Handbook of Youth Mentoring

Handbooks

Edited by: David L. DuBois & Michael J. Karcher

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Introduction

    Part II: Concepts, Frameworks, and Foundations

    Part III: Mentoring Relationships

    Part IV: Developmental and Cultural Perspectives

    Part V: Formal Mentoring Programs

    Part VI: Contexts of Mentoring

    Part VII: Special Populations

    Part VIII: Policy Issues

  • The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Consulting Editor

    Richard M. Lerner

    The field of Applied Developmental Science has advanced the use of cutting-edge developmental systems models of human development, fostered strength-based approaches to understanding and promoting positive development across the life span, and served as a frame for collaborations among researchers and practitioners, including policymakers, seeking to enhance the life chances of diverse young people, their families, and communities. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science both integrates and extends this scholarship by publishing innovative and cutting-edge contributions.

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    Foreword

    In 2002, a young man named Ean Garrett told his personal story about the role mentors had played in shaping the first 16 years of his life. He also delivered a powerful call to action, telling a packed room of corporate chieftains and influential policymakers this:

    From the start I was expected to lose. Everything I have right now is mostly because I defied what the world concluded about me before I could even speak a word in my defense. And my defense is that I am just as capable as any person to do great things. Like you, I think about all the things this world could achieve if only every child was given the right tools. Mentoring is the right tool and it is the way to the American Dream.

    Since its founding in 1990 by Geoff Boisi and Ray Chambers, the leaders of MENTOR have been strong and unequivocal advocates for mentoring as an essential tool for leveraging positive youth development. We have been equally strong and unequivocal in our support for taking a critical approach to the task of ensuring that the practice of mentoring is guided by the best available theory and research. But the challenge therein was this: The body of research that existed was neither as plentiful nor as substantive as the research that undergirds many other comparable fields of practice. In addition, the high-quality research that did exist was not easily accessible to a young and markedly fluid group of practitioners nor to an emerging cadre of policy analysts and policymakers.

    With the publication of Handbook of Youth Mentoring, David DuBois and Michael Karcher have thoughtfully and thoroughly addressed this challenge. They, along with the exceptional scholars and thinkers they have gathered, offer readers both an aerial and a close-up view of virtually every dimension of mentoring in the 21st century.

    The aerial view quickly emerges from reviewing the table of contents, which reveals the scope of the issues covered, ranging from the theoretical underpinnings of mentoring to the nature of both formal and informal mentoring relationships to the contexts or settings in which mentoring occurs. Most important, a perusal of the table of contents underscores the dominant and vitally important theme of the book: why good research is central to good programming and good policy making.

    The close-up view is delivered in a series of 36 authoritative chapters. Collectively, these chapters highlight promising theoretical models that can enrich our understanding of the mentoring process, synthesize and critically evaluate extant research, and offer insightful discussions of crucial issues and areas of debate in practice. Importantly, the contributors to this volume also advance specific recommendations regarding many issues that could benefit markedly from either further study or more energetic advocacy. For example, they underscore repeatedly that we have much to learn about the value of natural mentoring relationships versus those that are established through formalized programs. Although we know a fair amount about how to support formal relationships, we need to know far more about how to help cultivate informal relationships, as well as how to make the mentoring that occurs within such relationships (between a teacher and student, or youth worker and participant in a Boys & Girls Club program, for example) more intentional and, therefore, more effective.

    In contrast, the research available on the central role of several fundamental features of mentoring relationships (for example, the existence of a close emotional bond) in facilitating outcomes is extensive and convincing. Yet the all-important issue of translating this knowledge into practice is in a much earlier stage of development. Pressing needs include widely available and easily applied instruments for evaluating relationships' duration, quality, and impact as well as the means for engineering program practices that ensure that high-quality relationships are the norm regardless of the youth population, host setting, or outcomes of interest. In this instance, as in other areas you will read about, we don't need to know more, we need to act more forcefully on the knowledge base that scholars have already developed.

    As the pages that follow make clear, mentoring is an ancient form of social intervention with a wide array of very modern applications. The applications that matter most to scholars are those built on a foundation formed by strong theory and exacting research. The applications that matter most to mentoring practitioners and policymakers alike are those that genuinely benefit the young people of this nation and those in countries throughout the world—young people who deserve the very best that we can deliver on their behalf.

    Serious researchers, dedicated practitioners, and thoughtful policymakers will all find the rich contents of the Handbook of Youth Mentoring to be at once informative, stimulating, and, sometimes, downright provoking. I have no doubt that this remarkable compendium will measurably and decisively help these three distinct groups achieve their complementary aims. So read on, for this is just the kind of book that our evolving field needs to ensure that high-quality youth mentoring—in all its many forms—is not only what we aspire to but also what we consistently and expansively deliver.

    GailManza, MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership

    Preface

    This volume represents the culmination of several years of planning, writing, and editing in an effort to develop a resource for the field of youth mentoring that would be scholarly yet applied, and that would address the need for a comprehensive and integrative accounting of both the field's progress to date and its most promising future directions. This vision was present from the start, but evolved and took its full shape over the course of the project. Most notably, this process involved the cultivation of a shared commitment with our contributors to create a scholarly account of youth mentoring with all of its limits and potential, without bias or inflated estimates of impact, but with conviction in the merits of its study.

    As editors, we embarked on this journey by first charting out what we regarded as the most salient overarching domains or areas within the field of youth mentoring from the perspectives of both science and practice. We next identified the specific topics to which chapters would be devoted within each of these general areas. It is unfortunate, but perhaps an unavoidable circumstance for any newly emerging field, that several potential chapter topics did not “make the cut” at this stage of our planning because in our judgment they currently lack a critical mass of attention from scholars even when applying a somewhat liberal criterion. These topics include some of the newest modalities of mentoring (e.g., group mentoring), mentoring of certain specialized populations (e.g., gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth), and treatments of specific program practices (e.g., mentor supervision). Accordingly, to the extent that we have succeeded in our quest to be comprehensive, it is with the caveat that this has been accomplished by working within the field's existing scholarly base rather than addressing the full scope of concerns that may be important from the broader perspectives of theory and practice. We hope to see this gap narrow as the field matures and grows and thus be notably less evident in future editions of this volume.

    We next turned to identifying and recruiting our contributors. For topics benefiting from relatively more investigation, we sought out well-established scholars who have worked within these areas of the youth mentoring literature. In the remaining instances, we broadened our approach to enlist prominent scholars from relevant literatures outside of the mentoring field. In doing so, we hoped to have the volume highlight opportunities for diverse literatures to inform research in newly emerging areas of the field. We were extremely fortunate to enjoy a high rate of acceptance for all of our invitations. The resulting list of contributors is, by any measure, an all-star lineup of individuals with exceptional credentials and records of accomplishment.

    Our charge to authors was to provide a thorough, critical, and forward-minded account of theory, research, and practice within the areas of youth mentoring that were the subjects of their chapters. Further guidelines conveyed our desire as editors for a focus on youth mentoring to be maintained throughout the volume. A considerable body of scholarship exists on the mentoring of adults, particularly in the workplace and in educational contexts. Due to the obvious developmental differences involved and the more limited range of purposes associated with programs directed toward adults, we encouraged authors to draw only sparingly on these literatures and to avoid doing so in ways that might become overgeneralized to youth. We also asked authors to take care to distinguish between youth mentoring research and research with youth on related, but distinct, topics so as not to inadvertently create the impression that the knowledge base for the field is more advanced than it really is at present. This, we hoped, would help highlight the work that remains to be done.

    Each contribution to this volume benefited from multiple stages of revision and review. As editors, we found the stimulating discussions of theory, research, and practice crafted by our contributors to be rich fodder for reflection and feedback. Believing strongly in the payoffs of these exchanges, we read and provided feedback to each chapter at least three times. We are grateful to all of our contributors for enduring this arduous process, for so graciously tolerating our editorial excesses and eccentricities along the way, and for their more-than-generous commitments of time and energy to their chapters amidst many other competing and important demands.

    Other acknowledgments are due as well. We are indebted to Jim Brace-Thompson, Senior Editor at Sage Publications, for his highly able and always patient and understanding stewardship of this project from inception to completion, and to Karen Ehrmann, Tracy Alpern, and Carla Freeman for shepherding us so capably through the submission and production process. We also had the great fortune of working together, a collaboration punctuated by lively and informative exchanges and strengthened by one another's good counsel throughout the many stages of this project. Further thanks are due to the academic programs and institutions with which we have the good fortune to be affiliated, the School of Public Health and Institute for Health Research and Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas at San Antonio, and to the William T. Grant Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health for their generous support of our programs of research on youth mentoring. Finally, each of our families deserves our heartfelt appreciation for their patience and understanding during what turned out to be a far more demanding undertaking than either of us had anticipated. To our spouses, Natalie and Sara, we offer special thanks for so tirelessly supporting our labors in both spirit and deed.

    David L.DuBoisMichael J.Karcher

    Sage Publications wishes to acknowledge the following reviewers:

    Sharon G. Portwood Department of Psychology, University of Missouri—Kansas City

    Michael Nakkula Risk and Prevention Program, Harvard Graduate School of Education

    Marc Zimmerman School of Public Health, University of Michigan

    Hardin Coleman Department of Counseling Psychology, University of Wisconsin—Madison

    Craig A. Mason Child LINK, University of Maine

    Dedication

    We dedicate this handbook to the older and wiser ones in our lives.

    To my parents, J. Howard and Gwyneth, with a deep debt of gratitude for their guidance, love, and support, and to Bill Friedman, Bart Hirsch, Robert Felner, and Lizette Peterson, mentors par excellence of my professional development one and all.

    D. L. D.

    To my uncle Alberto Mijangos who saw and nurtured the artist in my brother Kenneth Karcher, and to Mike Nakkula, Chuck Woehler, and Hardin Coleman who continue to influence my personal, spiritual, and professional life in countless and immeasurable ways.

    M. J. K.
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    David L. DuBois, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Division of Community Health Sciences within the School of Public Health at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He received his doctorate in clinical-community psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has authored numerous peer-reviewed studies of youth mentoring, including a meta-analytic review of the literature on the effectiveness of youth mentoring programs. In 2003, he co-chaired the National Research Summit on Mentoring. Along with Jean Rhodes, he then coauthored the National Research Agenda for Youth Mentoring that emerged from the Summit. Currently, he is conducting research on youth mentoring with funding from the National Institute of Mental Health and the William T. Grant Foundation. He serves as a consultant to local, state, and national mentoring organizations and has been a mentor himself in a Big Brothers Big Sisters program.

    Michael J. Karcher, EdD, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He received a doctorate in human development and psychology from Harvard University and a doctorate in counseling psychology from the University of Texas at Austin. He conducts research on school-based and cross-age peer mentoring as well as on adolescent connectedness and pair counseling. He currently conducts the Study of Mentoring in the Learning Environment (SMILE), which is a 3-year research project funded by the William T. Grant Foundation to examine the effects of school-based mentoring.

    About the Contributors

    Penny M. Ayers is currently a doctoral student in the Interdisciplinary PhD Program at University of Missouri–Kansas City. Her degree combines the disciplines of psychology and sociology with an emphasis on criminology and criminal justice, particularly as these subjects pertain to juveniles. Her research focuses on evaluating community- and school-based programs. She has presented her research nationally and has coauthored several articles related to mentoring and program evaluation. She consults with the Jackson County Family Court on special programs for system-involved girls, and as Project Coordinator for the KC Metro Child Traumatic Stress Program, she is responsible for the project's daily operations.

    David B. Baker is Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology and Professor of Psychology at The University of Akron. He received his PhD in counseling psychology from Texas A&M University in 1988. He has taught the history of psychology at the undergraduate and graduate level for the past 15 years, and in 1995 was named Professor of the Year by the Texas Psychological Association Division of Students in Psychology. He became the director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology in 1999. Recognized as the largest archival collection of its kind, its mission is to acquire, preserve, and make available primary source material in the history of psychology. In addition to his administrative and teaching duties, he maintains an active program of research and writing on the rise of professional psychology in 20th-century America.

    Fabricio E. Balcazar, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Disability and Human Development and the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He received his doctorate in developmental and child psychology from the University of Kansas. He has conducted research on the development and evaluation of systematic approaches for promoting the empowerment of minorities and underserved populations. His research includes approaches for promoting empowerment in vocational rehabilitation service delivery, school-to-work transitions, mentoring in dropout prevention, improvement of the rehabilitation outcomes of individuals with violence-induced spinal cord injuries using peer mentors, and strategies to increase the effectiveness of consumer advocacy organizations of people with disabilities.

    Manuel Barrera, Jr., is Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University and Adjunct Senior Research Scientist at Oregon Research Institute (Eugene, Oregon). He received his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Oregon. He has conducted research on the measurement of social support, its factor structure, and its relations to stress and psychological distress for adolescents and adults. Currently, he is interested in social support interventions that are designed to treat and prevent chronic illness.

    Diana E. Behrendt currently is pursuing her master's degree at the Institute for Policy Studies at Johns Hopkins University. Her research interests include adult transition, risk behavior prevention, and reproductive health issues.

    Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, MPH, is a doctoral student in the Health Behavior and Health Education department in the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan. His current research deals with the impact of social, economic, and political conditions on the population dynamics of infectious diseases.

    Elaine A. Blechman, PhD, received her doctorate in clinical and social psychology from UCLA in 1971. She is Professor of Psychology at the University of Colorado at Boulder. She has published seven books and more than 100 scientific papers and chapters about coping, competence, and resilience promotion among at-risk youth and women. She has developed and evaluated family, school, and peer-group interventions for at-risk youth, with an emphasis on juvenile offenders. Her latest book, Caregiver Alliances for At Risk and Dangerous Youth: Establishing School and Agency Coordination and Accountability, overcomes legal, scientific, and technological barriers to cost-effective community care of youth who pose a danger to self or others. She patented the Caregiver Alliance Toolbox information platform and is evaluating its benefits in operating virtual caregiver teams and fostering cross-agency coordination of services for children with special health care needs, special-ed students, juvenile offenders, substance abusers, and truants.

    Lynn Blinn-Pike, PhD, is Professor in Human Development and Family Studies at Mississippi State University. She received her doctorate from Ohio State University. Her research interests include adolescent sexuality, pregnancy and parenting, along with research methods and program evaluation. She has been the principal investigator and evaluator on several national adolescent pregnancy prevention and HIV projects. Her current research interests involve examining the relationship between early gambling behavior and early sexual activity in adolescent males.

    G. Anne Bogat, PhD, is Professor and Director of Clinical Training at Michigan State University. She received her doctorate in 1982 in clinical-community psychology from DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois. Her research interests include mentoring, social support, and family violence. In 2002, she coedited, with Jean Rhodes, a special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology on youth mentoring. Recent work focuses on the longitudinal assessment of risk and resilience factors for women and children living in households with partner abuse. Her work has appeared in journals related to community psychology, domestic violence, and child development.

    Darya D. Bonds is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Prevention Research Center at Arizona State University. She obtained an MA and PhD in developmental psychology from the University of Notre Dame. Her primary research interests include the effects of social support, interparental conflict, and parenting practices on child adjustment.

    Jedediah M. Bopp is research assistant to Elaine Blechman, PhD, at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His current interests include juvenile delinquency and psychopathology, and coordinating care in rural areas. He plans to pursue a doctoral degree in clinical psychology in the future.

    Preston A. Britner, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the School of Family Studies at the University of Connecticut. He earned his PhD in developmental psychology at the University of Virginia. He is the editor of The Journal of Primary Prevention and serves on the editorial boards of Child Abuse & Neglect and the Journal of Child & Family Studies. He was recognized as a 2003–2004 Teaching Fellow, the highest teaching honor at the University of Connecticut. He coauthored Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect Through Parent Education and has published in the areas of attachment relationships, child care, foster care, mentoring, and social policy and law affecting families.

    Carolyn M. Callahan, PhD, a Professor in the Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, is also Associate Director of the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. She received her doctorate from the University of Connecticut. She teaches courses in the area of education of the gifted and is executive director of the Summer Enrichment Program. She has authored more than 125 articles, 25 book chapters, and monographs on the topics of creativity, the identification of gifted students, program evaluation, and the issues faced by gifted females. She received recognition as Outstanding Faculty Member in the Commonwealth of Virginia and was awarded the Distinguished Scholar Award from the National Association for Gifted Children and The Certificate of Merit from the Association for the Gifted.

    Timothy A. Cavell, PhD, received his doctorate in clinical psychology from Louisiana State University. He is currently Professor and Director of Clinical Training at the University of Arkansas. His research focuses on parent- and mentor-based interventions for high-risk children and the prevention of delinquency and adolescent substance abuse. His work has been funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the William C. Hogg Foundation, and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. He has published more than 40 articles and chapters, as well as a book, Working With Parents of Aggressive Children: A Practitioner's Guide (2000), published by the American Psychological Association. He is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Research in Child Development, the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, and the Society for Prevention Research.

    Yarí Colón is currently a doctoral student in the Clinical-Community Psychology program at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois. Her research focuses on the educational experiences of Latino adolescents. She is conducting her master's thesis on the roles of acculturation status and the economic value of education in students’ academic performance. She also works as a research assistant on a project examining the role of natural mentoring relationships in Latino adolescents’ academic achievement as well as during their transition from high school.

    Shawn M. Coyne is a graduate student in the Clinical-Community Psychology program at the University of South Carolina. She has worked on the evaluation consulting/ research team with Dr. Wandersman for a year and has presented at the American Evaluators’Association on the topic. She has jointly written two papers published in The Community Psychologist on the benefits of combining clinical and community psychology. In addition, she has jointly submitted an article on community organizing and advocacy as it relates to increasing the quality and quantity of mentoring programs.

    Nancy Darling, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Bard College. She received her doctorate in human development and family studies from Cornell University. Her research focuses on how adolescents influence and are influenced by relationships with parents, peers, and unrelated adults and how these different social spheres interact to change the course of individual development. During the last several years, her work has taken on two complimentary foci: adolescent socialization and the development of romantic relationships. The former work includes cross-cultural studies of the negotiation of adolescent autonomy in Chile, Italy, the Philippines, and the United States. The latter work includes observational studies of adolescents’ and adults’ interactions with romantic partners.

    Narelle Dawson, MSocSci, PGDipPsych(Clin), is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist responsible for mental health needs at Parentline Advocacy Services. Her clinical qualifications were earned at the University of Waikato. Currently, she also is working in partnership with the Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention to design, monitor, and evaluate the National Suicide Prevention Strategy in Fiji. She has 23 years’ experience in treating trauma following conflict, sexual abuse, and homicide within families and is an Australian by birth, a registered teacher, a pilot, and a mother of four daughters. She is completing a doctoral thesis at Massey University, investigating the outcomes for at-risk and suicidal youth on government welfare benefits.

    Jennifer L. Duffy is a graduate student in the Clinical-Community Psychology program at the University of South Carolina. Some of her research interests include program evaluation, violence prevention, and positive youth development. She is a member of the evaluation consulting/research team at the University of South Carolina, and she has jointly submitted an article on community organizing and advocacy as it relates to increasing the quality and quantity of mentoring programs.

    James G. Emshoff, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Psychology and Director of the Community Psychology Program at Georgia State University. He also founded and serves as Director of Research at EMSTAR Research, Inc., an evaluation and organizational services firm. He has received many honors, including the American Medical Association Substance Abuse Prevention Award. He has conducted evaluation research focused on substance abuse, violence, HIV/AIDS, child abuse, community collaboratives, mentoring, delinquency, and health promotion programs at the local, state, and national levels and provides technical assistance in prevention and evaluation to many organizations. He received his doctorate from Michigan State University.

    Ian M. Evans, PhD, is Head of the School of Psychology at Massey University, where he teaches a graduate course on ethics in psychological practice. He earned his doctorate from the University of London. Before moving to New Zealand in 1995, he was Professor and Director of Clinical Training at SUNY–Binghamton, where he was involved in dropout prevention research in rural schools; see Evans, I. M. Cicchelli, T. Cohen, M. & Shapiro N. (Eds.). (1995). Staying in school: Partnerships for educational change. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. He has served as president of the New Zealand Psychological Society and is a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

    Jennifer D. Foster, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Miami Child Protection Team. She received her doctorate in clinical-community psychology from Georgia State University and completed her clinical internship at the University of Miami Mailman Center for Child Development. Her research and clinical interests are in mentoring and youth development programs, and the impact of community and domestic violence and child abuse on children, families, and communities, particularly with recent immigrants. Recent publications have focused on youth development programs and the impact of community violence on urban adolescents.

    Mark Griffiths, PhD, is Professor of Gambling Studies at the Nottingham Trent University. He received his doctorate in psychology from The University of Exeter (U.K.) and is internationally known for his work into gambling and gaming addictions. He has won three international awards for his gambling research but also researches into technological addictions and the psychology of the Internet. He has published more than 120 refereed research papers, 2 books, numerous book chapters and more than 350 other articles.

    Jean Baldwin Grossman, PhD, is both Senior Vice President for Research at Public/Private Ventures and on the faculty of Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School. She has coauthored several publications on mentoring including, Making a Difference: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters, Contemporary Issues in Mentoring, and a series of academic papers with Jean Rhodes and her colleagues. She has spent her career evaluating social programs of all kinds. She currently is working on evaluating other mentoring programs and after-school initiatives. She received her PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Mary Agnes Hamilton is a Senior Research Associate in Human Development at Cornell University and Director of the Cornell Youth and Work Program in the Family Life Development Center. Her research and program development focus on understanding and enhancing the quality of learning environments in the community, mentoring relationships between nonrelated adults and youth, youth involvement, and the transition to adulthood. She seeks to advance educational opportunities and challenges to enable all youth to gain character and competence. Her MAT is from Duke, CAT is from Harvard, and PhD is from Cornell.

    Stephen F. Hamilton is Associate Provost for Outreach and Professor of Human Development at Cornell University and Codirector of the Family Life Development Center. He earned an EdD from Harvard in 1975. His research in adolescent development and education investigates the interaction of school, community, and work during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. It also grounds program and policy development, especially related to education, employment, and citizenship. His book, Apprenticeship for Adulthood: Preparing Youth for the Future, helped guide the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994. He actively supports the work of educators, youth workers, and citizens engaged in community youth development.

    John T. Harris is the President of Applied Research Consulting, a Virginia-based independent consulting firm specializing in program evaluation and instrument construction to support youth development programming. His research focuses on youth mentoring and violence prevention/social skills education. He has coauthored several surveys, including the Match Characteristics Questionnaire, the Youth Mentoring Survey, the Self-Reported Assessment of Behavior and Social Skills, and the Across Time Orientation Measure. He received his master's degree in human development and psychology from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

    Barton J. Hirsch, PhD, is Professor of Human Development and Social Policy at Northwestern University, where he also is on the faculty of the Institute for Policy Research and the Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Policy Research. He received his doctorate from the University of Oregon. His research examines contexts of adolescent development, including parents, extended families, friendships, peer groups, school, and neighborhood settings. Over the past several years, he has been studying urban boys and girls clubs. His book on the initial phase of that research, A Place to Call Home: After-School Programs for Urban Youth, will be published by the American Psychological Association in 2005.

    Anna Jory, MA, is a graduate student in the clinical training program at Massey University. She is a qualified teacher and has had extensive experience as an elementary school teacher. She earned her master's degree from Massey University. Her master's thesis research project investigated the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy principles in the treatment of drug addiction and substance abuse in teenagers. She is currently an intern at the Psychology Clinic at Massey University.

    Thomas E. Keller, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago and a Faculty Associate with the Chapin Hall Center for Children. His current research, funded by The Spencer Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health, focuses on the development and influence of youth mentoring relationships in Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based and community-based programs. Prior to earning his doctorate in social welfare at the University of Washington, he worked for several years with a Big Brothers Big Sisters affiliate in Seattle as a case manager, supervisor, and program director.

    Christopher B. Keys, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Psychology Department at DePaul University and Professor Emeritus at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He received his doctorate from the University of Cincinnati. He is past chair of the Council of Community Psychology Program Directors, past president of the Society for Community Research and Action, and is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Community Research and Action. He is interested in research, theory, and action concerning the empowerment of people with disabilities and their families through education, advocacy, and social change. His most recent book is a coedited volume on participatory community research methods published by the American Psychological Association.

    Jacqueline King is a student in the Human Services Psychology PhD Program of the University of Maryland Baltimore County, where she is a Meyerhoff Research Fellow. She received her master's degree in experimental psychology from Towson University, where she was awarded the 2002 Outstanding Psychology Graduate Student Award. Her research focuses on community mentoring programs, youth mentoring relationships, and intergroup relations evaluation. Her planned dissertation research will focus on an evaluation of My Sister's Circle, a mentoring program for at-risk Baltimore city girls entering middle school. The results of her master's thesis, In-Group and Out-Group Evaluation by African American and European American College Students, was presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Conference in April 2003.

    Lisa Kraimer-Rickaby, MA, is a PhD candidate in the School of Family Studies at the University of Connecticut. She has been involved with a study of foster youth, statesponsored, independent living services, including a One-on-One Mentoring program for youth in state custody in Connecticut.

    Gabriel P. Kuperminc, PhD, is an Associate Professor in Community and Developmental Psychology at Georgia State University. His doctoral dissertation from the University of Virginia was recognized by the American Psychological Association, Division 27 Dissertation Award. He received postdoctoral training at Yale University. His major research interests are in the intersection of ethnicity and culture with adolescent development, social competence, and school- and community-based interventions to promote youth development. Recent publications have focused on cultural variations in developmental processes among ethnic minority and immigrant youth, risk and protective factors affecting adolescents’ psychological adjustment, and youth development programs.

    Robin M. Kyburg, MA, is a doctoral student in Educational Psychology with an Emphasis in Gifted Education at the University of Virginia. She was a social studies teacher in Grades 7–12 before moving to Europe, where her professional experiences were predominantly focused on serving as a specialist tutor of culturally and ethnically diverse children with learning disabilities in a variety of educational settings and subjects. Presently, she works as a research assistant at the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, focusing on the qualitative analysis in an ongoing research project on the Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate programs, and as a continuing education instructor for Project LOGgED ON.

    Simon Larose, PhD, is Professor of Educational Psychology at Université Laval (Québec City, Canada) and member of the Psychosocial Maladaptation Research Unit. He received his doctorate in psychology from Université Laval. His main fields of research and teaching are adolescent and young adult development, attachment, mentoring, school transitions, and academic adjustment. Between 1996 and 2002, he conducted an important study on the role of attachment in adolescent adjustment to mentoring relationships and to college. This research was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the antecedents, mechanisms, and outcomes of college-based mentoring. His current research program is concerned with understanding the mechanisms of school persistence in late adolescence and young adulthood.

    Kristin Liabø is a Research Fellow in the Child Health Research and Policy Unit at City University, London. She earned an MSc degree from the London School of Economics and Political Science. She is currently working on the project What Works for Children? which looks at levers and barriers for implementing research in practice. Recent publications include briefing papers on effective interventions for the U.K. children's think tank, the National Children's Bureau, an article on mentoring in the British Medical Journal, and two pieces on evidence in Archives of Disease in Childhood. She is cowriting a chapter about using research in practice, to be published in an edited collection by the U.K. Health Development Agency.

    Belle Liang, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Boston College and a licensed clinical psychologist. She received her degree in clinical psychology from Michigan State University in 1994. Her research focuses on developmental and cross-cultural perspectives of clinical and community intervention, especially mentoring relationships and programs with ethnic minorities and adolescents. She has also developed measures of mentoring qualities for use with diverse adults and youth.

    Leonard LoSciuto, PhD, is the Director of the Institute for Survey Research at Temple University. He received his doctorate in 1966 from Purdue University. He is also Professor of Psychology at Temple University, teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in social psychology, statistics, research methods, and consumer behavior. His major research areas are survey research methodology, attitude and opinion measurement, and program evaluation. Within this methodological focus, he is especially interested in youth drug abuse research, including prevention program evaluation and consumption patterns. Numerous federal agencies have supported his work over the years, including various components of the National Institutes of Health, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Science Foundation.

    Patricia Lucas, PhD, worked on mentoring while a Research Officer in the Child Health Research and Policy Unit at City University, London. She is currently a lecturer in early childhood at the School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, U.K. She is currently conducting a systematic review of infant size and growth, combining reviews of lay views and life course outcomes. She is also working with Australian colleagues on a systematic review of the effectiveness of nutrition interventions to reduce health inequalities. Her most recent publications are a series of effectiveness summaries for social care practitioners, including one-on-one mentoring, and a journal article on sleep strategies for children with Down's syndrome.

    Colleen P. Maguire received her master's degree in psychology in 2002, and she is currently working on her doctorate degree in the Collaborative Program in Counseling Psychology at the University of Akron. She is also the current co-chair for the Student Affiliate Group of the Society of Counseling Psychology. Her primary research interests are in the scholarship of teaching, counselor supervision, professional issues, mentoring, and the interface of health and employment.

    Kenneth I. Maton is Professor of Psychology and director of the Community-Social Psychology PhD Program in Human Services Psychology at University of Maryland, Baltimore County. He received his doctorate from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research focuses on empowering community settings, minority youth achievement, and the community psychology of religion. Specific mentoring-related research projects include an evaluation of Project RAISE, which included a faith-based mentoring component for at-risk youth, and a longitudinal evaluation of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program, a multifaceted academic support program for minority college students. His most recent book (coedited) is Investing in Children, Youth, Families, and Communities: Strengths-Based Research and Policy (publisher: American Psychological Association, 2003). He is past president of the Society for Community Research and Action (Community Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association) and serves on the editorial boards of American Journal of Community Psychology, Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, and Journal of Community Psychology.

    Katherine E. McDonald, MA, is a doctoral candidate in Community & Prevention Research in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her research examines the socioecological experience of disability through the lenses of young adults who belong to multiple marginalized groups. She is interested in using research to promote the full community integration and empowerment of people with disabilities. Her most recent publications include reflections on how the processes of academic conferences reflect the strengths and struggles of participatory community research.

    Hugh Miller, PhD, is Principal Lecturer in Psychology at Nottingham Trent University, U.K., where his main teaching and research interest is in how people develop and present identities on the Internet, and more generally in individuals’ interaction with the material world, especially how we adjust socially to deal with new technologies. His first degree was in physiology and psychology from Oxford, and he received his doctorate in cognitive psychology from the University of Nottingham, some considerable time ago.

    Michael J. Nakkula is the Marie and Max Kargman Assistant Professor of Human Development and Urban Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, where he serves as the codirector of the Risk and Prevention master's program. His research and writing focuses on developmental approaches to facilitating psychosocial and academic growth, including mentoring and social skills/conflict resolution programming. He is the primary author of the book, Matters of Interpretation: Reciprocal Transformation in Therapeutic and Developmental Relationships With Youth (1998). He received his doctorate in counseling and consulting psychology from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

    Phyllis Holditch Niolon, MA, is a doctoral student in Community Psychology at Georgia State University. She received her master's in psychology from Georgia State University and her undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia. Her major research interests center on adolescent development and violence against women, and she has focused her thesis and dissertation work on adolescent dating aggression. Her most recent publication was a review of youth development programs involving volunteering and community service, and she is currently working on several publications of her research on adolescent dating aggression.

    Lorraine Porcellini is the Study Direction/Sampling Coordinator at Temple University's Institute for Survey Research (ISR) and is chiefly responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the Sampling Department. She acts as liaison to all ISR departments to coordinate the sampling-based activities of members of each project team and to provide statistical support. Since 1985, she has been involved in a variety of projects in the fields of health, family functioning, drug and alcohol use, intrafamily violence, and program evaluation. Her primary professional activities include program evaluation design, implementation, and analysis; the development and implementation of sampling design and data collection procedures; and the calculation of noncompliance estimates, survey weights, and sampling errors.

    Sharon G. Portwood, Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Missouri–Kansas City, received her JD from the University of Texas School of Law in 1985. She received her PhD in psychology from the University of Virginia in 1996. She is the author of numerous articles and book chapters covering a range of topics, including law and policy responses to crimes committed by and against children, and mentoring. Her work has been presented both nationally and internationally. She has served as a consultant to state and not-for-profit agencies in regard to needs assessment and program development, implementation, and evaluation.

    Michele M. Reiner, MSW, is Executive Director of Cool Girls, Inc. She is a graduate of Duke University and earned a master's degree in social work from Columbia University. Her professional career has focused on youth development and civic engagement, including work with the Atlanta Outward Bound Center and CityCares. She also has presented at numerous national and international conferences on topics such as: “Volunteering: A Bridge to Understanding Diversity,” “Service Learning,” and “Volunteering in the 21st Century.”

    Jean E. Rhodes, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. She received her doctorate in clinical/community psychology from DePaul University. She has conducted a wide array of research studies that demonstrate both the impact of mentoring programs and the way in which programs can be structured to best serve youth. Her recent book, Stand by Me: The Risks and Rewards of Mentoring Today's Youth (Harvard University Press, 2002) provides a synthesis of the research on mentoring. She is author of a research column for the National Mentoring Partnership's Web site, http://www.mentoring.org. Rhodes is a fellow in the American Psychological Association and the Society for Research and Community Action, and a member of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Transitions to Adulthood.

    Helen Roberts has been Professor of Child Health at City University since 2001, where she heads the Child Health Research and Policy Unit. Before that, she was Head of R&D with the U.K. children's charity Barnardo's. She works on inequalities in child health, evidence-based care for children, the gap between what we know and what we do, and methods of consulting children effectively. Her most recent book is What Works for Children? with Di McNeish and Tony Newman, published in 2002 by Open University Books, and she is writing a book on systematic reviews with Mark Petticrew. She has a master's in industrial sociology with anthropology from the Université d’Aix-Marseille, France, and a DPhil from the University of Sussex.

    Bernadette Sánchez is currently an Assistant Professor of Psychology at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois. She received her PhD from the Community and Prevention Research program at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her research has focused on the natural mentoring relationships and educational experiences of urban ethnic minority youth, particularly Latino adolescents. Bernadette has recently been examining the role of natural mentors in assisting youth in their transition from high school.

    Laura A. Secrest, MS, is a doctoral student in Clinical Psychology at Georgia State University. She received her master's in psychology from Texas A&M University and began a predoctoral clinical internship at Saint John's Child and Family Development Center in Santa Monica, California, in September 2004. Her research interests include the impact of parenting and mentoring relationships on youth development and violence against women. Her most recent publication was an examination of the investigator-community collaboration in the development and implementation of a family-based HIV prevention program.

    Naida Silverthorn, PhD, is a Research Coordinator at the Health Research and Policy Centers at the University of Illinois at Chicago as well as a Lecturer at Northeastern Illinois University. She completed her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Ottawa and worked in clinical practice with youth and families until accepting a postdoctoral research fellowship with Dr. David DuBois at the University of Illinois at Chicago in 2002. Her research interests are in the areas of adolescent self-esteem, positive youth development, and mentoring.

    Cynthia L. Sipe, PhD, is an independent consultant who works with nonprofit youth organizations and school districts to evaluate programs and reform efforts. She earned her doctorate in sociology from Indiana University. She has conducted extensive research on mentoring programs, authoring or coauthoring several reports. Through her affiliation with Youth Development Strategies, Inc. ( http://www.YDSI.org), a national nonprofit research, evaluation, and technical assistance organization that helps communities improve long-term outcomes for their youth, she assists program operators to assess the quality and effectiveness of their programs and improve service delivery to youth participants.

    Anne-Marie Smith, PhD, received her doctoral degree in clinical psychology from Texas A&M University. She interned at the Morrison Center for Youth and Families in Portland, Oregon. She completed her postdoctoral studies with the Oregon Youth Authority working with juvenile offenders. Her clinical interests lie in the areas of forensic evaluations, adolescent and adult psychopathology, delinquency interventions, program development, and multicultural issues. She has research interests in the area of juvenile delinquency and mentoring interventions for youth. She is currently a clinical/forensic psychologist at the Oregon State Hospital and is a member of the American Psychological Association.

    Renée Spencer, EdD, LICSW, is an Assistant Professor at the Boston University School of Social Work. She received her master's in social work from the University of Texas at Austin and her doctorate in human development and psychology from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research focuses on youth mentoring relationships, adolescent development, and gender. Recent publications include “Growth-Promoting Relationships Between Youth and Adults: A Focus Group Study,” to be published in Families in Society, and “Someone to Watch Over Me: Mentoring Programs in the After-School Lives of Children and Adolescents,” with Jean Rhodes, in Organized Activities as Contexts of Development: Extracurricular Activities, After School, and Community Programs, edited by J. L. Mahoney, J. Eccles, and R. Larson (2005).

    Mariano R. Sto. Domingo is currently a student in the Human Services Psychology PhD Program in Community Social Psychology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. He is a faculty member on study leave from the Department of Psychology, University of the Philippines. He earned his master's degrees in international relations and social psychology from the International University of Japan and University of the Philippines, respectively. He was also an exchange student at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, DC. He is past vice president of the Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino (National Association for Philippine Psychology).

    Arthur A. Stukas, PhD, is a Lecturer in Social Psychology in the School of Psychological Science at La Trobe University, in Melbourne, Australia. He received his doctorate from the University of Minnesota. His research interests focus on the personal and situational factors that underlie value-expression and goal-directed behavior, including such varied behaviors as volunteerism and community involvement, organ and tissue donation, principled stands against prejudice, and active disconfirmation of erroneous interpersonal expectations. He recently coedited (with Michelle Dunlap) an issue of the Journal of Social Issues on “Community Involvement: Theoretical Approaches and Educational Initiatives.”

    Chris Tanti is a PhD candidate in the School of Psychological Science at La Trobe University, in Melbourne, Australia. Originally trained as an occupational therapist, she has worked with children and adolescents in a variety of intellectual disability services and mental health services. Her current research interests include adolescent development and psychopathology, the formation of identity during childhood and adolescence, and adolescent peer group behavior. Her PhD research is investigating the development of social identity in adolescence.

    George M. Tarabulsy is a graduate of Université Laval (PhD) and McGill University (MA) and currently is Professor in the School of Psychology at Université Laval (Quebec City, Canada). He is also research fellow with the Québec Fund for Cultural and Social Research and member of the Psychosocial Maladaptation Research Unit. His research interests focus on the connections between socioemotional and cognitive development in populations at high psychosocial risk, and on the development of effective family and community-based intervention strategies. His recent work has focused on parent-child attachment relationships as mediators of the association between psychosocial risk and the development of adaptation.

    Andrea S. Taylor, PhD, is the Director of Youth Development and Family Support at Temple University's Center for Intergenerational Learning. She received her doctorate from Temple University. She is the developer of Across Ages, an intergenerational mentoring program designated as an evidence-based model and listed in the National Registry of Effective Program Practices. Her work in recent years has been supported by SAMHSA and the DOE and has focused on intergenerational mentoring as an approach to positive youth development and the prevention of school failure, substance abuse, and early or repeat teen pregnancies. She is also a Senior Research Associate at Temple University's Institute for Survey Research and is involved in projects addressing issues of civic engagement across the life span, especially older adults. She provides consultation, training, and technical assistance in intergenerational mentoring and substance abuse prevention to private, nonprofit organizations, universities, school districts, federal, and state agencies.

    Gary Walker is president of Public Private Ventures (P/PV), a national nonprofit organization whose mission is to improve the effectiveness of social policies and programs, especially in the areas of at-risk youth and workforce development. P/PV does research and evaluation work in both these areas. He also serves on the boards of directors of the William T. Grant Foundation and the Hasbro Foundation, and on the Aspen Institute's Roundtable on Community Change. He speaks and writes frequently on social policy issues, including The Policy Climate for Early Adolescent Initiatives (2001, Philadelphia: P/PV). He received his law degree from Yale Law School.

    Abraham Wandersman, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology at the University of South Carolina–Columbia. He received his PhD from Cornell University in the following areas of specialization: social psychology, environmental psychology, and social organization and change. He performs research and program evaluation on citizen participation in community organizations and coalitions and on interagency collaboration. He is a coauthor of Prevention Plus III, a coeditor of Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and Tools for Self Assessment and Accountability, and author of many other books and articles. In 1998, he received the Myrdal Award for Evaluation Practice from the American Evaluation Association. In 2000, he was elected President of Division 27 of the American Psychological Association (Community Psychology), the Society for Community Research and Action. In 2004, he coauthored the RAND publication of Getting To Outcomes–2004: Promoting Accountability Through Methods and Tools for Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    Susan G. Weinberger, Ed.D, is the founder and President of the Mentor Consulting Group based in Norwalk, Connecticut. She was a pioneer in developing school-based mentoring in the early 1980s and served as Director of the Norwalk Mentor Program for 12 years. Her model has been replicated in 45 states, Bermuda, and Canada. Susan is chair, Public Policy Council, MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership. She consults to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Programs, Department of Labor, Housing and Urban Development, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Big Brothers Big Sisters of Canada, and Governor's Prevention Partnership in Connecticut. Her publications include the My Mentor & Me series, Guidebook to Mentoring, Manual for Mentors, and Strengthening Native Community Commitment through Mentoring. She received her doctorate from the University of Bridgeport, College of Business and Public Management.

    Vivian Wong is a doctoral student in Human Development and Social Policy at Northwestern University. Her research interests include the role of after-school programs on adolescent development and determinants of relationship quality among unmarried, cohabiting parents. Prior to coming to Northwestern University, she administered ScienceQuest, an after-school program funded by the National Science Foundation. As policy researcher for the Sexuality Information Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), Wong examined how federally funded abstinence education programs were implemented in classroom and after-school contexts.

    Brian T. Yates, PhD, is a tenured Full Professor in the Department of Psychology at American University in Washington, DC, where he began as an Assistant Professor in 1976, following receipt of his PhD in psychology from Stanford University. He has published 5 books and 53 articles and book chapters. Most of his publications apply cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis to the systematic evaluation and improvement of mental health and other human services. His manual for helping substance abuse treatments measure, report, and improve cost, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit was published in 1999 by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    Marc A. Zimmerman, PhD, is Professor of Health Behavior and Health Education in the School of Public Health, Psychology, and the Combined Program in Education and Psychology at the University of Michigan. He received his doctorate in psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is director of the Prevention Research Center of Michigan and the Youth Violence Prevention Center and principal investigator for the Flint Adolescent Study, a longitudinal study designed to investigate adolescent assets and resources. His primary research interests include the application and development of empowerment theory and the study of adolescent health and resiliency.


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