.

      Taylor, Paul. From Patient Data to Medical Knowledge: The Principles and Practice of Health Informatics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006.

      Wager, Karen A., Frances Wickham Lee, and John P. Glaser. Managing Health Care Information Systems: A Practical Approach for Health Care Executives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Warner, Homer R. Knowledge Engineering in Health Informatics. New York: Springer, 1997.

      50. Longitudinal Analysis

      Fitzmaurice, Garrett M., Nan M. Laird, and James H. Ware. Applied Longitudinal Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 2004.

      Hedeker, Donald, and Robert D. Gibbons. Longitudinal Data Analysis. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Weiss, Robert E. Modeling Longitudinal Data. New York: Springer, 2005.

      51. Meta-Analysis

      American Nurses Association. A Meta-Analysis of Process of Care, Clinical Outcomes, and Cost Effectiveness of Nurses in Primary Care Roles: Nurse Practitioners and Nurse-Midwives. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association, 1993.

      Eddy, David M., Victor Hasselblad, and Ross D. Shachter. Meta-Analysis by the Confidence Profile Method: The Statistical Synthesis of Evidence. Boston: Academic Press, 1992.

      Egger, Matthias, George Davey Smith, and Douglas G. Altman, eds. Systematic Reviews in Health Care: Meta-Analysis in Context. London: BMJ Books, 2001.

      Hunt, Morton M. How Science Takes Stock: The Story of Meta-Analysis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997.

      Leandro, Gioacchino. Meta-Analysis in Medical Research: The Handbook for the Understanding and Practice of Meta-Analysis. Malden, MA: BMJ Books/Blackwell, 2005.

      Pang, Francis, Michael Drummond, and Fujian Song. The Use of Meta-Analysis in Economic Evaluation. York, UK: University of York, Centre for Health Economics, 1999.

      Paterson, Barbara L. Meta-Study of Qualitative Health Research: A Practical Guide to Meta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.

      Petitti, Diana B. Meta-Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Methods for Quantitative Synthesis in Medicine. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Rothstein, Hannah, Alexander J. Sutton, and Michael Borenstein, eds. Publications Bias in Meta-Analysis: Prevention, Assessment, and Adjustments. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

      Schulze, Ralf, Heinz Holling, and Dankmar Bohning, eds. Meta-Analysis: New Developments and Applications in Medical and Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe and Huber, 2003.

      Selden, Catherine. Meta-Analysis: January 1980 Through December 1992: 337 Citations. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, 1992.

      Stangl, Dalene K., and Donald A. Berry, eds. Meta-Analysis in Medicine and Health Policy. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000.

      Sutton, Alex J., Keith R. Abrams, David R. Jones, et al. Methods for Meta-Analysis in Medical Research. New York: Wiley, 2000.

      Whitehead, Anne. Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2002.

      Wolf, F. M. Meta-Analysis: Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1986.

      52. Outcomes Research

      Chumney, Elinor C. G., and Kit N. Simpson, eds. Methods and Designs for Outcomes Research. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2006.

      Fayers, Peter M., and David Machin, eds. Quality of Life: The Assessment, Analysis, and Interpretation of Patient-Reported Outcomes. 2d ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

      Kaplan, Sandra L. Outcome Measurement and Management: First Steps for the Practicing Clinician. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 2007.

      Kane, Robert L. Understanding Health Care Outcomes Research. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Lee, Stephanie J., Craig C. Earle, and Jane C. Weeks. “Outcomes Research in Oncology: History, Conceptual Framework, and Trends in the Literature,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92(3): 195–204, February 2, 2000.

      Rodriguez-Garcia, Rosalia, James A. Macinko, and William F. Waters, eds. Microenterprise Development for Better Health Outcomes. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2001.

      Weiss, Noel S. Clinical Epidemiology: The Study of the Outcome of Illness. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      53. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) and Research

      Aungst, Jessica, Amy Haas, Alexander Ommaya, et al., eds., and Clinical Research Roundtable, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Exploring Challenges, Progress, and New Models for Engaging the Public in the Clinical Research Enterprise: Clinical Research Roundtable Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      Barnett, Anthony H. Applying the Evidence: Clinical Trials in Diabetes. Chicago: Remedica, 2005.

      Beech, Bettina M., and Maurine Goodman, eds. Race and Research: Perspectives on Minority Participation in Health Studies. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 2004.

      Berlin, Jesse A. Randomized Trial Comparing Masked/Unmasked Meta-Analysis. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Center for Research Dissemination and Liasion, 1996.

      Chow, Shein-Chung, and Jen-Pei Lin. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Committee on Clinical Trial Registries, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Developing a National Registry of Pharmacologic and Biologic Clinical Trials: Workshop Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      D'Agostino, Ralph B., Lisa Sullivan, and Joseph Massaro, eds. Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials. 6 vols. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

      DeMets, David L., and Lawrence M. Friedman. Data Monitoring in Clinical Trials. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Doshi, J. A., H. A. Glick, and D. Polsky. “Analyses of Cost Data in Economic Evaluations Conducted Alongside Randomized Controlled Trials,” Value in Health 9(5): 334–40, September-October 2006.

      Duley, Lelia, and Barbara Farrell, eds. Clinical Trials. London: Blackwell/BMJ Books, 2001.

      Elwood, J. Mark. Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

      Fayers, Peter, and Ron Hayes. Assessing Quality of Life in Clinical Trials: Methods and Practice. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Friedman, Lawrence M., Curt D. Furberg, and David L. DeMets. Fundamentals of Clinical Trials. New York: Springer, 1998.

      Good, Phillip I. A Manager's Guide to the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Hu, Feifang, and William F. Rosenberger. The Theory of Response-Adaptive Randomization in Clinical Trials. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 2006.

      Kalfoglou, Andrea L., Douglas A. Boenning, and David Korn, and Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Exploring the Map of Clinical Research for the Coming Decade: Symposium Summary, Clinical Research Roundtable, December 2000. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

      Kalfoglou, Andrea L., Douglas A. Boenning, and Mary Woolley, and Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Public Confidence and Involvement in Clinical Research: Symposium Summary, Clinical Research Roundtable, September 2000. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

      Liu, Margaret B., and Kate Davis. Lessons From a Horse Named Jim: A Clinical Trials Manual From the Duke Clinical Research Institute. Durham, NC: Duke Clinical Research Institute, 2001.

      Mastroianni, Anna C., Ruth Faden, and Daniel Federman, eds., and Committee on the Ethical and Legal Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies, Division of Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, vols. 1–2. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.

      Matthew, J. N. S. An Introduction to Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. London: Arnold, 2000.

      Meinert, Curtis L. Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct, and Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

      Moye, Lemuel A. Statistical Monitoring of Clinical Trials: Fundamentals for Investigators. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Piantadosi, Steven. Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 2005.

      Pocock, Stuart J. Clinical Trials: A Practical Approach. New York: Wiley, 2002.

      Proschan, Michael A., K. K. Gordon Lan, and Janet Turk Wittes. Statistical Monitoring of Clinical Trials: A Unified Approach. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Rozovsky, Fay A., and Rodney K. Adams. Clinical Trials and Human Research: A Practical Guide to Regulatory Compliance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Spilker, Bert. Guide to Clinical Trials. New York: Raven Press, 1991.

      Stewart, Derek, ed. Clinical Trials Explained. Abingdon, UK: BMJ Books/Blackwell, 2006.

      Technology Evaluation Center. Special Report: Measuring and Reporting Pain Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials. Chicago: Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, 2006.

      Wang, Duolao, and Ameet Bakhai, eds. Clinical Trials: A Practical Guide to Design, Analysis, and Reporting. Chicago: Remedica, 2006.

      Whitehead, Anne. Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2002.

      54. Risk- and Case-Mix Adjustment

      Cucciare, M. A., and W. O'Donohue. “Predicting Future Healthcare Costs: How Well Does Risk-Adjustment Work?” Journal of Health Organization and Management 20(2–3): 150–62, 2006.

      Geenwald, L. M., A. Esposito, M. J. Ingber, et al. “Risk Adjustment for the Medicare Program: Lessons Learned From Research and Demonstrations,” Inquiry 35(2): 193–209, 1998.

      Iezzoni, Lisa I., ed. Risk Adjustment for Measuring Healthcare Outcomes. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      Ingber, M. J. “Implementation of Risk Adjustment for Medicare,” Health Care Financing Review 21(3): 119–26, 2000.

      Weissman, J. S., M. Wachterman, and D. Blumenthal. “When Methods Meet Politics: How Risk Adjustment Became Part of Medicare Managed Care,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law 30(3): 475–504, June 2005.

      55. Small-Area Analysis

      Diehr, Paula, Kevin Cain, Frederick Connell, et al. “What Is Too Much Variation? The Null Hypothesis in Small-Area Analysis,” Health Services Research 24(6): 741–71, February 1990.

      Gittelsohn, Alan, and N. R. Powe. “Small Area Variations in Health Care Delivery in Maryland,” Health Services Research 30(2): 295–317, June 1995.

      Goodman, D. C., and G. R. Green. “Assessment Tools: Small Area Analysis,” American Journal of Medical Quality 11(1): S12–S14, Spring 1996.

      Paul-Shaheen, Pamela, and Daniel Williams. “Small Area Analysis: A Review and Analysis of the North American Literature,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 12: 741–809, Winter 1987.

      Shah, Gutzar H. A Guide to Designating Geographic Areas for Small Area Analysis in Public Health: Using Utah's Example. Guidelines and Resources for Health Data Organizations. Salt Lake City, UT: National Association of Health Data Organizations, 2005.

      Wennberg, John E. “Understanding Geographic Variations in Health Care Delivery,” New England Journal of Medicine 340(1): 52–53, January 7, 1999.

      Wennberg, John E., and Alan Gittelsohn. “Small Area Variations in Health Care Delivery,” Science 182(117): 1102–1108, December 14, 1973.

      Wennberg, John E., and Alan Gittelsohn. “Variation in Medical Care Among Small Areas,” Scientific American 246: 120–34, April 1982.

      56. Statistical Process Control and Six Sigma Quality

      Berry, Robert. NAN: A Six Sigma Mystery. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      Berry, Robert. NAN'S Arsonist: A Six Sigma Mystery. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Berry, Robert, Amy Murcko, and Clifford E. Brubaker. The Six Sigma Book for Healthcare: Improving Outcomes by Reducing Errors. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.

      Carey, Raymond, and Robert C. Lloyd. Measuring Quality Improvement in Healthcare: A Guide to Statistical Process Control Applications. Milwaukee, WI: American Society for Quality, 2001.

      Chassin, Mark R. “Is Health Care Ready for Six Sigma Quality?” Milbank Quarterly 76(4): 565–91, 1998.

      57. Statistics

      Armitage, Peter, and Theodore Colton, eds. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 2d ed. 8 vols. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

      Bolstad, William M. Introduction to Bayesian Statistics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Daniel, Wayne W. Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences. 8th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

      Forthofer, Ronald N., Eun Sul Lee, and Mike Hernandez. Biostatistics: A Guide to Design, Analysis, and Discovery. 2d ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2007.

      Gerstman, B. Burt. Basic Biostatistics: Statistics for Public Health Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2008.

      Kirkwood, Betty R., and Jonathan A. C. Sterne. Essential Medical Statistics. 2d ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 2003.

      Kotz, Samuel, Campbell B. Read, N. Balakrishnan, et al. Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences. 2d ed. 16 vols. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Kuzma, Jan W., and Stephen E. Bohnenblust. Basic Statistics for the Health Sciences. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

      Le, Chap T. Introductory Biostatistics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Lu, Ying, and Ji-Qian Fang, eds. Advanced Medical Statistics. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2003.

      Matthews, David E., and Vernon T. Farewell. Using and Understanding Medical Statistics. 4th ed. New York: Karger, 2007.

      Moye, Lemuel A. Statistical Reasoning in Medicine: The Intuitive P-Value Primer. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Riffenburgh, R. H. Statistics in Medicine. 2d ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press, 2006.

      VII. Health Policy

      Health policy is the stance of the government that is aimed at improving health and healthcare. Many researchers, organizations, and advocacy groups work to shape health policy by using evidence-based studies and various resources to aid in policy guidance.

      58. General Works

      Aday, Lu Ann, Charles E. Begley, David R. Lairson, et al. Evaluating the Healthcare System: Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Altman, Stuart H., and David I Shactman, eds. Policies for an Aging Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Almgren, Gunnar Robert. Health Care Politics, Policy, and Services: A Social Justice Analysis. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Andersen, Ronald M., Thomas H. Rice, and Gerald F. Kominski. Changing the U.S. Health Care System: Key Issues in Health Services Policy and Management. 3d ed. San Francisco: Josssey-Bass, 2007.

      Barondess, Jermiah A., David E. Rogers, and Kathleen N. Lohr, eds., and Institute of Medicine. Care of the Elderly Patient: Policy Issues and Research Opportunities. Report of a Forum of the Council on Health Care Technology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.

      Barr, Donald A. Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Binstock, Robert H., Leighton E. Cluff, and Otto von Mering, eds. The Future of Long-Term Care: Social and Policy Issues. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

      Budrys, Grace. Our Unsystematic Health Care System. 2d ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

      Caldwell, Donald H. U.S. Health Law and Policy 2001: A Guide to the Current Literature. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Calkins, David, Rushika J. Fernandopulle, and Bradley S. Marino, eds. Health Care Policy. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science, 1995.

      Callahan, Daniel, and Angela A. Wasunna. Medicine and the Market: Equity v. Choice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Cookson, Richard. “Evidence-Based Policy Making in Health Care: What It Is and What It Isn't,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 10(2): 118–21, April 2005.

      Cutler, David M. Your Money or Your Life: Strong Medicine for America's Health Care System. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Danis, Marion, Carolyn Clancy, and Larry R. Churchill, eds. Ethical Dimensions of Health Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Evans, Timothy, Margaret Whitehead, Finn Diderichsen, et al. Challenging Inequities in Health: From Ethics to Action. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      Feldstein, Paul J. The Politics of Health Legislation: An Economic Perspective. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Feldstein, Paul J. Health Policy Issues: An Economic Perspective. 4th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2007.

      Frank, Richard G., and Sherry A. Glied. Better But Not Well: Mental Health Policy in the United States Since 1950. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Fuchs, Victor R. The Future of Health Policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. (Chapter 2 of the book provides a very concise summary of the history of health economics)

      Fuchs, Victor R. Who Shall Live? Health, Economics, and Social Choice. 2d ed. River Edge, NJ: World Scientific, 1998.

      Gingrich, Newt, Diana Pavey, and Anne Woodbury. Saving Lives and Saving Money: Transforming Health and Healthcare. Arlington, VA: Alexis de Toqueville Institution, 2003.

      Ginzberg, Eli, ed. The Medical Triangle: Physicians, Politicians, and the Public. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.

      Ginzberg, Eli, ed. Health Services Research: Key to Health Policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

      Gunn, S. W. B., P. B. Mansourian, Anthony Piel, et al. Understanding the Global Dimensions of Health. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Hacker, Jacob S. The Great Risk Shift: The Assault on American Jobs, Families, Health Care and Retirement and How You Can Fight Back. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Hofrichter, Richard, ed. Health and Social Justice: Politics, Ideology, and Inequity in the Distribution of Disease. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Hudson, Robert B., ed. The New Politics of Old Age Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Institute of Medicine. Unintended Consequences of Health Programs and Policies: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

      Jost, Timothy Stoltzfus. Disentitlement? The Threats Facing Our Public Health Care Programs and a Right-Based Response. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Kleinke, J. D. Oxymorons: The Myth of a U.S. Health Care System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs. Health Care Policy: Issues and Trends. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

      Levine, Carol, and Thomas H. Murray, eds. The Cultures of Caregiving: Conflict and Common Ground Among Families, Health Professionals, and Policy Makers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Longest, Beaufort B., Jr. Health Policymaking in the United States. 4th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Marcus, Alan I., and Hamilton Cravens, eds. Health Care Policy in Contemporary America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.

      Marmor, Theodore R. Fads, Fallacies and Foolishness in Medical Care Management and Policy. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2007.

      Moniz, Cynthia, and Stephen H. Gorin. Health and Mental Health Care Policy: A Biopsychosocial Perspective. 2d ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2007.

      Mullan, Fitzhugh, Ellen Ficklen, and Kyna Rubin, eds. Narrative Matters: The Power of the Personal Essay in Health Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Ornstein, Norman J., and Thomas E. Mann, eds. Intensive Care: How Congress Shapes Health Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.

      Patel, Kant, and Mark Rushefsky. Health Care Politics and Policy in America. 3d ed. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2006.

      Porzsolt, Franz, and Robert M. Kaplan, eds. Optimizing Health: Improving the Value of Healthcare Delivery. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden. Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Rhodes, Rosamond, Margaret P. Battin, and Anita Silvers, eds. Medicine and Social Justice: Essays on the Distribution of Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Rich, Robert F., and Christopher T. Erb, eds. Consumer Choice: Social Welfare and Health Policy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2005.

      Rovner, Julie. Health Care Policy and Politics A to Z. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2000.

      Smith, Peter C., Laura Ginnelly, and Mark Sculpher, eds. Health Policy and Economics: Opportunity and Challenges. New York: Open University Press, 2005.

      Starr, Paul. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

      Stevens, Rosemary, Charles E. Rosenberg, and Lawton R. Burns, eds. History and Health Policy in the United States: Putting the Past Back In. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

      Stewart, Charles T. Healthy, Wealthy, or Wise? Issues in American Health Care Policy. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1995.

      Verheijde, Joseph L. Managing Care: A Shared Responsibility. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Weissert, Carol S., and William G. Weissert. Governing Health: The Politics of Health Policy. 3d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      59. Healthcare Reform

      Bloche, M. Gregg, ed. The Privatization of Health Care Reform: Legal and Regulatory Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Carter, Larry E. Health Care Reform: Policy Innovations at the State Level in the United States. New York: Garland, 1998.

      Emery, Douglas W. Customer-Directed Healthcare Reform With Episode Pricing. Mason, OH: Thomson, 2006.

      Engstrom, Timothy H., and Wade L. Robison. Health Care Reform: Ethics and Politics. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2006.

      Fuchs, Victor R., and Ezekiel J. Emanuel. “Health Care Reform: Why? What? When?” Health Affairs 24(6): 1399–414, November-December 2005.

      Ginzberg, Eli, ed. Critical Issues in U.S. Health Reform. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.

      Harrington, Charlene, and Carroll L. Estes. Health Policy: Crisis and Reform in the U.S. Health Care Delivery System. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Institute of Medicine. Changing the Health Care System: Models From Here and Abroad. The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Lectures. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.

      Lynn, Joanne. Sick to Death and Not Going to Take It Anymore! Reforming Health Care for the Last Years of Life. Los Angeles: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund.

      Marmor, Theodore R. Understanding Health Care Reform. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994.

      Mechanic, David. The Truth About Health Care: Why Reform Is Not Working in America. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

      O'Rourke, Thomas W., and Nicholas K. Iammarino. “Future of Healthcare Reform in the USA: Lessons From Abroad,” Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 2(3): 279–91, June 2002.

      Relman, Arnold S. A Second Opinion: How to Prevent the Collapse of America's Healthcare. New York: Century Foundation, PublicAffairs, 2007.

      Roberts, Marc J., William Hsiao, Peter Berman, et al. Getting Health Reform Right: A Guide to Improving Performance and Equity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Terry, Ken. Rx for Health Care Reform. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2007.

      Twaddle, Andrew C., ed. Health Care Reform Around the World. Westport, CT: Auburn House, 2002.

      Zhou, Huizhong, ed. The Political Economy of Health Care Reforms. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2001.

      60. Health Insurance

      America's Health Insurance Plans, Center for Policy and Research. Small Group Health Insurance in 2006: A Comprehensive Survey of Premiums, Consumer Choice, and Benefits. Washington, DC: America's Health Insurance Plans, 2006.

      Chiappori, Pierre-Andre, and Christian Gollier, eds. Competitive Failures in Insurance Markets: Theory and Policy Implications. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

      Green, Michelle A., and Jo Ann C. Rowell. Understanding Health Insurance: A Guide to Billing and Reimbursement. 8th ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2006.

      Marcinko, David E. Insurance and Risk Management Strategies for Physicians and Advisors. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Marcinko, David E., and Hope R. Hetico, eds. Dictionary of Health Insurance and Managed Care. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Monheit, Alan C., Renate Wilson, and Ross A. Arnett. Informing American Health Care Policy: The Dynamics of Medical Expenditure and Insurance Surveys, 1977–1996. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

      Pauly, Mark V. Health Benefits at Work: An Economic and Political Analysis of Employment-Based Health Insurance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.

      RAND Corporation. “Consumer Decision Making in the Insurance Market,” RAND Health Research Highlights. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2006.

      Vaughan, Emmett J., and Therese Vaughan. Fundamentals of Risk and Insurance. 9th ed. New York: Wiley, 2003.

      61. Law and Ethics

      American Bar Association. The American Bar Association Complete and Easy Guide to Health Care Law: Your Guide to Protecting Your Rights as a Patient, Dealing With Hospitals, Health Insurance, Medicare, and More. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001.

      Annas, George J. American Bioethics: Crossing Human Rights and Health Law Boundaries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Baker, Robert B., Arthur L. Caplan, Linda L. Emanuel, et al., eds. The American Medical Ethics Revolution: How the AMA's Code of Ethics Has Transformed Physicians' Relationships to Patients, Professionals, and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Boyle, Philip J., Edwin R. DuBose, Stephen J. Ellingson, et al. Organizational Ethics in Health Care: Principles, Cases, and Practical Solutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Danis, Marion, Carolyn Clancy, and Larry R. Churchill, eds. Ethical Dimensions of Health Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Eckenwiler, Lisa A., and Felicia G. Cohn, eds. The Ethics of Bioethics: Mapping the Moral Landscape. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Emanuel, Ezekiel J., Robert A. Crouch, John D. Arras, et al., eds. Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research: Readings and Commentary. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Gillett, Grant R. Bioethics in the Clinic: Hippocratic Reflections. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Goodman, Richard A., Mark A. Rothstein, Richard E. Hoffman, et al., eds. Law in Public Health Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Harman, Laurinda Beebe. Ethical Challenges in the Management of Health Information. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett/American Health Information Management Association, 2006.

      Harris, Dean M. Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics. 2d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      Hofmann, Paul B., and William A. Nelson, eds. Managing Ethically: An Executive's Guide. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2001.

      King, Nancy M. P., Gail Henderson, and Jane S. Stein, eds. Beyond Regulations: Ethics in Human Subjects Research. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

      Mastroianni, Anna C., Ruth Faden, and Daniel Federman, eds., and Committee on the Ethical and Legal Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies, Division of Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, vol. 2. Workshop and Commissioned Papers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.

      May, Thomas. Bioethics in a Liberal Society: The Political Framework of Bioethics Decision Making. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Mezey, Mathy D., Christine K. Cassel, Melissa M. Bottrall, et al., eds. Ethical Patient Care: A Casebook for Geriatric Health Care Terms. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Miller, Robert D. Problems in Health Care Law. 9th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Moody, Harry R. Ethics in an Aging Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

      Morrison, Eileen E. Ethics in Health Administration: A Practical Approach for Decision Makers. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Perry, Frankie. The Tracks We Leave: Ethics in Healthcare Management. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.

      Pierce, Jessica, and Andrew Jameton. The Ethics of Environmentally Responsible Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Post, Linda Farber, Jeffery Blustein, and Nancy Neveloff Dubler. Handbook for Health Care Ethics Committees. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Post, Stephen G., ed. Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3d ed. 5 vols. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004.

      Pozgar, George D. Legal Aspects of Health Care Administration. 10th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Pozgar, George D., and Nina Santucci. Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professionals. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Ramsey, Paul. The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics. 2d ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

      Rhodes, Rosamond, Leslie Francis, and Anita Silvers, eds. The Blackwell Guide to Medical Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

      Roach, William H., Robert G. Hoban, Bernadette M. Broccolo, et al. Medical Records and the Law. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett/American Health Information Management Association, 2006.

      Sales, Bruce Dennis, and Susan Folkman, eds. Ethics in Research With Human Participants. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000.

      Showalter, J. Stuart. The Law of Healthcare Administration. 4th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      Spencer, Edward M., Ann E. Mills, Mary V. Rorty, et al. Organization Ethics in Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Steiner, John. Handbook of Clinical Research Law and Compliance. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Stevens, M. L. Tina. Bioethics in America: Origins and Cultural Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Trotter, Griffin. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Walter, Jennifer K., and Eran P. Klein, eds. The Story of Bioethics: From Seminal Works to Contemporary Explorations. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.

      Wing, Kenneth R., and Benjamin Gilbert. The Law and the Public's Health. 7th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Zussman, Robert. Intensive Care: Medical Ethics and the Medical Profession. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

      62. Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)

      Aizer, Anna, Janet M. Currie, and Enrico Moretti. Competition in Imperfect Markets: Does It Help California's Medicaid Mothers? NBER Working Paper No. 10429. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Alliance for Health Reform. SCHIP and Medicaid Environment: What's Next? Washington, DC: Alliance for Health Reform, 2006.

      Berkowitz, Edward. “Medicare and Medicaid: The Past as Prologue,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 11–23, Winter 2005–2006.

      Brown, Randall, and Arnold Chen. Disease Management Options: Issues for State Medicaid Programs to Consider. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 2004.

      Cuellar, Alison Evans, and Sara Markowitz. Medicaid Policy Changes in Mental Health Care and Their Effect on Mental Health Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 12232. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Engel, Jonathan. Poor People's Medicine: Medicaid and American Charity Care Since 1965. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

      Fong, T. “Assessing Four Decades of Medicare, Medicaid,” Modern Healthcare 35(29): 6–7, 24, 42, 1, July 18, 2005.

      Gilman, Jean Donovan. Medicaid and the Costs of Federalism, 1984–1992. New York: Garland, 1998.

      Grannemann, Thomas W., and Mark V. Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983.

      Holahan, John F., and Joel W. Cohen. Medicaid: The Trade-Off Between Cost Containment and Access to Care. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 1986.

      Hynes, Margaret M. Who Cares for Poor People? Physicians, Medicaid, and Marginality. New York: Garland, 1998.

      “Key Milestones in Medicare and Medicaid History, Selected Years: 1965–2003,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 1–3, Winter 2005–2006.

      Leibowitz, Arleen, and Earl S. Pollack, eds., and Panel for the Workshop on the State Children's Health Insurance Program, Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Data Needs for the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

      Mann, Cindy, and Robin Rudowitz. Financing Health Coverage: The State Children's Health Insurance Program Experience. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005.

      Moore, Judith D., and David G. Smith. “Legislating Medicaid: Considering Medicaid and Its Origins,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 45–52, Winter 2005–2006.

      Moses, Stephen A. Aging America's Achilles' Heel: Medicaid Long-Term Care. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2005.

      National Health Policy Forum. Medicaid Financing: The Basics. Washington, DC: George Washington University, National Health Policy Forum, 2006.

      Rader, Anya, Cynthia Pernice, and Trish Riley. State and Federal Health Data Sources: An Inventory for CHIP Evaluators. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 1998.

      Rich, Robert F., Cinthia L. Deye, and Elizabeth Mazur. “The State Children's Health Insurance Program: An Administrative Experiment in Federalism,” University of Illinois Law Review (1): 107–135, 2004.

      Rosenbaum, Sara, Alexandra Stewart, and Colleen Sonosky. Negotiating the New Health System: Findings From a Nationwide Study of Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Contracts. Lawrenceville, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies, 2002.

      Rowland, Diane. “Medicaid at Forty,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 63–77, Winter 2005–2006.

      Rowland, Diane, and James R. Tallon Jr. “Medicaid: Lessons From a Decade,” Health Affairs 22(1): 138–44, January–February 2003.

      Shenkman, Elizabeth. Using Administrative Data to Assess Quality of Care in the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 2003.

      Shirk, Cynthia. Rebalancing Long-Term Care: The Role of the Medicaid HCBS [Home and Community-Based Services] Waiver Program. Washington, DC: National Health Policy Forum, 2006.

      Smith, Vernon K., Terrisca, Des Jardins, and Karin A. Peterson. Exemplary Practices in Primary Care Case Management: A Review of State Medicaid PCCM Programs. Princeton, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies, 2000.

      Sparer, Michael J. Medicaid and the Limits of State Health Reform. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

      Ubokudom, Sunday E. Physician Participation in Medicaid Managed Care. New York: Garland, 1997.

      U.S. Government Accountability Office. Medicaid Fraud and Abuse: CMS's Commitment to Helping States Safeguard Program Dollars Is Limited: Testimony Before the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2005.

      Williams, Claudia. Medicaid Disease Management: Issues and Promises. Washington, DC: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004.

      63. Medicare

      Acemoglu, Daron, et al. Did Medicare Induce Pharmaceutical Innovation? NBER Working Paper No. 11949. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Berkowitz, Edward. “Medicare and Medicaid: The Past as Prologue,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 11–23, Winter 2005–2006.

      Blevins, Sue A. Medicare's Midlife Crisis. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2001.

      Cassel, Christine K. Medicare Matters: What Geriatric Medicine Can Teach American Health Care. Los Angeles: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2007.

      Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis. Redesigning Medicare: Considerations for Rural Beneficiaries and Health Systems. Omaha, NE: Rural Policy Research Institute, Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis, 2001.

      Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment, and Performance Improvement Programs, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Medicare's Quality Improvement Organization Program: Maximizing Potential. Pathways to Quality Health Care Series. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment, and Performance Improvement Programs, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Rewarding Provider Performance: Aligning Incentives in Medicare. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2007.

      Davis, Karen, and Sara R. Collins. “Medicare at Forty,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 53–62, Winter 2005–2006.

      Finkelstein, Amy. The Aggregate Effects of Health Insurance: Evidence From the Introduction of Medicare. NBER Working Paper No. 11619. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.

      Fong, T. “Assessing Four Decades of Medicare, Medicaid,” Modern Healthcare 35(29): 6–7, 24, 42, July 18, 2005.

      Foote, Susan Bartlett, Rachel Halpern, and Douglas R. Wholey. Variation in Medicare's Local Coverage Policies: Content Analysis of Local Medical Review Policies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Division of Health Services Research and Policy, 2005.

      Gold, Marsha. Geographic Variation in Medicare per Capita Spending: Should Policy-Makers Be Concerned? Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2004.

      Hyman, David A. Medicare Meets Mephistopheles. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2006. “Key Milestones in Medicare and Medicaid History, Selected Years: 1965–2003,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 1–3, Winter 2005–2006.

      Lawlor, Edward F. Redesigning the Medicare Contract: Politics, Markets, and Agency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

      Lohr, Kathleen N., ed., and Committee to Design a Strategy for Quality Review and Assurance in Medicare, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Medicare: A Strategy for Quality Assurance. Vol. 2, Sources and Methods. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990.

      Marmor, Theodore R. The Politics of Medicare. 2d ed. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2000.

      Mayes, Rick, and Robert A. Berenson. Medicare Prospective Payment and the Shaping of U.S. Health Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Mebane, Felicia E. Medicare Politics: Exploring the Roles of Media Coverage, Political Information, and Political Participation. New York: Garland, 2000.

      Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. Report to the Congress: Increasing the Value of Medicare. Washington, DC: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, 2006.

      Milgate, Karen, and Glenn Hackbarth. “Quality in Medicare: From Measurement to Payment and Provider to Patient,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 91–101, Winter 2005–2006.

      Moon, Marilyn. Medicare: A Policy Primer. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2006.

      Newhouse, Joseph P. “Medicare's Challenges in Paying Providers,” Health Care Financing Review 27(2): 35–44, Winter 2005–2006.

      Oberlander, Jonathan. The Political Life of Medicare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

      Oliver, T. R., P. R. Lee, and H. L. Lipton, “A Political History of Medicare and Prescription Drug Coverage,” Milbank Quarterly 82(2): 283–354, 2004.

      Polsky, Daniel, Jalpa Doshi, Jose Escarce, et al. The Health Effects of Medicare for the Near-Elderly Uninsured. NBER Working Paper No. 12511. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Potetz, Lisa A., and Thomas H. Rice. Medicare Tomorrow: The Report of the Century Foundation Task Force on Medicare Reform. New York: Century Foundation Press, 2001.

      Rettenmaier, Andrew J., and Thomas R. Saving. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Medicare. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2007.

      Ricketts, Thomas C. Arguing for Rural Health in Medicare: A Progressive Rhetoric for Rural America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, 2002.

      Shaviro, Daniel. Who Should Pay for Medicare? Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

      White, Joseph. False Alarm: Why the Greatest Threat to Social Security and Medicare Is the Campaign to “Save” Them. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      64. National Health Insurance

      Armstrong, Pat, Hugh Armstrong, and Claudia Fegan. Universal Healthcare: What the United States Can Learn From the Canadian Experience. New York: New Press, 1998.

      Botsman, Peter. USACare: A National Health Insurance Strategy for the USA. Chicago: Midwest Center for Labor Research, 1992.

      Cummings, Nicholas A., William T. O'Donohue, and Michael A. Cucciare, eds. Universal Healthcare: Readings for Mental Health Professionals. Reno, NV: Context Press, 2005.

      Davis, K. “Universal Coverage in the United States: Lessons From Experience of the 20th Century,” Journal of Urban Health 78(1): 46–58, March 2001.

      Decker, Sandra L., and Dahlia K. Remler. How Much Might Universal Health Insurance Reduce Socioeconomic Disparities in Health? A Comparison of the U.S. and Canada. NBER Working Paper 10715. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Derickson, Alan. Health Security for All: Dreams of Universal Health Care in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Enthoven, Alain C. Theory and Practice of Managed Competition in Health Care Financing. New York: North-Holland, 1988.

      Feder, Judith, John Holahan, and Theodore Marmor, eds. National Health Insurance: Conflicting Goals and Policy Choices. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 1980.

      Goodman, John C., Gerald L. Musgrave, and Devon M. Herrick. Lives at Risk: Single-Payer National Health Insurance Around the World. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

      Hall, George M. A Tide in the Affairs of Medicine: National Health Insurance as the Augury of Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Warren H. Green, 2004.

      Kooijman, Jaap. And the Pursuit of National Health: The Incremental Strategy Toward National Health Insurance in the United States of America. Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1999.

      Laham, Nicholas. A Lost Cause: Bill Clinton's Campaign for National Health Insurance. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

      Marmor, Theodore R., and Jonathan Oberlander. “Paths to Universal Health Insurance: Progressive Lessons From the Past for the Future,” University of Illinois Law Review (1): 205–230, 2004.

      Mayes, Rick. Universal Coverage: The Elusive Quest for National Health Insurance. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2001.

      Pauly, Mark V., ed. National Health Insurance: What Now, What Later, What Never? Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1980.

      Pauly, Mark V., Patricia Danzon, Paul J. Feldstein, et al. Responsible National Health Insurance. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1992.

      Quadagno, Jill. One Nation, Uninsured: Why the U.S. Has No National Health Insurance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Terris, M. “National Health Insurance in the United States: A Drama in Too Many Acts,” Journal of Public Health Policy 20(1): 13–35, 1999.

      U.S. Congress. Health Security Act. 103rd Congress 1st Session. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1993.

      White House Domestic Policy Council. Health Security: The President's Report to the American People. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1993.

      65. Rationing Healthcare

      Aaron, Henry J., and William B. Schwartz. The Painful Prescription: Rationing Hospital Care. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1984.

      Aaron, Henry J., William B. Schwartz, and Melissa Cox. Can We Say No? The Challenge of Rationing Health Care. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

      Barry, Robert L., and Gerard V. Bradley, eds. Set No Limits: A Rebuttal to Daniel Callahan's Proposal to Limit Health Care for the Elderly. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

      Blank, Robert K. Rationing Medicine. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

      Callahan, Daniel. Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Aging Society. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.

      Daniels, Norman, and James Sabin. Settings Limits Fairly: Can We Learn to Share Medical Resources? New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Dranove, David. What's Your Life Worth? Health Care Rationing … Who Lives? Who Dies? Who Decides? New York: Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2003.

      Ham, C., and A. Coulter. “Explicit and Implicit Rationing: Taking Responsibility and Avoiding Blame for Health Care Choices,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6(3): 163–69, July 2001.

      Menzel, Paul T. Strong Medicine: The Ethical Rationing of Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

      Rice, Charles L. “Rationing Revisited,” University of Illinois Law Review (1): 197–203, 2004.

      Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias, and Michael Blanks, eds. Rationing of Medical Services in Europe: An Empirical Study. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2004.

      66. Regulation

      Abbott, Thomas A. Health Care Policy and Regulation. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1995.

      American Accreditation HealthCare Commission, URAC. Survey of State Health Utilization Review Laws and Regulations. Washington, DC: American Accreditation HealthCare Commission, URAC, 1998.

      Bradley, Herring, and Mark V. Pauly. The Effect of State Community Rating Regulations on Premiums and Coverage in the Individual Health Insurance Market. NBER Working Paper No. 12504. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Carneal, Garry, ed. The PPO Guide: State Laws and Regulations, Market Trends, Legal Analysis, Accreditation Issues. Washington, DC: American Accreditation HealthCare Commission, URAC, 1999.

      CCH Incorporated. Nursing Home Regulations: Medicare and Medicaid: Explanation, Law, Regulations. Chicago: CCH Incorporated, 1995.

      Field, Robert I. Health Care Regulation in America: Complexity, Confrontation, and Compromise. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      Fischbeck, Paul S., and R. Scott Farrow, eds. Improving Regulation: Cases in Environment, Health, and Safety. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 2001.

      Greaney, Thomas L., and Robert L. Schwartz. Health Law: Selected Statutes and Regulations. St. Paul, MN: Thomas West, 2003.

      Hackey, Robert B. Rethinking Health Care Policy: The New Politics of State Regulation. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1998.

      Jones, Nancy Lee. The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA): Overview, Regulations and Interpretations. New York: Nova Science, 2003.

      Lass, Gene, and JoAnn Petaschnick, eds. State-by-State Health Care Collection Laws and Regulations. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, 2000.

      Maynard, A., and R. Cookson. “Money or Your Life? The Health-Wealth Trade-Off in Pharmaceutical Regulation,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 6(3): 186–89, July 2001.

      Nielsen, Ronald P. OSHA Regulations and Guidelines: A Guide for Health Care Providers. Albany, NY: Delmar/Thomson Learning, 2000.

      World Health Organization. Global Crises—Global Solutions: Managing Public Health Emergencies of International Concern Through the Revised International Health Regulations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organizations, 2002.

      World Health Organization. International Health Regulations: Working Paper for Regional Consultations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004.

      VIII. Health Professionals and Healthcare Organizations

      Health professionals are the individuals who work to ensure the smooth functioning and operation of the healthcare system, and they are the primary deliverers of healthcare services. Healthcare organizations are the entities that provide essential healthcare services.

      67. General Works

      Lee, Philip R., and Carroll L. Estes. The Nation's Health. 7th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2003.

      Mullan, Fitzhugh. Big Doctoring in America: Profiles in Primary Care. Los Angeles: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2002.

      Shi, Leiyu, and Douglas A. Singh. Delivering Health Care in America: A Systems Approach. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Shi, Leiyu, and Douglas A. Singh. Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Sultz, Harry A., and Kristina M. Young. Health Care USA: Understanding Its Organization and Delivery. 5th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Wicks, Robert J. Overcoming Secondary Stress in Medical and Nursing Practice: A Guide to Professional Resilience and Personal Well-Being. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      68. Academic Medical Centers

      Black, Carrie E. Academic Health Centers: Responses to the Malpractice Insurance Crisis. Washington, DC: Association of Academic Health Centers, 2005.

      Ginzberg, Eli, Howard Berliner, Miriam Ostow, et al., eds. Teaching Hospitals and the Urban Poor. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

      Kohn, Linda T., ed., and Committee on the Roles of Academic Health Centers in the 21st Century, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. The Roles of Academic Health Centers in the 21st Century: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

      Souba, W. W., M. R. Weitekamp, and J. F. Mahon. “Political Strategy, Business Strategy, and the Academic Medical Center: Linking Theory and Practice,” Journal of Surgical Research 100(1): 1–10, September, 2001.

      Task Force on Academic Health Centers. A Shared Responsibility: Academic Health Centers and the Provision of Care to the Poor and Uninsured: A Report of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2001.

      Task Force on Academic Health Centers. Training Tomorrow's Doctors: The Medical Education of Academic Health Centers: A Report of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2002.

      Task Force on Academic Health Centers. Envisioning the Future of Academic Health Centers: Final Report of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2003.

      69. Dentistry

      American Dental Education Association. ADEA Official Guide to Dental Schools. Washington, DC: American Dental Education Association, 2004. (This directory is published annually)

      Burt, Brian A., and Stephen A. Eklund. Dentistry, Dental Practice, and the Community. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders, 2005.

      Christensen, Gordon J. A Consumer's Guide to Dentistry. 2d ed. St. Louis: MO, Elsevier 2001.

      Devlin, Hugh. Operative Dentistry: A Practical Guide to Recent Innovations. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Kulacz, Robert, and Thomas E. Levy. The Roots of Disease: The Connection Between Dentistry and Medicine. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Trafford, 2002.

      Mitchell, David A., Laura Mitchell, and Paul A. Brunton. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Rattan, Ray, and George Manolescue. The Business of Dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence, 2002.

      Weinberger, Bernhard Wolf. An Introduction to the History of Dentistry: With Medical and Dental Chronology and Bibliographic Data. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino, 2005.

      70. Emergency Care and Intensive-Care Units

      Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. Emergency Care for Children: Growing Pains. Future of Emergency Care Series. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Care Services, Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System, 2007.

      Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. Emergency Medical Services: At the Crossroads. Future of Emergency Care Series. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Care Services, Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System, 2007.

      Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point. Future of Emergency Care Series. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Care Services, Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System, 2007.

      Corke, C. F. Practical Intensive Care Medicine: Problem Solving in the ICU. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000.

      Curtis, J. Randall, and Gordon D. Rubenfeld, eds. Managing Death in the ICU: The Transition From Cure to Comfort. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      DeVita, Michael A., Ken Hillman, and R. Bellomo, eds. Medical Emergency Teams: Implementation and Outcome Measurement. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Joint Commission Resources. Accreditation Issues for Emergency Departments. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources, 2003.

      Joint Commission Resources. Improving Care in the ICU: Improving Health Care Quality and Safety. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources, 2004.

      Marcucci, Lisa, Elizabeth A. Martinez, Elliott R. Haut, et al. Avoiding Common ICU Errors. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

      Marino, Paul L., and Kenneth M. Sutin. The ICU Book. 3d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

      Mistovich, Joseph J., Brent Q. Hafen, Keith J. Karren, et al., eds. Prehospital Emergency Care. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2008.

      Ridley, Saxon A., ed. The Psychological Challenges of Intensive Care. Malden, MA: BMJ Books/Blackwell, 2005.

      Rosenblatt, R. A., G. E. Wright, L. M. Baldwin, et al. “The Effect of the Doctor-Patient Relationship on Emergency Department Use Among the Elderly,” American Journal of Public Health 90(1): 97–102, January 2000.

      Schoeni, Patricia Q., Whitney Lindahl, and Christina A. Lau, eds. Care in the ICU: Profiles of Individuals and Institutions That Have Made a Commitment to Quality in Intensive Care Units. Washington, DC: National Coalition on Health Care, 2002.

      Smeby, L. Charles. Fire and Emergency Services Administration: Management and Leadership Practices. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Society of Critical Care Medicine. The Case for the Intensivist-Directed Model: Making the Transition to an Intensivist-Directed ICU. Des Plaines, IL: Society of Critical Care Medicine, 2002.

      U.S. General Accounting Office. Hospital Emergency Departments: Crowded Conditions Vary Among Hospitals and Communities: Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003.

      71. Healthcare Administration and Management

      Alemi, Farrokh, and David H. Gustafson. Decision Analysis for Healthcare Managers. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Broyles, Robert W. Fundamentals of Statistics in Health Administration. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Buchbinder, Sharon B., and Nancy Shanks. Introduction to Health Care Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Charns, Martin P., and Laura J. Smith Tewksbury. Collaborative Management in Health Care: Implementing the Integrative Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.

      Cohn, Kenneth H. Collaborate for Success: Breakthrough Strategies for Engaging Physicians, Nurses, and Hospital Executives. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Dunn, Rose T. Haimann's Healthcare Management. 8th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Goldsmith, Seth B. Principles of Health Care Management: Compliance, Consumerism, and Accountability in the 21st Century. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Griffith, John R., and Kenneth R. White. The Well-Managed Healthcare Organization. 6th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2006.

      Hofmann, Paul B., and Frankie Perry, eds. Management Mistakes in Healthcare: Identification, Correction, and Prevention. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Kelly, Diane L. Applying Quality Management in Healthcare: A System Approach. 2d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press and the Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 2006.

      Kovner, Anthony R., and Duncan Neuhauser. Health Services Management: Readings, Cases, and Commentary. 8th ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Liebler, Joan Gratto, and Charles R. McConnell. Management Principles for Health Professionals. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Lombardi, Donald N. Handbook for the New Health Care Manager. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Longest, Beaufort B. Managing Health Programs and Projects. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      McConnell, Charles R. Managing the Health Care Professional. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      McConnell, Charles R. Umiker's Management Skills for the New Health Care Supervisor. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Pozgar, George D. Legal Aspects of Health Care Administration. 9th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Ronen, Boaz, Joseph S. Pliskin, Shimeon Pass, et al. Focused Operations Management for Health Services Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Stahl, Michael J., ed. Encyclopedia of Health Care Management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2004.

      Wolper, Lawrence F. Health Care Administration: Planning, Implementing, and Managing Organized Delivery Systems. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      72. Hospitals

      Abraham, Jean, Martin Gaynor, and William B. Vogt. Entry and Competition in Local Hospital Markets. NBER Working Paper No. 11649. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.

      American Hospital Association. Hospital Statistics. Chicago: American Hospital Association, 2007. (This is an annual publication)

      Berger, Steven. The Power of Clinical and Financial Metrics: Achieving Success in Your Hospital. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Biggs, Errol. The Governance Factor: 33 Keys to Success in Healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      Dranove, David, and William D. White. How Hospitals Survived: Competition and the American Hospital. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 1999.

      Gaynor, Martin, and William B. Vogt. Competition Among Hospitals. NBER Working Paper No. 9471. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.

      Geisler, Eliezer, Koos Krabbendam, and Roel Schuring, eds. Technology, Health Care, and Management in the Hospitals of the Future. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

      Ginzberg, Eli. Tomorrow's Hospital: A Look to the Twenty-first Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.

      Gowrisankaran, Gautam, and Robert J. Town. Competition, Payers, and Hospital Quality. NBER Working Paper No. 9206. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.

      Griffin, Don. Hospitals: What They Are and How They Work. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Kastor, John A. Governance of Teaching Hospitals: Turmoil at Penn and Hopkins. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Kastor, John A. Specialty Care in the Era of Managed Care: Cleveland Clinic Versus University Hospitals of Cleveland. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Kaufman, Sharon R. And a Time to Die: How American Hospitals Shape the End of Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

      McCauley, Bernadette. Who Shall Take Care of Our Sick? Roman Catholic Sisters and the Development of Catholic Hospitals in New York City. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Reynolds, Max M. Hospital Joint Ventures Legal Handbook. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Risse, Guenter B. Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. (This book is a very detailed history of the evolution of hospitals from antiquity to the present)

      Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

      Rundall, Thomas G., David B. Starkweather, and Barbara R. Norrish. After Restructuring: Empowerment Strategies at Work in America's Hospitals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

      Schwartz, James R., and H. Chester Horn. Health Care Alliances and Conversions: A Handbook for Nonprofit Trustees. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

      Stevens, Rosemary. In Sickness and in Wealth: American Hospitals in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      73. Nursing

      Anderson, Elizabeth T., and Judith M. McFarlane. Community as Partner: Theory and Practice in Nursing. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

      Blais, Kathleen Koenig. Professional Nursing Practice: Concepts and Perspectives. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.

      Catalano, Joseph T. Nursing Now: Today's Issues, Tomorrow's Trends. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 2006.

      Cherry, Barbara, and Susan R. Jacob, eds. Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, and Management. 3d ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Elsevier, 2005.

      Ellis, Janice Rider, and Celia Love Hartley. Managing and Coordinating Nursing Care. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2005.

      Hawkins, Joellen W., and Janice A. Thibodeau. The Advanced Practice Nurse: Issues for the New Millennium. 5th ed. New York: Tiresias Press, 2000.

      Hood, Lucy J., Susan K. Leddy, and J. Mae Pepper. Leddy and Pepper's Conceptual Bases of Professional Nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2006.

      Ian, Peate. Becoming a Nurse in the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006.

      Jones, C. B., and B. A. Mark. “The Intersection of Nursing and Health Services Research: An Agenda to Guide Future Research,” Nursing Outlook 53(6): 324–32, November–December 2005.

      Jones, Rebecca Patronis. Nursing Leadership and Management: Theories, Processes, and Practice. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 2007.

      Lee, Helen J., and Charlene A. Winters, eds. Rural Nursing: Concepts, Theory, and Practice. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Longe, Jacqueline L., ed. The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. 2d ed. 5 vols. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2007.

      Masters, Kathleen, ed. Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Polifko-Harris, Karin. Concepts of the Nursing Profession. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2007.

      Potter, Patricia Ann, and Anne Griffin Perry, eds. Basic Nursing: Essentials for Practice. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Elsevier, 2007.

      Rubenfeld, M. Gaie, and Barbara K. Scheffer. Clinical Thinking Tactics for Nurses: Tracking, Assessing, and Cultivating Thinking to Improve Competency-Based Strategies. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Spouse, Jenny, Carol Lynn Cox, and Michael J. Cook, eds. Common Foundation Studies in Nursing. 4th ed. New York: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, 2007.

      Stellenberg, Ethelwynn L., and Judith C. Bruce, eds. Nursing Practice: Hospitals and Community. New York: Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone, 2007.

      Timofeeva, A. A., ed. The Nursing Profession: Description and Issues. New York: Novinka Books, 2002.

      Warren, Mame, ed. Our Shared Legacy: Nursing Education at Johns Hopkins, 1889–2006. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      74. Pharmacists and Pharmacy

      Abood, Richard R. Pharmacy Practice and the Law. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Baciu, Alina, Kathleen Stratton, and Sheila P. Burke, eds., and Committee on the Assessment of the U.S. Drug Safety System, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Institute of Medicine. The Future of Drug Safety: Promoting and Protecting the Health of the Public. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Brown, Thomas R. Handbook of Institutional Pharmacy Practice. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, 2006.

      Dally, Joseph D., ed. Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals. 6th ed. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007.

      Epstein, Richard A. Overdose: How Excessive Government Regulations Stifles Pharmaceutical Innovation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.

      Greene, Jeremy A. Prescribing by Numbers: Drugs and the Definition of Disease. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Kelly, William N. Pharmacy: What It Is and How It Works. 2d ed. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2007.

      Petryna, Adriana, Andrew Lakoff, and Arthur Kleinman, eds. Global Pharmaceuticals: Ethics, Markets, Practices. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

      Remington, Joseph P., and Paul Beringer. Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy. 21st ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2006.

      Rovers, John P., and Jay D. Currie. A Practical Guide to Pharmaceutical Care: A Clinical Skills Primer. 3d ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2007.

      Santoro, Michael A., and Thomas M. Gorrie, eds. Ethics and the Pharmaceutical Industry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

      Schacter, Bernice Zeldin. The New Medicines: How Drugs are Created, Approved, Marketed, and Sold. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

      Sloan, Frank A., and Chee-Ruey Hsieh, eds. Pharmaceutical Innovation: Incentives, and Cost-Benefit Analysis in International Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Smith, Michael Ira, Albert I. Wertheimer, and Jack E. Fincham, eds. Pharmacy and the U.S. Health Care System. 3d ed. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 2005.

      Strom, Brian L., ed. Pharmacoepidemiology. 4th ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2005.

      Vogel, Ronald J. Pharmaceutical Economics and Public Policy. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 2007.

      Wick, Jeannette Y. Pharmacy Practice in an Aging Society. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 2006.

      Wiffen, Philip, Marc Mitchell, Melanie Snelling, et al. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pharmacy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      75. Physicians

      American Medical Association. Directory of Physicians in the United States. 40th ed. 4 vols. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2006.

      American Medical Association. Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S. 2007. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2006.

      Chisolm, Stephanie. The Health Professions: Trends and Opportunities in U.S. Health Care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Gevitz, Norman. The DOs: Osteopathic Medicine in America. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Keagy, Blair, and Marci Thomas, eds. Essentials of Physician Practice Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Millenson, Michael L. Demanding Medical Excellence: Doctors and Accountability in the Information Age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

      Prather, Stephen E. The New Health Partners: Renewing the Leadership of Physician Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Reckless, Ian, John Reynolds, and Ali Raghib, eds. An Insider's Guide to the Medical Specialties. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Starr, Paul. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

      U.S. General Accounting Office. Physician Workforce: Physician Supply Increased in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas but Geographic Disparities Persisted. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003.

      76. Prepaid Group Practice

      Banthin, Jessica S., and Amy K. Taylor. HMO Enrollment in the United States: Estimates Based on Household Reports, 1996. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2001.

      Coombs, Jan G. The Rise and Fall of HMOs: An American Health Care Revolution. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.

      Donabedian, A. “An Evaluation of Prepaid Group Practice,” Inquiry 6: 3–27, September 1969.

      Enthoven, Alain C., and Laura A. Tollen, eds. Toward a 21st Century Health System: The Contributions and Promise of Prepaid Group Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Freeborn, Donald K., and Clyde R. Pope. Promise and Performance in Managed Care: The Prepaid Group Practice Model. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

      Markovich, Martin. The Rise of HMOs. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2003.

      Wrightson, Charles William. Financial Strategy for Managed Care Organizations: Rate Setting, Risk Adjustment, and Competitive Advantage. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.

      77. Primary Care

      Bodenheimer, Thomas, and Kevin Grumbach. Improving Primary Care: Strategies and Tools for a Better Practice. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 2007.

      Isaacs, Stephen L., and James R. Knickman, eds. Generalist Medicine and the U.S. Health System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Mullan, Fitzhugh. Big Doctoring in America: Profiles in Primary Care. Berkeley: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2002.

      Showstack, Jonathan, Arlyss Anderson Rothman, and Sue Hasmiller, eds. The Future of Primary Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Skolnik, Neil S., Doron Schneider, Richard Neill, et al., eds. Handbook of Essential Practice Guidelines in Primary Care. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2007.

      Starfield, Barbara. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

      Sweeney, Kieran. Complexity in Primary Care: Understanding Its Value. Seattle, WA: Radcliffe, 2006.

      Wakley, Gill, and Ruth Chambers, eds. Chronic Disease Management in Primary Care: Quality and Outcomes. Seattle, WA: Radcliffe, 2005.

      78. Veterans Administration (VA)

      Baker, Rodney R., and Wade E. Pickren. Psychology and the Department of Veterans Affairs: A Historical Analysis of Training, Research, Practice, and Advocacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2006.

      Barbour, Galen L., ed. Redefining a Public Health System: How the Veterans Health Administration Improved Quality Measurement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

      Barbour, Galen L., Larry Malby, Richard R. Lussier, et al., eds. Quality in the Veterans Health Administration: Lessons From the People Who Changed the System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

      Figley, Charles R., and William P. Nash, eds. Combat Stress Injury: Theory, Research, and Management. New York: Routledge, 2007.

      Gerber, David A., ed. Disabled Veterans in History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

      Henry, Lesley M., and Gregory C. Gray. Topical Bibliography of Published Works Regarding the Health of Veterans of the Persian Gulf War. San Diego, CA: Naval Health Research Center, 1999.

      McMurray-Avila, Marsha. Homeless Veterans and Health Care: A Resource Guide for Providers. Nashville, TN: National Health Care for the Homeless Council, 2001.

      Roche, John D. The Veteran's Survival Guide: How to File and Collect on VA Claims. 2d ed. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2006.

      Tick, Edward. War and the Soul: Healing Our Nation's Veterans From Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, 2005.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. The Potential Cost of Meeting Demand for Veterans' Health Care. Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office, 2005.

      IX. Public Health

      Public health is the discipline that is aimed at promoting health, preventing and treating diseases, and improving the quality of life of populations. Public health provides the essential social function of keeping populations healthy.

      79. General Works

      Aday, Lu Ann, ed. Reinventing Public Health: Policies and Practices for a Healthy Nation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Breslow, Lester, Bernard Goldstein, Lawrence W. Green, et al., eds. Encyclopedia of Public Health. 4 vols. New York: Thomson Gale/Macmillan Reference USA, 2002.

      Carney, Jan K. Public Health in Action: Practicing in the Real World. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Davis, Jonathan R., and Joshua Lederberg, eds., and Division of Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Public Health Systems and Emerging Infections: Assessing the Capabilities of the Public and Private Sectors. Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Detels, Roger, James McEwen, Robert Beaglehole, et al., eds. Oxford Textbook of Public Health. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Duffy, John. The Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

      Fallon, L. Fleming, Jr., and Eric J. Zgodzinski, eds. Essentials of Public Health Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Gebbie, Kristine, Linda Rosenstock, and Lyla M. Hernandez, eds., and Committee on Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      Knight, Joseph A. A Crisis Call for New Preventive Medicine: Emerging Effects of Lifestyle on Morbidity and Mortality. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2004.

      Levy, Barry S., and Victor W. Sidel, eds. Social Injustice and Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Novick, Lloyd F., and Glen P. Mays, eds. Public Health Administration: Principles for Population-Based Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Patel, Kant, and Mark E. Rushefsky. The Politics of Public Health in the United States. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2005.

      Pencheon, David, Charles Guest, David Melzer, et al., eds. Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      Schneider, Mary-Jane. Introduction to Public Health. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Tulchinksy, Theodore H., and Elena A. Varavikova. The New Public Health: An Introduction for the 21st Century. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2000.

      Turnock, Bernard J. Public Health: What It Is and How It Works. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Turnock, Bernard J. Public Health: Career Choices That Make a Difference. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Ward, John W., and Christian Warren, eds. Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      80. Community and Population Health

      Brookmeyer, Ron, and Donna F. Stroup, eds. Monitoring the Health of Populations: Statistical Principles and Methods for Public Health Surveillance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Butterfoss, Frances Dunn. Coalitions and Partnerships in Community Health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

      Heller, Richard. Evidence for Population Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Johnson, Kathryn, Wynne Grossman, and Anne Cassidy, eds. Collaborating to Improve Community Health: Workbook and Guide to Best Practices in Creating Healthier Communities and Populations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.

      Marmot, Michael, and Richard Wilkinson, eds. Social Determinants of Health. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      McAlearney, Ann S. Population Health Management: Strategies to Improve Outcomes. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      McKenzie, James F., Robert R. Pinger, and Jerome E. Kotecki. An Introduction to Community Health. 5th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Novick, Lloyd F., and Glen P. Mays. Public Health Administration: Principles for Population-Based Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Palta, Mari. Quantitative Methods in Population Health: Extensions of Ordinary Regression. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Richards, Ronald W. Building Partnerships: Educating Health Professionals for the Communities They Serve. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

      Smith, Marcia Bayne, Yvonne Graham, and Sally Guttmacher. Community-Based Health Organizations: Advocating for Improved Health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Stoto, Michael A., Cynthia Abel, and Anne Dievler, eds., and Institute of Medicine. Healthy Communities: New Partnerships for the Future of Public Health. A Report of the First Year of the Committee on Public Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

      Wurzbach, Mary Ellen. Community Health Education and Promotion: A Guide to Program Design and Evaluation. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2002.

      Young, T. Kue. Population Health: Concepts and Methods. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      81. Disaster Preparedness, Emergency Management, and Relief

      Cohen, Raquel E., and Frederick L. Ahrens. Handbook for Mental Health Care of Disaster Victims. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Committee on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council. Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Few, Roger, and Franziska Matthies, eds. Flood Hazards and Health: Responding to Present and Future Risks. Sterling, VA: Earthscan, 2006.

      Hooke, William H., and Paul G. Rogers, eds., Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Public Health Risks of Disasters: Communication, Infrastructure, and Preparedness. Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Khardori, Nancy, ed. Bioterrorism Preparedness: Medicine, Public Health, Policy. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2006.

      Pepper, Lewis, Kathryn Brinsfield, Kirsten Levy, et al. Public Health Preparedness: Handbook for Disaster Response. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Pilch, Richard F., and Raymond A. Zilinskas, eds. Encyclopedia of Bioterrorism Defense. New York: Wiley, 2005.

      Rodriguez, Havidan, Enrico L. Quarantelli, and Russell Dynes. Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Ronan, Kevin, and David Johnston. Promoting Community Resilience in Disasters: The Role of Schools, Youth, and Families. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Rosner, David, and Gerald Markowitz. Are We Ready? Public Health Since 9/11. Los Angeles: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2006.

      Trotter, Griffin. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Waugh, William L., ed. Shelter From the Storm: Repairing the National Emergency Management System After Hurricane Katrina. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 604. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

      82. Environmental Health

      Aron, Joan L., and Jonathan A. Patz, eds. Ecosystem Change and Public Health: A Global Perspective. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Friis, Robert H. Essentials of Environmental Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Frumkin, Howard, ed. Environmental Health: From Global to Local. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Goldman, Lynn, and Christine M. Coussens, eds., and Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Environmental Health Indicators: Bridging the Chasm of Public Health and the Environment. Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

      Goldstein, Bernard D., Baruch Fischhoff, Steven J. Marcus, et al., eds., and Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Ensuring Environmental Health in Postindustrial Cities: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      Hilgenkamp, Kathryn. Environmental Health: Ecological Perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Johnson, Barry L. Environmental Policy and Public Health. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2007.

      Lichter, S. Robert, and Stanley Rothman. Environmental Cancer: A Political Disease? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.

      Lippmann, Morton, Beverly S. Cohen, and Richard B. Schlesinger. Environmental Health Science: Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of Chemical and Physical Health Hazards. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Wigle, Donald T. Child Health and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Yassi, Annalee, Tord Kjellstrom, Theo de Kok, et al. Basic Environmental Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      83. Evidence-Based Public Health

      Brownson, Ross C., Elizabeth A. Baker, Terry L. Leet, et al. Evidence-Based Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Jenicek, Milor. Clinical Case Reporting in Evidence-Based Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      Perrin, Edward B., and Jeffrey J. Koshel, eds., and Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Assessment of Performance Measures for Public Health, Substance Abuse, and Mental Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

      84. Global Health

      Airhihenbuwa, Collins O. Healing Our Differences: The Crisis of Global Health and the Politics of Identity. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.

      Bashford, Alison, ed. Medicine at the Border: Disease, Globalization and Security, 1850 to the Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2006.

      Beaglehole, Robert, ed. Global Public Health: A New Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Bennett, Belinda, and George F. Tomossy. Globalization and Health: Challenges for Health Law and Bioethics. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Bryant, John H., and Polly F. Harrison, eds., and Board on International Health, Institute of Medicine. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives From International Organizations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

      Foege, William H., Nils M. P. Daulaire, Robert E. Black, et al., eds. Global Health Leadership and Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Fried, Bruce J., and Laura M. Gaydos, eds. World Health Systems: Challenges and Perspectives. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.

      Frumkin, Howard, ed. Environmental Health: From Global to Local. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Gunn, S. W. A., P. B. Mansourian, Anthony Piel, et al. Understanding the Global Dimensions of Health. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Heymann, Jody, ed. Global Inequalities at Work: Work's Impact on the Health of Individuals, Families, and Societies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Kawachi, Ichiro, and Sarah P. Wamala, eds. Globalization and Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      Koop, C. Everett, Clarence E. Pearson, and M. Roy Schwarz, eds. Critical Issues in Global Health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      MacLachian, Malcolm. Culture and Health: A Critical Perspective Towards Global Health. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      McQueen, David, and Pekka Puska. Global Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance. New York: Springer, 2003.

      Merson, Michael H., Robert E. Black, and Anne J. Mills. International Public Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Muhiuddin, Haider. Global Public Health Communication: Challenges, Perspectives, and Strategies. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Mullan, Fitzhugh, Claire Panosian, and Patricia Cuff, eds., and Committee on the Options for Overseas Placement of U.S. Health Professionals, Board on Global Health, Institute of Medicine. Healers Abroad: Americans Responding to the Human Resource Crisis in HIV/AIDS. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Skolnik, Richard. Essentials of Global Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      U.S. Government Accountability Office. Global Health: Spending Requirement Presents Challenges for Allocating Prevention Funding Under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2006.

      Wieners, Walter W., ed. Global Health Care Markets: A Comprehensive Guide to Regions, Trends, and Opportunities Shaping the International Health Arena. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

      World Health Organization. Global Crises—Global Solutions: Managing Public Health Emergencies of International Concern Through the Revised International Health Regulations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2002.

      85. Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

      Andreasen, Alan R. Marketing Social Change: Changing Behavior to Promote Health, Social Development, and the Environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

      Bartholomew, L. Kay, Guy S. Parcel, Gerjo Kok, et al., eds. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Blonna, Richard, and Dan Watter. Health Counseling: A Microskills Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Board on Population Health and Public Health Practices, Institute of Medicine. Estimating the Contributions of Lifestyle-Related Factors to Preventable Death: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Cottrell, Randall R., and James F. McKenzie. Health Promotion and Education Research Methods: Using the Five Chapter Thesis/Dissertation Model. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Crosby, Richard A., Ralph J. DiClemente, and Laura F. Salazar, eds. Research Methods in Health Promotion. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      DiClemente, Ralph J., Richard A. Crosby, and Michelle C. Kegler. Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research: Strategies for Improving Public Health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Gilmore, Gary D., and M. Donald Campbell. Needs and Capacity Assessment Strategies for Health Education and Health Promotion. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Gunn, S. William A., P. B. Mansourian, A. M. Davies, et al., eds. Understanding the Global Dimensions of Health. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Johnson, James A. Managing Health Education and Promotion Programs: Leadership Skills for the 21st Century. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      L'Abate, Luciano, ed. Low-Cost Approaches to Promote Physical and Mental Health: Theory, Research and Practice. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Leddy, Susan Kun. Integrative Health Promotion: Conceptual Bases for Nursing Practice. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Marmot, Michael, and Richard G. Wilkinson, eds. Social Determinants of Health. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      McQueen, David. Health and Modernity: The Role of Theory in Health Promotion. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Modeste, Naomi, and Teri Tamayose. Dictionary of Public Health Promotion and Education: Terms and Concepts. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Perkins, Elizabeth R., Ina Simnett, and Linda Wright, eds. Evidence-Based Health Promotion. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri, and Joan Arnold. Health Promotion in Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Thorogood, Margaret, and Yolande Coombes, eds. Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and Methods. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

      Valente, Thomas W. Evaluating Health Promotion Programs. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Wurzbach, Mary Ellen. Community Health Education and Promotion: A Guide to Program Design and Evaluation. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2002.

      Zaza, Stephanie, Peter A. Briss, and Kate W. Harris, eds. The Guide to Community Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health? New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      86. Maternal and Child Health

      Besharov, Douglas J., ed. Family and Child Well-Being After Welfare Reform. Somerset, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003.

      Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Paying Attention to Children in a Changing Health Care System: Summaries of Workshops. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

      Freeman, Michael, ed. Children's Health and Children's Rights. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006.

      Health Resources and Services Administration. Child Health USA 2005. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005.

      Kotch, Jonathan. Maternal and Child Health: Programs, Problems, and Policy in Public Health. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Mahy, Mary. Childhood Mortality in the Developing World: A Review of Evidence From the Demographic and Health Surveys. Calverton, MD: ORC Macro, Measure DHS+, 2003.

      Morewitz, Stephen J. Domestic Violence and Maternal and Child Health. New York: Springer, 2004.

      Palfray, Judith S. Child Health in America: Making a Difference Through Advocacy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Parens, Erik, ed. Surgically Shaping Children: Technology, Ethics, and the Pursuit of Normality. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Turkington, Carol, and Albert Tzell, eds. The Encyclopedia of Children's Health and Wellness. New York: Facts on File, 2004.

      Wigle, Donald T. Child Health and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      X. Selective Diseases and Conditions

      Selective diseases and conditions include a host of acute, chronic, and infectious diseases and health conditions. These diseases and conditions can be caused by various sources, including microbial pathogens, the environment, and genetics.

      87. Acute and Infectious Diseases

      Abraham, Thomas. Twenty-First Century Plague: The Story of SARS. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Apostolopoulos, Yorghos, and Sevil Sonmez, eds. Crossing Boundaries, Compounding Infections: The Impact of Population Migration and Infectious Diseases. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Arias, Kathleen Meehan, and Barbara M. Soule, eds. The APIC/JCAHO Infection Control Workbook. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: APIC/Joint Commission Resources, 2006.

      Berger, Stephen A., and John S. Marr. Human Parasitic Diseases Sourcebook. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Bourdelais, Patrice. Epidemics Laid Low: A History of What Happened in Rich Countries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Callahan, Gerald N. Infection: The Uninvited Universe. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2006.

      Casman, Elizabeth A., and Hadi Dowlatabadi, eds. Contextual Determinants of Malaria. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Chan, Voon L., Philip M. Sherman, and Billy Bourke, eds. Bacterial Genomes and Infectious Diseases. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2006.

      Cliff, Andrew, Peter Haggett, and Matthew Smallman-Raynor. World Atlas of Epidemic Diseases. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Colgrove, James. State of Immunity: The Politics of Vaccination in Twentieth-Century America. Los Angeles: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2006.

      Giesecke, Johan. Modern Infectious Disease Epidemiology. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Goudsmit, Jaap. Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Gualde, Norbert. Resistance: The Human Struggle Against Infection. New York: Dana Press, 2006.

      Heymann, David L., ed. Control of Communicable Diseases Manuel. 18th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 2005.

      Institute of Medicine. Microbial Threats to Health: The Threat of Pandemic Influenza. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Knobler, Stacey L., Alison Mack, Adel Mahmoud, et al., eds., and Forum on Microbial Threats, Board on Global Health, Institute of Medicine. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

      Knobler, Stacey L., Thomas Burroughs, Adel Mahmoud, et al., and Forum on Microbial Threats, Board on Global Health, Institute of Medicine. Ensuring an Infectious Disease Workforce: Education and Training Need for the 21st Century. Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2007.

      Laxminarayan, Ramanan, ed. Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides: An Economic Approach. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Magnus, Manya. Essentials of Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      McLean, Angela R., Robert M. May, John Pattison, et al., eds. SARS: A Case Study in Emerging Infections. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      National Academies Keck Futures Initiative. The Genomic Revolution: Implications for Treatment and Control of Infectious Disease: Working Group Summaries. Conference held at the Arnold and Mabel Bechman Center of the National Academies, Irvine, CA (November 10–13, 2005). Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Nelson, Kenrad, and Carolyn Masters Williams. Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2007.

      Playfair, John. Living With Germs: In Sickness and in Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Podolsky, Scott H. Pneumonia Before Antibiotics: Therapeutic Evolution and Evaluation in Twentieth-Century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Roberts, Jennifer A., ed. The Economics of Infectious Disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Sleigh, Adrian, Chee Heng Leng, Brenda S. A. Yeoh, et al., eds. Population Dynamics and Infectious Disease in Asia. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2006.

      Thomas, James C., and David J. Weber, eds. Epidemiologic Methods for the Study of Infectious Diseases. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

      Tibayrenc, Michel. Encyclopedia Guide to Infectious Disease Research: Modern Methodologies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-LISS, 2006.

      Turkington, Carol, and Bonnie Lee Ashby. The Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases. 3d ed. New York: Facts on File, 2007.

      Webber, Roger. Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Control: A Global Perspective. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Yoshikawa, Thomas T., and Joseph G. Ouslander, ed. Infection Management for Geriatrics in Long-Term Care Facilities. 2d ed. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007.

      88. AIDS/HIV

      Baldwin, Peter. Disease and Democracy: The Industrialized World Faces AIDS. Los Angeles: University of California Press/Milbank Memorial Fund, 2005.

      Barnett, Tony, and Alan Whiteside. AIDS in the Twenty-First Century: Disease and Globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

      Bartlett, John G., and Ann K. Finkbeiner. The Guide to Living With HIV Infection: Developed at the Johns Hopkins AIDS Clinic. 6th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Bowser, Benjamin P., Ernest Quimby, and Merrill Singer, eds. When Communities Assess Their AIDS Epidemics: Results of Rapid Assessment of HIV/AIDS in Eleven U.S. Cities. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

      Braithwaite, Ronald L., Theodore M. Hammett, and Robert M. Mayberry. Prisons and AIDS: A Public Health Challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

      Clark, Rebecca A., Robert T. Maupin, and Jill Hayes Hammer. A Woman's Guide to Living With HIV Infection. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Committee on Public Financing and Delivery of HIV Care, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine. Public Financing and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Care: Securing the Legacy of Ryan White. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

      Committee on Reviewing the HIVNET 012 Perinatal HIV Prevention Study, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Institute of Medicine. Review of the HIVNET 012 Perinatal HIV Prevention Study. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Engel, Jonathan. The Epidemic: A Global History of AIDS. New York: Smithsonian Books/Collins, 2006.

      Essex, Max, Souleymane Mboup, Phyllis J. Kanki, et al. AIDS in Africa. New York: Springer, 2002.

      Falola, Toyin, and Matthew M. Heaton, eds. HIV/AIDs, Illness, and African Well-Being. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2007.

      Farber, Celia. Serious Adverse Events: An Uncensored History of AIDS. Hoboken, NJ: Melville House, 2006.

      Feldman, Eric, and Ronald Bayer, eds. Blood Feuds: AIDS, Blood, and the Politics of Medical Disaster. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

      Friedman, Samuel R., Richard Curtis, Alan Neaigus, et al. Social Networks, Drug Injectors' Lives, and HIV/AIDS. New York: Springer, 1999.

      Gibney, Laura, Ralph J. DiClemente, and Sten H. Vermund. Preventing HIV in Developing Countries. New York: Springer, 1999.

      Gill, Peter. Body Count: Fixing the Blame for the Global AIDS Catastrophe. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2006.

      Holtgrave, David R. Handbook of Economic Evaluation of HIV Prevention Programs. New York: Springer, 1998.

      Institute of Medicine. Confronting AIDS: Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986.

      International Labour Organization on HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS and Work in a Globalizing World, 2005. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization, World of Work, 2006.

      Kalichman, Seth C. Positive Prevention: Reducing HIV Transmission Among People Living With HIV/AIDS. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Klitzman, Robert, and Ronald Bayer. Mortal Secrets: Truth and Lies in the Age of AIDS. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Knox, Michael D., and Caroline H. Sparks, eds. HIV and Community Mental Healthcare. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

      Letona, Maria Elena. State Government Provision of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs: Towards a Partnership Model of the Contractual Relationship Between State Governments and Community Agencies. New York: Garland, 2000.

      Loue, Sana. Sexual Partnering, Sexual Practices, and Health. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Lu, Yichen, and Max Essex. AIDS in Asia. New York: Springer, 2004.

      Mullan, Fitzhugh, Claire Panosian, and Patricia Cuff, eds., and Committee on the Options for Overseas Placement of U.S. Health Professionals, Board on Global Health, Institute of Medicine. Healers Abroad: Americans Responding to the Human Resource Crisis in HIV/AIDS. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      O'Leary, Ann. Beyond Condoms: Alternative Approaches to HIV Prevention. New York: Springer, 2002.

      Ostrow, David, and Seth C. Kalichman. Psychosocial and Public Health Impacts of New HIV Therapies. New York: Springer, 1999.

      Peterson, John L., and Ralph J. DiClemente. Handbook of HIV Prevention. New York: Springer, 2000.

      Seckinelgin, Hakan. International Politics of HIV/AIDS: Global Disease—Local Pain. New York: Routledge, 2007.

      Shelling, Gene M., ed. AIDS Policies and Programs. New York: Nova Science, 2006.

      Stillwaggon, Eileen. AIDS and the Ecology of Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Treisman, Glenn J., and Andrew F. Angelino. The Psychiatry of AIDS: A Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      U.S. Government Accountability Office. Global Health: Spending Requirement Presents Challenges for Allocating Prevention Funding Under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2006.

      Valdiserri, Ronald O., ed. Dawning Answers: How the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Has Helped to Strengthen Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Watstein, Sarah B., and Stephen E. Stratton. The Encyclopedia of HIV and AIDS. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

      Wollmann, Emmanuelle E. Legal and Ethical Aspects of HIV-Related Research. New York: Springer, 1995.

      89. Asthma

      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Health Care Expenditure and the Burden of Disease Due to Asthma in Australia. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2005.

      Bellenir, Karen, ed. Asthma Sourcebook: Basic Consumer Health Information About the Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Asthma in Infants, Children, Teenagers, and Adults. 2d ed. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2006.

      Blaser, Kurt, Reto Crameri, and R. C. Aalberse, eds. Allergy and Asthma in Modern Society: A Scientific Approach. New York: Karger, 2006.

      Busse, William W., and Robert F. Lemanske, eds. Asthma Prevention. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2005.

      Chung, Fan, and George C. Kassianos. Best Medicine: Asthma. Long Hanborough, UK: CSF Medical Communications, 2005.

      Fanta, Christopher H., Elaine L. Carter, Elisabeth S. Stieb, et al. The Asthma Educator's Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2007.

      Gershwin, M. Eric, and Timothy E. Albertson, eds. Bronchial Asthma: A Guide for Practical Understanding and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2006.

      Gibson, Peter, ed. Monitoring Asthma. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2005.

      Ho, Kare, Rosanna M. Coffey, and Donna Rae Castillo. Asthma Care Quality Improvement: A Workbook for State Action. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2006.

      Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline: Diagnosis and Outpatient Management of Asthma. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, 2005.

      Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline: Emergency and Inpatient Management of Asthma. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, 2006.

      Li, James T. C., ed. Pharmacotherapy of Asthma. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006.

      Miller, Amy P., ed. New Developments in Asthma Research. New York: Nova Biomedical Books, 2006.

      Navarra, Tova. The Encyclopedia of Asthma and Respiratory Disorders. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

      Postma, Dirkje S., and Scott T. Weiss, eds. Genetics of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007.

      Rees, John, and Dipak Kanabar. ABC of Asthma. 5th ed. Malden, MA: BMJ Books/Blackwell, 2006.

      Sepiashvili, Revaz, ed. “Advances in Research and Management of Asthma.” In Proceedings of the 3rd European Asthma Congress: Athens, Greece (October 20–23, 2005). Bologna, Italy: Medimond International Proceedings, 2005.

      Szefler, Stanley J., and Soren Pedersen, eds. Childhood Asthma. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006.

      Tersa, Miroslav, ed. Trends in Asthma Research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Biomedical Books, 2005.

      90. Cancer

      Abrahm, Janet L. A Physician's Guide to Pain and Symptom Management in Cancer Patients. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Adami, Hans-Olov, David Hunter, and Dimitrios Trichopoulos, eds. Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Altman, Arnold J., ed. Supportive Care of Children With Cancer: Current Therapy and Guidelines From the Children's Oncology Group. 3d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Bertino, Joseph R. Encyclopedia of Cancer. 2d ed. 4 vols. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2002.

      Capitman, John A., Sarita Bhalotra, and Mathilda Ruwe. Cancer and Elders of Color: Opportunities for Reducing Health Disparities: Evidence Review and Recommendations for Research and Policy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005.

      Coleman, C. Norman. Understanding Cancer: A Patient's Guide to Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Columbus, Frank H., ed. Trends in Cancer Prevention Research. New York: Nova Science, 2006.

      Eden, Jill, and Joseph V. Simone, eds., Committee on Assessing Improvement in Cancer Care in Georgia, National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine, and National Research

      Council. Assessing the Quality of Cancer Care: An Approach to Measurement in Georgia. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Feuerstein, Michael. Handbook of Cancer Survivorship. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Foley, Kathleen M., and Hellen Gelband, eds., National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Improving Palliative Care for Cancer: Summary and Recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

      Ganz, Patricia A. Cancer Survivorship: Today and Tomorrow. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Grossman, S. A., E. M. Dunbar, and S. A. Nesbit, “Cancer Pain Management in the 21st Century,” Oncology 20(11): 1333–39, October 2006.

      Halvorson-Boyd, Glenna, and Lisa K. Hunter. Dancing in Limbo: Making Sense of Life After Cancer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

      Herdman, Roger, and Leonard Lichtenfeld, eds., National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Fulfilling the Potential of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: An American Cancer Society and Institute of Medicine Symposium. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2000.

      Hewitt, Maria, and Joseph V. Simone, eds., National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine, and Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Ensuring Quality Cancer Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.

      Kedrowski, Karen M., and Marilyn S. Sarow. Cancer Activism: Gender, Media, and Public Policy. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

      Lichter, S. Robert, and Stanley Rothman. Environmental Cancer: A Political Disease? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.

      Longe, Jacqueline L. The Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer: A Guide to Cancer and Its Treatments. 2d ed. 2 vols. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2005.

      Montz, F. J., Robert E. Bristow, and Paula J. Anastasia. A Guide to Survivorship for Women With Ovarian Cancer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Nasca, Phillip C., and Harris Pastides. Fundamentals of Cancer Epidemiology. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2001.

      Olopade, Olufunmilayo I., Carla I. Falkson, and Christopher Kwesi Williams, eds. Breast Cancer in Women of African Descent. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Olson, James S. Bathsheba's Breast: Women, Cancer, and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Patlak, Margie, and Sharyl J. Nass, and National Cancer Policy Forum, Institute of Medicine. Developing Biomarker-Based Tools for Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment: The State of the Science, Evaluation, Implementation, and Economics. Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Patlak, Margie, Sharyl J. Nass, I. Craig Henderson, et al., eds., Committee on the Early Detection of Breast Cancer, National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine, and Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Mammography and Beyond: Developing Technologies for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer: A Non-Technical Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Schottenfeld, David, and Joseph F. Fraumeni, eds. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Seligman, Linda. Promoting a Fighting Spirit: Psychotherapy for Cancer Patients, Survivors, and Their Families. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

      Siminoff, L. A., and L. Ross. “Access and Equity to Cancer Care in the USA: A Review and Assessment,” Postgraduate Medical Journal 81(961): 674–79, November 2005.

      Spingarm, Natalie Davis. The New Cancer Survivors: Living With Grace, Fighting With Spirit. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Turkington, Carol, and William LiPera. The Encyclopedia of Cancer. New York: Facts on File, 2005.

      91. Chronic Diseases

      Fogel, Robert W. Changes in the Disparities in Chronic Disease During the Course of the Twentieth Century. NBER Working Paper No. 10311. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Fraser, Gary E. Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Kane, Robert L., Reinhard Priester, and Annette M. Totten. Meeting the Challenge of Chronic Illness. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Kuh, Diana, and Yoav Ben Shlomo, eds. A Life Course Approach to Chronic Diseases Epidemiology. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Lubkin, Ilene Morof, and Pamala D. Larsen, eds. Chronic Illness: Impact and Interventions. 6th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Morewitz, Stephen J. Chronic Diseases and Health Care: New Trends in Diabetes, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Fibromyalgia, Low Back Pain, Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Nuovo, Jim, ed. Chronic Disease Management. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Van Zwanenberg, Patrick, and Erik Millstone. BSE: Risk, Science, and Governance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. (BSE stands for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease.)

      Wakley, Gill, and Ruth Chambers, eds. Chronic Disease Management in Primary Care: Quality and Outcomes. Seattle, WA: Radcliffe, 2005.

      Webster, Barbara D. All of a Piece: A Life With Multiple Sclerosis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

      Zazworsky, Donna, Jane Nelson Bolin, and Vicki Gaubeca. Handbook of Diabetes Management. New York: Springer, 2005.

      92. Diabetes

      American Diabetes Association. Diabetes 411: Facts, Figures, and Statistics at a Glance. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association, 2005.

      American Pharmacists Association. Pharmacist Disease Management: Diabetes. 3d ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2005.

      Barnett, Anthony H. Applying the Evidence: Clinical Trials in Diabetes. Chicago: Remedica, 2005. Diabetes Mellitus: A Guide to Patient Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

      Fonseca, Vivian A. Clinical Diabetes: Translating Research Into Practice. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2006.

      Hartley, David, Erika C. Ziller, and Caroline MacDonald. Diabetes and the Rural Safety Net. Portland: University of Southern Maine, Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Services, Maine Rural Health Research Center, 2002.

      Mantzoros, Christos S., ed. Obesity and Diabetes. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2006.

      Mazze, R. S., et al. Staged Diabetes Management: A Systematic Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

      McDowell, Joan R. S., David M. Matthews, and Florence J. Brown, eds. Diabetes: A Handbook for the Primary Care Healthcare Team. New York: Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone, 2007.

      Mertig, Rita G. The Nurse's Guide to Teaching Diabetes Self-Management. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Petit, William A., and Christine Adamec. The Encyclopedia of Diabetes. New York: Facts on File, 2002.

      Ross, Tami, Jackie Boucher, and Belinda O'Connell, eds. American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes Medical Nutrition Therapy and Education. Chicago: American Dietetic Association, 2005.

      Unger, Jeff. Diabetes Management in Primary Care. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

      Zazworsky, Donna, Jane Nelson Bolin, and Vicki Gaubeca, eds. Handbook of Diabetes Management. New York: Springer, 2005.

      93. Emerging Diseases

      Abraham, Thomas. Twenty-First Century Plague: The Story of SARS. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Davis, Jonathan R., and Joshua Lederberg, eds., and Division of Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Public Health Systems and Emerging Infections: Assessing the Capabilities of the Public and Private Sectors. Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Gualde, Norbert. Resistance: The Human Struggle Against Infection. New York: Dana Press, 2006.

      Laxminarayan, Ramanan, Anup Malani, David Howard, et al. Extending the Cure: Policy Responses to the Growing Threat of Antibiotic Resistence. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 2007.

      Packard, Randall M., Peter J. Brown, Ruth Berkelman, et al., eds. Emerging Illnesses and Society: Negotiating the Public Health Agenda. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2004.

      Tambyah, Paul A., and Ping-Chung Leung. Bird Flu: A Rising Pandemic in Asia and Beyond? Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2006.

      94. Heart Disease

      Jeffrey, Kirk. Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Krumholz, H. M., and F. A. Masoudi. “The Year in Epidemiology, Health Services Research, and Outcomes Research,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 48(9): 1886–95, November 7, 2006.

      Marmot, Michael, and Paul Elliott, eds. Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Naill, Catherine A., Edward B. Clark, and Carleen Clark. The Heart of a Child: What Families Need to Know About Health Disorders in Children. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Rosendorff, Clive, ed. Essential Cardiology: Principles and Practice. 2d ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2005.

      95. Hypertension

      Battegay, Edouard J., Gregory Y. H. Lip, and George L. Bakris, eds. Hypertension: Principles and Practice. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2005.

      Beevers, D. Gareth, Gregory Y. H. Lip, and Eoin O'Brien. ABC of Hypertension. 5th ed. Malden, MA: BMJ Books, 2007.

      Benhagen, Elwood F., ed. Hypertension: New Research. New York: Nova Biomedical Books, 2005.

      Cheng-Lai, Angela, James Nawarskas, and William H. Frishman. Hypertension: A Clinical Guide. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

      Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline: Hypertension Diagnosis and Treatment. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, 2006.

      Kaplan, Norman M., and Joseph T. Flynn. Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2006.

      Khatib, Oussama M. N. Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2005.

      Korner, Paul I. Essential Hypertension and Its Causes: Neural and Non-Neural Mechanisms. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Long, Genia, David M. Cutler, Ernst R. Berndt, et al. The Impact of Antihypertensive Drugs on the Number and Risk of Death, Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in the United States. NBER Working Paper No. 12096. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      MacGregor, Graham, and Norman M. Kaplan. Hypertension. 3d ed. Abingdon, UK: Health Press, 2006.

      Matthews, Dawn D., and Karen Bellenir, eds. Hypertension Sourcebook. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004.

      Miller, G. Edward, and Marc Zodel. Trends in the Pharmaceutical Treatment of Hypertension: 1997 to 2003. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2006.

      Weir, Matthew R., ed. Hypertension. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 2005.

      96. Iatrogenic Diseases and Nosocomial Infections

      Baughman, Robert P. Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Nosocomial Pneumonias. Newtown, PA: Handbooks in Health Care, 2005.

      D'Arcy, Patrick Francis, and John Parry Griffin, eds. Iatrogenic Disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

      Jarvis, William R., ed. Nosocomial Pneumonia. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000.

      Paste, Loomis Richie. Iatrogenic Diseases: Medical Subject Analysis and Research Guide With Bibliography. Washington, DC: Abbe Publishers Association, 1985.

      Preger, Leslie, ed. Iatrogenic Diseases. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1986.

      Raje, Ravindra R., and Priscila D. Wong. Iatrogenic Diseases. Westbury, NY: PJD, 1999.

      Tisdale, James E., and Douglas A. Miller, eds. Drug-Induced Diseases: Prevention, Detection, and Management. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2005.

      Wenzel, Richard P. Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003.

      97. Injuries and Trauma

      Christoffel, Tom, and Susan Scavo Gallagher. Injury Prevention and Public Health: Practical Knowledge, Skills, and Strategies. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Doll, Lynda, Sandra Bonzo, James Mercy, et al. Handbook of Injury and Violence Prevention. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Committee on Trauma Research, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Injury in America: A Continuing Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1985.

      Finkelstein, Eric A., Phaedra S. Corso, and Ted R. Miller. The Incidence and Economic Burden of Injuries in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Garrick, Jacqueline, and Mary Beth Williams, eds. Trauma Treatment Techniques: Innovative Trends. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press, 2006.

      Gielen, Andrea Carlson, David A. Sleet, and Ralph J. DiClemente, eds. Injury and Violence Prevention: Behavioral Science Theories, Methods, and Applications. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      Palmer, Sara, Kay Harris Kriegsman, and Jeffery B. Palmer. Spinal Cord Injury: A Guide for Living. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

      Robertson, Leon S. Injury Epidemiology: Research and Control Strategies. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      98. Stroke

      American Medical Directors Association. Stroke Management and Prevention in the Long-Term Care Setting. Columbia, MD: American Medical Directors Association, 2005.

      Barnes, Michael P., Bruce H. Dobkin, and Julien Bogousslavsky, eds. Recovery After Stroke. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

      Bhardwaj, Anish, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, et al., eds. Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007.

      Bogousslavsky, Julien, Louis R. Caplan, Helen M. Dewey, et al. Stroke: Selected Topics. New York: Demos Medical, 2006.

      Brown, Martin M., Hugh Markus, and Stephen Oppenheimer. Stroke Medicine. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006.

      Casper, Michele, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlas of Stroke Mortality: Racial, Ethnic, and Geographic Disparities in the United States. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2003.

      Gillen, Glen, and Ann Burkhardt, eds. Stroke Rehabilitation: A Function-Based Approach. 2d ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Elsevier, 2004.

      Hankey, Graeme J. Stroke Treatment and Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

      Hennerici, Michael, Michael Daffertshofer, Louis Caplan, et al. Case Studies in Stroke: Common and Uncommon Presentations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guidelines: Diagnosis and Initial Treatment of Ischemic Stroke. 5th ed. Bloomington, MA: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, 2006.

      Intercollegiate Working Party for Stroke. National Clinical Guidelines for Stroke. 2d ed. London: Royal College of Physicians, Clinical Effectiveness and Evaluation Unit, 2004.

      Massaro, Lori M. Stroke Care: The Guide to JCAHO Certification. Marblehead, MA: HCPro, 2006.

      Moon, Lynelle. Stroke Care in OECD Countries: A Comparison of Treatment, Costs, and Outcomes in 17 Countries. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Directorate for Employment, Labor and Social Affairs, Employment, Labor and Social Affairs Committee, 2003.

      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Improving the Chain of Recovery for Acute Stroke in Your Community: Task Force Reports. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Office of Communications and Public Liaison, 2003.

      Ruper, Garret D., ed. New Developments in Stroke Research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science, 2006.

      Rymer, Marilyn M., Debbie Summers, Pooja Khatri, et al. The Stroke Center Handbook: Organizing Care for Better Outcomes: A Guide to Stroke Center Development and Operations. Boca Raton, FL: Informa Healthcare, 2007.

      Sharma, Mukul. Acute Stroke: Evaluation and Treatment. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2005.

      Stein, Joel, Julie Silver, and Elizabeth Pegg Frates. Life After Stroke: The Guide to Recovering Your Health and Preventing Another Stroke. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Torbey, Michel T., and Magdy H. Selim, eds. The Stroke Book. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Virani, Tazim. Stroke Assessment Across the Continuum of Care. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Registered Nurses Association of Ontario, Nursing Best Practice Guidelines Program, 2005.

      Wiebers, David O., Valery L. Feigin, and Robert D. Brown. Handbook of Stroke. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2006.

      Wityk, Robert J., and Rafael H. Llinas. Stroke. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 2007.

      XI. Mental Health and Behavioral Disorders

      Mental health is the level of an individual's cognitive well-being and functioning. Behavioral disorders are a pattern of disruptive, hostile, and potentially aggressive misconduct.

      99. Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

      Ballenger, Jesse F. Self, Senility, and Alzheimer's Disease in Modern America: A History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Binstock, Robert H., Stephen G. Post, and Peter J. Whitehouse, eds. Dementia and Aging: Ethics, Values and Policy Choices. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

      California Workgroup on Guidelines for Alzheimer's Disease Management. Guidelines for Alzheimer's Disease Management: Final Report. Los Angeles: State of California, Department of Health Services, 2002.

      Emery, V., Olga B., and Thomas E. Oxman, eds. Dementia: Presentations, Differential Diagnosis, and Nosology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Harris, Phyllis Braudy, ed. The Person With Alzheimer's Disease: Pathways to Understanding the Experience. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      LooboPrabhu, Sheila M., Victor A. Molinari, and James W. Lomax, eds. Supporting the Caregiver in Dementia: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Moore, Elaine A., and Lisa Moore. Encyclopedia of Alzheimer's Disease: With Directories of Research, Treatment and Care Facilities. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2003.

      Nasso, Jackie, and Lisa Celia. Dementia Care: Inservice Training Modules for Long-Term Care. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2007.

      Post, Stephen G. The Moral Challenge of Alzheimer Disease: Ethical Issues From Diagnosis to Dying. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

      Purtilo, Ruth B., and Henk A. M. J. van Have, eds. Ethical Foundations of Palliative Care for Alzheimer Disease. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Turkington, Carol. The Encyclopedia of Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

      Welsh, Eileen M., ed. Trends in Alzheimer's Disease Research. New York: Nova Science, 2006.

      Whitehouse, Peter J., Konrad Maurer, and Jesse F. Ballenger, eds. Concepts of Alzheimer Disease: Biological, Clinical, and Cultural Perspectives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Zgola, Jika M. Care That Works: A Relationship Approach to Persons With Dementia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      100. Depression

      Allen, Jon G. Coping With Depression: From Catch-22 to Hope. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2006.

      El-Mallakh, Rif S., and S. Nassir Ghaemi, eds. Bipolar Depression: A Comprehensive Guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2006.

      Gilliam, Frank G., Andres M. Kanner, and Yvette I. Sheline, eds. Depression and Brain Dysfunction. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006.

      Henri, Maurice J., ed. Trends in Depression Research. New York: Nova Science, 2006.

      Martin, Emily. Bipolar Expeditions: Mania and Depression in American Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

      Mondimore, Francis Mark. Depression, the Mood Disease. 3d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Munoz, Richardo F., and Yu-Wen Ying. The Prevention of Depression: Research and Practice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Pettit, Jeremy W., and Thomas E. Joiner. Chronic Depression: Interpersonal Sources, Therapeutic Solutions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2006.

      Steptoe, Andrew, ed. Depression and Physical Illness. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Wasserman, Danuta. Depression: The Facts. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      101. Mental Health

      Ahles, Scott R. Our Inner World: A Guide to Psychodynamics and Psychotherapy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Arbuckle, Margaret Bordeaux, and Charlotte Herrick. Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Interdisciplinary Systems of Care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Avison, William, Jane McLeod, and Bernice Pescosolido, eds. Mental Health, Social Mirror. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Cohen, Raquel E., and Frederick L. Ahrens. Handbook for Mental Health Care of Disaster Victims. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Findling, Robert L., and S. Charles Schulz, eds. Juvenile-Onset Schizophrenia: Assessment, Neurobiology, and Treatment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Frank, Richard G., and Sherry A. Glied. Better but not Well: Mental Health Policy in the United States Since 1950. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Frank, Richard G., and Willard G. Manning, eds. Economics and Mental Health. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

      Gedo, John E. Psychoanalysis as Biological Science: A Comprehensive Theory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Ghaemi, S. Nassir. The Concepts of Psychiatry: A Pluralistic Approach to the Mind and Mental Illness. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Ingleby, David, ed. Forced Migration and Mental Health: Rethinking the Care of Refugees and Displaced Persons. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Institute of Medicine. Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, 2006.

      Kahn, Ada P., and Jan Fawcett. The Encyclopedia of Mental Health. 3d ed. New York: Facts on File, 2007.

      Levin, Bruce Lubotsky, John Petrila, and Kevin D. Hennessy. Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      McHugh, Paul R. The Mind Has Mountains: Reflections on Society and Psychiatry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Moniz, Cynthia, and Stephen H. Gorin. Health and Mental Health Care Policy: A Biopsychosocial Perspective. 2d ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2007.

      Perrin, Edward B., and Jeffrey J. Koshel, eds., and Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Assessment of Performance Measures for Public Health, Substance Abuse, and Mental Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

      Sadler, John Z., ed. Descriptions and Prescriptions: Values, Mental Disorders, and the DSMs. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Slade, Mike, and Stefan Priebe, eds. Choosing Methods in Mental Health Research: Mental Health Research From Theory to Practice. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Slavney, Phillip R. Psychotherapy: An Introduction for Psychiatry Residents and Other Mental Health Trainees. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Treisman, Glenn J., and Andrew F. Angelino. The Psychiatry of AIDS: A Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Zarit, Steven H., and Judy M. Zarit. Mental Disorders in Older Adults: Fundamentals of Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 2007.

      102. Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Nutrition

      Cassell, Dana K., and David H. Gleaves. The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders. 3d ed. New York: Facts on File, 2006.

      Crawford, David, and Robert W. Jeffery, eds. Obesity Prevention and Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Flamenbaum, Richard K., ed. Global Dimensions of Childhood Obesity. New York: Nova Science, 2006.

      Hassink, Sandra Gibson. A Clinical Guide to Pediatric Weight Management and Obesity. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

      Hassink, Sandra Gibson. Pediatric Obesity: Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment Strategies for Primary Care. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2007.

      Institute of Medicine. Perspectives on the Prevention of Childhood Obesity in Children and Youth. The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Lectures, 2004. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Institute of Medicine. Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Schools. Brief Summary: Institute of Medicine Regional Symposium, Wichita, KS (June 27–28, 2005). Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Jelalian, Elissa, and Ric G. Steele, eds. Handbook of Child and Adolescent Obesity. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Kumanyika, Shiriki, and Ross Brownson, eds. Obesity and Obesity Prevention: A Handbook for Health Professionals. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Kushner, Robert F., and Daniel H. Bessesen, eds. Treatment of the Obese Patient. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2007.

      Mantzoros, Christos S., ed. Obesity and Diabetes. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2006.

      Mehler, Philip S., and Arnold E. Andersen, eds. Eating Disorders: A Guide to Medical Care and Complications. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

      Michel, Deborah M., and Susan G. Willard. When Dieting Becomes Dangerous: A Guide to Understanding and Treating Anorexia and Bulimia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.

      Oliver, J. Eric. Fat Politics: The Real Story Behind America's Obesity Epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Paxson, Christina, Elisabeth Donahue, Tracy Orleans, et al., eds. Childhood Obesity. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2006.

      Ronzio, Robert A. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health. 2d ed. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

      Rosenthal, Jill, and Deborah Chang. State Approaches to Childhood Obesity: A Snapshot of Promising Practices and Lessons Learned. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 2004.

      Rubin, Jerome S., ed. Eating Disorders and Weight Loss Research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science, 2006.

      Sattar, Naveed, and Mike Lean, eds. ABC of Obesity. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

      Shils, Maurice E., Moshe Shike, A. Catharine Ross, et al., eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2006.

      103. Substance Abuse

      Acker, Caroline Jean. Creating the American Junkie: Addiction Research in the Classic Era of Narcotic Control. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Armstrong, Elizabeth M. Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Babor, Thomas. Alcohol and Public Policy: No Ordinary Commodity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Bonnie, Richard J., and Mary Ellen O'Connell, eds., and Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2004.

      Committee on Crossing the Quality Chasm: Adaptation to Mental Health and Addictive Disorders. Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Care Services, Committee on Crossing the Quality Chasm: Adaptation to Mental Health and Addictive Disorders, 2006.

      Galanter, Marc, D. Lagressa, G. Boyd, et al., eds. Alcohol Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults: Epidemiology, Neurobiology, Prevention, and Treatment. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Miller, Richard Lawrence. The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002.

      Mosher, Clayton J., and Scott Akins. Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

      National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Women Under the Influence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Perrin, Edward B., and Jeffrey J. Koshel, eds., and Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Assessment of Performance Measures for Public Health, Substance Abuse, and Mental Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

      Sloboda, Zili. Epidemiology of Drug Abuse. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Strain, Eric C., and Maxine L. Stitzer, eds. The Treatment of Opioid Dependence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Sutton, Amy L., ed. Alcoholism Source Book: Basic Consumer Health Information About Alcohol Use, Abuse, and Dependence. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2006.

      Winger, Gail, James H. Woods, and Frederick G. Hofmann. A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      104. Tobacco Use

      Boyle, Peter, Nigel Gray, Jack Henningfield, et al., eds. Tobacco: Science, Policy and Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Forey, Barbara, Jan Hamling, and Peter Lee, eds. International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data From Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      Goodman, Jordan, ed. Tobacco in History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2005.

      Lynch, Barbara S., and Richard J. Bonnie, eds., and Committee on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths, Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine. Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.

      Pampel, Fred C. Tobacco Industry and Smoking. New York: Facts on File, 2004.

      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006.

      Viscusi, W. Kip. Smoke-Filled Rooms: A Postmortem on the Tobacco Deal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

      Warner, Kenneth E., Stephen L. Isaacs, and James Knickman. Tobacco Control Policy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

      XII. Aging, Disability, and Long-Term Care

      Aging is the process of getting older, and it is concerned with issues of the elderly. Disability is the lack of ability as compared with a normal group of individuals. Long-term care is the care that is provided to the chronically ill and the disabled.

      105. Aging and the Elderly

      Aaron, Henry J., and William B. Schwartz, eds. Coping With Methuselah: The Impact of Molecular Biology on Medicine and Society. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004.

      Achenbaum, W., Andrew. Older Americans, Vital Communities: A Bold Vision for Societal Aging. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Altman, Stuart H., and David I. Shactman, eds. Policies for an Aging Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Anderson, Mary Ann, ed. Caring for Older Adults Holistically. 4th ed. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 2007.

      Atchley, Robert C. Continuity and Adaptation in Aging: Creating Positive Experiences. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

      Binstock, Robert H., and Linda K. George, eds. Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences. 5th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2001.

      Binstock, Robert H., and Stephen Post. Too Old for Health Care? Controversies in Medicine, Law, Economics, and Ethics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

      Bond, John, Sheila M. Peace, Freya Dittmann-Kohli, et al., eds. Ageing in Society. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007.

      Butler, Robert N. Why Survive? Being Old in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Conn, P. Michael, ed. Handbook of Models for Human Aging. Boston: Elsevier Academic Press, 2006.

      Dangour, Alan, Astrid Fletcher, and Emily Grundy, eds. Ageing Well: Nutrition, Health, and Social Interventions. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, 2007.

      Ekerdt, David J. Encyclopedia of Aging. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2002.

      Hickey, Tom, Marjorie A. Speers, and Thomas R. Prohaska, eds. Public Health and Aging. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

      Kandel, Joseph, and Christine A. Adamec. The Encyclopedia of Senior Health and Well-Being. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

      Karasek, Michal, ed. Aging and Age-Related Diseases: The Basics. New York: Nova Biomedical, 2006.

      Kausler, Donald, and Barry C. Kausler, eds. The Graying of America: An Encyclopedia of Aging, Health, Mind, and Behavior. 2d ed. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

      Kemp, Bryan J., and Laura Mosqueda, eds. Aging With a Disability: What the Clinician Needs to Know. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Levine, Martin Lyon, ed. The Elderly: Legal and Ethical Issues in Health Care Policy. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001.

      Loue, Sana, and M. Sajatovic, eds. Encyclopedia of Aging and Public Health. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Markides, Kyriakos S., ed. Encyclopedia of Health and Aging. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007.

      Moody, Harry R. Aging: Concepts and Controversies. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

      Morrow-Howell, Nancy, James Hinterlong, and Michael Sherraden, eds. Productive Aging: Concepts and Challenges. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Rattan, Suresh I. S., ed. Aging Interventions and Therapies. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2005.

      Romeis, James C., and Rodney M. Coe, eds. Quality and Cost-Containment in Care for the Elderly: Health Services Research Perspectives. New York: Springer, 1991.

      Satariano, William A. Epidemiology of Aging: An Ecological Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Schulz, Richard, Linda S. Noelker, Kenneth Rockwood, et al., eds. The Encyclopedia of Aging: A Comprehensive Resource in Gerontology and Geriatrics. 4th ed. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Schwarz, Benyamin, and Ruth Brent, eds. Aging, Autonomy, and Architecture: Advances in Assisted Living. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Walters, James W. Choosing Who's to Live: Ethics and Aging. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1996.

      Wise, David A. Advances in the Economics of Aging. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

      106. Assisted Living

      Allen, James E. Assisted Living Administration: The Knowledge Base. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2004.

      Ball, Mary M., Molly M. Perkins, Frank J. Whittington, et al. Communities of Care: Assisted Living for African American Elders. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Marsden, John P. Humanistic Design of Assisted Living. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Schwarz, Benyamin, and Ruth Brent, eds. Aging, Autonomy, and Architecture: Advances in Assisted Living. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Zimmerman, Sheryl, Philip D. Sloane, and J. Kevin Eckart, eds. Assisted Living: Needs, Practices, and Policies in Residential Care for the Elderly. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      107. Disability

      Albrecht, Gary L. The Disability Business: Rehabilitation in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1992.

      Albrecht, Gary L., Jerome Bickenbach, Scott Brown, et al., eds. Encyclopedia of Disability. 5 vols. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005.

      Albrecht, Gary L., Katherine D. Seelman, and Michael Bury, eds. Handbook of Disability Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.

      Davis, Lennard J., ed. The Disability Studies Reader. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Iezzoni, Lisa I., and Bonnie L. O'Day. More Than Ramps: A Guide to Improving Health Care Quality and Access for People With Disabilities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Jones, Nancy Lee. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Overview, Regulations and Interpretations. New York: Nova Science, 2003.

      Kemp, Bryan J., and Laura Mosqueda, eds. Aging With a Disability: What the Clinician Needs to Know. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Racino, Julie Ann. Policy, Program Evaluation, and Research in Disability: Community Support for All. New York: Haworth, 1999.

      Resources for Rehabilitation. Resources for Elders With Disabilities. 5th ed. Winchester, MA: Resources for Rehabilitation, 2003.

      Schultz, Izabela Z., and Robert J. Gatchel. Handbook of Complex Occupational Disability Claims: Early Risk Identification, Intervention, and Prevention. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Snyder, Sharon L., and David T. Mitchell. Cultural Locations of Disability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

      Turner, David M., and Kevin Stagg, eds. Social Histories of Disability and Deformity. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Wiener, Joshua M., Steven B. Clauser, and David L. Kennell, eds. Persons With Disabilities: Issues in Health Care Financing and Service Delivery. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.

      108. End-of-Life Care

      Bearison, David J. When Treatment Fails: How Medicine Cares for Dying Children. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Casey, Michelle. Models for Providing Hospice Care in Rural Areas: Successes and Challenges. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Health Services Research and Policy, Rural Health Research Center, 2003.

      Cassell, Dana K., Robert C. Salinas, and Peter A. S. Winn. The Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. New York: Facts on File, 2005.

      Chen, Pauline W. Final Exam: A Young Surgeon's Reflections on Mortality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007.

      Enck, Robert E. The Medical Care of Terminally Ill Patients. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Field, Marilyn J., and Richard E. Behrman, eds., and Committee on Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Children and Their Families, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. When Children Die: Improving Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Children and Their Families. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      Foley, Kathleen, and Herbert Hendin, eds. The Case Against Assisted Suicide: For the Right to End-of-Life Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Gelfand, Donald E., Richard Raspa, Sherylyn H. Briller, et al., eds. End-of-Life Stories: Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries. New York: Springer, 2005.

      Institute of Medicine. Working Together: We Can Help People Get Good Care When They Are Dying. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Kaufman, Sharon R. And a Time to Die: How American Hospitals Shape the End of Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

      Kiernan, Stephen P. Last Rights: Rescuing the End of Life From the Medical System. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2006.

      Lantos, John D. The Lazarus Case: Life-and-Death Issues in Neonatal Intensive Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Lewis, Milton James. Medicine and Care of the Dying: A Modern History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      Lizza, John P. Persons, Humanity, and the Definition of Death. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Lynn, Joanne, Janice Lynch Schuster, and Andrea Kabcenell. Improving Care for the End of Life: A Sourcebook for Health Care Managers and Clinicians. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

      Mezey, Mathy D., and Nancy Neveloff Dubler, eds. Voices of Decision in Nursing Homes: Respecting Residents' Preferences for End-of-Life Care. New York: United Hospital Fund of New York, 2001.

      Quill, Timothy E. A Midwife Through the Dying Process: Stories of Healing and Hard Choices at the End of Life. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Quill, Timothy E., and Margaret P. Battin, eds. Physician-Assisted Dying: The Case for Palliative and Patient Choice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Sankar, Andrea. Dying at Home: A Family Guide to Caregiving. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Wanzer, Sidney H., and Joseph Glenmullen. To Die Well: Your Right to Comfort, Calm, and Choice in the Last Days of Life. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2007.

      Wetle, Terrie Todd, et al., eds. End of Life in Nursing Homes: Experiences and Policy Recommendations. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute, 2004.

      Youngner, Stuart J., Robert M. Arnold, and Renie Schapiro, eds. The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      109. Home Healthcare

      Buhler-Wilkerson, Karen. No Place Like Home: A History of Nursing and Home Care in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Harris, Marilyn D., ed. Handbook of Home Health Care Administration. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Ladd, Rosalind Ekman, Lynn Pasquerella, and Sheri Smith. Ethical Issues in Home Health Care. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 2002.

      Mullner, Ross M., and Mark Jewell. A Bibliography of Recent Works on Home Health Care. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2000.

      Rantz, Marilyn, and Marcia K. Flesner. Person Centered Care: A Model for Nursing Homes. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association, 2004.

      Rappaport, Meryl Beth. Remodeling Home Care: Making the Transition From Fee-for-Service to Managed Care. New York: Garland, 2000.

      U.S. General Accounting Office. Medicare: Utilization of Home Health Care by State. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2002.

      110. Nursing Homes and Long-Term Care

      Allen, James E. Nursing Home Federal Requirements: Guidelines to Surveyors and Survey Protocols. 6th ed. New York: Springer, 2007.

      Baker, Beth. Old Age in a New Age: The Promise of Transformative Nursing Homes. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2007.

      Bartlett, Helen C. Nursing Homes for Elderly People: Questions of Quality and Policy. Langhorne, PA: Harwood Academic, 1993.

      Binstock, Robert H., Leighton E. Cluff, and Otto von Mering, eds. The Future of Long-Term Care: Social and Policy Issues. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

      Bostick, J. E., M. J. Rantz, M. K. Flesner, et al. “Systematic Review of Studies of Staffing and Quality in Nursing Homes,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 7(6): 366–76, July 2006.

      Burger, Sarah Greene, Virginia Fraser, Sara Hunt, et al., eds. Nursing Homes: Getting Good Care There. 2d ed. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers, 2002.

      Burke, Steven S., and Tessa L. Chenaille. 30 Essential Policies and Procedures for Long-Term Care. Marblehead, MA: HCPro, 2006.

      Cawley, John H., David C. Grabowski, and Richard A. Hirth. Factor Substitution and Unobserved Factor Quality in Nursing Homes. NBER Working Paper No. 10465. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2004.

      Dalton, Kathleen. Background Paper: Rural and Urban Differences in Nursing Home and Skilled Nursing Supply. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, 2002.

      Evashwick, Connie, and James Riedel. Managing Long-Term Care. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Freiman, Marc P. A New Look at U.S. Expenditures for Long-Term Care and Independent Living Services, Settings, and Technologies for the Year 2000. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute, 2005.

      Gaugler, Joseph E., ed. Promoting Family Involvement in Long-Term Care Settings: A Guide to Programs That Work. Baltimore: Health Professions Press, 2005.

      Harris, Diana K., and Michael L. Benson. Maltreatment of Patients in Nursing Homes: There Is No Safe Place. New York: Haworth Pastoral Press, 2006.

      Hegner, Barbara R., and Mary Jo Gerlach, eds. Assisting in Long-Term Care. 5th ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2007.

      Institute of Medicine. Toward a National Strategy for Long-Term Care of the Elderly: A Study Plan for Evaluation of New Policy Options for the Future. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1986.

      Kane, Robert L., and Joan C. West. It Shouldn't Be This Way: The Failure of Long-Term Care. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2005.

      Kane, Rosalie A., Robert L. Kane, and Richard C. Ladd. The Heart of Long-Term Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

      Levine, Jeffery M., ed. Medical-Legal Aspects of Long-Term Care. Tucson, AZ: Lawyers and Judges Publishing, 2003.

      Olson, Laura Katz. The Not-So-Golden Years: Caregiving, the Frail Elderly, and the Long-Term Care Establishment. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

      Phillips, Charles D., Catherine Hawes, and Malgorzata Leyk Williams. Nursing Homes in Rural and Urban Areas, 2000. College Station, TX: Southwest Rural Health Research Center, 2003.

      Pratt, John R. Long-Term Care: Managing Across the Continuum. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Rhoades, Jeffrey A., D. E. B. Potter, and Nancy Krauss. Nursing Homes: Structure and Selected Characteristics: 1996. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1998.

      Scanlon, William. Nursing Homes: Prevalence of Serious Quality Problems Remains Unacceptably High, Despite Some Decline: Testimony Before the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003.

      Silin, Peter S. Nursing Homes: The Family's Journey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Singh, Douglas A. Effective Management of Long-Term Care Facilities. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Financing Long-Term Care for the Elderly. Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office, 2004.

      U.S. Congressional Budget Office. The Cost and Financing of Long-Term Care Services. CBO Testimony Statement of Douglas Holtz-Eakin Before the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, April 19, 2005.

      U.S. Government Accountability Office. Nursing Home Deaths: Arkansas Coroner Referrals Confirm Weakness in State and Federal Oversight of Quality of Care: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2004.

      Winzelberg, G. S. “The Quest for Nursing Home Quality: Learning History's Lessons,” Archives of Internal Medicine 163(21): 2552–56, November 24, 2003.

      Wood, Erica. Termination and Closure of Poor Quality Nursing Homes: What Are the Options? Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute, 2002.

      Wunderlich, Gooloo S., and Peter O. Kohler, eds., and Committee on Improving Quality in Long-Term Care, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Improving the Quality of Long-Term Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Yoshikawa, Thomas T., and Joseph G. Ouslander, eds. Infection Management for Geriatrics in Long-Term Care Facilities. 2d ed. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007.

      XIII. Other

      This section includes a potpourri of selected topics in health services research and provides an amalgam of informative readings.

      111. Bioterrorism

      Antosia, Robert E., and John D. Cahill, eds. Handbook of Bioterrorism and Disaster Medicine. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Butler, Adrienne Stith, Allison M. Panzer, and Lewis R. Goldfrank, eds., and Committee on Responding to the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism, Institute of Medicine. Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism: A Public Health Strategy. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.

      D'Arcy, Michael, Michael O'Hanlon, Peter Orszag, et al. Protecting the Homeland 2006/2007. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2006.

      Demuth, Julie L. Countering Terrorism: Lessons Learned From Natural and Technological Disasters: A Summary of the Natural Disasters Roundtable. National Academy of Sciences Conference, Washington, DC (February 28–March 1, 2002). Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2002.

      Greenberg, Michael I. Encyclopedia of Terrorist, Natural, and Man-Made Disasters. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      Griset, Pamala L., and Sue Mahan. Terrorism in Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002.

      Henderson, Donald A., Thomas V. Ingelsby, and Tara O'Toole, eds. Bioterrorism: Guidelines for Medical and Public Health Management. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2002.

      Levy, Barry S., and Victor W. Sidel, eds. Terrorism and Public Health: A Balanced Approach to Strengthening Systems and Protecting People. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

      McGlown, K. Joanne, ed. Terrorism and Disaster Management: Preparing Healthcare Leaders for the New Reality. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Pilch, Richard F., and Raymond A. Zilinskas, eds. Encyclopedia of Bioterrorism Defense. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-LISS, 2005.

      Trotter, Griffin. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      112. E-Health and Telemedicine

      Bashshur, Rashid. State of the Art: Telemedicine/Telehealth Symposium: An International Persepective: Abstract, Executive and Final Report of Symposium. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Research Dissemination and Liaison, 2001. (The symposium was held at the University of Michigan in 2001)

      Demiris, George, ed. E-Health: Current Status and Future Trends. Washington, DC: IOS Press, 2004.

      Goldsmith, Jeff. Digital Medicine: Implications for Healthcare Leaders. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2003.

      Hersh, William R., and James A. Wallace. Telemedicine for the Medicare Population. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2001.

      Lingle, Virginia A., and Eric P. Delozier, eds. World Wide Web and Other Internet Information Services in the Health Sciences: A Collection of Policy and Procedure Statements. Chicago: Medical Library Association, 1996.

      Maheu, Marlene M., Pamela Whitten, and Ace Allen. E-Health, Telehealth, and Telemedicine: A Guide to Start-Up and Success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Norris, Anthony Charles. Essentials of Telemedicine and Telecare. New York: Wiley, 2002.

      Schrimsher, Robert H., and T. Harmon Straiton Jr. Health Data on the Internet: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide. Chicago: Medical Library Association, 1999.

      Tan, Joseph, ed. E-Health Care Information Systems: An Introduction for Students and Professionals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Telemedicine and Telecommunications: Options for the New Century: Program Book. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, Office of High Performance Computing and Communications, 2001.

      Whitten, Pamela, and David Cook, eds. Understanding Health Communication Technologies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Wootton, Richard, John Craig, and Victor Patterson, eds. Introduction to Telemedicine. 2d ed. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2006.

      113. Fraud and Abuse

      Baumann, Linda A., ed. Health Care Fraud and Abuse: Practical Perspectives. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs Press, 2002.

      Nathanson, Martha Dale, and Carel T. Hedlund. Home Care Fraud and Abuse: Critical Questions, Essential Answers. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, 1999.

      Sparrow, Malcolm K. License to Steal: How Fraud Bleeds America's Health Care System. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.

      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Justice. Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control Program Annual Report for FY2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Department of Justice, 2006.

      U.S. General Accountability Office. Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control Programs: Results of Review of Annual Reports for Fiscal Years 2002 and 2003: Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2005.

      U.S. General Accountability Office. Medicaid Fraud and Abuse: CMS's Commitment to Helping States Safeguard Program Dollars Is Limited: Testimony Before the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2005.

      114. Future Trends

      Berwick, Donald M. Escape Fire: Designs for the Future of Health Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Ellis, David. Technology and the Future of Health Care: Preparing for the Next 30 Years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Enthoven, Alain C., and Laura A. Tollen, eds. Toward a 21st Century Health System: The Contribution and Promise of Prepaid Group Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Geisler, Eliezer, Koos Krabbendam, and Roel Schuring, eds. Technology, Health Care, and Management in Hospitals of the Future. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

      Institute for the Future. Health and Health Care 2010: Forecast, the Challenge. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

      Institute of Medicine. Informing the Future: Critical Issues in Health. 3d ed. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

      Institute of Medicine. 2020 Vision: Health in the 21st Century. Institute of Medicine 25th Anniversary Symposium. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

      Lutz, Sandy, Woodrin Grossman, and John Bigalke. Med Inc.: How Consolidation Is Shaping Tomorrow's Healthcare System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

      Morrison, Ian. Health Care in the New Millennium: Vision, Values, and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Showstack, Jonathan, Arlyss Anderson Rothman, and Sue Hasmiller, eds. The Future of Primary Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

      Silberglitt, Richard, Philip S. Anton, David R. Howell, et al. The Global Technology Revolution 2020: Bio, Nano, Materials, Information Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2006.

      Society for Healthcare Strategy and Market Development and American College of Healthcare Executives. Futurescan: Healthcare Trends and Implications, 2006–2011. Chicago: Health Administration Press/Society for Healthcare Strategy and Market Development, 2006.

      Styring, Willams, and Donald K. Jones. Health Care 2020: The Coming Collapse of Employer-Provided Health Care. Washington, DC: Hudson Institute, 1999.

      115. Genetics

      Alper, Joseph S., Catherine Ard, Jon Beckwith, et al., eds. The Double-Edged Helix: Social Implications of Genetics in a Diverse Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Chapman, Audrey R., and Mark S. Frankel, eds. Designing Our Descendants: The Promises and Perils of Genetic Modifications. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Childs, Barton. Genetic Medicine: A Logic of Disease. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Davies, Kevin. Cracking the Genome: Inside the Race to Unlock Human DNA. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Guttmacher, Alan E., Francis S. Collins, and Jeffrey M. Drazen, eds. Genomic Medicine: Articles From the New England Journal of Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Hernandez, Lyla M., ed., and Committee on Genomics and the Public's Health in the 21st Century, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine. Implications of Genomics for Public Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Holtzman, Neil A., and Michael S. Watson, eds. Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

      Jorde, Lynn B., ed. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

      Khoury, Muin J., Julian Little, and Wylie Burke. Human Genome Epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for Using Genetic Information to Improve Health and Prevent Disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Lindee, Susan. Moments of Truth in Genetic Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Milunsky, Aubrey, ed. Genetic Disorders and the Fetus: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment. 5th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      National Academies Keck Futures Initiative. The Genomic Revolution: Implications for Treatment and Control of Infectious Disease: Working Group Summaries. Conference held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies, Irvine, CA (November 10–13, 2005). Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Ness, Bryan D., ed. Encyclopedia of Genetics. 2 vols. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press, 2004.

      Nys, Herman. Genetic Testing: Patient's Rights, Insurance, and Employment: A Survey of Regulations in the European Union. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2002.

      Ott, Jurg. Analysis of Human Genetic Linkage. 3d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Parens, Erik, Audrey R. Chapman, and Nancy Press, eds. Wrestling With Behavioral Genetics: Science, Ethics, and Public Conversation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Parthasarathy, Shobita. Building Genetic Medicine: Technology, Breast Cancer, and the Comparative Politics of Health Care. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.

      Peltz, Gary, ed. Computational Genetics and Genomics: Tools for Understanding Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2005.

      Reilly, Philip. Is It in Your Genes? The Influence of Genes on Common Disorders and Diseases That Affect You and Your Family. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2004.

      Thomas, Duncan C. Statistical Methods in Genetic Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

      Tokar, Brian, ed. Redesigning Life? The Worldwide Challenge to Genetic Engineering. New York: Zed Books, 2001.

      Wailoo, Keith, and Stephen Pemberton. The Troubled Dream of Genetic Medicine: Ethnicity and Innovation in Tay-Sachs, Cystic Fibrosis, and Sickle Cell Disease. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      116. Health Planning

      Green, Andrew. An Introduction to Health Planning in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

      Hayward, Cynthia. Healthcare Facility Planning: Thinking Strategically. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      Hodges, Bonni C., and Donna M. Videto. Assessment and Planning in Health Programs. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2005.

      Issel, L. Michele. Health Program Planning and Evaluation: A Practical, Systematic Approach for Community Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

      Thomas, Richard K. Health Services Planning. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2003.

      Zuckerman, Alan M. Healthcare Strategic Planning. 2d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2005.

      117. Physician-Patient Relationship

      Defining the Patient-Physician Relationship for the 21st Century. Third Annual Disease Management Outcome Summit, Phoenix, AZ (October 30–November 2, 2003). Nashville, TN: American Healthways, 2004.

      Katz, Jay. The Silent World of Doctor and Patient. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

      Levi, Benjamin H. Respecting Patient Autonomy. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

      Ramsey, Paul. The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics. 2d ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

      Rosenblatt, R. A., G. E. Wright, L. M. Baldwin, et al. “The Effect of the Doctor-Patient Relationship on Emergency Department Use Among the Elderly,” American Journal of Public Health 90(1): 97–102, January 2000.

      Smith, James Monroe, ed. Producing Patient-Centered Health Care: Patient Perspectives About Health and Illness and the Physician/Patient Relationship. Westport, CT: Auburn House, 1999.

      Thurston, Jeffrey M. Death of Compassion: The Endangered Doctor-Patient Relationship. Waco, TX: WRS, 1996.

      Watts, David H. Bedside Manners: One Doctor's Reflections on the Oddly Intimate Encounters Between Patient and Healer. New York: Harmony Books, 2005.

      118. Privacy, Confidentiality, and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)

      Beaver, Kevin, and Rebecca Herold. The Practical Guide to HIPAA Privacy and Security Compliance. Boston: Auerbach, 2003.

      Black, Nick. “Secondary Use of Personal Data for Health and Health Services Research: Why Identifiable Data Are Essential,” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 8(3 Suppl. 1): 36–40, July 1, 2003.

      Chaikind, H. R., J. Hearne, B. Lyke, et al. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): Overview and Analysis. New York: Novinka Books, 2004.

      Committee on the Role of Institutional Review Boards in Health Services Research Data Privacy Protection, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Institutional Review Boards and Health Services Research Data Privacy: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2000.

      Dennis, Jill Callahan. Privacy and Confidentiality of Health Information. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

      Herdman, Roger, and Harold Moses, and National Cancer Policy Forum, Institute of Medicine. Effect of the HIPAA Privacy Rule on Health Research. In Proceedings of a Workshop Presented to the National Cancer Policy Forum. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

      Roach, William H. Medical Records and the Law. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

      119. Program Evaluation

      Aday, Lu Ann, Charles E. Begley, David R. Lairson, et al. Evaluating the Healthcare System: Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity. 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2004.

      Grembowski, David. The Practice of Health Program Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.

      Steckler, Allan, and Laura Linnan, eds. Process Evaluation for Public Interventions and Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

      Telfair, Joseph, Laura C. Leviton, and Jeanne S. Merchant. Evaluating Health and Human Service Programs in Community Settings: New Directions for Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Timmreck, Thomas C. Planning, Program Development, and Evaluation. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2003.

      Wynn, Barbara O., Arindam Dutta, and Martha I. Nelson. Challenges in Program Evaluation of Health Interventions in Developing Countries. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Center for Domestic and International Health Security, 2005.

      120. Technology Assessment

      Acemoglu, Daron, et al. Did Medicare Induce Pharmaceutical Innovation? NBER Working Paper No. 11949. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

      Aspden, Philip, ed., Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, Policy and Global Affairs, Board on Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Medical Innovation in the Changing Healthcare Marketplace: Conference Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

      Becker, Karen, and John J. Whyte, eds. Clinical Evaluation of Medical Devices: Principles and Case Studies. 2d ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2006.

      Coddington, Dean C., Keith D. Moore, and Elizabeth A. Fischer. Strategies for the New Health Care Marketplace: Managing the Convergence of Consumerism and Technology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Duesterburg, Thomas, David Weinshropp, and David Murray. Health Care Reform, Regulation, and Innovation in the Medical Device Industry: A Study of Competitiveness in a Vital U.S. Industry. Washington, DC: Hudson Institute, 1996.

      Eaton, Margaret L., and Donald L. Kennedy. Innovation in Medical Technology: Ethical Issues and Challenges. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

      Ellis, David. Technology and the Future of Health Care: Preparing for the Next 30 Years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

      Epstein, Richard A. Overdose: How Excessive Government Regulations Stifles Pharmaceutical Innovation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.

      Garber, Alan M., and Victor R. Fuchs. “The Expanding Role of Technology Assessment in Health Policy,” Stanford Law and Policy Review 3: 203–209, Fall 1991.

      Gedeon, Andras. Science and Technology in Medicine: An Illustrated Account Based on Ninety-Nine Landmark Publications From Five Centuries. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Geisler, Eliezer, Koos Krabbendam, and Roel Schuring, eds. Technology, Health Care, and Management in the Hospitals of the Future. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

      Gelijns, Annetine C., and Holly V. Dawkins, eds., and Committee on Technology Innovation in Medicine, Institute of Medicine. Adopting New Medical Technology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.

      Halley, D. Australian Experience in the Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Policy on Medical Technology. West Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia: National Centre for Health Program Evaluation, 1996.

      Hanna, Kathi E., Frederick J. Manning, Peter Bouxsein, et al., and Roundtable on Research and Development of Drugs, Biologics, and Medical Devices, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Innovation and Invention in Medical Devices: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001.

      Jeffrey, Kirk. Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

      Lantos, John D., and William L. Meadow. Neonatal Bioethics: The Moral Challenges of Medical Innovation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

      Mohr, Penny E., Curt Mueller, Peter Neumann, et al. The Impact of Medical Technology on Future Health Care Costs. Bethesda, MD: Center for Health Affairs, Project HOPE, 2001.

      Patlak, Margie, Sharyl J. Nass, I. Craig Henderson, et al., eds., Committee on the Early Detection of Breast Cancer, National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine, and Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Mammography and Beyond: Developing Technologies for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer: A Non-Technical Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Rosenau, R. V. “Managing Medical Technology: Lessons for the United States From Quebec and France,” International Journal of Health Services 30(3): 617–39, 2000.

      Schacter, Bernice Zeldin. Issues and Dilemmas of Biotechnology: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.

      Schlich, Thomas, and Ulrich Trohler, eds. The Risks of Medical Innovation: Risk Perception and Assessment in Historical Context. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Silberglitt, Richard, Philip S. Anton, David R. Howell, et al. The Global Technology Revolution 2020: Bio, Nano, Materials, Information Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2006.

      Sloan, Frank A., and Chee-Ruey Hsieh, eds. Pharmaceutical Innovation: Incentives, and Cost-Benefit Analysis in International Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Spekowius, Gerhard, and Thomas Wendler, eds. Advances in Healthcare Technology: Shaping the Future of Medical Care. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Stelzer, Irwin, ed. Innovation in the Medical Technology Industries: Regulation, Competition, Reimbursement, and the Availability of Venture Capital. Washington, DC: Hudson Institute, 2002.

      Turisco, Fran, and Jane Metzger. Rural Health Care Delivery: Connecting Communities Through Technology. Oakland: California HealthCare Foundation, 2002.

      U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Tools for Evaluating Health Technologies: Five Background Papers. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1995.

      Wailoo, Keith. Drawing Blood: Technology and Disease Identity in Twentieth-Century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

      Webster, John G., ed. Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation. 2d ed. 6 vols. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006.

      121. Women's Health Issues

      Ammer, Christine. The Encyclopedia of Women's Health. 5th ed. New York: Facts on File, 2005.

      Clark, Rebecca A., Robert T. Maupin, and Jill Hayes Hammer. A Women's Guide to Living With HIV Infection. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Collins, Catherine Fisher, ed. African American Women's Health and Social Issues. 2d ed. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

      Coward, Raymond T., Lisa A. Davis, Carol H. Gold, et al., eds. Rural Women's Health: Mental, Behavioral, and Physical Issues. New York: Springer, 2006.

      Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of Women's Health Issues. Westport, CT: Oryx Press, 2002.

      Health Resources and Services Administration. Women's Health USA 2006. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006.

      James, Genie. Winning in the Women's Health Care Marketplace: A Comprehensive Plan for Health Care Strategists. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

      Kishor, Katherine Neitzel. The Status of Women: Indicators for Twenty-Five Countries. Calverton, MD: Macro International, 1996.

      Kramer, Elizabeth J., Susan L. Ivey, and Yu-Wen Ying, eds. Immigrant Women's Health: Problems and Solutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

      Kuh, Diana, and Rebecca Hardy, eds. A Life Course Approach to Women's Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

      Loue, Sana, and Martha Sajatovic. Encyclopedia of Women's Health. New York: Kluwer Academic Press/Plenum Press, 2004.

      Mastroianni, Anna C., Ruth Faden, and Daniel Federman, eds., and Committee on the Ethical and Legal Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies, Division of Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, vols. 1–2. Workshop and Commissioned Papers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994.

      Middleberg, Maurice I. Promoting Reproductive Security in Developing Countries. New York: Springer, 2003.

      Montz, F. J., Robert E. Bristow, and Paula J. Anastasia. A Guide to Survivorship for Women With Ovarian Cancer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Women Under the Influence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      O'Leary, Ann, and Loretta Sweet Jemmott. Women and AIDS: Coping and Care. New York: Springer, 1996.

      Olson, James S. Bathsheba's Breast: Women, Cancer, and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

      Wallach, Edward E., and Esther Eisenberg. Hysterectomy: Exploring Your Options. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

      Weisman, Carol S. Women's Health Care: Activist Traditions and Institutional Change. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

      World Health Organization. Women and Health: Better Health and Welfare Systems, Women's Perspectives. In Proceedings of a WHO Kobe Centre International Meeting, Awaji Yumebutai International Conference Centre (April 5–7, 2000). Kobe, Japan: World Health Organization, 2000.

      Appendix: Web Resources

      Appendix: Web resources

      This listing contains useful resources that are available on the Internet for selected topics of health services research. It contains a brief description of each topic and links to Web sites based on particular categories of interest. These links are current as of the publication date.

      Index
      • Academic Medical Centers
      • Accreditation, Certification, and Licensing
      • Adult Day Care
      • Advocacy, Education, and Research Organizations
      • African American Health
      • Aging
      • AIDS/HIV
      • Alcoholism
      • Allied Health
      • Alzheimer's Disease
      • Ambulatory Care
      • Ambulatory Surgery Centers
      • Anesthesiology
      • Antitrust
      • Arthritis and Rheumatism
      • Assisted Living
      • Asthma
      • Bioterrorism
      • Birth Defects
      • Blind and Visually Impaired
      • Blood and Blood Banks
      • Blood Disorders
      • Burn Care
      • Business Coalitions on Health
      • Canadian Healthcare Organizations
      • Cancer
      • Cardiology
      • Care Giving
      • Case Management
      • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
      • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
      • Certificate of Need (CON)
      • Childbirth
      • Child Development and Health
      • Chiropractic Care
      • Chronic Diseases
      • Clinical Laboratories
      • Clinical Practice Guidelines
      • Community Health Centers (CHCs)
      • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
      • Consumer-Directed Health Plans (CDHPs)
      • Consumer Health Information
      • Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery
      • Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
      • Critical Care
      • Deafness and Hearing Impairment
      • Dental Research
      • Dentistry
      • Dentistry, Public Health
      • Dermatology
      • Diabetes
      • Diet and Nutrition
      • Digestive Disorders
      • Disability
      • Disaster Preparedness and Relief
      • Disease and Procedure Classifications
      • Disease Management
      • Donors and Organ Transplantation
      • Drugs
      • Drugs, Generic
      • Drugs, Prices of
      • Eating Disorders
      • E-Health
      • Emergency Medicine
      • Emerging Diseases
      • Environmental Health
      • Epidemiology
      • Ethics 1255
      • Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)
      • Eye Diseases
      • Federal Government
      • Federal Health Information Centers and Clearinghouses
      • Fitness and Exercise
      • Foundations and Philanthropies
      • Fraud and Abuse
      • Genetics
      • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
      • Gerontology
      • Health
      • Health Administration, Association of Academic Programs of
      • Health Administration Programs, Graduate Programs in
      • Health Disparities
      • Health Economics, Academic Centers of
      • Health Economics, Associations of
      • Health Insurance
      • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
      • Health Law
      • Health Libraries and Information Centers
      • Health Literacy
      • Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) (See Managed Care)
      • Health Outcomes
      • Health Planning
      • Health Policy, Academic Centers of
      • Health Policy Organizations
      • Health Report Cards
      • Health Services Research, Academic and Training Centers of
      • Health Services Research, Associations and Foundations of
      • Health Services Research, History of
      • Health Services Research Journals
      • Health Statistics and Data Sources
      • Health Surveys
      • Healthcare Administration and Management
      • Healthcare Financial Management
      • Healthy People 2010
      • Heart Disease
      • Hispanic
      • Home Health Care
      • Hospice and Palliative Care
      • Hospital Infections and Nosocomial Diseases
      • Hospitalist
      • Hospitals
      • Hypertension
      • Immunization and Vaccination
      • Infection Control and Prevention
      • Infectious Diseases
      • Influenza Pandemic
      • Informatics
      • Information Technology (IT)
      • Injury
      • Internal Medicine
      • International Health Systems
      • Journals, Medical
      • Kidney Diseases
      • Latino (See Hispanic)
      • Liver Diseases
      • Long-Term Care
      • Lung Diseases
      • Managed Care
      • Medicaid
      • Medicaid, List of State Programs
      • Medical Assistants
      • Medical Billing
      • Medical Colleges, Associations of
      • Medical Colleges, List of
      • Medical Decision Making
      • Medical Errors
      • Medical Group Practice
      • Medical Malpractice
      • Medical Practice Variations
      • Medical Records
      • Medical Residents and Interns
      • Medical Sociology
      • Medical Technologists
      • Medical Tests and Diagnostics
      • Medicare
      • Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage (Medicare Part D)
      • Mental Health
      • Mentally Disabled
      • Migrant Health
      • Military Health Systems
      • Minority Health
      • National Health Insurance
      • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
      • Native American Health
      • Nephrology
      • Neurological Disorders
      • Neurology
      • Neurosurgery
      • News Services
      • Nuclear Medicine
      • Nurse Practitioners
      • Nursing
      • Nursing, Collegiate Organizations
      • Nursing, Minority Associations of
      • Nursing Homes
      • Nursing Research
      • Nursing Specialities
      • Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • Occupational Medicine
      • Oncology
      • Ophthalmology
      • Optometry
      • Oral Health
      • Orthopedics
      • Osteopathic Medicine
      • Osteoporosis
      • Overweight and Obesity
      • Pain
      • Patient Advocacy
      • Patient Safety
      • Pathology
      • Pediatrics
      • Pharmaceutical Companies, Association of
      • Pharmaceutical Companies, List of
      • Pharmaceuticals (See Drugs)
      • Pharmacists and Pharmacy
      • Pharmacoeconomics
      • Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      • Physicians
      • Population Estimates
      • Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO)
      • Prevention and Health Promotion
      • Psychiatric Care
      • Public Health
      • Public Health, Associations of Schools of
      • Public Health, Schools of
      • Public Health, State Departments of
      • Quality Assurance
      • Quality of Healthcare
      • Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)
      • Rare Diseases
      • Regulation
      • Rural Health
      • Safety Net
      • Self-Help
      • Spinal Disorders and Injuries
      • State and County Data Sources
      • State and County Government Organizations
      • State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
      • Stroke
      • Substance Abuse
      • Surgery and Surgeons
      • Technology Assessment
      • Telemedicine
      • Tobacco Use
      • Uninsured Individuals
      • United Kingdom Healthcare Organizations
      • Veterans Health
      • Vital Statistics
      • Women's Health Issues
      • Workers' Compensation
      • World Health Organization (WHO)
      1. Academic Medical Centers

      Academic medical centers are teaching hospitals that are generally affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals have a broad mission that includes teaching, clinical research, and medical education, and they may offer the latest advancements in medical technologies and treatments.

      Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers (AIAMC) http://www.aiamc.org

      Association of Academic Health Centers http://www.ahcnet.org

      Association of Canadian Academic Healthcare Organizations (ACAHO) http://www.acaho.org

      University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) http://www.uhc.edu

      See also Hospitals; Medical Residents and Interns; Physicians

      2. Accreditation, Certification, and Licensing

      Accreditation, certification, and licensing are ways of credentialing healthcare providers and facilities to ensure that a minimum professional standard has been met. Several private organizations carry out credentialing activities in healthcare.

      Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) http://www.aaahc.org

      Accreditation Canada, formerly known as the Canadian Council on Health Services Accreditation http://www.accreditation-canada.ca

      American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) http://www.abms.org

      Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) http://www.aamc.org

      Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (AFMC) http://www.afmc.ca

      Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF) http://www.carf.org

      Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada http://www.cda-adc.ca/cdacweb

      Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA), American Osteopathic Association http://www.osteopathic.org

      Council on Accreditation (COA) http://www.coanet.org

      Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States (FSMB) http://www.fsmb.org

      Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program (HFAP), American Osteopathic Association http://www.do-online.org/index.cfm?au=D&PageId=edu_main&SubPageId=acc_main

      Joint Commission http://www.jointcommission.org

      National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) http://www.ncqa.org

      Royal College of Dentists of Canada (RCDC) http://www.rcdc.ca

      Utilization Review Accreditation Committee (URAC) http://www.urac.org

      See also Health Law; Hospitals; Public Health; Quality of Healthcare; Regulation

      3. Adult Day Care

      Adult day care is provided at facilities that care for the elderly and/or disabled. Health and social services may also be provided at these facilities.

      National Adult Day Services Association (NADSA) http://www.nadsa.org

      See also Aging; Disability; Assisted Living; Gerontology; Nursing Homes

      4. Advocacy, Education, and Research Organizations

      Advocacy, education, and research organizations are engaged in and inform the public policy debate on relevant health policy issues. These organizations play an important role in educating and raising awareness of the public and policymakers on timely and key issues affecting the healthcare system.

      Abt Associates http://www.abtassociates.com

      AcademyHealth http://www.academyhealth.org

      Alliance for Health Reform http://www.allhealth.org

      American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) http://www.aei.org

      Brookings Institution http://www.brookings.edu

      Caledon Institute of Social Policy (Canada) http://www.caledoninst.org

      Canadian Centre for Policy Alernatives http://www.policyalternatives.ca

      Canadian Council on Social Development (CCSD) http://www.ccsd.ca

      Cato Institute http://www.cato.org

      Center for Budget and Policy Priorities http://www.cbpp.org

      Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc. (CHCS) http://www.chcs.org

      Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) http://www.hschange.com

      Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) http://www.ebri.org

      Families USA http://www.familiesusa.org

      Galen Institute http://www.galen.org

      Health Affairs http://www.healthaffairs.org

      Heritage Foundation http://www.heritage.org

      Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Academy of Sciences http://www.iom.edu

      Kaiser Family Foundation http://www.kaisernetwork.org

      Lewin Group http://www.lewin.com

      Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. http://www.mathematica-mpr.com

      MEDTAP International http://www.medtap.com

      National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI) http://www.nasi.org

      National Institute for Health Care Management (NIHCM) http://www.nihcm.org

      Policy Action Network http://www.movingideas.org

      Public Citizen http://www.citizen.org

      RAND Corporation http://www.rand.org

      Research Triangle Institute International (RTI) http://www.rti.org

      Urban Institute http://www.urban.org

      See also Federal Government; Foundations and Philanthropies; Health Policy Organizations

      5. African American Health

      African American health recognizes the unique healthcare needs and health disparities of this minority racial group. Several organizations are focused on the particular health needs of African Americans.

      African American Family Services (AAFS) http://www.aafs.net

      African-American Health, Medline Plus, National Library of Medicine (NLM) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/africanamericanhealth.html

      American Sickle Cell Anemia Association (ASCAA) http://www.ascaa.org

      Black AIDS Institute http://www.blackaids.org

      National Black Alcoholism and Addictions Council http://www.nbacinc.org

      Waltham Forest Black People's Mental Health Association http://www.bpmha.orgmenu.htm

      See also AIDS/HIV; Health Disparities; Minority Health; Public Health

      6. Aging

      A number of organiations are dedicated to promoting the health and welfare of the elderly and aging. As the population continues to grow older with life expectancy increasing, these organizations will continue to serve an important role in our communities.

      AARP (formerly the American Association of Retired Persons) http://www.aarp.org

      Administration on Aging (AOA) http://www.aoa.gov

      Alliance for Aging Research (AAR) http://www.agingresearch.org

      American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging (AAHSA) http://www.aahsa.org

      American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR) http://www.afar.org

      American Health Assistance Foundation (AHAF) http://www.ahaf.org

      American Society on Aging (ASA) http://www.asaging.org

      Center for Healthy Aging http://www.centerforhealthyaging.org

      Centre on Aging (Canada) http://www.umanitoba.ca/centres/aging

      Centre on Aging, University of Victoria, Canada http://www.coag.uvic.ca

      European Federation of Older Persons (EURAG) http://www.eurageurope.org

      Institute for the Future of Aging Services (IFAS) http://www.futureofaging.org

      International Institute on Ageing, United Nations (UN) http://www.inia.org.mt

      National Aging Information and Referral Support Center http://www.nasua.org/informationandreferral

      National Associations of Area Agencies on Aging (n4a)

      (members are Area Agencies on Aging, established under the provisions of the Older Americans Act of 1965) http://www.n4a.org

      National Association of County Aging Programs (NACAP) http://www.naco.org

      National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA) http://www.nasua.org

      National Caucus and Center on Black Aged (NCBA) http://www.ncba-aged.org

      National Council on the Aging (NCOA) http://www.ncoa.org

      National Eldercare Locator http://www.eldercare.gov

      National Hispanic Council on Aging (NHCOA) http://www.nhcoa.org

      National Institute on Aging (NIA), U.S. National Institutes of Health http://www.nia.nih.gov

      National Program on Women and Aging, The Heller School of Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA http://iasp.brandeis.edu/womenandaging

      National Resource Center on Nutrition, Physical Activity & Aging, Florida International University, Miami, FL http://nutritionandaging.fiu.edu

      RAND Center for the Study of Aging http://www.rand.org/labor/aging

      Resource Center on Aging, University of California, Berkeley, CA http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~aging

      Retirement Research Foundation (RRF) http://www.rrf.org

      See also Assisted Living; Disability; Gerontology; Nursing Homes

      7. AIDS/HIV

      AIDS/HIV cases continue to be reported each year with those residing in resource poor settings and with minority groups being disproportionately burdened. As people with AIDS/HIV live longer with better treatment options available, the quality of life of these individuals remains a concern.

      AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families http://www.aids-alliance.org

      AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) http://www.aactg.org

      AIDS Resource Foundation for Children (ARFC) http://www.aidsresource.org

      American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) http://www.amfar.org

      Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) http://www.anacnet.org

      Black AIDS Institute http://www.blackaids.org

      Body Positive http://www.thebody.com/bp/bp.html

      Canadian HIV/AIDS Information Centre http://www.aidssida.cpha.ca

      Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation http://www.pedaids.org

      Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) http://www.gmhc.org

      Global AIDS Alliance (GAA) http://www.globalaidsalliance.org

      HIV/AIDS Program, World Health Organization http://www.who.int/hiv/en

      HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) http://www.hivma.org

      National AIDS Fund http://www.aidsfund.org

      National AIDS Treatment Advocacy Program (NATAP) http://www.natap.org

      National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA) http://www.napwa.org

      National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp

      National Minority AIDS Council (NMAC) http://www.nmac.org

      Student Global AIDS Campaign (SGAC) http://www.fightglobalaids.org

      See also Epidemiology; Minority Health; Public Health

      8. Alcoholism

      Alcoholism is a serious condition where individuals persistently use alcohol to the detriment of their health. The abuse of alcohol results in negative health consequences that can have lasting effects.

      Alcohol and Drug Problems Association of North America (ADPA) http://www.adpana.com

      Alcoholics Anonymous World Service (AA) http://www.aa.org

      Century Council http://www.centurycouncil.org

      Drug and Alcohol Testing Industry Association (DITIA) http://www.datia.org

      National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD) http://www.nasadad.org

      National Black Alcoholism and Addictions Council http://www.nbacinc.org

      National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) http://www.niaaa.nih.gov

      SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information http://www.health.org

      See also Federal Government; Public Health; Substance Abuse

      9. Allied Health

      Allied health represents the group of healthcare professionals outside the realm of medicine and nursing. These professionals work together with other healthcare providers to make up the healthcare team and to help ensure the proper functioning of the healthcare system.

      American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) http://www.aota.org

      American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) http://www.apta.org

      Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT) http://www.caot.ca

      Canadian Physiotherapy Association http://www.physiotherapy.ca

      National Rehabilitation Association http://www.nationalrehab.org

      See also Case Management; Medical Technologists

      10. Alzheimer's Disease

      Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and it is an incurable and terminal condition. Several organizations have led efforts to promote research and care for those afflicted with this degenerative disease.

      Alzheimer's Association (ALZ) http://www.alz.org

      Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers

      Alzheimer Society of Canada http://www.alzheimer.ca

      National Institute on Aging (NIA) http://www.nia.nih.gov

      See also Aging; Disability; Gerontology; Nursing Homes

      11. Ambulatory Care

      Ambulatory care is medical care that is provided on an outpatient basis. Ambulatory care can be delivered in doctor's offices and clinics, emergency departments, and urgent care centers.

      Academic Pediatric Association, formerly known as the

      Ambulatory Pediatric Association http://www.ambpeds.org

      Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) http://www.aaahc.org

      See also Ambulatory Surgery Centers; Community Health Centers (CHCs); Physicians

      12. Ambulatory Surgery Centers

      Ambulatory surgery centers are healthcare facilities that provide same-day surgeries on an outpatient basis that do not require a patient to be hospitalized.

      American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) http://www.aaaasf.org

      American Association of Ambulatory Surgery Centers (AAASC) http://www.aaasc.org

      See also Ambulatory Care; Surgery and Surgeons

      13. Anesthesiology

      Anesthesiology is a medical speciality that focuses on administering anesthesia to patients and monitoring vital bodily functions during a medical procedure such as surgery.

      American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) http://www.asahq.org

      American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) http://www.asra.org

      Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) http://www.scahq.org

      See also Ambulatory Surgery Centers; Dentistry; Hospitals; Surgery and Surgeons

      14. Antitrust

      Antitrust is an area that promotes competition in healthcare to benefit consumers. At its core, competition serves to improve healthcare quality, reduce costs, and increase access.

      American Antitrust Institute http://www.antitrustinstitute.org

      Antitrust Coalition for Consumer Choices in Health Care http://www.healthantitrust.org

      Health Care Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/public/health_care/health_care.htm

      U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) http://www.ftc.gov/bc

      See also Ethics; Health Law; Regulation

      15. Arthritis and Rheumatism

      Arthritis and rheumatism are common diseases of the bones and joints. These difficult to treat conditions afflict many individuals each year and cause chronic pain.

      American College of Rheumatology (ACR) http://www.rheumatology.org

      Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org

      Arthritis Society (Canada) http://www.arthritis.ca

      National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) http://www.niams.nih.gov

      See also Epidemiology; Public Health; Women's Health Issues

      16. Assisted Living

      Assisted living facilities provide assistance with activities of daily living to individuals and may also assist with personal care and medical supervision.

      Consumer Consortium on Assisted Living (CCAL) http://www.ccal.org

      See also Adult Day Care; Aging; Disability

      17. Asthma

      Asthma is a condition in which the airways of the lungs become blocked or narrowed and results in breathing difficulties. Several organizations are dedicated to education, research, and advocacy efforts for those suffering from asthma.

      American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) http://www.aaaai.org

      American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) http://www.acaai.org

      Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA) http://www.aafawa.org

      Asthma Society of Canada http://www.asthma.ca

      Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network http://www.foodallergy.org

      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) http://www3.niaid.nih.gov

      World Allergy Organization (WAO) http://www.worldallergy.org

      See also Chronic Diseases; Environmental Health; Public Health; Tobacco Use

      18. Bioterrorism

      Bioterrorism is the use of biological, chemical, and other agents as a deliberate means of coercion or intimidation to further an ideology without regard for the well-being of others.

      Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/maso/pdf/COTPERfs.pdf

      U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) http://www.dhs.gov

      See also Disaster Preparedness and Relief; Federal Government; Public Health

      19. Birth Defects

      Birth defects are the malformation and abnormalities in a developing fetus that can be caused by a variety of sources, including genetics and the environment.

      March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (MDBDF) http://www.marchofdimes.com

      National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) http://www.nbdpn.org

      National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) http://www.nichd.nih.gov

      See also Child Development and Health; Environmental Health; Genetics; Public Health

      20. Blind and Visually Impaired

      Blind and visually impaired refers to the condition of having vision loss. More than 10 million individuals in North America are considered to have some visual impairment.

      American Council of the Blind (ACB) http://www.acb.org

      American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) http://www.afb.org

      American Printing House for the Blind (APH) http://www.aph.org

      Blind Veterans Association (BVA) http://www.bva.org

      Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) http://www.cnib.ca

      Foundation Fighting Blindness (FFB) http://www.fightblindness.org

      Guide Dog Foundation for the Blind (GDFB) http://www.guidedog.org

      Guide Dogs of America (GDA) http://www.guidedogsofamerica.org

      Helen Keller International (HKI) http://www.hki.org

      Leader Dogs for the Blind (LDB) http://www.leaderdog.org

      National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness http://www.nationaldb.org

      National Federation of the Blind (NFB) http://www.nfb.org

      National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped http://www.loc.gov/nls

      Prevent Blindness America http://www.preventblindness.org

      Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic (RFB&D) http://www.rfbd.org

      Research to Prevent Blindness (RPB) http://www.rpbusa.org

      The Seeing Eye http://www.seeingeye.org

      See also Disability; Eye Diseases; Ophthalmology; Optometry

      21. Blood and Blood Banks

      Blood is a bodily fluid that is necessary to sustain life and provide cells with needed substances. Blood banks are centers that receive and store blood from donors to be later used for patients in need of blood transfusions.

      American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) http://www.aabb.org

      American Red Cross http://www.redcross.org

      America's Blood Centers http://www.americasblood.org

      Canadian Blood Services http://www.bloodservices.ca

      Héme Québec (Canada) http://www.hema-quebec.qc.ca/anglais

      See also Blood Disorders; Donors and Organ Transplantation

      22. Blood Disorders

      Blood disorders are conditions that affect blood and its components. Blood disorders may affect blood proteins, blood cells, hemolglobin, or coagulation.

      Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) http://www.cibmtr.org

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

      National Hemophilia Foundation http://www.hemophilia.org

      See also Blood and Blood Banks; Genetics; Rare Diseases

      23. Burn Care

      Burn care is the specialized medical care that is given to patients who suffer from serious burns.

      American Burn Association (ABA) http://www.ameriburn.org

      See also Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery; Emergency Medicine; Injury

      24. Business Coalitions on Health

      Business coalitions on health are organizations that represent a group of businesses from both public and private sectors and their interests in healthcare.

      National Organizations

      Leapfrog Group, Washington, DC http://www.leapfroggroup.org

      National Business Coalition on Health (NBCH), Washington, DC http://www.nbch.org

      Regional and Local Organizations

      Alabama

      Employers Coalition for Healthcare Options, Inc., Huntsville, AL http://www.echoal.com

      Arizona

      Southwest Health Alliance, Scottsdale, AZ http://www.southwesthealthalliance.org

      Arkansas

      Employers' Health Coalition, Fort Smith, AR http://www.ehcark.org

      California

      Pacific Business Group on Health, San Francisco, CA http://www.pbgh.org

      Colorado

      Colorado Business Group on Health, Denver, CO http://www.coloradohealthonline.com

      Florida

      Employers Health Coalition, Tampa, FL http://www.ehcaccess.org

      Florida Health Care Coalition, Orlando, FL http://www.flhcc.com

      Georgia

      Savannah Business Group on Health, Savannah, GA http://www.savannahbusinessgroup.com

      Hawa'i

      Hawa'i Business Health Council, Honolulu, HI http://www.hbhc.biz/index.html

      Illinois

      Employer's Coalition on Health, Rockford, IL http://www.ecoh.com

      Heartland Healthcare Coalition, Morton, IL http://www.hhco.org

      Midwest Business Group on Health, Chicago, IL http://www.mbgh.org

      Tri-State Health Care Coalition, Quincy, IL http://www.tri-statehealthcare.com

      Indiana

      Indiana Employers Quality Health Alliance, Indianapolis, IN http://www.qualityhealthalliance.org

      Tri-State Business Group on Health, New Burgh, IN http://www.tsbgh.evansville.net

      Kentucky

      Four Rivers Health Care Purchasing Alliance, Inc., Calvert City, KY http://www.fourrivershc.com

      Louisiana

      Louisiana Business Group on Health, Baton Rouge, LA http://www.lbgh.org

      Maine

      Maine Health Management Coalition, Scarborough, ME http://www.mhmc.info

      Maryland

      Mid-Atlantic Business Group on Health, Greenbelt, MD http://mabgh.org

      Massachusetts

      Massachusetts Healthcare Purchaser Group, Boston, MA http://www.mhpg.org

      Michigan

      AFL-CIO Employer Purchasing Coalition, Bloomfield, MI http://www.nlahcc.orgmembers/afl_cio_.html

      Alliance for Health, Grand Rapids, MI http://www.afh.org

      Greater Detroit Area Health Council, Detroit, MI http://www.gdahc.org

      Michigan Purchasers Health Alliance, Ann Arbor, MI http://www.michpha.org

      REAL Health Association, Grand Rapids, MI http://www.realhealth.org

      Minnesota

      Buyers Health Care Action Group, Bloomington, MN http://www.bhcag.com

      Missouri

      Mid-America Coalition on Health Care, Kansas City, MO http://www.machc.org

      Missouri Consolidated Health Care Plan, Jefferson City, MO http://www.mchcp.org

      St. Louis Area Business Health Coalition, St. Louis, MO http://www.stlbhc.org

      Montana

      Montana Association of Health Care Purchasers, Missoula, MT http://www.mahcp.info

      Nevada

      Nevada Health Care Coalition, Reno, NV http://www.nhccreno.org

      New Jersey

      The Health Care Payers Coalition of New Jersey, Edison, NJ http://www.hcpc.org

      New York

      New York Business Group on Health, New York, NY http://www.nybgh.org

      Niagara Health Quality Coalition, Buffalo, NY http://www.nhqc.com

      North Carolina

      Piedmont Health Coalition, Inc., Burlington, NC http://www.piedmonthealthcoalition.org

      WNC Health Coalition, Inc., Asheville, NC http://wnchc.org

      Ohio

      Employer Health Care Alliance, Cincinnati, OH http://www.cintiehca.com

      Employers Health Purchasing Corporation of Ohio, Canton, OH http://www.ehpco.com

      Franklin County Cooperative Health Benefits Program, Columbus, OH http://www.eelect.com

      Front Path Health Coalition, Maumee, OH http://www.frontpathcoalition.com

      Health Action Council of Northeast Ohio, Cleveland, OH http://www.healthactioncouncil.org

      Tri-River Employers Healthcare Coalition, Dayton, OH http://www.tri-river.org

      Oregon

      Oregon Coalition of Health Care Purchasers, Portland, OR http://www.ochcp.org

      Pennsylvania

      Lancaster County Business Group on Health, Lancaster, PA http://www.lcbgh.org

      Northeast Pennsylvania Regional Healthcare Coalition, Inc., Orwigsburg, PA http://www.nprhcc.com

      Pittsburgh Business Group on Health, Ambridge, PA http://www.pbghpa.com

      Tennessee

      Healthcare 21 Business Coalition of East and Middle Tennessee, Knoxville, TN http://www.hc21.org

      Memphis Business Group on Health, Memphis, TN http://www.memphisbusinessgroup.org

      Texas

      Dallas/Fort Worth Business Group on Health, Dallas, TX http://www.dfwbgh.org

      Virginia

      Virginia Business Coalition on Health, Virginia Beach, VA http://www.myVBCH.org

      Washington

      Puget Sound Health Alliance, Seattle, WA http://www.pugetsoundhealthalliance.org

      Wisconsin

      The Alliance (WI), Madison, WI http://www.alliancehealthcoop.com

      Business Health Care Group of South East Wisconsin, Franklin, WI http://www.bhcgsw.org

      Employers Health Cooperative, Janesville, WI http://www.ehchealth.com

      Fond Du Lac Area Businesses on Health, Fond Du Lac, WI http://www.faboh.com

      Greater Milwaukee Business Foundation on Health, Inc., Sussex, WI http://www.gmbfh.org

      See also Health Insurance; Prevention and Health Promotion

      25. Canadian Healthcare Organizations

      Canadian healthcare organizations are organizations that are dedicated to the health and healthcare system of Canada.

      Association of Canadian Academic Healthcare Organizations (ACAHO) http://www.acaho.org

      Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada http://www.afmc.ca

      Canada's Health Informatics Association (COACH) http://www.coachorg.com

      Canadian Association of Blue Cross Plans (CABCF) http://www.bluecross.ca

      Canadian Association for Health Services and Policy Research (CAHSPR) http://www.cahspr.ca

      Canadian Association on Gerontology http://www.cagacg.ca

      Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association (CGPA) http://www.cdma-acfpp.org

      Canadian Healthcare Association (CHA) http://www.cha.ca

      Canadian Health Economics Research Association (CHERA) http://www.chera.ca

      Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF) http://www.chsrf.ca

      Canadian Home Care Association (CHCA) http://www.cdnhomecare.ca

      Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) http://www.cihr.ca

      Canadian Medical Association (CMA) http://www.cma.ca

      Canadian Pain Society (CPS) http://www.canadianpainsociety.ca

      Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) http://www.cpha.ca

      Canadian Women's Health Network (CWHN) http://www.cwhn.ca

      Chronic Pain Association of Canada (CPAC) http://www.chronicpaincanada.com

      Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

      Institute of Health Services and Policy Research (IHSPR), Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) http://www.cihr.cae/13948.html

      Public Health Agency of Canada, Injury http://www.phacaspc.gc.cainjury-bles

      See also International Health Systems; National Health Insurance; World Health Organization (WHO)

      26. Cancer

      Cancer is a class of disease where the body's cells undergo uncontrolled growth, invade other tissues, and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can occur at all ages but it predominantly affects individuals as they grow older. Cancer can be caused by genetics, behavioral, and/or environmental factors.

      American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) http://www.aacr.org

      American Cancer Society (ACS) http://www.cancer.org

      American Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR) http://www.nfcr.org

      American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) http://www.aicr.org

      Association of Cancer Online Resources (ACOR) http://www.acor.org/about/about.html

      Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC) http://www.accc-cancer.org

      Breast Cancer Network of Strength http://www.networkofstrength.org

      Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca

      Cancer Care (CC) http://www.cancercare.org

      Cancer Information Service (CIS) http://cis.nci.nih.gov

      Coalition of Cancer Cooperative Groups http://www.cancertrialshelp.org

      Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation http://www.cancerresearchfund.org

      Leukemia and Lymphoma Society http://www.lls.org

      Lymphoma Research Foundation http://www.lymphoma.org

      National Breast Cancer Coalition (NBCC) http://www.stopbreastcancer.org

      National Cancer Institute (NCI) http://www.cancer.gov

      National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship (NCCS) http://www.canceradvocacy.org

      OncoLink, Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania http://www.oncolink.com

      Skin Cancer Foundation (SCF) http://www.skincancer.org

      Susan G. Komen for the Cure (SGKF) http://www.komen.org

      Your Disease Risk, Siteman Cancer Center Prevention http://www.yourdiseaserisk.wustl.edu

      See also Oncology; National Institutes of Health (NIH); Public Health; Tobacco Use

      27. Cardiology

      Cardiology is the field of medicine that studies the heart and blood vessels.

      American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR) http://www.aacvpr.org

      American College of Cardiology (ACC) http://www.acc.org

      American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) http://www.chestnet.org

      American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) http://www.asecho.org

      American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) http://www.asnc.org

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

      See also Epidemiology; Heart Disease; Public Health

      28. Care Giving

      Care giving is done by family or unpaid friends or relatives of who provide care and support to an individual with a disabling condition.

      Family Caregiver Alliance http://www.caregiver.org

      National Family Caregivers Association (NFCA) http://www.nfcacares.org

      See also Aging; Assisted Living; Disability; Nursing Homes

      29. Case Management

      Case management is a service that is provided to meet the healthcare needs of a patient and it is designed to produce cost-effect outcomes.

      Case Management Society of America (CMSA) http://www.cmsa.org

      Commission for Case Manager Certification (CCMC) http://www.ccmcertification.org

      See also Allied Health; Care Giving; Chronic Diseases; Disability

      30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

      The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a public health agency of the federal government that works to protect the health and safety of all Americans.

      The CDC is based in Atlanta, Georgia, and focuses its efforts on disease prevention and control.

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov

      Director

      Office of the Director http://www.cdc.gov/about/director.htm

      Other

      Coordinating Office for Global Health http://www.cdc.gov/cogh

      Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response http://www.bt.cdc.gov

      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html

      See also Emerging Diseases: Epidemiology; Health Surveys; Public Health; World Health Organization (WHO)

      Coordinating Centers for

      Environmental Health and Injury Prevention

      Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov

      National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) http://www.cdc.gov/nceh

      National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc

      31. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

      The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is the federal agency that is responsible for administering the Medicare, Medicaid, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). CMS works to ensure that its beneficiaries are provided with effective and quality healthcare.

      Coordinating Centers for Health Information and Service

      National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs

      National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM) http://www.cdc.gov/healthmarketing

      National Center for Public Health Informatics (NCPHI) http://www.cdc.gov/ncphi

      Coordinating Center for Health Promotion

      National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp

      National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd

      Office of Genomics and Disease Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/genomics

      Coordinating Centers for Infectious Diseases

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.cms.gov

      Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) http://cms.hhs.gov/hipaa

      Medicaid http://cms.hhs.gov/medicaid

      Medicare http://cms.hhs.gov/medicare

      State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) http://cms.hhs.gov/schip

      See also Medicaid; Medicare; State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)

      32. Certificate of Need (CON)

      Certificate of need is a program that works to control healthcare facility costs through the coordinated planning of services and new construction projects.

      American Association of Health Plans (AAHP) (The AAHP publishes an annual directory of state certificate of need programs) http://www.aahp.org

      See also Health Law; Health Planning; Regulation

      National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp

      National Immunization Program (NIP) http://www.cdc.gov/nip

      33. Childbirth

      Childbirth is the process of giving birth to a newborn infant.

      Lamaze International http://www.lamaze.org

      Maternity Center Association (MCA) http://www.maternitywise.org

      National Association of Birth Centers (NACC) http://www.birthcenters.org

      See also Birth Defects; Child Development and Health; Obstetrics and Gynecology

      34. Child Development and Health

      Child development refers to the physiological and psychological changes that occur as a child grows older. Child health refers to the unique health needs of children.

      Ambulatory Pediatric Association (APA) http://www.ambpeds.org

      American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) http://www.aacap.org

      American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) http://www.aap.org

      American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) http://www.eapsa.org

      American Public Human Services Association (APHSA) http://www.aphsa.org

      Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs (AMCHP) http://www.amchp.org

      Children's Defense Fund (CDF) http://www.childrensdefense.org

      Children's Health Fund (CHF) http://www.childrenshealthfund.org

      Children's Organ Transplant Association (COTA) http://www.cota.org

      Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP), University of Florida http://www.ichp.ufl.edu

      Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://mchb.hrsa.gov

      Maternal and Child Health Library http://www.mchb.hrsa.gov/mchirc

      Maternal and Child Health Policy Research Center, Washington, DC http://www.mchpolicy.org

      National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions (NACHRI) http://www.childrenshospitals.net

      National Child Care Information Center http://nccic.org

      National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition http://www.hmhb.org

      National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) http://www.nichq.org

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) http://www.nichd.nih.gov

      Sidelines National High-Risk Pregnancy Support Networks http://www.sidelines.org

      Women's and Children's Health Policy Center (WCHPC), School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University http://www.jhsph.edu/wchpc

      Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families http://www.zerotothree.org

      See also Birth Defects; Childbirth; Immunization and Vaccination; Pediatrics; Public Health

      35. Chiropractic Care

      Chiropractic care involves the care provided to patients that involves the musculoskeletal system and spine. The treatment provided by chiropractors may involve spinal manipulation and manual therapy.

      American Chiropractic Association (ACA) http://www.amerchiro.org

      Council on Chiropractic Orthopedics (CCO) http://www.ccodc.org

      Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER) http://www.fcer.org

      International Chiropractors Association (ICA) http://www.chiropractic.org

      See also Chronic Diseases; Injury; Physical Medicine and Rehabiliation; Physicians; Spinal Disorders and Injuries

      36. Chronic Diseases

      Chronic diseases are diseases that are persistent or long-lasting in nature. It is estimated that nearly one in two Americans have a chronic disease.

      Chronic Disease Prevention Alliance of Canada (CDPAC) http://www.cdpac.ca

      Improving Chronic Illness Care Program http://www.improvingchroniccare.org

      National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp

      National Institute on Aging (NIA) http://www.nia.nih.gov

      See also Arthritis and Rheumatism; Asthma; Cancer; Diabetes; Heart Disease; Hypertension

      37. Clinical Laboratories

      Clinical laboratories are facilities that provide clinical tests and diagnostic services and they play an important role in the healthcare system.

      American Clinical Laboratory Association (ACLA) http://www.clinical-labs.org

      American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) http://www.ascls.org

      Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (This organization was formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [NCCLS]) http://www.nccls.org

      Clinical Laboratory Management Association (CLMA) http://www.clma.org

      See also Hospitals; Medical Technologists; Medical Tests and Diagnostics

      38. Clinical Practice Guidelines

      Clinical practice guidelines are evidence based and serve to provide guidance to providers on the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of medical conditions.

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Guidelines http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic

      Alberta (Canada) Medical Association Clinical Practice Guidelines http://www.topalbertadoctors.org/cpg.html

      American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) http://www.aap.org

      American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE) Guidelines http://www.aace.com/pub/guidelines

      American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Clinical Guidelines http://www.acc.orgclinical/guidelines/index.html

      American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Guidelines http://www.acg.gi.org

      American College of Rheumatology Clinical Guidelines http://www.rheumatology.org

      American Society of Anesthesiology Clinical Guidelines http://www.asahq.orgpublicationsAndServices/sgstoc.htm

      Australian Clinical Guidelines http://www.mihsr.monash.orgcce/res

      Canadian Medical Association (CMA) Clinical Practice Guidelines http://www.cma.ca/cpgs

      Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) http://www.ctfphc.org

      Cardiac Surgery Clinical Practice Guidelines (Cedars-Sinai) http://www.csmc.edu/cvs/md/guide.html

      Cholesterol Clinical Guidelines http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/index.htm

      Cochrane Library http://www.cochrane.co.uk

      Diabetes Guidelines (American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists) http://www.aace.com/pub/pdf/guidelines/DMGuidelines2007.pdf

      eGuidelines (This Web site contains a comprehensive collection of United Kingdom clinical guidelines and related information) http://www.eguidelines.co.uk

      Health Services/Technology Assessment (HSTAT) http://text.nlm.nih.gov

      National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) http://www.guideline.gov

      National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), United Kingdom http://www.nice.org.uk

      National Quality Measures Clearinghouse http://www.qualitymeasures.ahrq.gov

      See also Evidence-Based Medicine EBM; Health Outcomes; Medical Decision Making; Medical Practice Variations; Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)

      39. Community Health Centers (CHCs)

      Community health centers are primary care clinics in communities that provide access to healthcare and function as a vital part of the healthcare safety net.

      Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://www.bphc.hrsa.gov

      National Association of Community Health Centers (NACHC) http://www.nachc.com

      See also Ambulatory Care; Health Disparities; Minority Health; Public Health

      40. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

      Complimentary and alternative medicine are the medical products and practices that fall outside the realm of traditional Western medicine and standards of care. Studies are beginning to be undertaken to better understand the potential benefits of alternative and complimentary medicine.

      Acupunture Foundation of Canada Institute http://www.afcinstitute.com

      Alternative Medicine Homepage http://www.pitt.edu/~cbw/altm.html

      American Association of Oriental Medicine (AAOM) http://www.aaom.org

      American Society of Alternative Therapists (ASAT) http://www.asat.org

      Entirely On-Line Alternative Medicine Primer http://www.veterinarywatch.com/Primer1.htm

      HerbMed http://www.herbmed.org

      National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (This center was formed at NIH in 1999) http://www.nccam.nih.gov

      National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) http://www.nccaom.org

      National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary

      Supplements http://dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov

      Rosenthal Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.rosenthal.hs.columbia.edu

      See also Chiropractic Care; National Institutes of Health (NIH)

      41. Consumer-Directed Health Plans (CDHPs)

      Consumer-directed health plans are a type of arrangement that allows invididuals to use health savings accounts or other products to pay for routine healthcare services. Additionally, a high-deductible health plan protects the individual from catastrophic expenses.

      Consumer-Driven Health Care Institute (CDHCI) http://www.cdhci.org

      Defined Care http://www.definedcare.com

      See also Health Insurance

      42. Consumer Health Information

      Consumer health information is information that is made available to consumers on health-related questions including such topics as cost, quality, and alternative treatment options.

      Center for Medical Consumers http://www.medicalconsumers.org

      Federal Citizen Information Center http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov

      HospitalWeb http://neuro-www.mgh.harvard.edu/hospitalweb.shtml

      Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.com

      MedConnect http://www.medconnect.com

      Merck Source http://www.mercksource.com

      My Medicare Matters, The National Council on the Aging http://www.mymedicarematters.org

      National Health Information Center (NHIC) http://www.health.gov/nhic

      NOAH (New York Online Access to Health) http://www.noah-health.org

      PDR (Physician's Desk Reference) Health http://www.pdrhealth.com

      Virtual Hospital: Information for Patients http://www.uihealthcare.com/vh

      WebMD http://www.webmd.com

      Your Disease Risk, Siteman Cancer Center http://www.yourdiseaserisk.wustl.edu

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Health Outcomes; Health Report Cards; Quality of Healthcare

      43. Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery

      Cosmetic and plastic surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on enhancing one's appearance or correcting the form or function of a body part.

      American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery (AACS) http://www.cosmeticsurgery.org

      American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) http://www.aafprs.org

      American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) http://www.plasticsurgery.org

      See also Birth Defects; Burn Care; Injury; Surgery and Surgeons

      44. Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

      Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis are types of economic analyses that are done to compare the relative expenditures in relation to outcomes among two or more competing interventions.

      Cost Effectiveness Analysis Registry http://research.tufts-nemc.org/cear/default.aspx

      See also Health Economics, Academic Centers of; Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT); Technology Assessment

      45. Critical Care

      Critical care is the specialized care provided to patients who are critically ill and require constant monitoring and possibly need life support.

      Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) http://www.sccm.org

      See also Emergency Medicine; Hospitalists; Hospitals; Injury

      46. Deafness and Hearing Impairment

      Deafness and hearing impairment is a disability that results in partial or total hearing loss in one or both ears. The level of hearing impairment that a person experiences may range from mild to severe.

      Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing http://www.agbell.org

      Canadian Hard of Hearing Association (CHHA) http://www.chha.ca

      Deafness Research Foundation (DRF) http://www.drf.org

      Dogs for the Deaf (DFD) http://www.dogsforthedeaf.org

      Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults (HKNC) http://www.hknc.org

      International Hearing Society (IHS) http://www.ihsinfo.org

      National Association of the Deaf (NAD) http://www.nad.org

      National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness http://nationaldb.org

      National Institutes on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Information Clearinghouse http://www.nidcd.nih.gov

      Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) http://www.rid.org

      Self Help for Hard of Hearing People (SHHH) http://www.hearingloss.org

      See also Disability

      47. Dental Research

      Dental research involves clinical research that is focused on oral health.

      American Association for Dental Research (AADR) http://www.aadronline.org

      International Association for Dental Research (IADR) http://www.iadr.com

      National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) http://www.nidcr.nih.gov

      See also Dentistry; Dentistry, Public Health; Oral Health

      48. Dentistry

      Dentristy is the profession that is focused on the prevention, evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions of the oral cavity and maxillofacial area. Dentists are a key component in promoting oral health.

      Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) http://www.agd.org

      American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) http://www.aacd.com

      American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) http://www.aapd.org

      American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) http://www.perio.org

      American Association of Endodontists (AAE) http://www.aae.org

      American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) http://www.braces.org

      American College of Dentists (ACD) http://www.acd.org

      American Dental Assistants Association (ADAA) http://www.dentalassistant.org

      American Dental Association (ADA) http://www.ada.org

      American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) http://www.adha.org

      See also Dentistry, Public Health; Oral Health; Public Health

      49. Dentistry, Public Health

      Public health dentistry is the field of dentristy that focuses on the oral health of a community as opposed to an individual patient. Public health dentists work to promote oral health policy, evaluate the oral health needs of a community, and provide services that improve overall oral health.

      Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD) http://www.astdd.org

      Canadian Association of Public Health Dentistry http://www.caphd-acsdp.org

      See also Dentistry; Oral Health; Public Health

      50. Dermatology

      Dermatology is the field of medicine that is focused on the skin and its associated diseases, and includes both medical and surgical aspects.

      American Dermatological Association (ADA) http://www.amer-derm-assn.org

      Society for Investigative Dermatology (SID) http://www.sidnet.org

      See also Ambulatory Care; Burn Care; Physicians

      51. Diabetes

      Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and chronic condition that results in the body being unable to break down blood sugar properly. Diabetes can be caused by genetics or the environment.

      American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) http://www.aadenet.org

      American Diabetes Association (ADA) http://www.diabetes.org

      Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention, Indian Health Service (IHS) http://www.ihs.gov/medicalprograms/diabetes

      International Diabetes Federation (IDF) http://www.idf.org

      National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC) http://www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov

      National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) http://www2.niddk.nih.gov

      See also Diet and Nutrition; Fitness and Exercise; Genetics; Overweight and Obesity; Public Health

      52. Diet and Nutrition

      Diet and nutrition refer to the consumption of food and the nutrients required to sustain life.

      American Council for Fitness and Nutrition (ACFN) http://www.acfn.org

      American Dietetic Association (ADA) http://www.eatright.org

      American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) http://www.nutritioncare.org

      Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Outreach and Information Center http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/oic-info.html

      Center for Nutrition and Policy Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.usda.gov/cnpp

      Dietary Managers Association (DMA) http://www.dmaonline.org

      Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) http://www.iom.edu/board.asp?id=3788

      Food and Nutrition Information Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture http://fnic.nal.usda.gov

      Food Safey and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.fsis.usda.gov

      International Life Sciences Institute North America (ILSINA) http://www.ilsina.org

      National Resource Center on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Aging, Florida International University, Miami, FL http://nutritionandaging.fiu.edu/index.asp

      Weight-Control Information Network http://win.niddk.nih.gov

      See also Eating Disorders; Overweight and Obesity; Public Health

      53. Digestive Disorders

      Digestive disorders are disorders that affect the digestive system and/or its organs.

      National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) http://www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov

      National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) http://www2.niddk.nih.gov

      See also Diet and Nutrition; Public Health

      54. Disability

      Disability is having a lack of ability as compared to a normal group of persons.

      American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) http://www.aadep.org

      Amputee Coalition of America (ACA) http://www.amputee-coalition.org

      Clearinghouse on Disability Information http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers

      Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities http://www.c-c-d.org

      Disability Resources on the Internet http://www.disabilityresources.org

      International Center for Disability Resources on the Internet (ICDRI) http://www.icdri.org

      National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research (NCDDR) http://www.ncddr.org

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities http://www.nichcy.org

      National Institute on Aging (NIA) http://www.nia.nih.gov

      World Committee on Disability http://www.worldcommitteeondisability.org

      See also Assisted Living; Blind and Visually Impaired; Chronic Diseases; Deafness and Hearing Impairment; Mentally Disabled; Nursing Homes; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

      55. Disaster Preparedness and Relief

      Disaster preparedness and relief is the process of being prepared for a disaster before it strikes and dealing with this event after it occurs. Several agencies and organizations are committed specifically to responding to disasters.

      American Disaster Reserve (ADR) http://www.disasterreserve.us

      American Red Cross National Headquarters (ARC) http://www.redcross.org

      Center for International Disaster Information (CIDI) http://www.cidi.org

      Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) http://www.fema.gov

      International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) http://www.iaem.com

      International Emergency Management Society (TIEMS) http://www.tiems.org

      National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) http://www.nvoad.org

      See also Bioterrorism; Federal Government; Influenza Pandemic; Public Health

      56. Disease and Procedure Classifications

      Disease and procedure classifications is a standardized classification system used to categorize diseases and medical procedures.

      ICD9/ICD9CM Codes http://icd9cm.chrisendres.com

      National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classification of Diseases, Functioning and Disability http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/icd9.htm

      Physician Outpatient CPT-4 Procedure http://www.myhealthscore.com/consumer/phyoutcptsearch.htm

      World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Diseases (ICD) http://www.who.int/classifications/icd

      See also Hospitals; Medical Billing; Medical Records; Medical Sociology; Mental Health; World Health Organization (WHO)

      57. Disease Management

      Disease management is a patient management process that is used to improve the quality of life and control healthcare costs through integrated care for individuals with chronic conditions.

      Disease Management Association of America (DMAA) http://www.dmaa.org

      See also AIDS/HIV; Case Management; Chronic Diseases; Disability

      58. Donors and Organ Transplantation

      Donors are individuals who donate their blood or organs to people in need. Organ transplantation is the act of replacing a diseased organ with a functional one from an organ donor. A number of organizations are available to assist with organ donors and transplant recipients.

      American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) http://www.aatb.org

      American Bone Marrow Donor Registry (ABNDR) http://www.charityadvantage.com/abmdr/Home.asp

      American Society of Transplantation (ASTA) http://www.a-s-t.org

      Center for International Blood and Marrow Research (CIBMTR) http://www.cibmtr.org

      Children's Organ Transplant Association (COTA) http://www.cota.org

      Eye Bank Association of America (EBAA) http://www.restoresight.org

      Eye Bank for Sight Restoration (EBSR) http://www.eyedonation.org

      International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) http://www.ishlt.org

      Kidney Transplant/Dialysis Association (KT/DA) http://www.ktda.org

      Living Bank International (TLBI) http://www.livingbank.org

      National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) http://www.marrow.org

      National Bone Marrow Transplant Link (NBMTL) http://www.nbmtlink.org

      United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) http://www.unos.org

      See also Blood and Blood Banks; Kidney Diseases; Liver Diseases; Surgery and Surgeons

      59. Drugs

      Drugs are chemical substances that are used to prevent, treat, or cure diseases. Drugs may be used intermittently for acute episodes or on a regular basis to treat chronic diseases.

      American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) http://www.aapcc.org

      Drug InfoNet http://www.druginfonet.com

      Drug Information Association (DIA) http://www.diahome.org

      Electronic Orange Book—Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations http://www.fda.gov/cder/ob/default.htm

      Food and Drug Administration (FDA) http://www.fda.gov

      Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Approvals List (This list is updated weekly) http://www.fda.gov/cder/da/da.htm

      Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide http://hopkins-abxguide.org

      New Medicines in Development http://www.phrma.org/medicines_in_development

      NewsRx http://www.newsrx.com

      Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) http://www.phrma.org

      Recently Approved Drugs or Indications—Doctors Guide http://www.docguide.com/news/content.nsf/Drugs-Indications

      RxList (This website lists the top 200 drugs prescribed in the United States) http://www.rxlist.com http://www.safemedication.com

      U.S. Pharmacopeia http://www.usp.org

      See also Pharmaceuticals; Pharmacists and Pharmacy; Pharmacoeconomics

      60. Drugs, Generic

      Generic drugs are pharmaceutical agents that contain the same active ingredients as a brand name drug and are produced without a patent protection.

      Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association (CGPA) http://www.canadiangenerics.ca

      Generic Pharmaceutical Association (GPhA) http://www.gphaonline.org

      European Generic Medicines Association (EGM) http://www.egagenerics.com

      See also Drugs, Prices of; Pharmaceutical Companies, List of; Pharmacists and Pharmacy; Pharmacoeconomics

      61. Drugs, Prices of

      Prices of drugs are the charges related to pharmaceutical agents.

      National Legislative Association on Prescription Drug Prices (NLARX) http://www.nlarx.org

      See also Drugs; Pharmacoeconomics

      62. Eating Disorders

      Eating disorders cause a person to compulsively eat or avoid eating. Eating disoders may lead to other health consequences such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and morbid obesity, among others.

      European Council on Eating Disorders (ECED) http://www.eced.org.uk

      International Association of Eating Disorders Professionals (IAEDP) http://www.iaedp.com

      National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD) http://www.anad.org

      National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org

      See also Diet and Nutritionl; Overweight and Obesity

      63. E-Health

      E-health involves the integration of information technology with healthcare to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of the system.

      e-Health Initiative http://www.ehealthinitiative.org

      Internet Healthcare Coalition http://www.ihealthcoalition.org

      SATELLIFE Global Health Information Network http://www.satellife.org

      See also Informatics; Information Technology (IT); Telemedicine

      64. Emergency Medicine

      Emergency medicine is the specialty of medicine that focuses on treating patients with acute conditions that require urgent attention.

      American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) http://www.aaem.org

      American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) http://www.acep.org

      American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians (ACOEP) http://www.acoep.org

      American Trauma Society (ATS) http://www.amtrauma.org

      Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) http://www.ena.org

      National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) http://www.naemt.org

      National Association of EMS Educators http://www.naemse.org

      National Association of EMS Physicians http://www.naemsp.org

      National Association of State EMS Officials http://www.nasemsd.org

      National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) http://www.nremt.org

      Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) http://www.saem.org

      See also Burn Care; Hospitals; Injury; Occupational Medicine

      65. Emerging Diseases

      Emerging infections are infectious diseases that are new, emerging, or re-emerging drug-resistant diseases. These infections have recently increased in populations and their incidence is likely to grow.

      Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap

      Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infections, School of Public Health, St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO http://www.slu.edu/colleges/sph/bioterrorism

      Emerging Infectious Diseases http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid

      Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network (IDSAEIN) http://www.ein.idsociety.org

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Hospital Infections and Nosocomial Diseases; Infectious Diseases; Influenza Pandemic; World Health Organization (WHO)

      66. Environmental Health

      Environmental health is concerned with the physical, biological, and chemical factors that affect a person's health. This field promotes efforts to assess and control environmental factors that may negatively impact one's well-being.

      Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov

      Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse http://www.epa.gov/iaq

      National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) http://www.cdc.gov/nceh

      National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) http://www.neha.org

      National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) http://www.niehs.nih.gov

      National Lead Information Center http://www.epa.gov/lead/pubs/nlic.htm

      National Pesticide Information Center http://npic.orst.edu

      Safe Drinking Water Hotline http://www.epa.gov/safewater/hotline

      Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) http://www.setac.org

      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) http://www.epa.gov

      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters Library http://www.epa.gov/natlibra/hqirc

      See also Epidemiology; Public Health

      67. Epidemiology

      Epidemiology is the study of factors that cause disease or affect health. Epidemiology serves as the foundation for public health and preventive medicine.

      American College of Epidemiology http://acepidemiology2.org

      Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) http://www.cste.org

      International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) http://www.inclen.org

      Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr

      Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) http://www.shea-online.org

      Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) http://www.who.int/wer

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Disease and Procedure Classifications; Public Health; World Health Organization (WHO)

      68. Ethics

      Ethics is the branch of philosophy that studies issues related to right conduct. Bioethics more specifically focuses on ethical questions that arise due to the advancements of medicine and biology.

      Alden March Bioethics Institute (AMBI), Albany Medical Center http://www.bioethics.org

      American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics (ASLME) http://www.aslme.org

      Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) http://www.arena.org

      Association for Practical and Professional Ethics http://www.indiana.edu/~appe http://Bioethics.Net http://www.bioethics.net

      Bioethics for Clinicians http://www.cmaj.camisc/bioethics_e.shtml

      Center for Bioethics, University of Pennsylvania http://www.bioethics.upenn.edu

      Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine http://www.bcm.edu/ethics

      Ethics in Medicine, University of Washington http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx

      Hastings Center (HC) http://www.thehastingscenter.org

      National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/databases/index.htm

      Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University, Chicago http://bioethics.lumc.edu

      See also Fraud and Abuse; Health Law; Regulation

      69. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)

      Evidence-based medicine is the application of the best evidence gained from scientific medical studies. Evidence-based medicine is used to make clinical judgments regarding the best course of care for patients.

      Bandolier Evidence-Based Health Care http://www.jr2.0x.ac.uk/bandolier

      Canadian Association for Population Therapeutics http://www.capt-actp.com

      Center for Evidence-Based Medicine http://www.cebm.net/index.asp

      Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Science (Canada) http://www.cheos.ubc.camain.html

      ECRI: Emergency Care Research Institution (This institution is designated as an Evidence-Based Practice Center by the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research) http://www.ecri.org

      Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (Canada) http://www.ices.on.ca

      New York Academy of Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine Resource Center http://www.ebmny.org

      Understanding Medical Information (Evidence-Based) http://www.noah-health.org/n/ebm

      See also Clinical Practice Guidelines; Health Outcomes; Quality of Healthcare; Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)

      70. Eye Diseases

      Eye diseases are conditions that cause problems to the eye. These conditions may range from minor issues to permanent vision loss.

      Association for Macular Diseases (AMD) http://www.macula.org

      All About Vision http://www.allaboutvision.com

      Glaucoma Foundation (TGF) http://www.glaucomafoundation.org

      Glaucoma Research Foundation http://www.glaucoma.org

      International Eye Foundation (IEF) http://www.iefusa.org

      National Eye Institute (NEI) http://www.nei.nih.gov

      National Glaucoma Research Program, American Health Assistance Foundation (AHAF) http://www.ahaf.org/glaucoma/about/glabout.htm

      See also Blind and Visually Impaired; Epidemiology; Ophthalmology; Optometry; Prevention and Health Promotion; Public Health

      71. Federal Government

      The federal government is the central governing body of the United States and it is divided into the judicial, legislative, and executive branches. Through its policies, the federal government may have a significant impact both domestically and abroad.

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (AHRQ was formerly the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research) http://www.ahrq.gov

      Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr) http://www.bhpr.hrsa.gov

      Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) http://www.bls.gov

      Census Bureau http://www.census.gov

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) (CMS was formerly the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)) http://www.cms.hhs.gov

      Congressional Budget Office (CBO) http://www.cbo.gov

      Congressional Research Service http://www.loc.gov/crsinfo

      Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) http://www.cpsc.gov

      Department of Agriculture (USDA) http://www.usda.gov

      Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) http://www.hhs.gov

      Department of Homeland Security (DHS) http://www.dhs.gov

      Department of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov

      Department of State http://www.state.gov

      Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) http://www.va.gov

      Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) http://www.epa.gov

      Federal Budget http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2006/budget.html

      Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) http://www.fema.gov

      Federal Judiciary http://www.uscourts.gov

      Federal Legislation http://thomas.loc.gov

      Federal Register http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr

      FirstGov (This is a comprehensive portal to government sites) http://www.firstgov.gov

      Food and Drug Administration (FDA) http://www.fda.gov

      General Accountability Office (GAO) http://www.gao.gov

      Healthfinder (This is a service of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion) http://www.healthfinder.gov

      Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://www.hrsa.gov

      House Committee on Appropriations http://appropriations.house.gov

      House Committee on Energy and Commerce http://energycommerce.house.gov

      House Committee on Ways and Means http://waysandmeans.house.gov

      House of Representatives http://www.house.gov

      House Office of Legislative Counsel http://legcoun.house.gov/public.htm

      Indian Health Service (IHS) http://www.ihs.gov

      Library of Congress (LOC) http://www.loc.gov

      Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) http://www.medpac.gov

      National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs

      National Institutes of Health (NIH) http://www.nih.gov

      National Library of Medicine (NLM) (The NLM's Web-based databases include PubMed/Medline and Medline Plus) http://www.nlm.gov/hinfo.html

      Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) http://www.osha.org

      Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) http://odphp.osophs.hhs.gov

      Office of Management and Budget (OMB) http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb

      Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) http://www.oecd.org

      President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security (CSSS) http://www.csss.gov

      President's Management Agenda http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budgintegration/pma_index.html

      Senate http://www.senate.gov

      Senate Committee on Appropriations http://appropriations.senate.gov

      Senate Committee on Finance http://finance.senate.gov

      Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions http://help.senate.gov

      Senate Office of Legislative Counsel http://slc.senate.gov/index.htm

      Social Security Administration (SSA) http://www.ssa.gov

      Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) http://www.samhsa.gov

      U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) (The GPO publishes the Federal Register and other government reports) http://www.access.gpo.gov

      U.S. Public Health Service http://www.usphs.gov

      White House http://www.whitehouse.gov

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Federal Health Information Centers and Clearinghouses; National Institutes of Health (NIH)

      72. Federal Health Information Centers and Clearinghouses

      Federal health information centers and clearinghouses provide the public with publications and referrals, and answer inquiries on a variety of health-related topics.

      ABLEDATA (This site lists assistive devices and rehabilitation equipment products for people with disabilities) http://www.abledata.com

      Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center http://www.alzheimers.org

      Cancer Information Service http://www.cancer.gov

      CDC National Prevention Information Network http://www.cdcnpin.org

      Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Outreach and Information Center http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/oic-info.html

      Clearinghouse on Disability Information http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers

      Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/about/clearingh.html

      Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) http://www.eric.ed.gov

      Environmental Protection Agency Headquarters Library http://www.epa.gov/natlibra/hqirc

      Federal Citizen Information Center http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov

      Food and Nutrition Information Center http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic

      Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center http://www.genome.gov/10000409

      Health Resources and Services Administration Information Center http://www.ask.hrsa.gov

      Housing and Urban Development User http://www.huduser.org

      Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse http://www.epa.gov/iaq

      Maternal and Child Health Information Resource Center http://www.mchb.hrsa.gov/mchirc

      Maternal and Child Health Library http://www.mchlibrary.info

      National Adoption Information Clearinghouse http://naic.acf.hhs.gov

      National Aging Information and Referral Support Center http://www.nasua.org/issues/tech_assist_resources/national_aging_ir_support_ctr

      National Audiovisual Center at NTIS http://www.ntis.gov/products/nac.aspx

      National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Information Clearinghouse http://nccam.nih.gov

      National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research http://www.ncddr.org

      National Center on Elder Abuse http://www.elderabusecenter.org

      National Center on Sleep Disorders Research http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/sleep

      National Child Care Information Center http://nccic.org

      National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov

      National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth http://www.ncfy.com

      National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness http://nationaldb.org

      National Criminal Justice Reference Service http://www.ncirs.org

      National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov

      National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov

      National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities http://www.nichcy.org

      National Eldercare Locator http://www.eldercare.gov

      National Guideline Clearinghouse http://www.guideline.gov

      National Health Information Center http://www.health.gov/nhic

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Health Information Center http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

      National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr

      National Injury Information Clearinghouse http://www.cpsc.gov/about/clrnghse.html

      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Information Inquiry Service http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/inquiry.html

      National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://www.niams.nih.gov

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Information Resource Center http://www.nichd.nih.gov

      National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/HealthInformation

      National Institute on Aging Information Center http://www.nia.nih.gov

      National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Information Clearinghouse http://www.nidcd.nih.gov

      National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov

      National Lead Information Center http://www.epa.gov/lead

      National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped http://www.loc.gov/nls

      National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center http://www.mchoralhealth.org

      National Pesticide Information Center http://npic.orst.edu

      National Quality Measures Clearinghouse http://www.qualitymeasures.ahrq.gov

      National Rehabilitation Information Center http://www.naric.com

      National Resource and Training Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness http://www.nrchmi.samhsa.gov

      National SIDS/Infant Death Syndrome Resource Center http://www.sidscenter.org

      National Technical Information Service (NTIS) http://www.ntis.gov

      National Women's Health Information Center http://www.womenshealth.gov

      National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center http://www.safeyouth.org

      NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center http://www.osteo.org

      Office of Boating Safety http://www.uscgboating.org

      Office of Minority Health Resource Center http://www.omhrc.gov

      Office of Population Affairs Clearinghouse http://opa.osophs.hhs.gov/clearinghouse.html

      Office on Smoking and Health http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco

      Policy Information Center http://aspe.hhs.gov/pic

      Rural Assistance Center http://www.raconline.org

      Rural Information Center http://www.nal.usda.gov/ric

      Safe Drinking Water Hotline http://www.epa.gov/safewater/hotline

      SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information http://ncadi.samhsa.gov

      SAMHSA's National Mental Health Information Center http://www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov

      Weight-Control Information Network http://win.niddk.nih.gov

      See also Federal Government; Health Libraries and Information Centers; Health Literacy; Health Report Cards

      73. Fitness and Exercise

      Fitness and exercise refers to workout regimens to keep people fit, healthy, and strong.

      American Council for Fitness and Nutrition (ACFN) http://www.acfn.org

      American Council on Exercise (ACE) http://www.acefitness.org

      Medical Fitness Association http://medicalfitness.org

      National Association for Health and Fitness (NAHF) http://www.physicalfitness.org

      See also Diet and Nutrition; Prevention and Health Promotion; Self-Help

      74. Foundations and Philanthropies

      Foundations and philanthropies are organizations that have a charitable purpose. These organizations may provide financial support to outside entities or fund other charitable activities.

      Annie E. Casey Foundation http://www.aecf.org

      Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation http://www.gatesfoundation.org

      California Health Care Foundation http://www.chcf.org

      Carnegie Corporation of New York http://www.carnegie.org

      Commonwealth Fund http://www.cmwf.org

      David and Lucile Packard Foundation http://www.packard.org

      Duke Endowment http://www.dukeendowment.org

      Ford Foundation http://www.fordfound.org

      Foundation Center (Publishes an annual list of American foundations) http://www.foundationcenter.org

      Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) http://www.kff.org

      John A. Hartford Foundation http://www.jhartfound.org

      John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation http://www.macfound.org

      Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation http://www.josiahmacyfoundation.org

      Milbank Memorial Fund http://www.milbank.org

      Pew Charitable Trusts http://www.pewtrusts.org

      Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJ) http://www.rwjf.org

      Rockefeller Foundation http://www.rockfound.org

      Wellcome Trust, United Kingdom http://www.wellcome.ac.uk

      William T. Grant Foundation http://www.wtgrantfoundation.org

      W. K. Kellogg Foundation http://www.wkkf.org

      World Bank Group http://www.worldbank.org

      See also Advocacy, Education, and Research Organizations; Health Policy Organizations

      75. Fraud and Abuse

      Fraud and abuse involve activities that may result in misinformation, overpayment, or other deceitful acts that result in harm.

      America's Health Insurance Plans (AHIP) http://www.avoidfraud.org

      MIB Group (The MIB Group was formerly the Medical Information Bureau) http://www.mib.com

      National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) http://www.ncahf.com

      National Health Care Anti-Fraud Association (NHCAA) http://www.nhcaa.org

      Taxpayers Against Fraud (TAF) http://www.taf.org

      See also Ethics; Health Law; Regulation

      76. Genetics

      Genetics is the heredity information that is passed on in living organisms. The application of genetics to molecular medicine holds much promise and potential in biotechnology.

      American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) http://www.acmg.net

      American Society of Gene Therapy (ASGT) http://www.asgt.org

      International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) http://www.isscr.org

      National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) http://www.genome.gov

      National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) http://www.nsgc.org

      Office of Genomics and Disease Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/genomics

      See also Blood Disorders; Diabetes; Disease and Procedure Classifications

      77. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

      Geographic information systems (GIS) is a technology that is used to display trends, patterns, or relationships in geographic data. GIS systems in public health are used to better understand health outcomes, disease prevalence, and other health issues at different geographic levels.

      Association of American Geographers (AAG) http://www.aag.org

      Cancer Mortality Maps and Graphs (Shows various cancer rates in the United States for 1950–94) http://www3.cancer.gov/atlasplus

      Census 2000 http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html

      EPA EnviroMapper http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/em

      ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) http://www.esri.com

      FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center http://www.gismaps.fema.gov

      GIS and Public Health (Public Health GIS News and Information is a bimonthly electronic report published by the National Center for Health Statistics) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/gis/gis_publichealthinfo.htm http://www.gis.com

      Interactive Atlas of Reproductive Health (This is a web-based GIS dealing with reproductive health issues such as infant mortality, fertility, and low birth weight) http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/gisatlas

      National Geographic Society http://www.nationalgeographic.com

      TOXMAP: Environmental Health E-Maps http://toxmap.nlm.nih.gov/toxmap/main/index.jsp

      University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) http://www.ucgis.org

      USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) http://geography.usgs.gov

      Web-Based Injury and Statistics Inquiry System http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars

      World Health Organization Public Health Mapping http://www.who.int/csr/mapping

      See also Environmental Health; Health Planning; Medical Practice Variations; Population Estimates; Public Health; Rural Health

      78. Gerontology

      Gerontology is the study of the various aspects of aging. Several organizations are committed to better understanding and serving the needs of the elderly.

      American Geriatrics Society (AGS) http://www.americangeriatrics.org

      Australian Association of Gerontology (AAG) http://www.aag.asn.au

      British Geriatrics Society (BGS) http://www.bgs.org.uk

      British Society of Gerontology http://www.britishgerontology.org

      Canadian Association on Gerontology http://www.cagacg.ca

      Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Brown University, Providence, RI http://www.chcr.brown.edu

      Gerontological Society of America (GSA) http://www.geron.org

      Institute of Gerontology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI http://www.iog.wayne.edu

      International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) http://www.iagg.com.br

      International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) http://www.ipa-online.org

      New England Gerontological Association http://www.negaonline.org

      See also Aging; Disability; Nursing Homes; Physicians

      79. Health

      Health is the physicial, social, and mental well-being of an indivdual. Health is shaped by biological, environmental, and behavioral factors as well as access to healthcare.

      American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) http://www.acsh.org

      National Health Council (NHC) http://www.nhcouncil.org

      National Health Information Center http://www.health.gov/nhic

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); National Institutes of Health (NIH); World Health Organization (WHO)

      80. Health Administration, Association of Academic Programs of

      The Association of Academic Programs of Health Administration is comprised of a number of universities and colleges, faculty, individuals, and organizations that are committed to improving health through health management education.

      Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA) http://www.aupha.org

      See also Health Administration, Graduate Programs in; Hospitals

      81. Health Administration, Graduate Programs in

      Graduate programs in health administration train students to become healthcare managers and administrators through education, research, and practice.

      Alabama

      University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL http://www.uab.edu/hsa

      Arizona

      Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ http://wpcarey.asu.edu/shmp/index.cfm

      Arkansas

      University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas http://www.ualr.edu/hsadmin

      California

      California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA http://www.csulb.edu/colleges/chhs/departments/hca

      Chapman University College, McChord Air Force Base, CA http://www.chapman.edu/catalog/current/cuc/mha.html

      San Diego State University, San Diego, CA http://publichealth.sdsu.edu/divisionshsa.php

      University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA http://www.haas.berkeley.edu/advantage/health

      University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA http://www.ph.ucla.edu/hs

      University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA http://www.usc.edu/schools/sppd

      Colorado

      University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, CO http://www.cudenver.edu/business

      University of Colorado at Denver, Executive MBA in Health Administration http://business.cudenver.edu/Disciplines/HealthAdmin/ExecHealthMBA

      Connecticut

      Yale University, School of Public Health, New Haven, CT http://info.med.yale.edu/eph/hpa

      District of Columbia

      George Washington University, Washington, DC http://www.gwumc.edu/sphhs/hsml

      Georgetown University, Washington, DC http://nhs.georgetown.edu/healthsystems/dept.html

      Florida

      Barry University, Miami Shores, FL http://www.barry.edu/hsa

      Florida International University, Miami, FL http://chua2.fiu.edu/hsa

      University of Central Florida, Orland, FL http://www.cohpa.ucf.edu/health.pro/hsams.cfm

      University of Florida, Gainesville, FL http://www.phhp.ufl.edu/hsrmp

      University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL http://www.miami.edu/grad

      University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL http://www.unf.edu/coh/mha.htm

      University of South Florida, Tampa, FL http://www.publichealth.usf.edu/hpm

      Georgia

      Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA http://www.healthscience.armstrong.edu

      Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA http://robinson.gsu.edu/healthadmin

      Illinois

      Governors State University, University Park, IL http://www.govst.edu/ha

      Northwestern University, Chicago, IL http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/academic/health

      Rush University, Chicago, IL http://www.rushu.rush.edu/hsm

      University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL http://www.uic.edu/sph/mha

      Indiana

      Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN http://www.mha.iupui.edu

      Iowa

      Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA http://www.dmu.edu/mha

      University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA http://www.public-health.uiowa.edu/hmp

      Kansas

      University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS http://www.kumc.edu/som/hpm

      Kentucky

      University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY http://www-martin.uky.edu/~web/programs/mha/mha.html

      Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY http://www.wku.edu/health/graduate.php

      Louisiana

      Tulane University, New Orleans, LA http://www.hsm.tulane.edu

      Maine

      University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/academics/hpm.jsp

      Maryland

      Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD http://www.jhsph.edu/Dept/HPM

      Massachusetts

      Boston University, Boston, MA http://management.bu.edu/gpo/fulltime/hsm

      Simmons College, Boston, MA http://www.simmons.edu/shs/academics/hca/degrees.shtml

      Suffolk University, Boston, MA http://www.suffolk.edu

      Michigan

      University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI http://www.sph.umich.edu/hmp

      Minnesota

      Capella University, Minneapolis, MN http://www.capella.edu/schools_programs/human_services/masters/health_management_policy.aspx

      University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN http://www.hsr.umn.edu/mha

      Missouri

      St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO http://publichealth.slu.edu/hmp_department.htm

      University of Missouri Columbia, MO http://www.hmi.missouri.edu

      Washington University, St. Louis, St. Louis, MO http://hap.wustl.edu

      Nebraska

      Bellevue University, Omaha, NE http://www.bellevue.edu/degrees/mshca_new.asp

      New Jersey

      Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ http://artsci.shu.edu/gdpha

      New York

      Baruch College and Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY http://www.healthcaremba.org

      Columbia University, New York, NY http://www.mailman.hs.columbia.edu/hpm

      Cornell University, Ithaca, NY http://www.sloan.cornell.edu

      Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY http://www.hofstra.edu/mha

      New York University, New York, NY http://wagner.nyu.edu

      Union Graduate College, Schenectady, NY http://www.uniongraduatecollege.edu/pages/schools/management/degreePr02.asp

      University of Rochester, Rochester, NY http://www.simon.rochester.edu/centers/HCM.aspx

      North Carolina

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC http://www.sph.unc.edu/hpaa

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC http://www.health.uncc.edu

      Ohio

      Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH http://www.csuohio.edu/cba/mba

      Ohio State University, Columbus, OH http://sph.osu.edu/hsmp

      Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH http://www.xavier.edu/mhsa

      Oklahoma

      University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK http://www.ou.edu

      Pennsylvannia

      Kings College, Wilkes Barre, PA http://departments.kings.edu/hca/index.htm

      Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA http://www.hhdev.psu.edu/hpa

      Temple University, Philadelphia, PA http://sbm.temple.edu/dept/rihm/healthcare/grad-hm.html

      University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA http://www.hpm.pitt.edu

      University of Scranton, Scranton, PA http://academic.scranton.edu/department/HAHR/mha

      South Carolina

      Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC http://www.musc.edu/chp/mha

      University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC http://hspm.sph.sc.edu

      Tennessee

      University of Memphis, Memphis, TN http://healthadmin.memphis.edu

      Texas

      Army-Baylor University, Ft. Sam Houston, TX http://www.baylor.edu/graduate/mha/index.php

      Baylor University, Waco, TX http://www.baylor.edu/business/mba/index.php?id=4596

      Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, TX http://hs2.mwsu.edu/healthandpublic

      Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX http://www.srph.tamhsc.edu

      Texas Southern University, Houston, TX http://www.tsu.edu/academics/pharmacy/program/admin.asp

      Texas State University, San Marcos, San Marcos, TX http://www.health.txstate.edu/HA

      Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX http://www.hom.ba.ttu.edu

      Texas Woman's University, Houston, TX http://www.twu.edu/hs/h-hca

      Trinity University, San Antonio, TX http://www.trinity.edu/departments/healthcare

      University of Houston, Clear Lake, Houston, TX http://www.uhcl.edu

      University of North Texas, Fort Worth, TX http://www.hsc.unt.edu

      University of Texas at Arlington, Fort Worth, TX http://www2.uta.edu/gradbiz/HealthAdmin

      Virginia

      George Mason University, Fairfax, VA http://chhs.gmu.edu/HealthAdministrationPolicyDepartment/index.html

      Marymount University, Arlington, VA http://marymount.edu/academic/business/lahcm/mshcm.html

      Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA http://www.had.vcu.edu

      Washington

      University of Washington, Seattle, Seattle, WA http://depts.washington.edu/mhap

      Washington State University, Spokane, WA http://www.hpa.spokane.wsu.edu

      See also Health Administration, Association of Academic Programs of

      82. Health Disparities

      Health disparities are the gaps in healthcare across racial or ethnic groups and/or socioeconomic status. These disparities may be in terms of access to healthcare, health outcomes, or in the occurrence of disease.

      National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) (This center was formed as part of NIH in 1993) http://www.ncmhd.nih.gov

      National Healthcare Disparities Report http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/measurix.htm#quality

      Office of Minority Health http://www.omhrc.gov

      See also Healthy People 2010; Minority Health; Uninsured Individuals

      83. Health Economics, Academic Centers of

      Academic centers of health economics apply economic principles and techniques to health policy analysis and work to improve the efficiency of the healthcare system.

      Center for Health Economics (CHE), Monash University, Australia http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/Centres/che

      Center for Health Economics (CHE), University of York, United Kingdom http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/che

      Center for Health Economics and Policy Analysis (CHEPA), McMaster University, Canada http://www.chepa.org

      Center for Health Economics Research and Evaluation (CHERE), University of Technology, Sidney, Australia http://www.chere.uts.edu.au

      Health Economics Research Center (HERC), University of Oxford, United Kingdom http://www.herc.ox.ac.uk

      Health Economics Research Program (HERO), University of Oslo, Norway http://www.hero.uio.no

      Institute of Health Economics (Canada) http://www.ihe.ab.ca

      Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (LDI), University of Pennsylvannia http://www.upenn.edu/ldi

      See also Health Economics, Associations of; Pharmacoeconomics

      84. Health Economics, Associations of

      Associations of health economics serve as a venue for health economists to share research findings and as a forum to discuss health economic applications to health and the healthcare system.

      Canadian Health Economics Research Association (CHERA) http://www.chera.ca

      International Health Economics Association (iHEA)/American Society of Health Economists (ASHE) http://www.healtheconomics.org

      See also Health Economics, Academic Centers of; Pharmacoeconomics

      85. Health Insurance

      Health insurance is a form of insurance that covers healthcare-related expenses. Health benefits refers to the specific services and procedures that are covered by the health insurance plan.

      American Academy of Actuaries http://www.actuary.org

      American Benefits Council http://www.americanbenefitscouncil.org

      America's Health Insurance Plans (AHIP) (AHIP was formed in late 2003 following the merger of the American Association of Health Plans and the Health Insurance Association of America.) http://www.ahip.org

      Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association (BCBSA) http://www.bluecares.com

      Canadian Association of Blue Cross Plans (CABCP) http://www.bluecross.ca

      Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association (CLHIA) http://www.clhia.ca

      Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) http://www.ebri.org

      Health Benefits Advisor, U.S. Department of Labor http://www.dol.gov/elaws/ebsa/health

      Health Benefits Coalition for Affordable Choice and Quality http://www.hbcweb.com

      International Federation of Health Plans (IFHP) http://www.ifhp.com

      National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI) http://www.nasi.org

      Pharmacy Benefit Management Institute (PBMI) http://www.pbmi.com

      See also Health Disparities; Healthcare Financial Management; Medicaid; Medicare; Uninsured Individuals

      86. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)

      Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act refers to legislation that was passed in 1996 that protects the health insurance coverage of workers and their families who lose or change their jobs. This law also sets up requirements for national standards of electronic healthcare transactions as well as the security and privacy of health data.

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.cms.hhs.gov/HIPAAGenInfo

      HIPAAdvisory, Phoenix Health Systems http://www.hipaadvisory.com http://www.hipaa.org

      Office of Civil Rights http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa

      See also Federal Government; Health Insurance; Health Law; Regulation

      87. Health Law

      Health law refers to the laws, rules, and regulations that affect the healthcare system or the providers, payers, suppliers, and consumers of the system.

      American College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) http://www.aclm.org

      American Health Lawyers Association (AHLA) http://www.healthlawyers.org

      American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics (ASLME) http://www.aslme.org

      Center for Health Care Rights (CHCR) http://www.healthcarerights.org

      Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Regulations and Guidance http://www.cms.hhs.gov/home/regsguidance.asp

      Health Law, Findlaw http://www.findlaw.com/01topics/19health/index.html

      Health Law Section, American Bar Association (ABA) http://www.abanet.org/health

      Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, Ithaca, New York http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/health.html

      National Senior Citizens Law Center (NSCLC) http://www.nsclc.org

      Office of Civil Rights, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) http://www.hhs.gov/ocr

      Washburn Law Library, Washburn University School of Law, Topeka, Kansas http://www.washlaw.edu

      See also Ethics; Fraud and Abuse; Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA); Regulation

      88. Health Libraries and Information Centers

      Health libraries and information centers serve as repositories for resources that include books, journals, reports, and other reference material on medicine and health.

      American Hospital Association's Resource Center (AHA) http://www.aha.org/aha/resource-center/index.html

      Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) http://www.aahsl.org

      Canadian Health Libraries Association (CHLA) http://www.chla-absc.ca

      Canadian Library Gateway http://www.collectionscanada.ca/gateway/index-e.html

      Cochrane Library http://www.cochrane.co.uk

      Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters Repository Services http://www.epa.gov/natlibra/hqirc

      Federal Citizen Information Center http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov

      Food and Nutrition Information Center http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic

      Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center http://www.genome.gov/10000409

      Health and Social Care Information Centre, United Kingdom's National Health Service (NHS) http://www.ic.nhs.uk

      Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Information Center http://www.ask.hrsa.gov

      Library of Congress (LOC) http://www.loc.gov

      Maternal and Child Health Information Resource Center http://mchb.hrsa.gov/mchirc

      Maternal and Child Health Library http://www.mchlibrary.info

      Medical Library Association (MLA) http://www.mlanet.org

      National Child Care Information Center http://nccic.org

      National Electronic Library for Health, United Kingdom's National Health Service (NHS) http://www.library.nhs.uk

      National Health Information Center (NHIC) http://www.health.gov/nhic

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Health Information Center http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

      National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr

      National Institute on Aging Information Center http://www.nia.nih.gov

      National Library of Medicine (NLM) http://www.nlm.nih.gov

      WHO Library and Information Networks for Knowledge (LNK) http://www.who.int/library

      See also Federal Health Information Centers and

      Clearinghouses; Health Services Research Journals; Journals, Medical; News Services

      89. Health Literacy

      Health literacy is the ability of individuals to obtain, process, and understand health information and form appropriate healthcare decisions.

      American Medical Association Foundation (AMAF) http://www.ama-assn.org

      Ask Me 3 http://www.askme3.org

      National Institute for Literacy http://www.nifl.gov

      Roundtable on Health Literacy, Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies http://www.iom.edu/CMS/3793/31487.aspx

      See also Aging; Minority Health; Patient Safety; Quality of Healthcare

      90. Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO)

      See Managed Care

      91. Health Outcomes

      Health outcomes are the end results of healthcare; they include a patient's health status, well-being, and satisfaction with healthcare.

      Center for Health Policy/Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research (PCOR/CHP), School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA http://chppcor.stanford.edu

      Health Outcomes Core Library Recommendations, 2004 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/corelib/houtcomes.html

      Health Outcomes Resource Center http://medconsult.com

      See also Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM); Health Report Cards; Quality of Healthcare

      92. Health Planning

      Health planning includes the strategic process of allocating and utilizing resources to meet the healthcare needs of a community.

      American Health Planning Association (AHPA) http://www.ahpanet.org

      Policy Information Center, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) http://aspe.hhs.gov/pic

      Prairie Region Health Promotion Research Centre

      (Canada) http://www.usask.ca/healthsci/che/prhprc

      Western Canada Waiting List Project http://www.wcwl.org

      See also Certificate of Need (CON); Health Law; Hospitals; Public Health; Regulation

      93. Health Policy, Academic Centers of

      Academic centers of health policy focus on examining policy issues that improve the practice and delivery of healthcare.

      Center for Health and Public Policy Studies (CHPPS), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA http://chpps.berkeley.edu

      Center for Health and Public Service Research (CHPSR), Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY http://www.nyu.edu/wagner/chpsr

      Center for Health Policy and Primary Care Outcomes Research (CHPPCOR), Stanford University, Stanford, CA http://chppcor.stanford.edu

      Center for Health Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC http://www.hpolicy.duke.edu

      Center for Health Policy Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA http://www.healthpolicy.ucla.edu

      Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX http://bcm.edu/ethics

      Children's Health Policy Centre, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC (Canada) http://www.childhealthpolicy.sfu.ca

      Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI http://www.sph.umich.edu/hmp

      Department of Health Policy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA http://www.jefferson.edu/dhp

      Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/sph/hpm/index.html

      Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/Academics/hpm

      Health Policy Institute, Georgetown Public Policy Institute http://ihcrp.georgetown.edu

      Health Policy, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, PA http://www.healthpolicy.usip.edu

      Health Policy Institute, School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA http://www.healthpolicyinstitute.pitt.edu

      Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL http://www.ichp.ufl.edu

      Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL http://ihrp.uic.edu

      Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada) http://umanitoba.ca/medicine/units/mchp

      National Health Policy Forum (NHPF), George Washington University, Washington, DC http://www.nhpf.org

      Population Health Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI http://www.pophealth.wisc.edu/uwphi

      Women's and Children's Health Policy Center (WCHPC), School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD http://www.jhsph.edu/wchpc

      See also Advocacy, Education, and Research Organizations; Health Policy Organizations; Public Health

      94. Health Policy Organizations

      Health policy organizations conduct research into issues that affect the healthcare system and delivery of care.

      American Enterprise Institute (AEI) for Public Policy Research http://www.aei.org

      Brookings Institution (BI) http://www.brookings.edu

      Canadian Policy Research Networks (CPRN) http://www.cprn.org

      Center for Health Policy Studies, Heritage Foundation http://www.heritage.org

      Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) http://www.hschange.com

      Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy http://www.excelgov.org/Programs/ProgramDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=9711

      Commonwealth Fund http://www.commonwealthfund.org

      Dialogue on Health Reform (Canada) http://www.utoronto.ca/hpme/dhr/index.html

      Galen Institute http://www.galen.org

      Health Council of Canada http://www.healthcouncilcanada.ca

      Heritage Foundation http://www.heritage.org

      Institute of Medicine (IOM) http://www.iom.edu

      Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) http://www.kaisernetwork.org

      Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/index.htm

      National Health Policy Forum http://www.nhpf.org

      Office of Rural Health Policy, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://ruralhealth.hrsa.gov

      Pew Charitable Trusts http://www.pewtrusts.org

      Policy Information Center, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) http://aspe.hhs.gov/pic

      RAND Corporation http://www.rand.org

      Urban Institute http://www.urban.org

      See also Advocacy, Education, and Research Organizations; Foundation and Philanthropies; Health Policy, Academic Centers of; Public Health

      95. Health Report Cards

      Quality performance indicators is a type of metric that is used to assist healthcare organizations evaluate if they are meeting healthcare quality goals and objectives.

      Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov

      Health Grades, Inc. http://www.healthgrades.com

      Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS), National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) http://web.ncqa.org/tabid/59/Default.aspx

      Hospital Compare, Hospital Quality Alliance (HQA) http://www.hospitalcompare.hhs.gov

      Medical Outcomes Trust http://www.outcomes-trust.org

      National Centre for Health Outcomes Development (NCHOD) http://www.nchod.nhs.uk

      Performance Data, Department of Health http://www.performance.doh.gov.uk

      Quality Check, Joint Commission http://www.jointcommission.org/qualitycheck/06_about_qc.htm

      U.S. News and World Report Best Hospitals http://www.usnews.com/besthospitals

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Health Outcomes; Hospitals; Nursing Homes; Physicians; Quality of Healthcare

      96. Health Services Research, Academic and Training Centers of

      Academic and training centers of health services research provide training to develop professionals and researchers with a background in health services research and health policy.

      Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH http://mediswww.meds.cwru.edu

      Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC http://www.schsr.unc.edu

      Center for Health Care Research and Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC http://www.musc.edu/chcr

      Center for Health Policy/Center for Primary Care and

      Outcomes Research (PCOR/CHP), School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA http://chppcor.stanford.edu

      Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Brown University, Providence, RI http://www.chcr.brown.edu

      Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada) http://chspr.queensu.ca

      Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada) http://www.chspr.ubc.ca

      Center for Health Services Research and Policy, George Washington University, Washington, DC http://www.gwumc.edu/sphhs/healthpolicy

      Center for Outomes and Effectiveness Research and Education, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL http://www.dopm.uab.edu/coere/index.html

      Chicago Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL http://harrisschool.uchicago.edu

      Cornell University Weill Medical College, New York, NY http://www.cornellmedicine.com

      Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH http://www.dartmouth.edu/~cecs

      Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/cpm

      Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA http://depts.washington.edu/hserv

      Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI http://www.pophealth.wisc.edu/HSR/traininggrant.htm

      Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies (ICRHPS), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA http://160.109.101.132/icrhps/default.asp

      Duke University Center for Clinical Health Policy Research (CCHPR), Durham, NC http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epc/dukeepc.htm

      Harvard Medical School, Boston MA http://web.hms.harvard.edu/hfdfp/research.htm

      Health Services Research and Development Center, School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University http://www.jhsph.edu/HSR/index.html

      Institute for Health Services Research and Policy Studies (IHSRPS), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL http://www.medschool.northwestern.edu/ihs

      Institute of Gerontology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI http://www.iog.wayne.edu

      Leonard Davis Institute, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA http://www.wharton.upenn.edu/doctoral/programs/healthcare

      Schneider Institute for Health Policy, Heller School of Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA http://www.sihp.brandeis.edu

      School of Public Health and Public Policy, University of

      California, Berkeley, and School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco http://ihps.medschool.ucsf.edu

      School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles/RAND Corporation, Los Angeles, CA http://www.ph.ucla.edu/hs/degree.html

      School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI http://www.sph.umich.edu/hmp/programs

      School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN http://www.hsr.umn.edu

      Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/prevmed/mph

      See also Health Services Research, Associations and Foundations of

      97. Health Services Research, Associations and Foundations of

      Associations and foundations of health services research are dedicated groups of health services researchers, health policy experts, and practitioners who work to advance research, policy, and practice in the field.

      AcademyHealth (Established in 2000 following the merger between the Alpha Center and the Association for Health Services Research (AHSR) http://www.academyhealth.org

      American Health Care Association (AHCA), Research and Data http://www.ahcancal.org/research_data/Pages/default.aspx

      Canadian Association for Health Services and Policy Research (CAHSPR) http://www.cahspr.ca

      Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF) http://www.chsrf.ca

      Health Services Research Association of Australia and New Zealand (HSRAANZ) http://www.chere.uts.edu.au/hsraanz

      See also Health Policy Organizations; Health Services Research, Academic and Training Centers of

      98. Health Services Research, History of

      History of health services research includes the background, stories, and experiences of key leaders and scholars of this growing field.

      National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR) (NICHSR conducted a History of Health Services Research Project that interviewed many prominent health services researchers) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr

      See also Federal Government; Health Policy Organizations

      99. Health Services Research Journals

      Health services research journals are peer-reviewed publications that publish original and innovative work that advances the field of health services and improves the health of individuals.

      American Journal of Public Health http://www.ajph.org

      Forum for Health Economics and Policy http://www.bepress.com/fhep

      Health Affairs http://www.healthaffairs.org

      Health Care Financing Review http://www.cms.hhs.gov/HealthCareFinancingReview

      Health Economics http://www3.interscience.wiley.com

      Health Services Research http://hsr.org

      Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing http://www.inquiryjournal.org

      Journal of Health Economics http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505560/description

      Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law http://jhppl.dukejournals.org

      Journal of Health Services Research and Policy http://www.rsmpress.co.uk/jhsrp.htm

      Medical Care http://www.lww-medicalcare.com

      Medical Care Research and Review http://mcr.sagepub.com

      Milbank Quarterly http://www.milbank.org/quarterly.html

      Research in Healthcare Financial Management http://www.rhfm.org

      See also Journals, Medical; News Services

      100. Health Statistics and Data Sources

      Sources of health statistics and data include places where researchers, policymakers, and the public can turn to to obtain information on health, disease, and mortality.

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov

      American Hospital Association (AHA) (Conducts an annual survey of the nation's hospitals) http://www.aha.org

      American Medical Association (AMA) http://www.ama-assn.org

      Area Resource File (ARF): National County-level Health Resource Information Database (The ARF contains population and health data for each county in the United States) http://www.arfsys.com

      Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://bhpr.hrsa.gov

      Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) http://www.cihi.ca

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.cms.hhs.gov

      Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) http://www.va.gov

      Health Statistics, Statistics Canada http://cansim2.statcan.ca

      Hospital Episodes Statistics, United Kingdom's National Health Service http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/Statistics/HospitalEpisodeStatistics/en

      National Association of Health Data Organizations (NAHDO) http://www.nahdo.org

      National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs

      Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) http://www.paho.org

      Statistical Abstract of the United States http://www.census.gov/statab/www

      Statistics Canada http://www.statcan.ca

      U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov

      World Health Organization Statistical Information System http://www.who.int/whosis

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Health Surveys; State and County Data Sources; Vital Statistics; World Health Organization (WHO)

      101. Health Surveys

      Health surveys include questionnaires that are conducted across the nation to assess different aspects of health, healthcare, or demographics.

      Annual Health Care and Social Assistance Survey (NAICS 62), U.S. Census (NAICS stands for North American Industry Classification System) http://www.census.gov/svsd/www/sas62.html

      Annual Survey of Hospitals, American Hospital Association (AHA) http://www.aha.org/aha/resource-center/Statistics-and-Studies/index.html

      Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) http://www.ahrq.gov/data/hcup

      Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/org/index.html

      Longitutional Studies of Aging (LSOA) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/lsoa.htm

      Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) http://www.ahrq.gov/data/mepsix.htm

      National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/ahcd/ahcd1.htm

      National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nehis/nehis.htm

      National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm

      National Health Care Survey (NHCS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhcs.htm

      National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm

      National Health Provider Inventory (NHPI) Public-Use Data Files http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/elec_prods/subject/nhpi.htm

      National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhhcs.htm

      National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/ahcd/ahcd1.htm

      National Hospital Discharge and Ambulatory Surgery Survey (NHDS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/hdasd/nhds.htm

      National Immunization Survey (NIS) http://www.cdc.gov/nis

      National Medical Expenditures Survey (NMES) http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/sci_data/surveys/nmes/nmes.asp

      National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nnhs.htm

      National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsas.htm

      National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsfg.htm

      Service Annual Survey, Health Care and Social Assistance (NAICS 62), U.S. Census Bureau (NAICS stands for the North American Industry Classification System) http://www.census.gov/econ/www/servmenu.html

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Health Statistics and Data Sources; Public Health; State and County Data Sources

      102. Healthcare Administration and Management

      Healthcare administration and management includes professionals who work to ensure the smooth and functional operation of a healthcare facility or system.

      American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) http://www.ache.org

      American College of Physician Executives (ACPE) http://www.acpe.org

      Canadian College of Health Service Executives (CCHSE) http://www.cchse.org

      Healthcare Financial Management Association (HFMA) http://www.hfma.org

      European Healthcare Management Association (EHMA) http://www.ehma.org

      Management Sciences for Health http://www.msh.org

      National Institute for Health Care Management (NIHCM) http://www.nihcm.org

      See also Health Administration, Association of Academic Programs of; Health Administration Programs, Graduate Programs in

      103. Healthcare Financial Management

      Healthcare financial management is the technique of using fiscally responsible standards and practices to run a healthcare organization.

      Changes in Health Care Financing and Organizations (This program is part of AcademyHealth) http://www.hcfo.net

      Healthcare Financial Management Association (HFMA) http://www.hfma.org

      International Society for Research in Healthcare Financial Management (isRHFM) http://www.rhfm.org

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Health Insurance; Medicaid; Medical Billing; Medical Records; Medicare; Regulation

      104. Healthy People 2010

      Healthy People 2010 is the set of the nation's objectives to identify the most preventable threats to the country's health and to create goals to reduce and eliminate these threats.

      Healthy People 2010 http://www.healthypeople.gov

      See also Federal Government; Health Disparities; Minority Health; Public Health

      105. Heart Disease

      Heart disease refers to a number of diseases that relate to the heart. Heart disease remains one of the leading causes of death in the United States.

      American Heart Association (AHA) http://www.americanheart.org

      Canadian Adult Congenital Heart Network http://www.cachnet.org

      Congenital Heart Information Network (CHIN) http://tchin.org

      Heart Rhythm Society http://www.hrsonline.org

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

      See also Cardiology; Chronic Diseases; Emergency Medicine; Hospitals

      106. Hispanic

      Hispanic refers to the heterogenous groups of people and cultures who speak Spanish and were once ruled by Spain.

      Association of Hispanic Healthcare Executives (AHHE) http://www.ahhe.org

      National Alliance for Hispanic Health (NAHH) http://www.hispanichealth.org

      National Association of Hispanic Nurses (NAHN) http://thehispanicnurses.org

      National Council on La Raza http://www.nclr.org

      National Hispanic Council on Aging (NHCOA) http://www.nhcoa.org

      National Hispanic Medical Association (NHMA) http://www.nhmamd.org

      Office of Minority Health Resource Center http://www.omhrc.gov

      See also Health Disparities; Migrant Health; Minority Health; Rural Health

      107. Home Health Care

      Home health care is a type of care provided to allow seniors with health conditions to live as independelty as possible. Home health care may involve therapy, nursing, and assistance with daily living.

      Canadian Home Care Association (CHCA) http://www.cdnhomecare.ca

      National Association for Home Care and Hospice (NAHC) http://www.nahc.org

      Team in Community Care and Health Human Resources http://teamgrant.ca

      United Kingdom Home Care Association http://www.ukhca.co.uk

      See also Aging; Assisted Living; Disability; Nursing

      108. Hospice and Palliative Care

      Hospice and palliative care is the specialized comfort care provided to individuals with terminal conditions to alleviate pain and suffering.

      Association for Death Education and Counseling (ADEC) http://www.adec.org

      Children's Hospice International (CHI) http://www.chionline.org

      Hospice Association of America (HAA) http://www.nahc.org/haa

      Hospice Education Institute http://www.hospiceworld.org

      International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) http://www.hospicecare.com

      National Association for Home Care and Hospice (NAHC) http://www.nahc.org

      National Institute for Jewish Hospice http://www.nijh.org

      See also Aging; Gerontology; Health Insurance; Nursing Homes

      109. Hospital Infections and Nosocomial Diseases

      Hospital infections are infections that are acquired secondarily to a patient's primary medical condition, and acquired during the course of a hospitalization.

      National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/nnis_pubs.html

      See also Emerging Diseases; Hospitals; Infection Control and Prevention; Infectious Diseases; Public Health

      110. Hospitalist

      Hospitalists are physicians who specialize in the general medical care of hospitalized patients.

      Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) http://www.hospitalmedicine.org

      See also Hospitals; Quality of Healthcare

      111. Hospitals

      Hospitals are a type of healthcare institution that provides care to patients needing medical treatment. Hospitals house specialized medical equipment and staff and can accomodate patient stays.

      American Hospital Association (AHA) (The AHA represents all of the nation's hospitals) http://www.aha.org

      American Hospital Directory (AHD) http://www.ahd.com

      Catholic Health Association of the United States (CHA) http://www.chausa.org

      Council of Teaching Hospitals and Health Systems (COTH) http://www.aamc.org

      Federation of American Hospitals (FAH) (FAH represents the nation's for-profit hospitals) http://www.americashospital.com

      HospitalWeb http://neuro-www.mgh.harvard.edu/hospitalweb.shtml

      National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions (NACHRI) http://www.childrenshospitals.net

      National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems (NAPH) http://www.naph.org

      National Ministries (This organization was formerly the American Baptist Homes and Hospitals Association) http://www.nationalministries.org

      U.S. News and World Report Best Hospitals http://www.usnews.com/besthospitals

      VHA: Voluntary Hospitals of America http://www.vha.com

      Virtual Hospital: Information for Patients http://www.uihealthcare.com/vh

      See also Emergency Medicine; Hospital Infections and Nosocomial Diseases; Hospitalists; Physicians; Nursing

      112. Hypertension

      Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is when a person's blood pressure is chronically elevated.

      American Society of Hypertension (ASH) http://www.ash-us.org

      International Society on Hypertension in Blacks (ISHIB) http://www.ishib.org

      Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) http://www.phassociation.org

      World Hypertension League http://www.worldhypertensionleague.org

      See also Chronic Diseases; Heart Disease; Kidney Diseases; Public Health

      113. Immunization and Vaccination

      Immunization is when a person's immune system is protected against an agent and it is generally done by giving vaccinations.

      Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) http://www.immunize.org

      Vaccines and Immunizations, CDC http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines

      See also Prevention and Health Promotion; Public Health

      114. Infection Control and Prevention

      Infection control and prevention is the process of protecting against and reducing the spread of disease within a healthcare setting.

      Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), University of Minnesota http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap

      Infection Control Guidelines, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/guidelines.html

      National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp

      Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) http://www.shea-online.org

      See also Emerging Diseases; Hospital Infections and Nosocomial Diseases; Infectious Diseases

      115. Infectious Diseases

      Infectious diseases are diseases that result from microbial pathogens. Infectious diseases may be spread through a number of ways including airborne transmission, food, liquids, bodily fluids, and vectors.

      Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), University of Minnesota http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap

      Communicable Disease Review Weekly http://www.hpa.org.uk/cdr

      Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) http://www.idsociety.org

      Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr

      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) http://www3.niaid.nih.gov

      Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) http://www.sidp.org

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Emerging Diseases; Hospital Infections and Nosocomial Diseases; Infection Control and Prevention; Public Health

      116. Influenza Pandemic

      Influenza pandemic is an outbreak of the flu in which people have little to no natural immunity and for which no vaccine exists. An influenza pandemic would spread rapidly throughout the population and result in serious illness.

      Pandemic Flu http://www.pandemicflu.gov

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Disaster Preparedness and Relief; Emerging Diseases; Public Health

      117. Informatics

      Informatics is the field of information science that includes information processing and the development of information technologies. Informatics is growing in its application to health and medicine.

      American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) http://www.amia.org

      Canada's Health Informatics Association (COACH) http://www.coachorg.com

      European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) http://www.efmi.org

      Health Informatics New Zealand (HINZ) http://www.hinz.org.nz

      Health Informatics Society of Australia (NISA) http://www.hisa.org.au

      International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) http://www.imia.org

      National Center for Public Health Informatics (NCPHI) http://www.cdc.gov/ncphi

      UK Health Informatics Society (UKHiS) http://www.bmis.org

      See also E-Health; Information Technology (IT); Telemedicine

      118. Information Technology (IT)

      Information technology allows for the management and transmission of health data and information between providers and consumers.

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov

      American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) http://www.ahima.org

      Commonwealth Fund http://www.cmwf.org

      National Resource Center for Health Information Technology, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov

      See also E-Health; Informatics; Telemedicine

      119. Injury

      Injury is bodily damage or harm caused to a structure or part of the body.

      Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor http://www.bls.gov/iif

      Injury Control Resource Information Network http://www.injurycontrol.com/icrin

      National Center for Injury Prevention and Contol (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc

      National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov

      National Injury Information Clearinghouse http://www.cpsc.gov/about/clrnghse.html

      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/niosh

      Public Health Agency of Canada, Injury http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/injury-bles

      World Health Organization (WHO) Violence and Injury Prevention http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/en

      See also Burn Care; Emergency Medicine; Occupational Medicine; Workers' Compensation

      120. Internal Medicine

      Internal medicine is the speciality of medicine that is focused on the diagnosis, nonsurgical treatment, and management of serious or unsual medical conditions.

      American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) http://www.abim.org

      American College of Physicians, American Society of Internal Medicine (ACP-ASIM) http://www.acponline.org

      Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) http://www.sgim.org

      See also Hospitals; Physicians

      121. International Health Systems

      International health systems refers to the public health models used in various countries. Studying them often provides insight into a one's own healthcare system.

      Academy for International Health Studies (AIHS) http://www.aihs.com

      American Association for World Health (AAWH) http://www.thebody.com/content/art33029.html

      Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation http://www.gatesfoundation.org

      Canadian Society for International Health (CSIH) http://www.csih.org

      Fogarty International Center (FIC), National Institutes of Health (NIH) http://www.fic.nih.gov

      Global Health Council http://www.globalhealth.org

      International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT) http://www.iamat.org

      Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) http://www.paho.org

      People-to-People Health Foundation (HOPE) http://www.projecthope.org

      Project Concern International (PCI) http://www.projectconcern.org

      Project HOPE http://www.projecthope.org

      U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) http://www.usaid.gov

      W. K. Kellogg Foundation http://www.wkkf.org

      World Bank Group http://www.worldbank.org

      World Health Organization (WHO) http://www.who.int

      See also Canadian Healthcare Organizations; United Kingdom Healthcare Organizations; World Health Organization (WHO)

      122. Journals, Medical

      Medical journals are peer-reviewed publications that publish original work on recent health and medical findings.

      British Medical Journal (BMJ) http://www.bmj.com

      Free Medical Journals http://www.freemedicaljournals.com

      Journal of Postgraduate Medicine http://www.jpgmonline.com

      Journal of the American Medical Association(JAMA) http://jama.ama-assn.org

      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) http://www.nejm.org

      PubMed (The National Library of Medicine produces this huge database. It lists author, title, and summaries of medical journal articles.) http://www.pubmed.gov

      See also Federal Health Information Centers and Clearinghouses; Health Services Research Journals; News Services

      123. Kidney Diseases

      Kidney diseases are conditions that affect the kidneys, the organ that is responsible for the removal of waste and fluids from the body. Kidney diseases can be acquired or heredity.

      American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) http://www.aakp.org

      American Kidney Fund (AKF) http://www.kidneyfund.org

      Kidney Transplant/Dialysis Association (KT/DA) http://www.ktda.org

      National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) http://www2.niddk.nih.gov

      National Kidney Foundation (NKF) http://www.kidney.org

      University Renal Research and Education Association http://www.ustransplant.org

      See also Donors and Transplantation; Hypertension; Nephrology

      124. Latino See Hispanic

      125. Liver Diseases

      Liver diseases are conditions that affect the liver, which is responsible for many functions including metabolizing toxic substances, converting nutrients, storing minerals, synthesizing proteins and enzymes, and maintaining hormone levels.

      American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) http://www.aasld.org

      American Liver Foundation (ALF) http://www.liverfoundation.org

      Hepatitis Foundation International http://www.hepfi.org

      See also Donors and Organ Transplantation; Internal Medicine

      126. Long-Term Care

      Long-term care is the care that is provided to the chronically ill and disabled. Long-term care may be provided in a variety of settings including the home, community, or nursing home and it may provide support and assist with activities of daily living.

      American Health Care Association (AHCA) http://www.ahcancal.org

      National Association for the Support of Long Term Care (NASL) http://www.nasl.org

      See also Aging; Chronic Diseases; Gerontology; Nursing Homes

      127. Lung Diseases

      Lung diseases are conditions that affect the lungs and may cause people to experience difficulty in breathing. Many factors that cause lung disease are behavioral, environmental, and biological in nature.

      American Lung Association http://www.lungusa.org

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

      See also Asthma; Cancer; Tobacco Use

      128. Managed Care

      Managed care is the term that is used to refer to the techniques that are designed to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care through such mechanisms as cost-sharing and financial incentives. Managed care may operate in a variety of forms, including as health maintenance organizations or preferred provider organizations.

      Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) http://www.amcp.org

      Academy of Managed Care Providers (AMCP) http://www.academymcp.org

      American Association of Managed Care Nurses (AAMCN) http://www.aamcn.org

      American Board of Managed Care Medicine (ABMCM) http://www.abmcm.org

      Integrated Healthcare Association (IHA) http://www.iha.org

      See also Health Insurnce; Healthcare Financial Management

      129. Medicaid

      Medicaid is a health program for individuals and families with low income and resources that is jointly funded by the federal government and states. The Medicaid program is means tested and primarily serves the elderly, disabled, and low-income families with children.

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.cms.hhs.gov

      National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP) http://www.nashp.org

      National Association of State Medicaid Directors (NASMD) http://www.nasmd.org

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services CMS; Health Insurance; Medicaid, List of State Programs

      130. Medicaid, List of State Programs

      The list of state programs of Medicaid includes the programs that are run by each state. The specific benefits and eligibility requirements provided by the Medicaid program may vary according to state.

      Alabama Medical Agency http://www.medicaid.state.al.us

      Alaska Department of Health and Social Services http://www.hss.state.ak.us

      Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS) http://www.ahcccs.state.az.us

      Arkansas Department of Human Services http://www.arkansas.gov/dhs/serv_gr.html

      California Department of Health Services http://www.medical.ca.gov

      Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing http://www.chcpf.state.co.us

      Connecticut Department of Social Services, Medical Care Administration http://www.ctmedicalprogram.com

      Delaware Department of Health and Social Services http://www.dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/index.html

      Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Medicaid Business and Policy http://wwwdhhs.state.nh.us/DHHS

      Florida Agency for Health Care Administration http://www.fdhc.state.fl.us/Medicaid/index.shtml

      Georgia Department of Community Health, Medical Assistance Plans http://www.dch.georgia.gov

      Hawaii Department of Human Services, Med-Quest Division http://www.state.hi.us/dhs

      Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Medicaid http://www.healthandwelfare.idaho.gov

      Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services, Medicaid and SCHIP Programs http://www.hfs.illinois.gov

      Indiana Family and Social Services Administration, Office of Medicaid Policy and Planning http://www.in.gov/fssa

      Iowa Department of Human Services, Division of Medical Services http://www.dhs.state.ia.us

      Kansas Medical Assistance Program http://www.kmap-state-ks.us

      Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services http://www.chfs.ky.gov

      Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Bureau of Health Services Financing http://www.dhh.state.la.us

      Maine Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Medical Services http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/bms

      Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene http://www.dhmh.state.md.us/mma/mmahome.html

      Massachusetts Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Medicaid http://www.mass.gov

      Michigan Department of Community Health http://www.michigan.gov/mdch

      Minnesota Department of Human Services http://www.dhs.state.mn.us

      Mississippi Division of Medicaid http://www.medicaid.ms.gov/

      Missouri Department of Social Services, Division of Medical Services http://www.dss.mo.gov/dms

      Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services http://www.dphhs.mt.gov/PHSD

      Nebraska Health and Human Services and Support http://www.hhs.state.ne.us/med/medindex.htm

      Nevada Division of Health Care Financing and Policy http://dhcfp.state.nv.us

      New Jersey Department of Human Services, Division of Medical Assistance and Health http://www.state.nj.us/humanservices/dmahs/dhsmed.html

      New Mexico Department of Human Services, Medical Assistance Division http://www.hsd.state.nm.us/mad

      New York Department of Health, Medicaid http://www.health.state.ny.us/health_care/medicaid/index.htm

      North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Medical Assistance http://www.dhhs.state.nc.us/dma

      North Dakota Department of Human Services, Medical Services http://www.nd.gov/dhs/services/medicalserv

      Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, Ohio Health Plans http://www.jfs.ohio.gov

      Oklahoma Health Care Authority http://www.ohca.state.ok.us

      Oregon Department of Human Resources, Office of Medical Assistance Programs http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/healthplan/index.shml

      Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare, Medical Assistance Programs http://www.dpw.state.pa.us

      Rhode Island Department of Human Services, Medical Assistance Program http://www.dhs.state.ri.us/dhs/adults/dmadult.htm

      South Carolina Department of Health and Human Services http://www.dhhs.state.sc.us/dhhsnew/index.asp

      South Dakota Department of Social Services, Medical Services http://www.dss.sd.gov

      Tennessee Bureau of TennCare http://www.state.tn.us/tenncare

      Texas Health and Human Services Commission http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/medicaid

      Utah Department of Health http://health.utah.gov/medicaid

      Vermont Department of Social Welfare, Office of Health Access http://ovha.vermont.gov

      Virginia Department of Medical Assistance Services http://www.dmas.virginia.gov

      Washington, D.C. Department of Health, Medical Assistance Administration http://app.doh.dc.gov/about/index_maa.shtm

      Washington Department of Social and Health Services, Medical Assistance Administration http://fortress.wa.gov/dshs/maa/index.html

      West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Medical Services http://www.wvdhhr.org/bms

      Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services, Division of Health Care Financing http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/medicaid

      Wyoming Department of Health, Office of Health Care Financing http://wdh.state.wy.us/healthcarefin/equalitycare/index.html

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Health Insurance; Medicaid

      131. Medical Assistants

      Medical assistants are healthcare professionals who provide administrative and clinical support. Medical assistants may be employed in both inpatient and outpatient healthcare settings.

      American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA) http://www.aama-ntl.org

      See also Allied Health; Clinical Laboratories

      132. Medical Billing

      Medical billing is the process of submitting claims to payers for healthcare services rendered.

      American Academy of Professional Coders (AAPC) http://www.aapc.com

      Healthcare Billing and Management Association (HBMA) http://www.hbma.com

      Medical Association of Billers (MAB) http://www.e-medbill.com

      See also Disease and Procedure Classifications; Fraud and

      Abuse; Health Insurance; Healthcare Financial Management; Medical Records

      133. Medical Colleges, Associations of

      Associations of medical colleges represent a group of medical schools that work to improve the healthcare system.

      American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) http://www.aacom.org

      Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) http://www.aamc.org

      Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (AFMC) http://www.afmc.ca

      See also Medical Colleges, List of; Physicians

      134. Medical Colleges, List of

      The list of medical colleges includes all medical colleges, universities, and programs that train professionals to enter the field of medicine.

      Alabama

      University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL http://main.uab.edu/uasom/show.asp?durki=2023

      University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL http://www.southalabama.edu/com

      Arizona

      University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ http://www.medicine.arizona.edu

      Arkansas

      University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Little Rock, AR http://www.uams.edu/com/default.asp

      California

      Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA http://www.usc.edu/schools/medicine/ksom.html

      Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA http://www.llu.edu/llu/medicine

      Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA http://med.stanford.edu

      University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medschool

      University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine, Irvine, CA http://www.ucihs.uci.edu

      University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA http://dgsom.healthsciences.ucla.edu

      University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA http://som.ucsd.edu

      University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA http://medschool.ucsf.edu

      Colorado

      University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO http://www.uchsc.edu/sm/sm/offdean.htm

      Connecticut

      University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT http://www.uchc.edu

      Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT http://info.med.yale.edu/ysm

      District of Columbia

      Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC http://som.georgetown.edu/index.html

      George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC http://www.gwumc.edu

      Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC http://www.med.howard.edu

      Florida

      Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL http://med.fsu.edu

      University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL http://www.med.ufl.edu

      University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL http://www.med.miami.edu

      University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL http://health.usf.edu/medicine/home.html

      Georgia

      Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA http://www.med.emory.edu/index.cfm

      Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine, Augusta, GA http://www.mcg.edu

      Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA http://medicine.mercer.edu

      Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA http://www.msm.edu

      Hawaii

      University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI http://jabsom.hawaii.edu/jabsom

      Illinois

      Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL http://www.rosalindfranklin.edu

      Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL http://www.meddean.lumc.edu

      Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL http://www.medschool.northwestern.edu

      Rush Medical College of Rush University Medical Center http://www.rushu.rush.edu/medcol

      Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL http://www.siumed.edu

      University of Chicago, Division of the Biological Sciences, Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL http://pritzker.bsd.uchicago.edu

      University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL http://www.uic.edu/depts/mcam

      Indiana

      Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN http://www.medicine.iu.edu

      Iowa

      University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA http://www.medicine.uiowa.edu

      Kansas

      University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS http://www.kumc.edu/som/index.html

      Kentucky

      University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY http://www.mc.uky.edu/medicine

      University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY http://www.louisville.edu/medschool

      Louisiana

      Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans, New Orleans, LA http://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu

      Louisiana State University School of Medicine in Shreveport, LA http://www.sh.lsuhsc.edu/index.html

      Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA http://www.som.tulane.edu

      Maryland

      Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org

      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Herbert School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD http://www.usuhs.mil

      University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD http://medschool.umaryland.edu

      Massachusetts

      Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA http://www.bumc.bu.edu

      Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA http://hms.harvard.edu/hms/home.asp

      Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA http://www.tufts.edu/med

      University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA http://www.umassmed.edu/index.aspx

      Michigan

      Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, East Lansing, MI http://humanmedicine.msu.edu

      University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI http://www.med.umich.edu/medschool

      Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI http://www.med.wayne.edu

      Minnesota

      Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN http://www.mayo.edu/mms

      University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN http://www.med.umn.edu

      Mississippi

      University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson, MS http://som.umc.edu

      Missouri

      Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO http://medschool.slu.edu/index.phtml

      University of Missouri, Columbia, School of Medicine, Columbia, MO http://www.muhealth.org~medicine

      University of Missouri, Kansas City, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO http://research.med.umkc.edu

      Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO http://medinfo.wustl.edu

      Nebraska

      Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE http://www2.creighton.edu/medschool

      University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Omaha, NE http://www.unmc.edu/dept/com/index.cfm

      Nevada

      University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV http://www.unr.edu/med

      New Hampshire

      Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH http://dms.dartmouth.edu

      New Jersey

      University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New

      Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ http://njms.umdnj.edu

      University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ http://rwjms.umdnj.edu

      New Mexico

      University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM http://hsc.unm.edu/som

      New York

      Albany Medical College, Albany, NY http://www.amc.edu

      Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY http://www.aecom.yu.edu/home

      Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/ps

      Joan and Sanfort I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY http://www.med.cornell.edu

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University, New York, NY http://www.mssm.edu

      New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY http://www.nymc.edu

      New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY http://www.med.nyu.edu/education

      State University of New York Downstate Medical Center College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY http://downstate.edu/college_of_medicine/default.html

      State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY http://www.upstate.edu

      Stony Brook University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY http://www.stonybrookmedicalcenter.orghsc/index.cfm

      University at Buffalo, State University of New York School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY http://wings.buffalo.edu/smbs

      University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/SMD

      North Carolina

      Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC http://www.ecu.edu/med

      Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC http://medschool.duke.edu

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC http://www.med.unc.edu

      Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC http://www1.wfubmc.edu

      North Dakota

      University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND http://www.med.und.nodak.edu

      Ohio

      Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH http://mediswww.meds.cwru.edu

      Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH http://www.neoucom.edu

      Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH http://medicine.osu.edu

      University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH http://www.med.uc.edu

      University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH http://hsc.utoledo.edu/med

      Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH http://www.med.wright.edu

      Oklahoma

      University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK http://www.medicine.ouhsc.edu

      Oregon

      Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine, Portland, OR http://www.ohsu.edu

      Pennsylvania

      Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA http://www.drexelmed.edu

      Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA http://www.jefferson.edu/jmc

      Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA http://www.hmc.psu.edu/college

      Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA http://www.temple.edu/medicine

      University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA http://www.med.upenn.edu

      University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA http://www.medschool.pitt.edu

      Rhode Island

      Brown Medical School, Providence, RI http://bms.brown.edu

      South Carolina

      Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine, Charleston, SC http://www.musc.edu/com1

      University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC http://www.med.sc.edu

      South Dakota

      Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD http://www.usd.edu/med

      Tennessee

      East Tennessee State University James H. Quillen College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN http://com.etsu.edu

      Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN http://www.mmc.edu

      University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Medicine, Memphis, TN http://www.utmem.edu

      Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/medschool

      Texas

      Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX http://www.bcm.edu

      Texas A&M University System Health Science Center School of Medicine, College Station, TX http://medicine.tamhsc.edu

      Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX http://www.ttuhsc.edu/som

      University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX http://www.utmb.edu

      University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX http://med.uth.tmc.edu

      University of Texas Medical School at San Antonio, San Antonio. TX http://som.uthscsa.edu

      University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX http://www8.utsouthwestern.edu/home/education/medicalschool/index.html

      Utah

      University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT http://uuhsc.utah.edu

      Vermont

      University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT http://www.med.uvm.edu

      Virginia

      Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA http://www.evms.edu

      University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/som/home.cfm

      Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA http://www.medschool.vcu.edu

      Washington

      University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA http://www.uwmedicine.org

      West Virginia

      Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, Huntington, WV http://musom.marshall.edu/index2.asp

      West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/som

      Wisconsin

      Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI http://www.mcw.edu

      University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI http://www.med.wisc.edu

      See also Academic Medical Centers; Medical Colleges, Association of; Physicians

      135. Medical Decision Making

      Medical decision making involves the systematic approach of making appropriate choices to improve health, healthcare, and policy decisions.

      Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making

      See also Clinical Practice Guidelines; Health Law; Medical http://www.fimdm.org Errors; Patient Safety

      Society for Medical Decision Making (SMDM) http://www.smdm.org

      See also Clinical Practice Guidelines; Evidence-Based Medicine EBM; Informatics; Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)

      136. Medical Errors

      Medical errors involve the diagnosis or treatment by a provider that results in injury or harm to a patient. Medical errors can range from minor to severe and impose significant costs to the healthcare system.

      Med-E.R.R.S. http://www.med-errs.com

      Medication Compliance Institution (MCI) http://medicationcomplianceinstitute.org

      National Council on Patient Information and Education (NCPIE) http://www.talkaboutrx.org

      National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP) http://www.nccmerp.org

      See also Health Outcomes; Medical Malpractice; Patient Safety; Quality of Healthcare

      137. Medical Group Practice

      Medical group practice is a group of physicians who share the same office and/or other healthcare resources. About half of all physician practices are group practices.

      Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) http://www.mgma.com

      See also Physicians

      138. Medical Malpractice

      Medical malpractice is an act of omission or commission by a healthcare provider that does not conform with the standard of care and results in harm or injury to a patient.

      Anerican Association for Justice, formerly the American Trial Lawyers of America http://www.justice.org

      American Tort Reform Association (ATRA) http://www.atra.org

      Health Law Section, American Bar Association (ABA) http://www.abanet.org/health

      139. Medical Practice Variations

      Medical practice variations are differences in healthcare utilization and spending across geographic areas.

      Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare http://www.dartmouthatlas.org

      See also Clinical Practice Guidelines; Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Quality of Healthcare

      140. Medical Records

      Medical records include the official documentation of a patient's medical history and care and they are traditionally maintained by the healthcare provider.

      American Academy of Professional Coders (AAPC) http://www.aapc.com

      American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) http://www.ahima.org

      Medical Records Institute (MRI) http://www.medrecinst.com

      See also Disease and Procedure Classifications; Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA); Informatics; Medical Billing

      141. Medical Residents and Interns

      Medical residents and interns include physicians who have completed medical school but are undergoing further training under the supervision of a fully licensed physician. Residencies allow physicians to gain a more in-depth experience within a particular specialty of medicine.

      American Medical Student Association (AMSA) http://www.amsa.org

      National Association of Residents and Interns (NARI) http://www.nari-assn.com

      National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) http://www.nrmp.org

      Resident Web http://www.residentweb.com

      See also Hospitals; Physicians

      142. Medical Sociology

      Medical sociology is the study of individuals and groups within the social context of health, illness, and healthcare. Medical sociology draws upon a number of different perspectives to understand health and healthcare within the context of sociology.

      American Sociological Association (ASA) http://www.asanet.org

      British Sociological Association http://www.britsoc.co.uk/medsoc

      Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association (ASA) http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/asamedsoc

      SocioSite: Sociology of Health http://www.sociosite.net

      See also Disease and Procedure Classifications; Health

      143. Medical Technologists

      Medical technologists are healthcare professionals who perform clinical tests on bodily fluids and other specimens for diagnostic purposes. Medical technologists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, physician's offices, and laboratories.

      American Medical Technologists (AMT) http://www.amt1.com

      American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) http://www.arrt.org

      American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) http://www.asrt.org

      Association of Surgical Technologists (AST) http://www.ast.org

      See also Allied Health; Clinical Laboratories; Medical Tests and Diagnostics

      144. Medical Tests and Diagnostics

      Medical tests and diagnostics are clinical tests that are performed to aid in the diagnosis of a health condition.

      Lab Tests Online http://www.labtestsonline.org

      Tests and Procedures, MedlinePlus http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorial.html

      See also Allied Health; Clinical Laboratories; Medical Technologists

      145. Medicare

      Medicare is a federal health insurance program for those 65 years of age or older and other defined benefits groups. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administer the Medicare program.

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.cms.hhs.gov

      Medicare Rights Center http://www.medicarerights.org

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Health Insurance; Hospitals

      146. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage (Medicare Part D)

      The Medicare prescription drug coverage program is a program that allows Medicare beneficiaries to receive coverage for their prescription drugs regardless of income, health status, or type of prescription drugs used. This program covers both brand name and generic drugs.

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.cms.hhs.gov/PrescriptionDrugCovGenIn

      http://MedicareAide.Com http://www.medicareaide.com/index.html

      Medicare.gov http://www.medicare.gov/medicarereform/drugbenefit.asp

      My Medicare Matters, The National Council on the Aging http://www.mymedicarematters.org

      Policy and Advocacy, American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/medicare.html

      Resources on the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit, Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) http://www.kff.org/medicare/rxdrugbenefit.cfm

      See also Drugs; Drugs, Prices of; Medicare; Pharmacoeconomics

      147. Mental Health

      Mental health may be referred to as the level of an individual's cognitive and emotion well-being and the absence of any mental condition. Mental health is needed to ensure proper functioning and quality of life.

      American Psychiatric Association http://www.psych.org

      American Psychological Association (APA) http://www.apa.org

      Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) http://www.dbsalliance.org

      National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) http://www.narsad.org

      National Alliance for the Mentally Ill http://www.nami.org

      National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) http://www.nasmhpd.org

      National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) http://www.nimh.nih.gov

      National Mental Health Association (NMHA) http://www.nmha.org

      SAMHSA's National Mental Health Information Center http://www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov

      World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH) http://www.wfmh.org

      See also Disability; Psychiatric Care

      148. Mentally Disabled

      Mentally disabled refers to the chronic disability that is caused by a mental disorder(s) and it may also involve physical impairment. Mental disability also affects an individual's ability in daily functioning.

      American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) http://www.aamr.org

      Association for the Help of Retarded Children (AHRC) http://www.ahrc.org

      See also Disability; Mental Health; Psychiatric Care

      149. Migrant Health

      Migrant health is concerned with promoting the health of the Mexican border communities and farmworkers.

      Migrant Clinicians Network http://www.migrantclinician.org

      Office of Rural Health Policy, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://ruralhealth.hrsa.gov

      Washington Association of Community and Migrant Health Centers http://www.wacmhc.org

      See also Hispanic; Public Health; Rural Health

      150. Military Health Systems

      Military health systems refers to the healthcare systems that serve the members and reitrees of the military and their families. The military health system also responds to natural disasters, humanitarian crises, and military operations.

      Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) http://www.health.mil

      TRICARE, Military Health System http://www.tricare.mil

      See also Federal Government; Veterans Health

      151. Minority Health

      Minority health is concnered with the health issues of racial and ethnic minority groups and the elimination of health disparities.

      Alliance of Minority Medical Associations http://www.allamericanhealth.org

      American Public Health Association (APHA) http://www.apha.org

      Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum http://www.apiahf.org

      Association of American Indian Physicians http://www.aaip.org

      Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations http://www.aapcho.org

      Health Professionals for Diversity, Association of American Medical Colleges http://www.aamc.org/diversity

      National Alliance for Hispanic Health http://www.hispanichealth.org

      National Asian Women's Health Organizations http://www.nawho.org

      National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) http://www.ncmhd.nih.gov

      National Hispanic Medical Association http://www.nhmamd.org

      National Indian Health Board http://www.nihb.org

      National Medical Association http://www.nmanet.org

      National Minority AIDS Council http://www.nmac.org

      National Minority Quality Forum http://www.nmqf.org

      Transcultural Nursing Society http://www.tcns.org

      See also African American Health; Hispanic; Native American Health; Nursing, Minority Associations

      152. National Health Insurance

      National health insurance is a universal, single-payer health program. A national health insurance program aims to provide healthcare coverage for everyone.

      Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP) http://www.pnhp.org

      See also Health Insurance; Health Policy Organizations; Uninsured Individuals

      153. National Institutes of Health (NIH)

      The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the premier federal agency that conducts cutting-edge biomedical and health-related research in the United States. Through its institutes and centers, the NIH works to prevent, protect, diagnose, and treat diseases.

      General

      National Institutes of Health (NIH) http://www.nih.gov

      Director

      Office of the Director (OD) http://www.nih.gov/icd/od

      Institutes

      National Cancer Institute (NCI) http://www.cancer.gov

      National Eye Institute (NEI) http://www.nei.nih.gov

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

      National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) http://www.genome.gov

      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) http://www3.niaid.nih.gov

      National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) http://www.niams.nih.gov

      National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) http://www.nibib.nih.gov

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) http://www.nichd.nih.gov

      National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) http://www.nidcr.nih.gov

      National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) http://www2.niddk.nih.gov

      National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) http://www.niehs.nih.gov

      National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) http://www.nigms.nih.gov

      National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) http://www.nimh.nih.gov

      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) http://www.ninds.nih.gov

      National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) http://www.ninr.nih.gov

      National Institute on Aging (NIA) http://www.nia.nih.gov

      National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) http://www.niaaa.nih.gov

      National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) http://www.nidcd.nih.gov

      National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) http://www.nida.nih.gov

      National Library of Medicine (NLM) http://www.nlm.nih.gov

      Centers

      Center for Information Technology (CIT) http://www.cit.nih.gov

      Center for Scientific Review (CSR) http://cms.csr.nih.gov

      John E. Fogarty International Center (FIC) http://www.fic.nih.gov

      National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) http://www.nccam.nih.gov

      National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) http://www.ncrr.nih.gov

      National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) http://www.ncmhd.nih.gov

      NIH Clinical Center (CC) http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Federal Government; Public Health

      154. Native American Health

      Native American health refers to the unique health needs of this group.

      American Indian Health, National Library of Medicine (NLM) http://americanindianhealth.nlm.nih.gov

      Indian Health Service (HIS), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) http://www.ihs.gov

      Medicare and Medicaid Services for American Indian and

      Alaska Native, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.cms.hhs.gov/aian

      National Council of Urban Indian Health (NCUIH) http://www.ncuih.org

      See also Health Disparities; Minority Health; Public Health

      155. Nephrology

      Nephrology is the medical specialty that focuses on diseases and conditions of the kidney.

      American Society of Nephrology (ASN) http://www.asn-online.org

      Kidney Transplant/Dialysis Association (KT/DA) http://www.ktda.org

      National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) http://www2.niddk.nih.gov

      Renal Physicians Association http://www.renalmd.org

      See also Chronic Diseases; Kidney Diseases

      156. Neurological Disorders

      Neurological disorders are disorders of the brain and nervous system. Many organizations are dedicated to researching, advocating, and developing policies related to neurological disorders.

      American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) http://www.aanem.net

      American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) http://www.apdaparkinson.org

      Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association (ALSA) http://www.alsa.org

      Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (CHADD) http://www.chadd.org

      Huntington's Disease Society of America (NDSA) http://www.hdsa.org

      Multiple Sclerosis Foundation (MSF) http://www.msfocus.org

      Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) http://www.mdausa.org

      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) http://www.ninds.nih.gov

      National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) http://www.nmss.org

      National Parkinson Foundation (NPF) http://www.parkinson.org

      Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) http://www.pdf.org

      Tourette Syndrome Association (TSA) http://www.tsa-usa.org

      See also Disability; National Institutes of Health (NIH); Neurology; Stroke

      157. Neurology

      Neurology is the specialty of medicine that deals with the study of the brain and nervous system.

      American Academy of Neurology (AAN) http://www.aan.com

      See also Physicians; Neurological Disorders; Neurosurgery; Spinal Disorders and Injuries

      158. Neurosurgery

      Neurosurgery is the discipline of surgery that focuses on treating disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system and spinal cord. The field of neurosurgery has undergone many advancements with the development of new medical technologies.

      American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) http://www.aans.org

      See also Neurological Disorders; Neurology; Surgery and Surgeons

      159. News Services

      News services provide information to the public on recent medical breakthroughs, discoveries, and research findings. News services play an important part in disseminating the latest knowledge.

      American Medical News (AMA) http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews

      CNN Health http://www.cnn.com/health/library

      MedlinePlus: Health News http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/newsbydate.html

      Reuters Health Information Services http://www.reutershealth.com

      See also Health Services Research Journals; Journals, Medical

      160. Nuclear Medicine

      Nuclear medicine is the field of medicine and medical imaging that uses nuclear compounds to aide in diagnosis and treatment.

      Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) http://www.snm.org

      See also Cancer; Medical Tests and Diagnostics; Oncology

      161. Nurse Practitioners

      Nurse practitioners are registered nurses with advanced training who provide a range of healthcare services. Nurse practitioners are able to dia gnose and treat common and some complicated conditions.

      American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) http://www.aanp.org

      See also Nursing; Rural Health

      162. Nursing

      Nursing is a healthcare profession that advocates and provides care to individuals, families, and communities. Nursing has been described as an art and science that promotes the quality of life of individuals from birth until death.

      American Nurses Association (ANA) http://www.nursingworld.org

      National League for Nursing (NLN) http://www.nln.org

      See also Nurse Practitioners; Nursing, Collegiate Organizations; Nursing Specialities

      163. Nursing, Collegiate Organizations

      Collegiate organizations of nursing are organizations that represent the concerns of nursing professionals.

      American Association of Colleges of Nursing http://www.aacn.nche.edu

      American College of Nurse Practitioners http://www.acnpweb.org

      Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) http://www.cna-nurses.ca

      Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools (CGFNS International) http://www.cgfns.org

      National Student Nurses' Association, Inc. http://www.nsna.org

      See also Nursing; Nursing, Minority Associations of; Nursing Specialities

      164. Nursing, Minority Associations of

      Minority associations of nursing are organizations of racial and ethnic nursing professionals.

      Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada http://www.anac.on.ca

      American Assembly for Men in Nursing http://www.aamn.org

      Asian and Pacific Islander Nurses Association http://www.aapina.org

      Filipino Nurses Online http://www.filipinonurses.net

      National Alaska Native/American Indian Nurses Association http://www.nanainanurses.org/

      National Association of Hispanic Nurses http://www.thehispanicnurses.org

      National Black Nurses Association, Inc. http://www.nbna.org

      National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse Association http://www.ncemna.org

      Philippine Nurses Association of America http://www.philippinenursesaa.org

      See also Minority Health; Nursing; Nursing, Collegiate Organizations

      165. Nursing Homes

      Nursing homes are facilities that provide constant nursing care to inviduals who have deficits with activities of daily living. Residents of nursing homes typically include the elderly and disabled.

      American College of Health Care Administrators (ACHCA) http://www.achca.org

      American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging (AAHSA) (it represents not-for-profit nursing homes) http://www.aahsa.org

      American Health Care Association (AHCA) (It represents both not-for-profit and for-profit nursing homes.) http://www.ahcancal.org

      American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) http://www.amda.com

      Catholic Health Association of the United States (CHA) http://www.chausa.org

      National Ministries (This organization was formerly the American Baptist Homes and Hospitals Association) http://www.nationalministries.org

      Nursing Home Compare, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) http://www.medicare.gov/NHCompare/home.asp

      See also Aging; Alzheimer's Disease; Gerontology; Hospice and Palliative Care; Medicaid

      166. Nursing Research

      Nursing research is focused on research that aims to promote and improve the health of individuals, families, and communities.

      National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) http://www.ninr.nih.gov

      See also National Institutes of Health (NIH); Nursing; Nursing Specialities

      167. Nursing Specialties

      Nursing specialties include the many different focus areas within nursing that provide specialized care.

      American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) http://www.aacn.org

      American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA) http://www.aana.org

      American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) http://www.aaohn.org

      American College of Nurse Midwives (ACNM) http://www.midwife.org

      American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) http://www.aone.org

      Association of PeriOperative Registered Nurses (AORN) http://www.aorn.org

      Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) http://www.rehabnurse.org

      Association of Women's Health, Obstetrics and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) http://www.awhonn.org

      Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association (HPNA) http://www.hpna.org

      National Association of Neonatal Nurses (NANN) http://www.nann.org

      National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses (NAON) http://www.orthonurse.org

      National Association of School Nurses (NASN) http://www.nasn.org

      Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) http://www.ons.org

      Pediatric Nursing Certification Board http://www.pncb.org

      168. Obstetrics and Gynecology

      Obstretrics and gynecology is the specialty of medicine that focuses on a women's reproductive organs. This specialty provides care to both pregnant and non-pregnant women.

      American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG) http://www.abog.org

      American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) http://www.acog.org

      American College of Osteopathic Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOOG) http://www.acoog.org

      See also Childbirth; Child Development and Health; Physicians

      169. Occupational Medicine

      Occupational medicine is an interdisciplinary specialty of medicine that is concerned with the health, safety, and welfare of individuals at their work site or place of employment.

      American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) http://www.acoem.org

      American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) http://www.aiha.org

      American Occupational Therapy Foundation (AOTF) http://www.aotf.org

      Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) http://www.ccohs.ca

      Institute for Work and Health (Canada) http://www.iwh.on.ca

      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Information Inquiry Service http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/inquiry.html

      See also Injury; Physicians; Workers' Compensation

      170. Oncology

      Oncology is the specialty of medicine that focuses on cancers. The field of oncology deals with the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of cancer patients as well as palliative care.

      American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) http://www.asco.org

      See also Nurse Practitioners; Nursing; Nursing Research

      See also Cancer

      171. Ophthalmology

      Opthalmology is the medical specialty that is concerned with conditions of the eye as well as surgical procedures dealing with the visual pathway that includes the eye, brain, and areas surrounding the eye.

      American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) http://www.aao.org

      American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) http://www.abop.org

      American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) http://www.ascrs.org

      Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology http://www.arvo.org

      Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Opthalmology (JCAHPO) http://www.jcahpo.org

      See also Blind and Visually Impaired; Eye Diseases; Optometry; Physicians

      172. Optometry

      Optometry is a healthcare profession that focuses on the eye and surrounding structures, in addition to vision and visual processing.

      American Academy of Optometry (AAO) http://www.aaopt.org

      American Optometric Association (AOA) http://www.aoanet.org

      National Board of Examiners in Optometry (NBEO) http://www.optometry.org

      National Optometric Association (NOA) http://www.natoptassoc.org/user/default.php

      See also Blind and Visually Impaired; Eye Diseases; Ophthalmology

      173. Oral Health

      Oral health is concerned with the health of the oral cavitiy including the teeth, gums, jawbone, and surrounding tissues. Oral health is necessary for overall good health.

      National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research http://www.nidcr.nih.gov

      National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center http://www.mchoralhealth.org

      See also Dentistry; Dentistry, Public Health; Public Health

      174. Orthopedics

      Orthopedics is the surgical specialty that focuses on conditions and injuries of the musculoskeletal system.

      American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) http://www.aaos.org

      American Orthopaedic Association (AOA) http://www.aoassn.org

      American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) http://www.aofas.org

      Council on Chiropractic Orthopedics (CCO) http://www.ccodc.org

      Health Volunteers Overseas (OO) http://www.hvousa.org

      See also Chiropractic Care; Injury; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

      175. Osteopathic Medicine

      Osteopathic medicine includes a branch of medicine that trains allopathic physicians. Osteopathic medicine focuses on osteopathic manipulative medicine and alternative medical therapies.

      American Academy of Osteopathy (AAO) http://www.academyofosteopathy.org

      American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) http://www.aacom.org

      American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians (ACOFP) http://www.acofp.org

      American Osteopathic Association (AOA) http://www.osteopathic.org

      See also Hospitals; Physicians

      176. Osteoporosis

      Osteoporosis is a disease of the bone where individuals have decreased bone mineral density that leads to a greater risk of fractures.

      National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center http://www.osteo.org

      National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) http://www.nof.org

      See also Public Health; Women's Health Issues

      177. Overweight and Obesity

      Overweight and obesity is a condition when an individual gains excess body fat. This condition may cause an individual to have negative health consequences and be at greater risk for other health conditions.

      American Society for Bariatric Surgery (ASBS) http://www.asbs.org

      Association for the Study of Obesity (ASO) http://www.aso.org.uk

      See also Diabetes; Diet and Nutrition; Eating Disorders; Fitness and Exercise

      178. Pain

      Pain management is the medical discipline that is concerned with relieving pain through a variety of techniques including pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic, and psychologic interventions.

      American Academy of Pain Management http://www.aapainmanage.org

      American Pain Society (APS) http://www.ampainsoc.org

      American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) http://www.asra.com

      Canadian Pain Society (CPS) http://www.canadianpainsociety.ca

      Chronic Pain Association of Canada (CPAC) http://www.chronicpaincanada.com

      International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) http://www.iasp-pain.org

      See also Health Outcomes; Hospice and Palliative Care; Quality of Healthcare

      179. Patient Advocacy

      Patient advocacy refers to acting on behalf of patients to protect their rights and assist in obtaining needed services and information. Patient advocacy generally involves liaising between the patient and healthcare provider.

      Patient Care Partnership, American Hospital Association (AHA) http://www.aha.org/aha/issues/Communicating-With-Patients/index.html

      See also Health Law; Health Literacy; Medical Errors; Patient Safety

      180. Patient Safety

      Patient safety is the discipline that deals with reporting, analyzing, and preventing medical errors. Patient safety initiatives are increasing their recognition of the number of medical errors that occur each year.

      Canadian Patient Safety Institute http://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca

      Center for the Advancement of Patient Safety, U.S. Pharmacopeia http://www.usp.org

      Communicating Health Care http://www.geriamori.com

      Consumers Advancing Patient Safety http://www.patientsafety.org

      Doctors in Touch http://www.doctorsintouch.com

      Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation http://www.empsf.org

      FDA Patient Safety News http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/psn/index.cfm

      Institute for Healthcare Improvement http://www.ihi.org

      Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) http://www.ismp.org

      Joint Commission International, Patient Safety http://www.jointcommission.org/PatientSafety

      National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF) http://www.npsf.org

      National Safety Council (NSC) http://www.nsc.org

      Partnership for Patient Safety http://www.p4ps.org

      Patient Safety and Quality Healthcare http://www.psqh.com

      Patient Safety First, Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN) http://www.aorn.org/AboutAORN/WhoWeAre/PatientSafetyFirst

      Patient Safety Network, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://psnet.ahrq.gov

      Premier Patient Safety Institute http://www.premierinc.com

      VA National Center for Patient Safety http://www.patientsafety.gov

      Voice for Patients http://www.voice4patients.com

      World Alliance for Patient Safety, World Health Organization (WHO) http://www.who.int/patientsafety/en

      See also Health Literacy; Medical Errors; Medical Malpractice; Quality of Healthcare

      181. Pathology

      Pathology is the specialty of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis of disease by examining whole bodies, bodily fluids, organs, and tissues.

      American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) http://www.ascp.org

      College of American Pathologists (CAP) http://www.cap.org

      International Academy of Pathology (IAP) http://iaphomepage.org

      See also Clinical Latoratories; Hospitals; Medical Tests and Diagnostics; Physicians

      182. Pediatrics

      Pediatrics is the medical specialty that provides medical care to infants, children, and adolescents.

      American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) http://www.aap.org

      See also Child Development and Health; Immunization and Vaccination; Prevention and Health Promotion

      183. Pharmaceutical Companies, Association of

      The association of pharmaceutical companies includes a group that represents the interests of pharmaceutical manufacturers and biotechnology companies.

      Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PHRMA) http://www.phrma.org

      See also Drugs; Drugs, Prices of; Pharmaceutical Companies, List of

      184. Pharmaceutical Companies, List of

      The list of pharmaceutical companies includes a compilation of pharmaceutical manufacturers who produce medicines and therapies.

      3M Pharmaceuticals http://www.mmm.com

      Abbott http://www.abbott.com

      Amgen, Inc. http://www.amgen.com

      Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. http://www.amylin.com

      Astellas US LLC http://www.astellas.com/en

      AstraZeneca LP http://www.astrazeneca.com

      Baxter http://www.baxter.com

      Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals http://www.pharma.bayer.com/scripts/pages/en/index.php

      Berlex Laboratories, Inc. http://www.berlex.bayerhealthcare.com

      Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. http://www.boehringer-ingelheim.com

      Bristol-Myers Squibb Company http://www.bms.com

      Celgene Corporation http://www.celgene.com

      Cephalon, Inc. http://www.cephalon.com

      Daiichi Sankyo, Inc. http://www.sankopharma.com

      Eli Lilly and Company http://www.lilly.com

      Genzyme Corporation http://www.genzyme.com

      GlaxoSmithKline http://www.gsk.com

      Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. http://www.rocheusa.com

      Johnson & Johnson http://www.jnj.com

      Merck & Company, Inc. http://www.merck.com

      Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. http://www.millennium.com

      Novartis Corporation http://www.novartis.com

      Organon USA Inc. http://www.schering-plough.com

      Otsuka America, Inc. http://www.otsuka-us.com

      Pfizer, Inc. http://www.pfizer.com/main

      Procter & Gamble Co. http://www.pgpharma.com/index.shtml

      Purdue Pharma L.P. http://www.purduepharma.com

      Sanofi-Aventis U.S. http://www.sanofi-aventis.us/live/us/en/index.jsp

      Schering-Plough Corporation http://www.schering-plough.com

      Schwarz Pharma, Inc. http://www.schwarzpharma.com

      Sepracor, Inc. http://www.sepracor.com

      Serono, Inc. http://www.merckserono.net

      Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. http://www.solvaypharmaceuticals-us.com

      Valeant Pharmaceuticals International http://www.valeant.com

      Wyeth http://www.wyeth.com

      See also Drugs; Pharmacists and Pharmacy; Pharmacoeconomics

      185. Pharmaceuticals See Drugs

      186. Pharmacists and Pharmacy

      Pharmacists are healthcare professionals who dispense medication ordered by a healthcare provider and also counsel patients on the proper use and adverse effects. Pharmacy is the healthcare profession of pharmacists that is concerned with the safe and effective use of medications.

      Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) http://www.amcp.org

      American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) http://www.aacp.org

      American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) http://www.accp.com

      American Pharmacists Association (APA) http://www.pharmacist.com

      American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) http://www.ascp.com

      American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) http://www.ashp.org

      National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) http://www.nabp.net

      National Pharmaceutical Association (NPhA) http://www.npha.net

      Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) http://www.sidp.org

      See also Drugs; Drugs, Generic; Pharmacoeconomics

      187. Pharmacoeconomics

      Pharmacoeconomics is a discipline that compares the relative value of one pharmaceutical agent to another by examining the costs and effects.

      International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) http://www.ispor.org

      Society for Medical Decision Making (SMDM) http://www.smdm.org

      See also Drugs; Drugs, Generic; Drugs, Prices of; Pharmacists and Pharmacy

      188. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

      Physical medicine and rehabilition is the field of medicine that is focused on restoring the physical functioning of individuals who have a disability through the use of medicines, exercises, assistive devices and equipment, and other approaches.

      American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ABPMR) http://www.abpmr.org

      American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) http://www.acrm.org

      Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF) http://www.carf.org

      Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, The (TIRR) http://www.tirr.org

      International Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ISPRM) http://www.isprm.org

      National Rehabilitation Association (NRA) http://www.nationalrehab.org

      National Rehabilitation Counseling Association (NRCA) http://www.nrca-net.org

      National Rehabilitation Information Center http://www.naric.com

      See also Chiropractic Care; Chronic Diseases; Disability

      189. Physicians

      Physicians are medical doctors who work to promote and maintain health through the diagnosis and treatment of injuries and disease.

      American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) http://www.aafp.org

      American College of Physicians (ACP) http://www.acponline.org

      American Medical Association (AMA) http://www.ama-assn.org

      American Medical Students Association (AMSA) http://www.amsa.org

      American Osteopathic Association (AOA) http://www.osteopathic.org

      National Medical Association (NMA) http://www.nmanet.org

      See also Academic Medical Centers; Hospitals; Osteopathic Medicine; Surgery and Surgeons

      190. Population Estimates

      Population estimates include data on populations and demographic characteristics.

      U.S. Census Bureau Population Estimates Data Sets http://www.census.gov/popest/datasets.html

      See also Federal Government; Health Surveys; Vital Statistics

      191. Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO)

      Preferred provider organizations are a type of managed care plan where physicians, hospitals, and other healthcare providers are contracted to provide care to a group of patients at a reduced rate. Preferred provider organizations may also allow patients to use healthcare providers outside of the network but at a higher out-of-pocket cost.

      American Association of Preferred Provider Organizations (AAPPO) http://www.aappo.org

      See also Health Insurance; Managed Care

      192. Prevention and Health Promotion

      Prevention and health promotion works to improve the health of individuals by preventing the occurrence of disease and injury.

      American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) http://www.abprevmed.org

      American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) http://www.acpm.org

      Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care http://www.ctfphc.org

      CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC NPIN) http://www.cdcnpin.org

      Center for Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University http://www.jhsph.edu/adolescenthealth

      Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov

      Partnership for Prevention http://www.prevent.org

      See also Diet and Nutrition; Fitness and Exercise; Immunization and Vaccination; Public Health

      193. Psychiatric Care

      Psychiatric care works to treat and provide for patients who have mental health conditions.

      American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) http://www.aacap.org

      American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry (AAGP) http://www.aagpgpa.org

      National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems http://www.naphs.org

      See also Mental Health

      194. Public Health

      Public health is the discipline that works to promote the health and extend the lives of populations through the prevention and treatment of disease.

      American Public Health Association (APHA) http://www.apha.org

      Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD) http://www.astdd.org

      Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) http://www.astho.org

      Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) http://www.cpha.ca

      European Public Health Association (EUPHA) http://www.eupha.org

      National Association of City and County Health Officials (NACCHO) http://www.naccho.org

      Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) http://www.paho.org

      Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA) http://www.phaa.net.au

      Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/chn-rcs/index-eng.php

      United Kingdom Public Health Association (UKPHA) http://www.ukpha.org.uk

      World Health Organization (WHO) http://www.who.int

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Environmental Health Epidemiology; World Health Organization (WHO)

      195. Public Health, Associations of Schools of

      The list of associations of schools of public health includes organizations that represent schools and programs of public health.

      Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) http://www.asph.org

      Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) http://www.ceph.org

      Society of Public Health Education http://www.sophe.org

      See also Public Health; Public Health, Schools of

      196. Public Health, Schools of

      Schools of Public Health conduct research and provide education and training for students to enter a professional career in public health that leads to a master's or doctoral degree.

      Alabama

      University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL http://www.soph.uab.edu

      Arizona

      University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, Tucson, AZ http://www.publichealth.arizona.edu

      Arkansas

      University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, Little Rock, AR http://www.uams.edu/coph

      California

      Loma Linda University School of Public Health, Loma Linda, CA http://www.llu.edu/llu/sph

      San Diego State University Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego, CA http://publichealth.sdsu.edu

      University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA http://sph.berkeley.edu

      University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA http://www.ph.ucla.edu

      Connecticut

      University of Connecticut Graduate Program in Public Health, Farmington, CT http://grad.uchc.edu

      Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT http://publichealth.yale.edu

      District of Columbia

      George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, DC http://www.gwumc.edu/sphhs

      Florida

      Florida International University Robert Stempel School of Public Health, Miami, FL http://chua2.fiu.edu/SSPH

      University of Florida College of Public Health and Health Professions, Gainesville, FL http://www.phhp.ufl.edu

      University of South Florida College of Public Health, Tampa, FL http://publichealth.usf.edu

      Georgia

      Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA http://www.sph.emory.edu

      University of Georgia College of Public Health, Athens, GA http://www.publichealth.uga.edu

      Illinois

      University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Chicago, IL http://www.uic.edu/sph/index.shtml

      Iowa

      University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA http://www.public-health.uiowa.edu

      Kentucky

      University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, KY http://www.mc.uky.edu/publichealth

      Louisiana

      Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA http://publichealth.lsuhsc.edu

      Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical

      Medicine, New Orleans, LA http://www.sph.tulane.edu

      Maryland

      Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD http://www.jhsph.edu

      University of Maryland Baltimore School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD http://www.sph.umaryland.edu

      Massachuetts

      Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA http://www.bu.edu/sph

      Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA http://www.hsph.harvard.edu

      University of Massachusetts School of Public Health and Health Sciences, Amherst, MA http://www.umass.edu/sphhs/index.html

      Michigan

      University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI http://www.sph.umich.edu

      Minnosota

      University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN http://www.sph.umn.edu

      Missouri

      Saint Louis University School of Public Health, St. Louis, MO http://publichealth.slu.edu

      New Jersey

      University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ http://sph.umdnj.edu

      New York

      Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY http://www.mailman.hs.columbia.edu

      New York Medical College School of Public Health, Valhalla, NY http://www.nymc.edu/sph

      University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY http://www.albany.edu/sph

      North Carolina

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC http://www.sph.unc.edu

      Ohio

      Ohio State University School of Public Health, Columbus, OH http://sph.osu.edu

      Oklahoma

      University of Oklahoma College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK http://www.ouhsc.edu

      Pennsylvania

      Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA http://publichealth.drexel.edu

      University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA http://www.publichealth.pitt.edu

      South Carolina

      University of South Carolina Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, SC http://www.sph.sc.edu

      Tennesse

      University of Louisville School of Public Health and Information Science, Louisville, TN http://www.louisville.edu/hsc/sphis

      Texas

      Texas A&M School of Rural Public Health, Bryan, TX http://www.srph.tamhsc.edu

      University of North Texas Health Science Center School of Public Health, Fort Worth, TX http://www.hsc.unt.edu/education/sph

      University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu

      Washington

      University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Seattle, WA http://sphcm.washington.edu

      See also Public Health; Public Health, State Departments of

      197. Public Health, State Departments of

      State departments of public health provide a vital function to keep residents of states healthy through health promotion and disease prevention activities.

      Alabama Department of Public Health http://www.adph.org

      Alaska Department of Health and Social Services http://www.hss.state.ak.us

      Arkansas Department of Health http://www.healthyarkansas.com

      Arizona Department of Health Services http://www.hs.state.az.us

      California Department of Health Services http://www.dhs.ca.gov

      Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/cdphehom.asp

      Connecticut Department of Health http://www.dph.state.ct.us

      District of Columbia Department of Health http://www.dchealth.dc.gov/doh/site/default.asp

      Florida Department of Health http://www.doh.state.fl.us

      Georgia Division of Public Health http://health.state.ga.us

      Hawaii Department of Health http://www.hawaii.gov/health

      Idaho Department of Health and Welfare http://www.healthandwelfare.idaho.gov

      Illinois Department of Public Health http://www.idph.state.il.us

      Indiana State Department of Health http://www.in.gov/isdh

      Iowa Department of Health http://www.idph.state.ia.us

      Kansas Department of Health and Environment http://www.kdheks.gov

      Kentucky Department of Public Health http://www.publichealth.state.ky.us

      Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health http://www.oph.dhh.state.la.us

      Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene http://www.dhmh.state.md.us

      Massachusetts Department of Health http://www.state.ma.us/dph.dphhome.htm

      Michigan Department of Public Health http://www.michigan.gov/mdch

      Minnesota Department of Public Health http://www.health.state.mn.us

      Mississippi Department of Health http://www.msdh.state.ms.us/msdhsite/index.cfm

      Missouri Department of Health http://www.dhss.mo.gov

      Montana Department of Health http://www.dphhs.state.mt.us

      Nebraska Department of Health http://www.hhs.state.ne.us

      Nevada State Health Division http://www.health2k.state.nv.us

      New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services http://www.dhhs.state.nh.us

      New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services http://www.state.nj.us/health

      New Mexico Department of Health http://www.health.state.nm.us

      New York State Department of Health http://www.health.state.ny.us

      North Carolina Department of Public Health http://www.dhhs.state.nc.us/dph

      North Dakota Department of Health http://www.health.state.nd.us

      Ohio Department of Health http://www.odh.state.oh.us

      Oklahoma State Department of Health http://www.health.state.ok.us

      Oregon Department of Human Resources http://www.ohd.hr.state.or.us

      Pennsylvania Department of Health http://www.health.state.pa.us

      Rhode Island Department of Health http://www.health.state.ri.us

      South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control http://www.dhhs.state.sc.us

      South Dakota Department of Health http://www.state.sd.us/doh

      Tennessee Department of Health http://www.state.tn.us

      Texas Department of Health http://www.dshs.state.tx.us

      Utah Department of Health http://www.health.utah.gov

      Vermont Department of Health http://healthvermont.gov

      Virginia Department of Health http://www.vdh.state.va.us

      Washington State Department of Health http://www.doh.wa.gov

      Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us

      Wyoming Department of Health http://wdh.state.wy.us

      See also Public Health; State and County Government Organizations; Vital Statistics

      198. Quality Assurance

      Quality assurance is the systematic process of ensuring that healthcare products and services meet certain standards.

      American Board of Quality Assurance and Utilization Review Physicians (ABQAURP) http://www.abqaurp.org

      American Health Quality Association (AHQA) http://www.ahqa.org

      Michigan Quality Council (MQC) http://www.michiganquality.org

      National Association for Healthcare Quality (NAHQ) http://www.nahq.org

      National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) (The NCQA publishes the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set HEDIS) http://www.ncqa.org

      See also Accreditation, Certification, and Licensing; Hospitals; Medical Malpractice; Quality of Healthcare

      199. Quality of Healthcare

      Quality of healthcare can have different meanings to different individuals; however, it broadly refers to receiving appropriate care at the right time in the right amount.

      Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov

      Bridges to Excellence http://www.bridgestoexcellence.org

      Consumer Coalition for Quality Health Care http://www.consumers.org

      http://Doctorquality.com http://www.doctorquality.com

      European Society for Quality in Healthcare (ESQH) http://www.esqh.net

      Foundation for Accountability (FACCT) http://www.markle.org/resources/facct/index.php

      Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI) http://www.icsi.org

      Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) http://www.ihi.org

      Irish Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ISQSH) http://www.isqsh.ie

      Joint Commission http://www.jointcommission.org

      National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) http://www.nichq.org

      National Quality Forum (NQF) (NQF was formerly the

      National Forum for Health Care Quality Measurement and Reporting) http://www.qualityforum.org

      National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (NQMC) http://www.qualitymeasures.ahrq.gov

      See also Health Outcomes; Medical Errors; Pain; Patient Safety

      200. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)

      Randomized controlled trials (sometimes called clinical trials) is a type of study that is conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new drugs or interventions.

      AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) http://www.aactg.org

      American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) http://www.asci-jci.org

      Association for the Accreditation of Human Research

      Protection Programs (AAHRPP) http://www.aahrpp.org

      Centerwatch Clinical Trials Listing Service http://www.centerwatch.com

      National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) http://www.clinicaltrials.gov

      Society for Clinical Trials (SCT) http://www.sctweb.org

      See also Clinical Practice Guidelines; Drugs; Epidemiology; Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM); Health Outcomes

      201. Rare Diseases

      Rare diseases are conditions that have a low prevalence. Rare diseases may be caused genetically and can be life threatening or chronically disabling in nature.

      National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) http://www.rarediseases.org

      See also Epidemiology; Genetics; Health Surveys; National Institutes of Health (NIH)

      202. Regulation

      Regulations are legal restrictions that are made by the government and they may include sanctions.

      Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society (RAPS) http://raps.org

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Certificate of Need (CON); Health Law

      203. Rural Health

      Rural health involves the study of the needs and delivery of healthcare in rural areas.

      National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services, Office of Rural Health Policy, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://ruralcommittee.hrsa.gov/index.htm

      National Association of Rural Health Clinics (NARHC) http://www.narhc.org

      National Center for Farmworker Health (NCFH) http://www.ncfh.org

      National Rural Health Association (NRHA) http://www.nrharural.org

      Nebraska Center for Rural Health Research, University of Nebraska Medical Center http://www.unmc.edu/rural

      Office of Rural Health Policy, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://ruralhealth.hrsa.gov

      Rural Assistance Center http://www.raconline.org

      Rural Information Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.nal.usda.gov/ric

      See also Federal Government; Hospitals; Physicians; Public Health

      204. Safety Net

      Healthcare safety net is the healthcare system that provides care for the poor and vulnerable populations.

      Healthcare Safety Net Program, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov/data/safetynet/netfact.htm

      See also Community Health Centers (CHCs); Hospitals; Physicians

      205. Self-Help

      Self-help is the self-reliability to gain publicly available information or the use of support groups.

      American Self-Help Group Clearinghouse http://www.selfhelpgroups.org

      National Mental Health Consumer's Self-Help Clearinghouse (NSHC) http://www.mhselfhelp.org

      See also Diet and Nutrition; Fitness and Exercise; Prevention and Health Promotion

      206. Spinal Disorders and Injuries

      Spinal disorders and injuries are conditions that affect the spinal cord.

      American Paraplegia Society (APS) http://www.apssci.org

      National Spinal Cord Injury Association (NSCIA) http://www.spinalcord.org

      North American Spine Society (NASS) http://www.spine.org

      Spinal Cord Society (SCS) http://scsus.org

      See also Chronic Diseases; Disability; Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

      207. State and County Data Sources

      State and county data sources are sources of health and demographic information at the state or county level.

      Area Resource File (ARF) http://www.arfsys.com

      Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care http://www.dartmouthatlas.org

      State Health Facts Online http://www.statehealthfacts.org

      See also Health Statistics and Data Sources; Health Surveys; Vital Statistics

      208. State and County Government Organizations

      State and county government organizations represent groups of state and county-level government employees.

      Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD) http://www.astdd.org

      Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) http://www.astho.org

      Information for State Health Policy http://www2.umdnj.edu/ishppweb/homepage.htm

      National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP) http://www.nashp.org

      National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) http://www.naccho.org

      National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) http://www.nasbo.org

      National Association of State Medicaid Directors http://www.nasmd.org

      National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) http://www.ncsl.org

      National Governors Association (NGA) http://www.nga.org

      State Health Facts Online (This website is produced by the Kaiser Family Foundation) http://www.statehealthfacts.kff.org

      http://Stateline.org (This site is produced by the Pew Center on the States) http://www.stateline.org

      See also Health Statics and Data Sources; Public Health

      209. State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)

      The State Children's Health Insurance Program is a federal health program that provides funding to the states to insure families with children that have a modest income but do not qualify for Medicaid.

      Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) http://www.cms.hhs.gov/home/schip.asp

      Medicaid/SCHIP, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) http://www.kff.org/medicaid/index.cfm

      National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP) http://CHIPCentral.org http://www.chipcentral.org

      National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/chiphome.htm

      National Health Policy Forum (NHPF) http://www.nhpf.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=SearchCatalogue&iissueid=3

      SCHIP and Public Health, American Public Health Association (APHA) http://www.apha.org/advocacy/priorities/schip

      State Access to Children's Health Insurance, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) http://www.aap.org/advocacy/staccess.htm

      U.S. Government Info/Resources http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/medicarehealthinsurance/a/schip.htm

      See also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); Child Development and Health; Health Insurance; Medicaid

      210. Stroke

      Stroke is a condition when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted either because of a blockage or hemorrhage of the blood vessels. Stroke can result in the loss of brain function and paralysis of the body.

      American Stroke Association (ASA) http://www.strokeassociation.org

      Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/DHDSP

      The Internet Stroke Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO http://www.strokecenter.org

      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) http://www.ninds.nih.gov

      National Stroke Association (NSA) http://www.stroke.org

      The Stroke Association http://www.stroke.org.uk

      See also Aging; Disability; Chronic Diseases; Hypertension; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

      211. Substance Abuse

      Substance abuse is the overuse or dependence on a drug or chemical that results in negative physical or mental health consequences that may affect the welfare of others. Substance abuse can result in drug addiction and physiological or behavioral problems.

      American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) http://www.asam.org

      Association for Addiction Professionals (NAADAC) (The association was formerly the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors) http://www.naadac.org

      Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) http://www.prevention.samhsa.gov

      National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) http://www.health.org

      National Institute on Drug Abuse http://www.nida.nih.gov

      See also Alcoholism; Federal Government; Public Health; Tobacco Use

      212. Surgery and Surgeons

      Surgery is a specialty of medicine that uses both manual and invasive techniques to treat or explore disease or injuries to the body, help the body to improve in its form or function, and other reasons. Surgeons are healthcare providers who perform surgeries.

      American College of Surgeons (ACS) http://www.facs.org

      Accociation for Academic Surgery (AAS) http://www.aasurg.org

      International College of Surgeons (ICS) http://www.icsglobal.org

      Tests and Procedutes, MedlinePlus http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorial.html

      YourSurgery http://www.yoursurgery.com

      See also Ambulatory Surgery Centers; Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery; Neurosurgery; Physicians

      213. Technology Assessment

      Technology assessment is the examination and evaluation of new technologies.

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) http://www.ahrq.gov

      Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) http://www.cadth.ca

      Canadian Medical Devices Conformity Assessment System http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/md-im/qualsys/cmdcas_scecim_syst_pol-eng.php

      ECRI Institute http://www.ecri.org

      NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme http://www.inahta.org

      National Coordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment (NCCHTA) http://www.hta.nhs.uk

      National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr

      Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care http://www.sbu.se

      See also Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; Drugs; Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)

      214. Telemedicine

      Telemedicine is the application of clinical practices through the use of network systems such as the telephone, Internet, or other technologies.

      American Telemedicine Association (ATA) http://www.americantelemed.org

      Association of Telehealth Service Providers (ATSP) http://www.atsp.org

      Office for the Advancement of Telehealth, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) http://www.hrsa.gov/telehealth

      Telemedicine and Telehealth Resources, Indian Health Service (IHS) http://www.ihs.gov/NonMedicalPrograms/DFEE/telemed/default.cfm?content=resources_page_1.htm

      See also E-Health; Informatics; Information Technology (IT)

      215. Tobacco Use

      Tobacco use includes the smoking and consumption of tobacco products that may be done as part of recreational drug use.

      Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) http://www.ash.org

      American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org

      American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org

      American Lung Association http://www.lungusa.org

      Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation (ANR) http://www.no-smoke.org

      Foundation for a Smoke Free America http://www.notobacco.org

      Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco

      See also Cancer; Lung Diseases; Public Health; Substance Abuse

      216. Uninsured Individuals

      The uninsured include groups of individuals who do not have any health insurance or who have decreased access to approrpiate healthcare services.

      Alliance for Health Reform http://www.allhealth.org

      Association of Clinicians for the Underserved (ACU) http://www.clinicians.org

      Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) http://www.hschange.com

      Covering the Uninsured http://www.coveringtheuninsured.org

      Economic Research Initiative on the Uninsured (ERIU), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI http://www.umich.edu/~eriu

      Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) http://www.kff.org

      State Access to Children's Health Insurance, American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.aap.org/advocacy/staccess.htm

      Urban Institute http://www.urban.org

      See also Health Disparities; Health Insurance; Healthcare Financial Management; National Health Insurance

      217. United Kingdom Healthcare Organizations

      The United Kingdom (UK) healthcare organizations include organizations in the UK that are related to health and healthcare.

      National Electronic Library for Health http://www.library.nhs.uk

      National Health Service (NHS) http://www.nhs.uk

      National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) http://www.nice.org.uk

      Nuffield Trust for Research and Policy Studies in Health Services http://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk

      The Stroke Association http://www.stroke.org.uk

      UK Health Informatics Society (UKHIS) http://ukhis.org.uk

      See also International Health Systems; World Health Organization (WHO)

      218. Veterans Health

      Veterans health includes healthcare programs that are targeted to veterans of the military.

      Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) http://www.va.gov

      National Association of State Veterans Homes (NASVH) http://www.nasvh.org

      National Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention http://www.prevention.va.gov

      VA National Center for Patient Safety http://www.patientsafety.gov

      Veterans Health Administration (VHA) http://www1.va.gov/health

      See also Federal Government; Hospitals; Military Health Systems

      219. Vital Statistics

      Vital statistics are the records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces.

      Birth Data http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/births.htm

      Fetal Deaths http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/fetaldth/abfetal.htm

      Marriage and Divorce http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/96facts/mardiv.htm

      Mortality Data http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/deaths.htm

      National Death Index http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ndi.htm

      National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm

      See also Epidemiology; Public Health; Public Health, State Departments of; State and County Data Sources

      220. Women's Health Issues

      Women's health represents the unique health needs of women and it works to address the disparities in health between men and women.

      Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) http://www.awhonn.org

      Canadian Women's Health Network (CWHN) http://www.cwhn.ca/indexeng.html

      Foundation for Women's Health Research and Development (FORWARD) http://www.forwarduk.org.uk

      Global Alliance for Women's Health (GAWH) http://www.gawh.org

      Institute for Women's Policy Research (IWPR) http://www.iwpr.org

      International Women's Health Coalition (IWHC) http://www.iwhc.org

      National Black Women's Health Imperative http://www.blackwomenshealth.org

      National Organization for Women (NOW) http://www.now.org

      National Partnership for Women and Families http://www.nationalpartnership.org

      National Program on Women and Aging, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA http://iasp.brandeis.edu/womenandaging/index.html

      National Women's Health Information Center http://www.womenshealth.gov

      Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR) http://www.womenshealthresearch.org

      Women's and Children's Health Policy Center, School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University http://www.jhsph.edu/wchpc

      Women's Health http://www.womenshealthlondon.org.uk

      See also Arthritis and Rheumatism; Childbirth; Child

      Development and Health; Chronic Diseases; Osteoporosis; Public Health

      221. Workers' Compensation

      Workers' compensation is a type of state-based insurance that provides compensation and medical care to employees who are injured working on the job.

      American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) http://www.aadep.org

      Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, U.S. Department of Labor http://www.dol.gov/esa/owcp_org.htm

      See also Health Insurance; Health Law; Injury; Occupational Medicine

      222. World Health Organization (WHO)

      The World Health Organization, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is an agency of the United Nations and it is the leading authority on international public health.

      Headquarters

      WHO Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland http://www.who.int

      Regional Offices

      WHO Regional Office for Africa (AFRO), Brazzaville, Congo http://www.afro.who.int

      WHO Regional Office for the Americas (AMRO), Pan American Health Organization http://www.paho.org

      WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), Alexandria, Egypt http://www.emro.who.int

      WHO Regional Office for Europe (EURO), Copenhagen, Denmark http://www.euro.who.int

      WHO Regional Office for South East Asia (SEARO), New Delhi, India http://www.searo.who.int

      WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WPRO), Manila, Philippines http://www.wpro.who.int

      See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); International Health Systems; Public Health

    Back to Top