Handbook of Youth Mentoring

Handbooks

Edited by: David L. DuBois & Michael J. Karcher

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Introduction

    Part II: Frameworks and Foundations

    Part III: Mentoring Relationships

    Part IV: Cultural Perspectives

    Part V: Programs and Contexts

    Part VI: Special Populations

    Part VII: Practice and Programmatic Considerations

    Part VIII: Conclusions

  • The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Consulting Editor

    Richard M. Lerner

    The field of Applied Developmental Science has advanced the use of cutting-edge developmental systems models of human development, fostered strength-based approaches to understanding and promoting positive development across the life span, and served as a frame for collaborations among researchers and practitioners, including policymakers, seeking to enhance the life chances of diverse young people, their families, and communities. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science both integrates and extends this scholarship by publishing innovative and cutting-edge contributions.

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    Foreword

    When you talk about mentoring youth as much as I do, it does not take long to pick up patterns that reinforce the promise as well as the perils of the wide range of endeavors that in today's times are mounted under the umbrella of this concept. Reactions frequently result from how engagement in mentoring is presented. When viewed as organic and magical, it is extremely popular as a panacea for so much of what faces our young people. On the flip side, when described with rigor and as requiring intentionality and investment of money and time, it loses some of its allure as a societal solution.

    Some of this latter reaction stems from our base desire to find the shortest and easiest distance between two points in all facets of our lives. But there is likely another ingredient at work when it comes to mentoring. We gravitate toward a beneficial behavior that is as old as Greek mythology. Yet the tradition of structured mentoring for youth, with the exception of Big Brothers Big Sisters' century-old existence, is relatively young. It is only 22 years ago that basic standards for quality were first created through the leadership of MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership and the United Way of America in the form of the Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring, which is now in its 3rd edition.

    When David DuBois and Michael Karcher released the first edition of the Handbook of Youth Mentoring, they provided a powerful collection of accounts that not only helped to crystalize, but also set the stage for advancement of this young field of scholarship and practice. In the wake of the accelerating pace of new theory and research about the mentoring of young people over the past several years, even a straightforward updating of the field's core understandings would have been a challenging undertaking. As one point of proof of this acceleration, in the past two years, the first two academic centers for youth mentoring have been launched by authors of Handbook chapters, Dr. Jean Rhodes at University of Massachusetts-Boston and Dr. Tom Keller at Portland State University.

    In forging this second edition, it is clear DuBois and Karcher had loftier goals in mind. Not the least of these is reflected in the careful attention that is paid in this new volume to the rapid expansion in mentoring as both a language and a tool for application in efforts to support young people on pathways to well-being and success. As editors, they have assembled an extraordinary cast of experts to look at mentoring through many lenses. The result is an invaluable resource for those immersed in navigating the practical challenges to achieving desired outcomes for young people through mentoring. At the same time, this text serves as a stimulus for reflection on questions that remain central challenges to the field's continued development.

    Karcher and DuBois seek to ground the proven promise of mentoring in the known research while also addressing the reality of emerging intersections with topics as diverse as technology, funding, biology, culture, social capital, and emerging program structures. In drawing on experts from a variety of disciplines, the editors acknowledge the holistic reality of our young people's development, and mentoring's place in this overall context.

    I am reminded constantly that cultivating and acting on this understanding of how mentoring fits within the “big picture” of young people's lives is at the heart of what it has to offer our society. For example, I spoke recently with a young man in a public housing development where another young man had been shot and killed while playing basketball. I was aware that a mentoring program had been launched in the development not long ago, so I asked him simply how he was doing with all that was going on around him. The essence of what he said was that a lot of new people he did not know were paying attention to him and other youth in his neighborhood because of what had occurred. But, the person he could talk with was his mentor, who showed up following the tragedy just like he had for the past 7 months—someone who had been and would continue to be there for him. Mentoring professionals had set the stage for this young man to have someone to turn to, someone with whom he was already in a trusted relationship before a time of crisis, and they did so based on the learnings in this text.

    Our focus at MENTOR and with our network of local Mentoring Partnerships and many cross-sector partners, is to galvanize a movement for quality youth mentoring. We constantly walk that tightrope between scale and quality because what we know is that mentoring helps drive greater public health, public safety, and the very things that lead to opportunity—school attendance, achievement, graduation, workforce readiness, and connection to community—when it is done with rigor and clarity of purpose. This is how to turn mentoring from a “nice to have” into a “need to have.” It must be grounded in scholarly evidence that informs practice.

    We must be champions for that necessary tightrope walk to drive the quality and quantity of professionally supported mentoring relationships. It is important and possible in small and large programs, with volunteers and paid staff, in rural and urban communities, and with all ages and theories of change. The second edition of the Handbook arms us with a treasure trove of information to guide us in this work and in the innovations in mentoring that lie ahead.

    As I alluded to earlier, in pursuing our mission at MENTOR, we are determined to foster efficient and effective linkages with theory and research. But we know from experience that such linkages will be fruitful only to the extent that they also reflect a grounded understanding of the demands that practitioners routinely face in their day-to-day work. The first edition of the Handbook has proved to be an invaluable resource for informing and guiding the building of strong bridges between scholarship and practice. I salute the editors and contributors to this new edition for redoubling their efforts in this area. In doing so, they clearly appreciate what we have learned over the years at MENTOR and in our Mentoring Partnerships. Mentoring professionals gain rich wisdom from their practical experience while at the same time seeking accessible, implementable, and informed guidance from reliable sources in their quest for improved outcomes for young people.

    As we all know, when we give young people the best we've got, they stand up. They show up. And we are all lifted. The Handbook contributes greatly to our collective efforts to ensure that the current generation of young people is a mentored generation, ultimately leading to a better supported, more productive, and unified society.

    DavidShapiro Chief Executive Officer, MENTOR

    Preface

    As with the first edition of the Handbook of Youth Mentoring, this volume is the result of several years of planning, writing, and editing. We embarked on this journey pleased to have had the initial edition receive considerable praise and recognition, including a national award (Social Policy Award for Best Edited Book from the Society for Research on Adolescence). Yet, we were equally aware of several opportunities for improvement upon the original volume. Chief among these was a need that we perceived to increase the relevance and utility of the Handbook for those involved in mentoring practice. To this end, we added chapters on several topics that are of direct concern in the day-to-day work of practitioners (e.g., mentor training, mentor-youth matching, mentor-youth activities, ethical issues) but that had not benefited from dedicated attention in the first edition. We made a concerted effort as editors, furthermore, to work with authors to better highlight the applied implications of the theory and research that is reviewed in each chapter. We have done so, in part, by having authors include key recommendations and guiding questions for practice summarized in tabular format within chapters for easy reference. Finally, and perhaps most significantly, we also enlisted experienced practitioners as anonymous reviewers for nearly all chapters. Their insightful observations and constructive suggestions proved invaluable for ensuring that potential implications for practice were brought into appropriate relief. The names of these reviewers can be found in this volume under Acknowledgments.

    Rigorous syntheses of theory and research on topics of importance to the field of youth mentoring were a distinguishing feature of the first edition of the Handbook. In preparing the current volume, we worked to retain the same high scholarly standard. As before, we started by identifying and recruiting a team of contributors whose expertise and qualifications ensured that accounts of the current state of knowledge in different topic areas would be uniformly rigorous, but also constructive, informative, and enlightening. Many of the contributors' names will be familiar to readers of the first edition. In most instances, these authors were asked to revisit the same topics they had addressed previously, updating and expanding on their earlier contributions. In several instances, however, we successfully enlisted authors from the first edition in tackling entirely new topics. Their contributions delve insightfully into a range of topics that have been the source of growing attention within the field (e.g., the interface of mentoring with the larger field of prevention science, issues relating to closure and termination in mentoring relationships for youth). Our goal of keeping the contents of the Handbook as current and timely as possible could not have been realized, however, without the additional contributions of numerous leading experts and scholars who are new to this edition. These authors led the way in addressing promising, but to date relatively unexplored theoretical perspectives on mentoring relationships (e.g., biological, social class), opportunities and challenges associated with mentoring specific populations of youth whose unique needs and circumstances only recently have begun to be fully appreciated (e.g., immigrant and refugee youth, youth with mental health needs), and the latest developments in our knowledge regarding emerging mentoring program structures (e.g., group, electronic).

    Returning or new, our contributors are owed a tremendous debt of gratitude. Not the least of their travails was the need to persevere through unexpected delays in receiving our editorial feedback, which all managed to do not only with great forbearance, but also with unwavering collegial amiability. No less appreciated is the manner in which authors clearly brought their “A game” to their contributions. We are delighted, in particular, to have such an abundance of truly novel and potentially groundbreaking ideas and recommendations woven into this edition of the Handbook. Readers will likely find many of these viewpoints challenging not only to the status quo—whether in theory, research, or practice—but also to their own assumptions (as we did as editors). Yet, we hope that readers will agree with our assessment that the types of arguments presented, even when provocative, are essential to the growth and advancement of the field. Finally, we would be remiss not to thank our colleagues for running with (rather than away from!) all aspects—substantive and stylistic—of our editorial feedback. We hope that in at least some small measure our input and vision helped to strengthen individual contributions and that in the process we were successful in forging an overall volume that is as cohesive and “user friendly” as it is comprehensive.

    Other acknowledgments are due as well. We are indebted to Kassie Graves, senior acquisitions editor at Sage Publications, for her highly capable and remarkably patient and understanding stewardship of this project from inception to completion, and to Liz Luizzi and Laureen Gleason, for shepherding us so smoothly and painlessly through the manuscript assembly and production process. Further thanks are due to the academic programs and institutions with which we continue to have the good fortune to be affiliated, the School of Public Health at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas at San Antonio, and to the William T. Grant Foundation, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (U.S. Department of Justice), Office of Minority Health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), and Institute of Education Sciences (U.S. Department of Education) for their generous support of our programs of research on youth mentoring. Finally, we reserve our most heartfelt appreciation for the support that we have received from our families, each of which have grown considerably since we undertook the first edition of the Handbook. To our spouses, Natalie and Sara, we offer special thanks for so generously supporting us in what turned out again to be a far more ambitious undertaking than either of us anticipated.

    David L.DuBois
    Michael J.Karcher

    Acknowledgments

    We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals, who each served as reviewers for one or more chapters in this volume:

    • Ann Adalist-Estrin
    • Armen Babajanian
    • Katherine Balsley
    • Denise Barkhurst
    • Christy Beighe-Byrne
    • Kelly Belmonte
    • Angela Benke
    • Susan Climie
    • Hector Cortez
    • Rebecca Farnell
    • Janet Forbush
    • Sherry Garrett
    • Mark Gesner
    • Gerald Goodman
    • Celeste Janssen
    • Jamie Johnson
    • Jolynn Kenney
    • Sandra Louk LaFleur
    • Karen Lamothe
    • Tracey Lewis
    • Tracy Luca-Huger
    • Jane Marion
    • Dave Marshall
    • Kris Marshall
    • Graig Meyer
    • Rachel Pillar
    • Brian P. Sales
    • Karen Shaver
    • Roman Sklotskiy
    • Judith Stavisky
    • Jenny Stern-Carusone
    • Sabrina Vegnone
    • Judy Vredenburgh
    • Marc Wheeler
    • Tonya Wiley
    • Nicole Yohalem

    Dedication

    With much love, to Natalie, Pookers, Checkers, and Gwyn-gwyn. You show me each day that I'm never too old to grow or to play.—D. L. D.

    To my wife, Sara, and my children, Reed, Jack, and Caroline, for their patience, encouragement, and support.—M. J. K.

  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    David L. DuBois, PhD, is a professor in community health sciences within the School of Public Health at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He received his doctorate in clinical-community psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research examines the contribution of protective factors, particularly self-esteem and mentoring relationships, to resilience and holistic positive development and on translating knowledge in this area to the design of effective youth programs. He has authored numerous peer-reviewed studies on these topics, including two widely cited meta-analytic reviews of the literature on the effectiveness of youth mentoring programs. Dr. DuBois was lead coeditor of the first edition of the Handbook of Youth Mentoring (Sage, 2005) and is coauthor of After-School Centers and Youth Development: Case Studies of Success and Failure (Cambridge University Press, 2012), each of which received Social Policy book awards from the Society of Research on Adolescence. His research has received funding from several federal sources, including the National Institutes of Health, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), Office of Minority Health, and the Institute of Education Sciences. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and Society for Community Research and Action and is a past distinguished fellow of the William T. Grant Foundation. He consults widely to mentoring programs nationally and internationally, is a member of the Research and Policy Council of MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership and the Research Advisory Council of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA), and is the founder and moderator of a listserv on youth mentoring research and practice that currently has over 600 members. Dr. DuBois also has been a mentor himself in a Big Brothers Big Sisters program. His current research includes an OJJDP-funded randomized controlled evaluation of youth outcomes associated with infusion of the Step-It-Up-2-Thrive model of positive youth development into the BBBSA community-based mentoring program.

    Michael J. Karcher, EdD, PhD, is a professor of counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio, where he coordinates the School Counselor Training Program. He received doctorates in human development and psychology from Harvard University (1997) and in counseling psychology from the University of Texas at Austin (1999). He conducts research on school-based and cross-age peer mentoring as well as on adolescent connectedness and pair counseling. He authored the Cross-Age Mentoring Program (CAMP), which includes a set of materials (manual, peer mentor handbook, activity curriculum, training activities, and evaluation guide) that are currently the subject of two effectiveness tests. Based on his research on cross-age peer mentoring, Dr. Karcher created an online training for teen mentors (for Big Brothers Big Sisters), available at http://www.highschoolbigs.org. Dr. Karcher conducted one of the first large-scale school-based mentoring studies, the Study of Mentoring in the Learning Environment (SMILE, 2003–2006), funded by the William T. Grant Foundation. With support from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, he is currently investigating the role of advocacy in youth mentoring with delinquent youth, and is testing the TEAM framework of mentoring interactions presented in Play, Talk, Learn: Promising Practices in Youth Mentoring (Wiley, 2010), which he coedited with Michael Nakkula. With David L. DuBois, Professor Karcher coedited the Handbook of Youth Mentoring (Sage, 2005), which received a Social Policy book award from the Society of Research on Adolescence. He is on the editorial board for several national journals and the research and advisory boards of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America and MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership.

    About the Contributors

    Kym R. Ahrens, MD, MPH, is an assistant professor and associate fellowship director in adolescent medicine. She holds a joint appointment in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital and Research Institute. Her research focuses on the development of resilience-oriented strategies to improve adult health and other outcomes for youth who have been exposed to early adversity. She has conducted both qualitative and quantitative research on the topic of natural mentoring relationships for youth in foster care.

    Amber L. Allison, MS, is a doctoral candidate at the University of New Orleans in the biopsychology program. She works with Dr. Elizabeth Shirtcliff in the Stress Physiology Laboratory. Her primary research interests include the physiological correlates of bonding, social support, affiliation, and romantic relationships. She is particularly interested in how our biology facilitates and maintains our connections with other people, and how those connections then shape our physiological functioning. She has utilized indices of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, respiration) and the endocrine system (cortisol, oxytocin) as windows into how relationships get under the skin. After receiving her PhD, she hopes to continue on an academic trajectory and to continue researching the complexities of environment-biology interactions.

    Fabricio E. Balcazar, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Disability and Human Development at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Dr. Balcazar's primary research interest is in developing effective strategies for enhancing consumer empowerment and personal effectiveness among individuals with disabilities. Dr. Balcazar is currently the director of the Center on Capacity Building for Minorities with Disabilities Research. As such, he has led the development of a cultural competence conceptual framework, training curriculum, and assessment instrument, conducting multiple workshops on this topic and providing technical assistance to multiple organizations. Dr. Balcazar has published over 70 peer-reviewed journal articles and recently coedited a book entitled Race, Culture and Disability: Issues in Rehabilitation Research and Practice. Dr. Balcazar is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Midwestern Psychological Association.

    Luciano Berardi, PhD, is the associate director of the McNair Scholars Program and Research Coordination at the Center for Access and Attainment at DePaul University in Chicago. He received a degree in clinical psychology from Universidad de Belgrano, in Argentina. He worked on the development, implementation, and evaluation of community-based mentoring programs at the District of Columbia Mental Health Department in Washington, D.C. Dr. Berardi has worked on several research projects at DePaul University and at the Center for Capacity Building for Minorities With Disability Research at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He earned his PhD in community psychology from DePaul University. His research interests focus on the role of natural mentors in youths' and young adults' academic attainment, social mobility, and well-being. Overall, his work is centered on fostering academic success and improving the educational environments of underrepresented students.

    Joseph Bergen is program director for the Portland (Oregon) chapter of the Friends of the Children youth mentoring program. Mr. Bergen has been an employee with Friends for 9 years and served as a professional mentor to eight boys for 5 years. His research interests focus on the identification of elements of effective mentoring relationships for highest-risk youth so that such youth have the support necessary to thrive during adolescence and adulthood.

    Dina Birman, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She received her doctorate in clinical/community psychology from the University of Maryland. She has conducted studies of acculturation and adaptation of refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union, Vietnam, Central America, and Somalia. Her research has contributed to conceptualization and measurement of acculturation, family acculturation gaps, and understanding multiple cultural, ethnic, and religious identities of refugees in resettlement. She has studied mental health interventions for immigrants and refugees, and the process of implementation and adaptation of evidence-based practices within such programs. She is a fellow of the Society for Community Research and Action and the American Psychological Association (APA), and in 2010 was appointed to serve on the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration.

    Jennifer E. Blakeslee, PhD, received her doctorate in social work and social research from Portland State University, where she also worked at the Center for Interdisciplinary Mentoring Research with Tom Keller. Her research has focused on aspects of youth mentoring and social support networks, particularly as these relate to the transition from foster care and into young adulthood. Recent publications include an article analyzing the youth mentoring literature and the network of coauthors publishing in the field of youth mentoring as well as a conceptual article on applying the social network perspective to expand the scope of inquiry into the formal and informal social support available to youth as they transition from foster care.

    G. Anne Bogat, PhD, is professor of psychology at Michigan State University. She received her doctorate in 1982 in clinical/community psychology from DePaul University in Chicago. Her research interests include mentoring, social support, and family violence. In 2002, she coedited, with Jean Rhodes, a special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology on youth mentoring. Her recent work focuses on the longitudinal assessment of risk and resilience factors for women and children living in households with intimate partner violence. Her work has appeared in journals related to community psychology, intimate partner violence, and child development.

    Michelle J. Boyd, PhD, completed her doctoral work at Tufts University and is currently an SRCD congressional fellow in Washington, D.C. Her research focuses on media literacy and active and engaged citizenship among youth.

    Preston A. Britner, PhD, is a professor of human development and family studies at the University of Connecticut. He is editor emeritus of the Journal of Primary Prevention and holds several editorial appointments and administrative positions. His research covers the areas of youth mentoring (in particular among special populations), attachmentcaregiving relationships, child welfare and child maltreatment prevention, law and social policy, and family-focused prevention programs. Dr. Britner is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and served on APA's Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. His latest book (coauthored with Martin Bloom) presents new models of client-centered evaluation for the helping professions.

    Kristina S. Callina, MA, is in her final year of doctoral studies at the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. Ms. Callina is currently a doctoral research assistant at the Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development, and her research focuses on the role of hope about the future in promoting positive youth development.

    Timothy A. Cavell, PhD, is professor and director of clinical training in the Department of Psychology at the University of Arkansas. Cavell's work has focused on parent- and mentor-based interventions for children who are highly aggressive or chronically bullied and thus at risk for later delinquency, substance abuse, or psychopathology. His research has been funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Health Resources & Services Administration, the Verizon Foundation, and Big Brothers Big Sisters of Canada. He is author of over 50 journal articles and chapters as well as two books: Working With Parents of Aggressive Children: A Practitioner's Guide and Anger, Aggression, and Interventions for Interpersonal Violence. His recent work has focused on the integration of youth mentoring and prevention science and, more specifically, on short-term, lunch-time mentoring as a school-based intervention for chronically bullied children.

    Jennifer Cearley, PhD, is a research associate at the Oregon Social Learning Center in Eugene. She is a National Institutes of Health–sponsored postdoctoral fellow with the Child Study, a randomized controlled trial of the Friends of the Children mentoring program. Dr. Cearley has worked as a researcher with the Parent Child Study, which evaluated impacts of a parent management training program delivered inside the Oregon state prison system, and with the Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) study, which evaluated the long-term impact of a school-based preventive intervention program. Her other research interests include the adjustment and social contexts of antisocial youth, particularly girls. She has worked as a practitioner within the juvenile justice system in Oregon for the past decade.

    Wing Yi Chan, PhD, is an assistant professor of psychology at Georgia State University. She received her doctorate in community psychology from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 2010. She then served as a National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow at the University of Minnesota from 2010 to 2011. Her research focuses on promoting positive youth development among immigrant and refugee youth. Her most recent research examines how civic and political participation can prevent problem behaviors and promote successful transition to adulthood for this population of youth. For example, her recent projects investigate the impact of service-learning programs on academic adjustment of immigrant college students; and the role of religion in promoting civic engagement among Korean immigrants. Her work also addresses the development, implementation, and evaluation of after-school programs designed to promote successful adaptation for immigrant children and adolescents.

    E. Gil Clary, PhD, is assistant vice provost for assessment at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of many empirical journal articles and book chapters about helping behavior, including many focused on the functional approach to volunteerism, which he originated with Mark Snyder. One product of this collaboration, a scale investigating volunteers' motivations called the Volunteer Functions Inventory, has been used extensively by organizations and researchers. With Dr. Jean E. Rhodes, Dr. Clary edited the book Mobilizing Adults for Positive Youth Development: Strategies for Closing the Gap between Beliefs and Behaviors. He has been actively involved with the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action and belongs to numerous other scholarly organizations.

    Yarí Colón-Torres, PhD, is a staff psychologist at the VA Caribbean Healthcare system in San Juan, Puerto Rico. She received her doctorate in clinical/community psychology from DePaul University in Chicago. Currently, her clinical and research interests include culturally informed evidenced-based practices, diversity, and behavioral health. She co-developed a postdoctoral fellowship focusing on women veterans. She mentors postdoctoral fellows and interns and teaches a seminar on diversity issues.

    Becky Cooper has bachelor's and master's degrees in psychology and education from Stanford University. She serves as executive director of Friends for Youth, Inc., which has been cited as a program of excellence by the John W. Gardner Center at Stanford and the U.S. Department of Education. Ms. Cooper gave the keynote address on mentoring at Singapore's National Youth Council Conference, served on the California Governor's Mentoring Partnership Quality Assurance Standards Committee, was a guest at a White House Mentoring Ceremony, was inducted into the San Mateo County Women's Hall of Fame, and served on the national Mentoring Children of Prisoners Support Center Advisory Board. She coauthored Running a Safe and Effective Mentoring Program and SAFE (Screening Applicants for Effectiveness): Guidelines to Prevent Child Molestation in Mentoring and Youth-Serving Organizations. She also participated in the Kettering Institute's research on out-of-school learning and contributed to the Institute's book Community Educators.

    Nancy L. Deutsch, PhD, is associate professor at the University of Virginia's Curry School of Education. She received her doctorate in human development and social policy from Northwestern University. Her research examines after-school settings as contexts for positive youth development, focusing on adult-youth relationships. Her book Pride in the Projects: Teens Building Identities in Urban Contexts reports on 4 years of fieldwork at an urban after-school program. Her recent book, After-School Centers and Youth Development: Case Studies of Success and Failure, with Drs. Barton Hirsch and David L. DuBois (Cambridge University Press, 2011; winner of a Society for Research on Adolescence book award), examines how and why youth thrive (or not) in three centers of differing quality. Dr. Deutsch won the American Education Association's Out-of-School Time SIG's emerging scholar award in 2009. She is the program director for methodology at Youth-NEX, the UVA Center to Promote Effective Youth Development.

    Nicole Duffy, MA, is a research assistant and doctoral student in counseling psychology at Boston College. In addition to studying and promoting youth mentoring relationships, her interests also include innovative community-based mental health interventions and resilience and coping in individuals and communities.

    J. Mark Eddy, PhD, is director of research at Partners for Our Children in the School of Social Work at the University of Washington in Seattle. A key part of his work is developing and testing evidence-informed interventions designed to prevent aggression and related problems in children and families. He is the principal investigator on a multisite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Friends of the Children youth mentoring program as well as RCTs of several other psychosocial preventive intervention programs for children and families. For the past decade, Dr. Eddy has worked closely with the Oregon Department of Corrections and nonprofit service delivery agencies on the design and testing of a multisystemic program for incarcerated parents and their children and families. He serves on a number of commissions and boards relevant to children and families, including the Oregon Criminal Justice Commission.

    L. Christian Elledge, PhD, is a postdoctoral fellow in the Clinical Child Psychology Program at the University of Kansas. He is the recipient of the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service award through the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Dr. Elledge has recently accepted a position as an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Tennessee. His program of research draws from the science of risk and resilience to develop and evaluate effective interventions for children at risk for social-emotional dysfunction. He has particular interest in studying children whose contributions to or experience in antagonistic interpersonal relationships confer significant developmental risk. His recent research has focused on childhood aggression, with a particular emphasis on developing and evaluating school-based interventions for aggressive and bullied youth. Currently, he is conducting a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a school-based mentoring intervention for aggressive children.

    Rachel Feuer, MA, is a doctoral candidate in clinical/community psychology at DePaul University in Chicago. She completed her undergraduate work at Northwestern University, where she founded a small mentoring program in which college students served as mentors to youth at a social service agency. Ms. Feuer has also consulted with a Chicago-based nonprofit organization to help them improve their mentoring programming. Her dissertation research explores the role of natural mentoring relationships and life stressors in the coping and academic outcomes of urban, low-income Latino youth.

    E. Michael Foster, PhD, is professor of health care organization and policy and of biostatistics in the School of Public Health at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. His research focuses on the causes and consequences of emotional and behavioral problems among children and youth.

    Limor Goldner, PhD, teaches at the Graduate School of Creative Arts in the University of Haifa and at Oranim College in Israel. She is interested in adult-child close relationships, including mentoring relationships and in children's drawings as a manifestation of their adjustment. She is also the manager of training at the Israeli nationwide mentoring and tutoring project (Perach).

    Sarah R. Guidone, is a project consultant within the area of organizational development for the Chicago Transit Authority. Ms. Guidone has been working with multisystem partnerships on program, organization, and workforce development for over 7 years. She has partnered with government agencies, nonprofit organizations, education institutions, and federal funders on collaborative work to impact services for young people and communities. Her focus in the youth work field includes juvenile justice, youth program assessment and evaluation, community-based mentoring, and municipal government programming. Ms. Guidone holds a bachelor's degree in social work from Loyola University Chicago.

    Mary Agnes Hamilton, PhD, is a senior research associate and director of the Cornell Youth in Society Program in the Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research at Cornell University. She received her doctorate in human service studies at Cornell University. Her research goals are focused on understanding and promoting social inventions that improve institutional supports enabling low-income and minority youth to become workers, citizens, and family members as adults. Her ethnographic research focuses on the quality of these opportunities, especially nonrelated adult mentoring relationships, and how quality affects the technical, social, and personal competence of youth. A recent action research project, Abriendo Caminos: Jóvenes en América Latina, explored ways in which four programs in Argentina, Mexico, and Colombia are creating new institutions that support the transition to adulthood.

    Stephen F. Hamilton, EdD, is professor of human development at Cornell University and associate director for youth development of the Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research. His research on adolescent development and education investigates the interaction of school, community, and work during the transition to adulthood. As a Fulbright senior research fellow, he spent a year studying Germany's apprenticeship system and then wrote Apprenticeship for Adulthood: Preparing Youth for the Future, which helped guide the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994. With Mary Agnes Hamilton he is coeditor of The Youth Development Handbook: Coming of Age in American Communities. Their most recent project involved action research with four programs that support the transition to adulthood for vulnerable youth in Latin America. His master's and doctoral degrees in education are from Harvard University. He taught social studies and English for three years in a Washington, D.C., vocational high school.

    Keoki Hansen, MA, worked as the director of research and evaluation with Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) for 14 years, focusing on bridging research and practice. One of her key accomplishments was developing a school-based mentoring program in collaboration with practitioners and mentoring researchers to increase mentee program retention by 50%. Ms. Hansen currently has her own consulting business, Hansen Evaluation Services, providing comprehensive program outcome evaluations. In addition to work with BBBSA, Ms. Hansen has taught research methods and statistics at Boston College and Pine Manor College. She also has been a consultant for the U.S. Army and the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Pennsylvania. Ms. Hansen earned her bachelor's degree in psychology from Castleton State College, graduating Summa Cum Laude with honors, and has her master's degree in cognitive psychology from Boston College.

    John T. Harris, EdM, founded Applied Research Consulting (ARC) in 2000 to help bridge the gap between research and practice in youth development programming. Through ARC, Mr. Harris strives to make high-quality evaluation and consultation accessible to programs that might otherwise not be able to afford it. Mr. Harris specializes in action research, instrument development, and the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. His primary research focuses on youth mentoring with an emphasis on understanding how individual descriptors, programmatic practices, and match characteristics interact to promote youth outcomes. Mr. Harris is the lead author of the Match Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ) and the Youth Mentoring Survey (YMS). His publications have focused on mentoring relationship quality and include peer-reviewed journal articles, toolkit contributions, and the chapter “Assessing Mentoring Relationships” in the first edition of Handbook of Youth Mentoring.

    Angela K. Henneberger, PhD, is a postdoctoral research fellow at Youth-Nex, the University of Virginia Center to Promote Effective Youth Development. She received her doctorate in educational psychology/applied developmental science from the University of Virginia. Her research focuses on peer influence during adolescence, with a specific focus on the ways in which peers positively influence adolescents.

    David Henry, PhD, is professor of health policy and administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago, a fellow of the Institute for Health Research and Policy, and a President's Professor at the University of Alaska–Fairbanks. A community psychologist by training, Dr. Henry's primary research interest is in the ecological factors that affect the lives of children and adolescents. His work includes over 100 peer-reviewed publications on research methods, child development, peer relationships, psychopathology, and prevention. With funding from the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the William T. Grant Foundation, he has conducted or collaborated on prevention studies related to violence, delinquency, substance abuse, suicide, and sexual risk with urban minority and rural indigenous populations.

    Carla Herrera, PhD, is an independent consultant, most recently a senior research fellow for Public/Private Ventures (P/PV). During her 14 years with P/PV, she conducted several P/PV mentoring evaluations including studies on school-based, group, and community-based models. She recently led P/PV's Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) School-Based Mentoring Impact Study and has published several articles based on that work, exploring questions including which volunteers yield (and which youth experience) the strongest benefits and what programmatic practices may be key in supporting those benefits. Herrera is a member of both the Research Advisory Council of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America and the Research and Policy Council of MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership. She received her doctorate degree in developmental psychology from the University of Michigan.

    Barton J. Hirsch, PhD, is professor of human development and social policy at Northwestern University. He is the author of A Place to Call Home: After-School Programs for Urban Youth and first author of After-School Centers and Youth Development: Case Studies of Success and Failure. Each of these books won the Social Policy Award for Best Authored Book from the Society for Research on Adolescence. Dr. Hirsch is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Community Research and Action, and general editor of the book series Adolescent Lives in Context (NYU Press). His current research addresses how to promote successful school-to-work transitions among low-income youth, with a special focus on teaching job interview skills.

    Thomas E. Keller, PhD, is the Duncan and Cindy Campbell Professor for Children, Youth, and Families with an emphasis on mentoring in the School of Social Work at Portland State University (PSU). He also is director of the PSU Summer Institute on Youth Mentoring and the Center for Interdisciplinary Mentoring Research. His research interests include the development and influence of mentoring relationships, social networks in mentoring interventions, implementation of program innovations, and the professional development of mentoring program staff. His studies have been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Spencer Foundation. He serves on boards or research advisory committees for several mentoring organizations, including MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, Friends of the Children, and Oregon Mentors. Prior to earning his PhD at the University of Washington, he worked for several years with a Big Brothers Big Sisters chapter in Seattle as a caseworker, supervisor, and program director.

    Michael S. Kelly PhD, LCSW, is associate professor and MSW program director at Loyola University Chicago's School of Social Work. Prior to coming to Loyola in fall 2006, he was a school social worker, family therapist, and youth minister in the Chicago area for 14 years. He has authored over 40 books, journal articles, and book chapters on school social work, evidence-based practice, and positive youth development. His most recent book is Christianity and Social Work: Readings in the Integration of Faith and Social Work Practice, 4th ed. Dr. Kelly serves on the editorial boards of School Mental Health, School Social Work Journal, and Children & Schools, and has recently brought his work on school social work and evidence-based practice to researchers and practitioners in Rhode Island, Wyoming, Chile, and Japan.

    David C. R. Kerr, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Oregon State University School of Psychological Science, a research scientist at the Oregon Social Learning Center, and an Oregon licensed psychologist. He completed his doctorate in clinical psychology at the University of Michigan in 2004. He has authored 35 journal articles and chapters, most of which concern developmental psychopathology and prevention science. Dr. Kerr has a special interest in using long-term longitudinal studies to inform the prevention of depression, conduct problems, and suicide among adolescents and young adults.

    Christopher B. Keys, PhD, is associate dean for research at the College of Science and Health and professor of psychology at DePaul University in Chicago. He has served as chair of the psychology departments at the University of Illinois at Chicago and DePaul University and as president of the Society for Community Research and Action. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and a recipient of the Distinguished Contribution to Theory and Research Award of the Society for Community Research and Action. Dr. Keys has been studying and developing interventions concerning the empowerment of people with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The empirically supported methods he, Fabricio Balcazar, and their colleagues have developed and studied include goal-setting interventions and adaptations of goal-attainment scaling.

    Cheryl A. King, PhD, ABPP, is a professor in the departments of psychiatry and psychology at the University of Michigan, where she also serves as director of the Institute for Human Adjustment. She received her doctorate in clinical psychology from Indiana University, specializing in clinical child and adolescent psychology. Dr. King has a long-standing program of programmatic research and published studies focused on improving youth suicide risk recognition, assessment, and prevention strategies, including strategies based on adult support and metorship models. This research has been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and numerous private foundations. Dr. King is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and past president of the Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, the American Association of Suicidology, and the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers.

    Sarah E. Kremer, MA, is program director for Friends for Youth's Mentoring Institute. She has a master's degree in art therapy from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. She has been invited to present at conferences across the United States and in the Caribbean, Canada, and Australia for Friends for Youth and as a consultant for the Center for Applied Research Solutions, the National Mentoring Center, and MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership. Ms. Kremer has been invited to attend the Summer Institute on Youth Mentoring at Portland State University as a key technical assistance provider partner since its inception in 2007. Her resource, the Mentoring Journal, in its third printing, provides programs with a creative tool for structuring and documenting the life of a match. She has worked with First Exposures, a photography-based mentoring program in San Francisco, since 1995 and her essay, Mentoring Through Photography, appeared in the program's first book in 2006.

    Gabriel P. Kuperminc, PhD, is a professor of psychology at Georgia State University. He completed a William T. Grant Foundation Faculty Scholars award, examining ecological factors in the development of Latino adolescents from immigrant families. He has evaluated several youth programs, including Teen Outreach, Cool Girls, Inc., and After School All-Stars. He consults with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on youth development approaches to reducing adolescent health risk behaviors, is a panelist on Social and Behavioral Contexts for Academic Learning for the Institute of Education Sciences, and serves on editorial boards of several journals, including Child Development, and Journal of Early Adolescence.

    Janis B. Kupersmidt, PhD, is president and senior research scientist at innovation Research & Training. She received her doctorate in clinical child psychology at Duke University, internship at Yale University, and was a tenured professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She co-led a team at MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership that wrote the Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring (EEPM), 3rd ed. Based on EEPM, she created EQUIP, the Elements Quality Improvement Process, that includes a web-based self-assessment tool for mentoring programs and resources for technical assistance providers. She is the principal investigator on a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute on Child Health and Human Development to create and evaluate the effectiveness of a prematch mentor training program, http://www.mentoringcentral.net. She has created customized mentor training for Big Brothers Big Sisters of America and a corporate mentor training program, Mentor in a Box, with Viacom and MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

    Simon Larose, PhD, is a professor in educational psychology at Laval University in Québec City, Canada. He obtained his doctorate in developmental psychology from the same university. His main fields of research and teaching are adolescent and young adult development, attachment and family relationships, mentoring, school transitions, and academic adjustment. Since 2011, he has been the principal investigator of the Mentoring by High School Teachers (MHST) project. The MHST project is aimed to teach high school teachers a series of best practices in mentoring; to supervise their mentoring intervention with academically at-risk students; and to assess the impact of training, supervision, and mentoring on mentored students' adjustment during their transition from primary to high school.

    Edith C. Lawrence, PhD, is a professor of clinical and school psychology at the University of Virginia. She cofounded and directs the Young Women Leaders Program, a research-based mentoring initiative that pairs college women to middle school girls considered at risk, to enhance the leadership skills of both groups. Her research has focused on the ways in which combining group with one-on-one mentoring serves both mentees and mentors. She also is a licensed clinical psychologist, coauthor of Competence, Courage and Change: An Approach to Family Therapy and developer of the Family Inventory of Resources and Stressors, a competence-based family assessment tool for professionals who work with families facing multiple problems.

    Richard M. Lerner, PhD, is the Bergstrom Chair in Applied Developmental Science and the director of the Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development at Tufts University. Having received his PhD from the City University of New York in in 1971, Dr. Lerner has more than 550 scholarly publications, including more than 70 authored or edited books. He was the founding editor of the Journal of Research on Adolescence and of Applied Developmental Science, which he continues to edit. Lerner is known for his theory of relations between lifespan human development and social change, and for his research about the relations between adolescents and their peers, families, schools, and communities. His work integrates the study of public policies and community-based programs with the promotion of positive youth development and youth contributions to civil society.

    Belle Liang, PhD, is a clinical/community psychologist and associate professor at the Lynch School of Education in counseling, developmental, and educational psychology at Boston College. Her research focuses on relational interventions, especially youth mentoring and innovative social media–based interventions for diverse youth. She has published widely on youth mentoring; serves as a member of several boards and committees, including the Research and Policy Council of MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership; and has received honors such as the inaugural Distinguished Asian/Pacific American Alumni Award from Indiana University, the Boston College Teaching With New Media Award, the Many Faces of Counseling Psychology Award for innovations in social justice intervention and research, and recognition by Youth Service America as a Leading Service-Learning Researcher.

    Tina Malti, PhD, is an assistant professor of developmental and clinical child psychology at the University of Toronto. She also holds an affiliate scientist position at the Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development. She received her doctorate in developmental psychology in 2003 from the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and the Free University of Berlin. Her research interests reside in children's and adolescents' emotions in the context of morality, the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior, and the ways in which social-emotional and moral development can help to promote mental health and well-being and reduce aggression and antisocial behavior in school and out-of-school settings. Dr. Malti has published over 85 publications, and she is a consulting editor of Child Development. She received the New Investigator Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2012 and the Young Investigator Award from the Society for Research in Adolescence in 2010.

    Megan A. Mekinda, MA, is a doctoral candidate in human development and social policy at Northwestern University. She studies the design and evaluation of youth programs, with special interest in those to prepare urban minority youth for the postsecondary transition. Her dissertation research is an in-depth qualitative evaluation of After School Matters, an apprenticeship-based after-school program for Chicago public school students and the largest single-city after-school program for high school youth in the country.

    Lyn Morland, MSW, MA, is director of Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services (BRYCS), an initiative of Migration and Refugee Services, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, and national technical assistance provider for the federal Office of Refugee Resettlement. She holds an MSW and an MA in anthropology and medical behavioral sciences and is currently affiliated with Howard University's School of Social Work. Her 30-year career in cross-cultural social work includes developing programs for out-of-school youth in the Philippines, a community-based program for Sierra Leonean refugee youth, research on ethnic identity in children, and participatory action research with Central American immigrants. As BRYCS director, she promotes the key importance of a range of mentoring approaches for the positive development of refugee and immigrant youth. Current memberships include the board of directors of Heritage Multicultural Youth and Family Programs, Inc., serving West Africans in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area and in Sierra Leone.

    Megan K. Mueller, MA, is in her final year of doctoral studies at the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. She is currently a doctoral research assistant at the Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development, and her research focuses on the role of human-animal interaction as a context for promoting positive youth development.

    Michael J. Nakkula, EdD, is a practice professor and chair of the Division of Applied Psychology and Human Development at the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education. He teaches courses on adolescent development and the intersection of counseling, mentoring, and education within urban public schools. Among his publications, Professor Nakkula is the lead author of Understanding Youth: Adolescent Development for Educators and Building Healthy Communities for Positive Youth Development. He is the coeditor, with Michael J. Karcher, of a special issue of New Directions in Youth Development (2010) on the ways in which youth mentoring relationships are organized, assessed, and understood to promote best practices within different contexts.

    Christopher M. Napolitano, MA, is in his final year of doctoral studies at the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. He is currently a doctoral research assistant at the Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development, and his research focuses on serendipity as an instance of the person-context relations involved in positive youth development.

    Gil G. Noam, PhD, EdD, is the founder and director of the Program in Education, Afterschool & Resiliency (PEAR) and an associate professor at Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital. Trained as a clinical and developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst in both Europe and the United States, Dr. Noam has a strong interest in supporting resilience in youth, especially in educational settings. He served as the director of the Risk and Prevention program, and is the founder of the RALLY Prevention Program, a Boston-based intervention that bridges social and academic support in school, after-school, and community settings. Dr. Noam has also followed a large group of high-risk children into adulthood in a longitudinal study that explores clinical, educational, and occupational outcomes.

    Julia Pryce, PhD, LCSW, is an assistant professor at Loyola University Chicago's School of Social Work. Following her work as a clinician within the child welfare system, she received her doctorate in social service administration from the University of Chicago, and has spent the last 10 years studying the process of mentoring relationship development, including those that take place in schools and in the broader community. Her work has been recognized by the International Mentoring Association and has been funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dr. Pryce has particular interest in the intersection between research and practice. Projects to date have focused on the development, implementation, and evaluation of high-quality mentoring programs for at-risk youth, and on the nature and development of supportive nonparental relationships among youth who are system involved.

    Kellie G. Randall, MA, is a doctoral student in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Connecticut. She received her BA in psychology and economics from Williams College and her master's degree in human development and family studies from the University of Connecticut. Her current research interests include positive youth development and evaluation of community-based programs that serve children and their families.

    Jean E. Rhodes, PhD, is the MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership Professor of psychology and the director of the Center for Evidence-Based Mentoring at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. A clinical/community psychologist, Dr. Rhodes has devoted her career to understanding the role of intergenerational relationships in the social, educational, and career development of disadvantaged youth. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Research and Community Action, and was a distinguished fellow of the William T. Grant Foundation. Dr. Rhodes is a member of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Connected Learning. She serves as chair of the Research and Policy Council of the National Mentoring Partnership, is an overseer at the Boston Institute of Contemporary Art, and sits on the board of directors and research advisory boards of over a dozen mentoring and policy organizations.

    Katrina E. Roundfield, MA, is a doctoral candidate in clinical/community psychology at DePaul University in Chicago. Her research focuses on the interaction between academic achievement and mental health among low-income, ethnic minority youth. She has also conducted research on ethnic identity and mentoring relationships of youth. Ms. Roundfield is a recipient of the 2009 Ford Foundation Predoctoral and 2012 Dissertation Fellowship administered by the National Research Council.

    Bernadette Sánchez, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at DePaul University in Chicago. She earned her PhD in community psychology from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her research focuses on youth mentoring and positive youth development. She has specifically examined mentoring relationships; education; and race, ethnicity, and cultural issues in urban, low-income youth using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. She has also worked with multiple community-based organizations in helping them to develop, enhance, and evaluate their youth mentoring programs.

    Miri Scharf, PhD, is a senior lecturer of developmental psychology in the Department of Counseling and Human Development at the University of Haifa in Israel. She is interested in attachment relationships across the lifespan, parenting, and developmental trajectories of resilience and risk.

    Elizabeth A. (Birdie) Shirtcliff, PhD, is an early research professor at the University of New Orleans and director of the Stress Physiology in Teens (SPIT) laboratory. Dr. Shirtcliff received her doctorate in biobehavioral health from Pennsylvania State University in 2003 and completed postdoctoral training at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in affective neuroscience and the biological and behavioral approaches to typical and atypical development in children. Dr. Shirtcliff uses a variety of noninvasive tools to investigate the interplay of biological and behavioral factors unfolding across children's lives, especially in adolescence. Dr. Shirtcliff's focus is on hormones because the endocrine system is stress responsive, often mirroring a child's social environment. This interdisciplinary research examines both short-term stress responses, as well as biological changes that can consistently or even permanently change an individual's biology. Many of these are putatively positive contextual forces, such as warmth, sensitive caregiving, and support during stress.

    Carmit-Noa Shpigelman, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Department of Community Mental Health, University of Haifa, Israel. She conducted her postdoctoral research at the Department of Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago. She is an internationally leading expert on computer-mediated support in the context of disability. Her research focuses primarily on health promotion of people with a wide range of disabilities through online support, e-mentoring, and social media. Dr. Shpigelman identifies as a woman with a physical disability and has been involved in disability advocacy in Israel.

    Mark Snyder, PhD, is professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, where he holds the McKnight Presidential Chair in Psychology and is the director of the Center for the Study of the Individual and Society. His research interests include the motivational foundations of individual and collective social action. He is the author of the book Public Appearances/Private Realities: The Psychology of Self-Monitoring and coeditor of the volumes Cooperation in Modern Society: Promoting the Welfare of Communities, States, and Organizations; Cooperation: The Political Psychology of Effective Human Interaction; The Psychology of Prosocial Behavior: Group Processes, Intergroup Relations, and Helping; and The Oxford Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology.

    Renée Spencer, EdD, is an associate professor at the Boston University School of Social Work. She received her master's degree in social work from the University of Texas at Austin and her doctorate in human development and psychology from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research focuses on the relational processes at work in youth mentoring and the determinants of more and less successful relationships. She has written numerous articles and book chapters on both formal and informal youth mentoring relationships and serves as a member of several boards and committees, including the Research and Policy Council of MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership and the Research Advisory Council of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America.

    Jenny Stern-Carusone, MSW, is a technical assistance specialist for the Center for the Advancement of Mentoring in Newton, Massachusetts. Since 1996, she has worked as an advocate for youth in a number of capacities, including designing a defense detention alternative reform program, launching a rural peer court program, and helping launch a community-based family intervention program for Latino youth involved in juvenile justice. Prior to her current position, she served as program director for Committed Partners for Youth (CPY)–Big Brothers Big Sisters of Lane County (Oregon). She served as manager of the CPY Mentoring Children of Prisoners grant from 2003 to 2011, and was one of the first members of the Mentoring Children of Prisoners National Advisory Board, founded in 2009. Ms. Stern-Carusone extends her advocacy for youth involved in the justice system through participation on several community boards.

    Arthur A. Stukas, PhD, is a senior lecturer in the School of Psychological Science at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. Together with Drs. Gil Clary and Mark Snyder, he has written about and researched the topic of volunteerism for nearly two decades. Dr. Stukas is a long-standing member of the Association for Psychological Science and several other professional organizations (e.g., Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Society for Personality and Social Psychology). In collaboration with his students and colleagues, he has written numerous scholarly articles in scientific journals and chapters for relevant books, such as Mobilizing Adults for Positive Youth Development: Strategies for Closing the Gap Between Beliefs and Behaviors and The Handbook of Consumer Psychology. Dr. Stukas is also an executive editor for the Journal of Social Psychology.

    George M. Tarabulsy, PhD, is professor of psychology at Laval University in Québec City, Canada. Trained at McGill and Laval Universities and the University of Western Ontario, Dr. Tarabulsy has focused on the development of attachment relationships and social-emotional development in high-risk contexts, as well as on the elaboration of intervention strategies with mother-infant dyads that involve a strong mentoring component. He has also been involved in the training (and mentoring) of different social practitioners involved in primary prevention efforts with vulnerable parents and children.

    Jessica D. Thomason, MA, is a doctoral candidate in the community psychology program at Georgia State University. Her research focuses on positive youth development, specifically community initiatives to promote adolescent well-being and sexual health. She is the project coordinator for the evaluation of Cool Girls, Inc., and is currently evaluating the Healthy Teen Atlanta program. Her dissertation is a mixed-method study of the delivery of sexuality education in a youth development context.

    Susan G. Weinberger, EdD, is the founder and president of the Mentor Consulting Group based in Norwalk, Connecticut. She received her doctorate from the College of Business and Public Management at the University of Bridgeport. She was a pioneer in developing school-based mentoring in the early 1980s. Her model has been replicated in the United States, Canada, and internationally. She lectures on both youth mentoring and internal coaching and mentoring for corporations. She consults to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention programs, Departments of Housing and Urban Development and Education, the National Congress of American Indians, and the Governor's Prevention Partnership in Connecticut. Her publications include the My Mentor & Me series, Guidebook to Mentoring, Preparing My Mentor for Me, Manual for Mentors, and Strengthening Native Community Commitment Through Mentoring.


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