The SAGE Handbook of Writing Development
Publication Year: 2009
This Handbook critically examines research and theoretical issues that impact writing development from the early years through to adulthood. It provides those researching or teaching literacy with one of the most academically authoritative and comprehensive works in the field. With expert contributors from across the world, the book represents a detailed and valuable overview of a complex area of study.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- General Introduction
- Chapter 1: The History of Writing
- Introduction to Section I
- Chapter 2: Modelling the Development of Written Composition
- Chapter 3: Writing about What We Know: Generating Ideas in Writing
- Chapter 4: From Idea to Text
- Chapter 5: Revision Processes
- Chapter 6: A Sociocultural Framework: Writing as Social Practice
- Chapter 7: Developing Discourse Roles and Positionings – An Ecological Theory of Writing Development
- Chapter 8: Writing: A Critical Literacy Perspective
- Chapter 9: Multiple Literacies and Multi-Literacies
- Chapter 10: Writing as Linguistic Mastery: The Development of Genre-Based Literacy Pedagogy
- Chapter 11: Writing in a Multimodal World of Representation
- Chapter 12: Grammar and Writing – the International Debate
- Chapter 13: How Linguistics Can Inform the Teaching of Writing
- Introduction to Section II
- Chapter 14: Early Written Communication
- Chapter 15: Writing in Childhood Worlds
- Chapter 16: Agency and Platform: The Relationships between Talk and Writing
- Chapter 17: Learning to Use Alphabetic Writing
- Chapter 18: Developing an Understanding of Punctuation
- Chapter 19: The Critical Role Handwriting Plays in the Ability to Produce High-Quality Written Text
- Chapter 20: Engaging and Motivating Children to Write
- Chapter 21: Writing and Popular Culture
- Introduction to Section III
- Chapter 22: Morphemes and Children's Spelling
- Chapter 23: Measuring Maturity
- Chapter 24: The Architecture of Textuality: A Semiotic View of Composing in and Out of School
- Chapter 25: The Content of Students' Writing
- Chapter 26: Creativity and Constraint: Developing as a Writer of Poetry
- Chapter 27: Becoming a Designer: Trajectories of Linguistic Development
- Chapter 28: Writing Through College: Self-Efficacy and Instruction
- Chapter 29: Toward a New Understanding for Classroom Writing Assessment
- Chapter 30: The Role of Readers in Writing Development: Writing Students Bringing Their Texts to the Test
- Introduction to Section IV
- Chapter 31: The Expansion of Second Language Writing
- Chapter 32: Meeting the Needs of Advanced Multilingual Writers
- Chapter 33: Causes of Delays and Difficulties in the Production of Written Text
- Chapter 34: The Contested Materialities of Writing in Digital Environments: Implications for Writing Development
- Chapter 35: Hypertext and Writing
- Chapter 36: Developing Writing in a High-Stakes Environment
- Chapter 37: Writing in the Wider Community
- Chapter 38: Reflections on the Future of Writing Development
Introduction and editorial arrangement © Roger Beard, Debra Myhill, Martin Nystrand and Jeni Riley 2009
Chapter 1 © David R. Olson 2009
Chapter 2 © Denis Alamargot and Michel Fayol 2009
Chapter 3 © David Galbraith 2009
Chapter 4 © John R. Hayes 2009
Chapter 5 © Lucile Chanquoy 2009
Chapter 6 © Triantafillia Kostouli 2009
Chapter 7 © Jon Smidt 2009
Chapter 8 © Hilary Janks 2009
Chapter 9 © Brian V. Street 2009
Chapter 10 © David Rose 2009
Chapter 11 © Gunther Kress and Jeff Bezemer 2009
Chapter 12 © Terry Locke 2009
Chapter 13 © Craig Hancock 2009
Chapter 14 © Deborah Wells Rowe 2009
Chapter 15 © Anne Haas Dyson 2009
Chapter 16 © Judy Parr, Rebecca Jesson, and Stuart McNaughton 2009
Chapter 17 © Charles Read 2009
Chapter 18 © Nigel Hall 2009
Chapter 19 © Carol A. Christensen 2009
Chapter 20 © Pietro Boscolo 2009
Chapter 21 © Jackie Marsh 2009
Chapter 22 © Peter Bryant and Terezinha Nunes 2009
Chapter 23 © Richard Hudson 2009
Chapter 24 © Peter Smagorinsky 2009
Chapter 25 © Brenton Doecke and Douglas McClenaghan 2009
Chapter 26 © Anthony Wilson 2009
Chapter 27 © Debra Myhill 2009
Chapter 28 © Ellen Lavelle 2009
Chapter 29 © Brian Huot and Jeff Perry 2009
Chapter 30 © Gert Rijlaarsdam, Martine Braaksma, Michel Couzijn, Tanja Janssen, Marleen Kieft, Mariet Raedts, Elke van Steendam, Anne Toorenaar, and Huub van den Bergh 2009
Chapter 31 © Paul Kei Matsuda, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper, and Aya Matsuda 2009
Chapter 32 © Suresh Canagarajah and Maria Jerskey 2009
Chapter 33 © Julie Dockrell 2009
Chapter 34 © Doreen Starke-Meyerring 2009
Chapter 35 © Christina Haas and Chad Wickman 2009
Chapter 36 © Marian Sainsbury 2009
Chapter 37 © Beverly J. Moss 2009
Chapter 38 © Robert Gundlach 2009
First published 2009
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Notes on Contributors[Page ix]Editors
Roger Beard taught in primary schools, at University College, Northampton, and at the University of Leeds before becoming Professor of Primary Education and Head of the Department of Early Childhood and Primary Education at the Institute of Education, University of London. He has published widely on both reading and writing and has written literature reviews for the National Literacy Strategy in England and for the Brazilian and European Parliaments. His books include Children's Writing in the Primary School, Developing Reading 3–13, Teaching Literacy: Balancing Perspectives; Rhyme, Reading and Writing; Developing Writing 3–13 (all published by Hodder & Stoughton) and Reading Development and the Teaching of Reading (with Jane Oakhill and published by Blackwell).
Debra Myhill is Professor of Education at the University of Exeter, and is Head of the School of Education and Lifelong Learning. Until recently, she was Head of Initial Teacher Education, leading the School's teacher education courses to national recognition for their excellence. Her research interests focus principally on aspects of language and literacy teaching, including underachievement, writing, and talk in the classroom, and she has published widely in this area. She is the author of Better Writers (Courseware Publications), and Talking, Listening, Learning: Effective Talk in the Primary Classroom (Open University Press).
Jeni Riley is a Reader in Literacy in Primary Education in the Department of Early Childhood and Primary Education, at the Institute of Education, University of London. She is passionately committed to enhancing the teaching and learning in early years settings and primary schools through her teaching, research and writing. Before her appointment to the Institute of Education, Jeni was an early years teacher and educational adviser in Oxfordshire. Since her appointment to the Institute, she has focused her research energies on the teaching and learning of language and literacy in the early years of education. Her most recent funded research project, StoryTalk, investigated ways of effectively enhancing the spoken language skills of reception class children in inner city, multicultural schools. Jeni led both a large primary initial teacher education course for 10 years and the Department of Primary Education, before becoming the Head of the School of Early Childhood and Primary Education at the Institute of Education. Currently, she is Consultancy Co-ordinator for the Faculty of Children and Health. She is on the editorial board of the Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, and her recent books are: Riley, J.L. and Reedy, D. (2000) Developing Writing for Different Purposes: Teaching about Genre in the Early Years; Riley, J.L. (2006) Language and Literacy 3–7 and Riley, J.L. (ed.) (2007) Learning in the Early Years 3–7, all published by Paul Chapman Publishing.[Page x]
David R. Olson is University Professor Emeritus, OISE/University of Toronto. He is author or editor of 19 books including The World on Paper: The conceptual and cognitive implications of writing and reading (Cambridge University Press, 1994), Psychological theory and Educational Reform: How school remakes mind and society (Cambridge University Press, 2003) and Jerome Bruner: The cognitive revolution in educational theory Continuum, 2006). He is editor with Nancy Torrance of the forthcoming Cambridge Handbook of Literacy.
Denis Alamargot is Senior Lecturer in cognitive and developmental psychology at the University of Poitiers (France). He is the director of the French CNRS ‘Group of Research on writing’ and the European COST Action Learning to Write Effectively. He does research on eye movements during writing in children, students and professional writers. He publishes various syntheses and experimental papers on writing processes, and wrote Through the Models of Writing (in collaboration with Lucile Chanquoy). He is the co-inventor (with David Chesnet) of the Eye and Pen © software.
Michel Fayol is full Professor in cognitive and developmental psychology at the Blaise Pascal University of Clermont-Ferrand (France) and program officer at the Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Paris (France) (National Research Agency). He has been the director of two CNRS teams, from 1984 to 1998, the LEAD CNRS in Dijon, and from 1998 to 2007, the LAPSCO CNRS in Clermont-Ferrand. He has published more than a hundred papers in referenced journals and many chapters and books, more specifically Processing Interclausal Relationships (Erlbaum) with Jean Costermans, and Learning to Spell (Erlbaum) with C. Perfetti and L. Rieben.
David Galbraith is Senior Lecturer in Psychology and Director of the Centre for Educational Psychology Research at Staffordshire University in the UK. He researches into cognitive processes in writing (particularly the effects of writing on cognition) and into the uses of writing in educational and therapeutic contexts. He is a committee member of the British Psychological Society's Psychology of Education Section and of the European Research Network for Learning to Write Effectively funded by the European Science Foundation. He was coordinator of the European Association for Learning and Instruction's Special Interest Group on Writing and is currently an Associate Editor of the Journal of Writing Research and a member of the Editorial Board for the Educational Research Review.
John Hayes is Professor of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University. He has carried out many empirical studies of factors involved in adult writing and has been active in the [Page xi]development of models of adult writing processes. He is currently interested in trying to model the sequence of events by which beginning and developing writers become adult writers.
Lucile Chanquoy is Professor of Cognitive Development at the University of Nice – Sophia Antipolis in France. She teaches graduate and postgraduate courses in developmental psychology and statistics; she has written two students books on these topics (in French, Hachette Editor). She conducts research in writing, more precisely, in a developmental perspective, she is interested in the revising process, and the possibility of helping children to develop revising strategies, and in spelling to explain grammatical errors that occur both in adults and in children. She is currently the head of her research Laboratory (Laboratory of Cognitive and Social Psychology), and she is a member of a French group of writing researchers (called Groupe de Recherche sur la Production Verbale Ecrite) which is affiliated to the French National Research Centre. In this group, she acts as co-responsible for a specific axis of research about the constraints on writing processes.
Triantafillia Kostouli is an Associate professor at the Department of Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in Greece. She teaches (undergraduate, graduate and in-service teacher education) courses on literacy education, sociocultural linguistics and critical discourse analysis. She has published on Greek children's school writing practices, classroom interaction and on Greek students' writing in academic contexts. Her research interests include the discursive construction of schools as learning communities, the intertextual construction of ideology in and through classroom practices, the relation between identities and learning, and the design of literacy courses (through university–school collaboration) that work for social change.
Jon Smidt is Professor of Norwegian Language and Literature in Teacher Education at Sør-Trøndelag University College in Trondheim, Norway. He has been involved since 1982 in classroom research in reading and writing processes and the teaching of literature and writing in secondary schools, with special interest in the dialogical relationships between students, teachers, texts and sociocultural contexts. At present, he leads a research project about writing in the disciplines and across the curriculum from kindergarten to upper secondary school, besides teaching and supervising master students in teacher education. He is an honorary doctor at Uppsala University, Sweden, has been involved in the development of the current Norwegian school curriculum of Norwegian as a subject, and has conducted international comparative studies, in the International Mother Tongue Education Network (IMEN), and for the Language Division of the Council of Europe.[Page xii]
Hilary Janks is a Professor in Applied English Language Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Her research is in the area of critical literacy, and she is best known for the Critical Language Awareness Series, a collection of classroom materials for teaching students about the relationship between language and power, which she edited. While her earlier work focused on power as negative and oppressive, she is now trying to understand the relationship between literacy and a productive theory of power in the hope that critical literacy can do both deconstructive and reconstructive work.
Brian Street is Professor of Language in Education at King's College, London University, and Visiting Professor of Education in both the Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania and in the School of Education and Professional Development, University of East Anglia. He has written and lectured extensively on literacy practices from both a theoretical and an applied perspective. He has a longstanding commitment to linking ethnographic-style research on the cultural dimension of language and literacy with contemporary practice in education and in development and has recently extended this to research on social dimensions of numeracy practices. He was the 2008 winner of the National Reading Conference's Distinguished Scholar Lifetime Achievement Award. During 2007, he has published four books, he recently published a reader on literacy studies entitled Literacy: A resource Handbook, Routledge (jointly with Adam Lefstein) and edited a volume on literacy in the Springer Encyclopedia of Language & Education. He is co-author of a volume on ethnography (for the National Council for Research in Language and Literacy) with Shirley Heath and co-editor with Viv Ellis and Carol Fox of Rethinking English in Schools published by Continuum Books.
David Rose is the director of Reading to Learn, an international literacy program that trains teachers across school and university sectors (http://www.readingtolearn.com.au). He is also an Associate of both the Faculty of Education and Social Work and the Department of Linguistics at the University of Sydney. His research interests include literacy pedagogy and teacher education, language and cultural contexts and language evolution. He is the author of The Western Desert Code: an Australian cryptogrammar (Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 2001), Working with Discourse: meaning beyond the clause (with J.R. Martin) (London: Continuum, 2003/2007) and Genre Relations: mapping culture (also with J.R. Martin) (London: Equinox, 2008).
Gunther Kress is Professor of Semiotics and Education at the Institute of Education, University of London. His interests are in understanding principles of representation, meaning-making and communication in contemporary social environments. This involves a continuing [Page xiii]interest in the development of a social semiotic theory of multimodal representation and communication. For him, this implies a focus on the processes and forms of communication in all modes including those of speech and writing. Some of his publications in this area are Learning to Write (1982/1994); Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practices (1984/1989); Social Semiotics (1988, with R. Hodge); Before Writing: rethinking the paths to literacy (1996); Reading Images: the grammar of graphic design (1996/2006, with T. van Leeuwen); Multimodal Discourse: the modes and media of contemporary communication (2002, with T. van Leeuwen); Literacy in the New Media Age (2003); English in Urban Classrooms (2005, with C. Jewitt, J. Bourne, A. Franks, J. Hardcastle, K. Jones, E. Reid). Current research projects are ‘Museums, exhibitions and the visitor’ (funded by the Swedish National Research Foundation) and ‘Gains and Losses: changes in teaching materials 1935–2005’ (funded by the Economic and Social Science Research Council, UK).
Jeff Bezemer is co-organizer of a 3-year training programme on ethnography, language and communication under the ESRC's Researcher Development Initiative. The programme is run by Jan Blommaert, Jeff Bezemer and Carey Jewitt from the Institute of Education and Ben Rampton, Adam Lefstein and Celia Roberts from King's College London. It is intended to provide researchers from across the social sciences UK-wide with sociolinguistic tools for the analysis of textual data.
Terry Locke is Associate Professor and Chairperson in the Arts and Language Education Department at the School of Education, University of Waikato. His research interests include the efficacy of grammar teaching, teacher professionalism, constructions of English as a subject (in relation to curriculum and assessment reforms), literature teaching pedagogies and the relationship between English/literacy and ICTs. He is widely published in all of these areas. His recent books are Resisting qualifications reforms in New Zealand: The English Study Design as constructive dissent (Sense Publishers, 2007) and Critical Discourse Analysis (Continuum, 2004). He is coordinating editor of the refereed, online journal English Teaching: Practice and Critique. He is currently working directly on a major New Zealand-based project on teaching literature in the multicultural classroom.
Craig Hancock has taught at the college level for over three decades, with the last twenty-one years as teacher of writing for the nationally recognized Educational Opportunity Program at the University at Albany. From the beginning, he has looked for approaches to grammar that work in harmony with higher-end concerns, approaches that empower and not just correct or constrain. His book Meaning Centered Grammar (Equinox, 2005) has been called ‘an excellent introduction to traditional grammar viewed within a functional perspective’. He has been very active in NCTE sub-groups, including the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar and the Conference on College Composition and Communication, writing and presenting frequently on the value of language awareness, on form/meaning connections, and on meaning-centered approaches to grammar. He is a founding member of New Public Grammar, an advocacy group for the reintegration of scientifically grounded grammar instruction in US public schools.[Page xiv]
Deborah Wells Rowe is Associate Professor of Early Childhood Education in the Department of Teaching & Learning, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, in the United States. She conducts ethnographic research in school settings on preschool and primary grades children's literacy learning. She is co-principal investigator of the Write Start! Project – a 3-year longitudinal study of connections between preschoolers' writing and patterns of personal play interests, and of Enhanced Language and Literacy Success – a grant funded to assist preschoool teachers in implementing research-based reading and writing instruction. At Vanderbilt, she teaches undergraduate and graduate courses related to literacy instruction, literacy learning and qualitative research methods.
Anne Haas Dyson is a former teacher of young children and, currently, a professor of education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Previously, she was on the faculty of the University of Georgia, Michigan State University and the University of California, Berkeley, where she was a recipient of the campus Distinguished Teaching Award. She studies the childhood cultures and literacy learning of young schoolchildren. Among her publications are Social Worlds of Children Learning to Write in an Urban Primary School, which was awarded NCTE's David Russell Award for Distinguished Research, Writing Superheroes, and The Brothers and Sisters Learn to Write: Popular Literacies in Childhood and School Cultures. She recently co-authored two books with Celia Genishi, On the Case, on interpretive case study methods, and Children, Language, and Literacy in Diverse Times.
Stuart McNaughton, PhD, is Professor of Education at the University of Auckland and Director of the Woolf Fisher Research Centre (established 1998). The Centre has a national and international reputation for excellence in research on teaching, learning and development with culturally and linguistically diverse communities. He has research and teaching interests in developmental and educational psychology with a focus on the development of language and literacy, and processes of education, socialisation and culture. Publications include books on reading and instruction (Being Skilled: The Socialisation of Learning to Read – Methuen, 1987) and emergent literacy (Patterns of Emergent Literacy: Processes of Development and Transition – Oxford University Press, 1995); and papers and presentations on many aspects of teaching, learning and development in family and school settings. His most recent book (Meeting of Minds – Learning Media, 2002) develops theory about and extensive examples of effective literacy instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse children. Current research is focused on properties of effective teaching of literacy and language in the context of research-based interventions with clusters of schools. Research and development interventions which have successfully raised achievement levels with schools have involved over 10,000 children and their teachers in more than 50 schools, including large urban multicultural schools and rural isolated schools. He has been Head of the School of Education at the University of Auckland and Director of the University of Auckland at Manukau programme. He was a [Page xv]member of the New Zealand government appointed Literacy Task Force and was chair of the New Zealand Literacy Experts Group and sits on literacy advisory committees for the New Zealand Ministry of Education. He is an international consultant on instructional changes in educational systems and the design and implementation of research and development collaborations with schools for innovation and change.
Judy Parr is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Education at the University of Auckland. Her research interests are broadly in developmental and educational psychology but focus on optimising the development of literacy, particularly writing. Current work includes that of a researcher nested within and informing the national Literacy Professional Development Project and as part of a lead team involved in evaluating and, concurrently, building the evaluative capability of, schools within the national Schooling Improvement initiatives. She has published in a range of journals including Assessment in Education, Professional Development in Education, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education and Journal of Educational Change. She is a co-author of the book Using Evidence in Teaching Practice. Funded research projects completed recently include: effective practice in use of ready-made literacy materials in classrooms; assessment tools for teaching and learning in writing (asTTle); a study of effective practitioners of writing, and a Teaching and Learning Research Initiative project with partner schools to produce a tool for peer observation and feedback of practice in literacy classrooms.
Rebecca Jesson is a Project Researcher and PhD student at the Woolf Fisher Research Centre at the University of Auckland. With a teaching background in primary education and Reading Recovery, she currently facilitates teacher professional development in writing, assessment and moderation in schooling improvement contexts in New Zealand. Her research interests include theories of critical thinking, inter-textuality and transfer, and the application of these to literacy education.
Charles Read is Professor of Linguistics, Emeritus, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the United States. His research has focused on the linguistic foundations of reading and writing, particularly the relationships between sound systems and writing systems. He discovered unexpected phonetic influences on children's beginning spelling and has studied phonological awareness in readers of Chinese and in adults of low literacy. He also co-authored a text and articles about the acoustic analysis of speech. For 10 years, Read served as Dean of the highly regarded School of Education at Wisconsin, leading a period of growth in teacher education, research–doctoral preparation and private support.
Nigel Hall is Professor of Literacy Education at Manchester Metropolitan University and has interests in young children's developing knowledge of language and literacy, particularly with respect to punctuation, play and literacy, and writing. He is also interested in literacy as a social practice, both currently and historically, and how this notion relates to primary-school literacy education. He is the Director of The Punctuation Project which, supported by three ESRC [Page xvi]awards, is seeking to understand how children make sense of punctuation and how teachers might best teach it. A more recent specialist interest is in the field of child language brokering. He headed a recent ESRC seminar series on the topic Children and Adolescents as Language Brokers and has edited a book on child language brokering for the Dutch publisher John Benjamins. He is a co-founder and joint-editor of the international research journal, the Journal of Early Childhood Literacy. Nigel's current areas of post-graduate research supervision are: The nature of learning primary science through fieldwork learning experiences; the young child as a cultural broker; adult learners in FE; how young children learn to use the apostrophe; and the development of the concept of the sentence in children between the ages of 7 and 11. Recent publications are: Hall, N., Larson, J. and Marsh, J. (eds) (2004) Handbook of Early Childhood Literacy (Sage); Hall, N. and Sham, S. (2007) ‘Language brokering as young people's work: evidence from Chinese adolescents in England’, Language and Education, 21, 1:16–30; Hall, N. (2004) ‘The Child in the Middle: agency and diplomacy in language brokering events' in Hansen, G., Malmkjar, K. and Gile, D. (eds) Claims, Changes and Challenges in Translation Studies (Amsterdam: John Benjamins); Hall, N. and Robinson, A. (2003) Exploring Writing and Play in the Early Years, 2nd edition (David Fulton).
After teaching Educational Psychology for many years at University of Queensland, Carol Christensen is currently working as a consultant in literacy. Much of her work focuses on the application of research to school practice. She is particularly interested in the way in which the development of automaticity of component skills can promote student performance in complex, intellectual tasks. She has conducted a number studies looking at the impact of handwriting on student's capacity to write high-quality text and feels that a greater understanding of effective approaches to teaching handwriting will result in substantial benefits in terms of students' written language skills.
Pietro Boscolo is Professor of Educational Psychology in the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Padova (Italy). He also teaches academic writing to undergraduate students. He conducts research in writing at different school levels, from elementary school to university. His recent production focuses in particular on two fields: the improvement of writing competence of struggling writers in primary and middle school, and the affective aspects of writing including the co-editing (with S. Hidi) of Writing and Motivation (2007). He is currently (2007–2009) President of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI).
Jackie Marsh is Professor of Education at the University of Sheffield, UK, where she directs the EdD programme. She is involved in research relating to the nature and role of popular culture, media and new technologies in young children's literacy development. She has conducted [Page xvii]national studies of children's out-of-school use of technologies and has been engaged in numerous projects that have explored how these interests can be built upon in the literacy curriculum. She is a past president of the United Kingdom Literacy Association. Jackie's publications include Desirable Literacies (co-edited with E. Hallett, 2nd edition, Sage, 2008; Literacy and Social Inclusion: Closing the Gap (co-edited with E. Bearne) Trentham, 2008; Popular Culture, New Media and Digital Literacy in Early Childhood (Ed.), RoutledgeFalmer, 2005; and Making Literacy Real (co-authored with J. Larson), Sage, 2005.
Peter Bryant's research is on perceptual and cognitive development in children from birth to adolescence. In recent years, he has worked with Terezinha Nunes on children's reading and spelling and on their mathematics. He was the Watts Professor of Psychology, University of Oxford from 1980 until he retired in 2004, when he became Senior Research Fellow at the department of Education, University of Oxford and Visiting Professor (2004–9) at Oxford Brookes University. He was the founding editor of the British Journal of Developmental Psychology (1983–1988) and the editor of Cognitive Development (2000–2006). In 1991, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He has authored or co-authored the following books: P. Bryant (1974) Perception and Understanding in Young Children (Methuen); L. Bradley and P. Bryant (1985) Rhyme and Reason in Reading and Spelling (University of Michigan Press); P. Bryant and L. Bradley (1985) Children's Reading Problems (Blackwell); U. Goswami and P. Bryant (1990) Phonological Skills and Learning to Read (Psychology Press); T. Nunes and P. Bryant (1996) Children Doing Mathematics (Blackwell); T. Nunes and P. Bryant (2006) Improving Literacy through Teaching Morphemes (Routledge); T. Nunes and P. Bryant (2009, in press) Children's Reading and Spelling: Beyond the first steps (Blackwell).
Terezinha Nunes is Professor of Educational Studies in the Department of Education, University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Harris Manchester College. Her research spans the domains of children's literacy and numeracy, including hearing and deaf children's learning. Her focus of analysis covers both cognitive and cultural issues, with a particular interest in educational applications. She was awarded a Research Readership by British Academy and a prize for her monograph on Alfabetização e Pobreza (Literacy and Poverty) by the Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science. Among her books are Street Mathematics, School mathematics (Cambridge University Press); Children doing Mathematics (Blackwell); Teaching Mathematics to Deaf Children (Wiley), Improving Literacy by Teaching Morphemes (Routledge); and Children's Reading and Spelling: Beyond the First Steps (Wiley-Blackwell).
Richard Hudson is Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at University College London, where he spent all his working life. His main research activity has always been in the area of grammar, where he has built an original theory of grammatical and cognitive structure called Word Grammar and published over a hundred books and articles. For three years he was the president of the Linguistics Association of Great Britain (LAGB), and he is a Fellow of the Linguistics and Philology section of the British Academy. But, alongside this central focus on language structure, he has strong interests in sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics and educational linguistics, [Page xviii]the area where he has been most active in recent years. The educational focus started early in his career, during six years as research assistant to Michael Halliday, and he is a founding member of the Committee for Linguistics in Education and also instigated the Education Committee of the LAGB. One of his books is Teaching Grammar. A Guide to the National Curriculum, (Blackwell, 1992), and he has written a number of articles about educational linguistics, both for teachers and for general linguists. His website is http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/home.htm.
Peter Smagorinsky is Professor of English Education at The University of Georgia. His research investigates teaching and learning from a sociocultural perspective, drawing on the work of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers. His research has included studies of writing, composing across the secondary school curriculum, the use of arts in literary interpretation, teachers' transitions from teacher education programs to their first jobs, and the discourse of character education. He has also written extensively about instructional practice, with a number of books and articles outlining practical ways of applying research findings to classrooms.
Brenton Doecke is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria. He has published extensively in the field of English curriculum and pedagogy, including articles, edited collections, and classroom resources, many in collaboration with secondary English teachers. He was formerly editor of English in Australia, the journal of the Australian Association for the Teaching of English (AATE), and a member of the AATE's executive. He played a leading role in the development of the Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia (STELLA) and is currently heavily engaged in research and debate on standards-based reforms in Australia. Brenton is an associate editor of English Teaching: Practice and Critique and L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature and has guest-edited issues for both journals.
Douglas McClenaghan is an English and Literature teacher at Viewbank College, a state secondary school in Melbourne, Australia. He has published articles and book chapters in the field of English curriculum and pedagogy, particularly in the field of student writing. His teaching and research interests lie in the exploration of reflective teaching practice and the development of alternative understandings of student literacy practices and their place in the English curriculum.
Anthony Wilson is Programme Director of Primary PGCE at Exeter University, School of Education and Lifelong Learning. A published poet, his research interests focus on poetry writing pedagogy, particularly on the cognitive demands of poetry upon children, and on teachers' beliefs and values regarding the place of poetry in the curriculum. He teaches on [Page xix]undergraduate and graduate programmes in the field of creativity and learning, as well as literacy. He is currently submitting an ESRC research bid on poetry writing and cognition.
Debra Myhill See above
Ellen Lavelle is Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine at University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, Arkansas. Her duties include providing instructional and educational research support for graduate medical education and consulting on assessment issues across campus. Her research interests include the assessment of writing approaches of nursing students, teaching residents to teach and the development of a multi-rater evaluation for professional skills in resident education.
Brian Huot has been working in writing assessment for two decades. While the majority of his work has focused on assessment outside the classroom, he has continued to develop theory and practice in which assessment is a valuable component for teaching and learning. He has co-edited several collections including Validating Holistic Scoring: Theoretical and empirical foundations; Assessing Writing Across the Curriculum: Diverse Approaches and Practices; and Assessing Writing: A critical sourcebook. His monograph (Re)-Articulating Writing Assessment for Teaching and Learning appeared in 2002. With Kathleen Yancey he founded two journals devoted to writing assessment: Assessing Writing and The Journal of Writing Assessment which he continues to edit. Brian is professor of English at Kent State University where he coordinates the Writing Program.
R. Jeff Perry is Assistant Professor of English and director of The Writing Center at North Carolina Wesleyan College. His scholarship focuses on the politics of literacy and institutional writing assessments. As a socially progressive researcher, his work attempts to merge scholarship from educational testing and critical theories of reproduction to better understand the ways in which external writing assessments, and pressures to achieve cost efficiency and reliability, undermine writing programs' and writing instructors' ability to educate students.
Martine Braaksma, PhD, is postdoctoral fellow at the Graduate School of Teaching and Learning of the University of Amsterdam. She is member of the Research Group in Language & Literature Education and conducts a research project on ‘Hypertext writing’ (funded by Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research) and a review study on empirical studies [Page xx]about the subject Dutch in secondary education. Martine teaches a course Communication to Masters students Biology and Science at the University of Amsterdam.
Michel Couzijn, PhD, is researcher and teacher educator at the Graduate School of Teaching and Learning of the University of Amsterdam, and member of the Research Group in Language & Literature Education. His research interests include effective language education and transfer, writing instruction, literary and argumentation skills. Currently, he conducts a research project on inquiry learning and writing in pre-academic streams, funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
Tanja Janssen is a senior researcher at the Graduate School of Teaching and Learning of the University of Amsterdam and member of the Research Group in Language & Literature Education. She has written on research in the teaching and learning of literature and writing in secondary schools. Currently, she conducts research in arts education, literature education and creative writing, and she coaches teachers-as-researchers in secondary schools.
Marleen Kieft, PhD, was a member of the Research Group in Language & Literature Education at the Graduate School of Teaching and Learning of the University of Amsterdam from 2001–2007. As a PhD candidate and a postdoctoraral fellow, she conducted research in the field of writing education and writing-to-learn in upper secondary education. Currently, she works as a researcher in educational consultancy.
Mariet Raedts holds a PhD in Language and Literature. She currently works as a postdoctoral researcher and lecturer at HUBrussel, Belgium. Her research interests include observational learning, academic writing and the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and writing performance. She teaches different writing courses, including academic and argumentative writing.
Gert Rijlaarsdam, PhD, is a member of the Research Group in Language & Literature Education at the Graduate School of Teaching and Learning at the University of Amsterdam. His research focuses on writing in L1 and L2, and supervises research on language and literature education. He is editor-in-chief of Ll-Educational Studies in Language and Literature and of Journal of Writing Research and founded, with Ken Watson (Australia), the International Association for the Improvement of Mother Tongue Education (IAIMTE).
Anne Toorenaar is a PhD candidate at the Graduate School of Teaching and Learning (GSTL), University of Amsterdam, and member of the Research Group in Language & Literature Education. After a career in educational consultancy, she specialized in L2 education in middle vocational schools and guided research in pre-vocational schools with teachers to create new forms of language education. Her thesis on ‘Community of Learners for L1-learning in Dutch pre-vocational secondary education’ is funded by Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.
Huub van den Bergh is a professor at the Department of Dutch at the University of Utrecht and at the Graduate School of Teaching and Learning at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He has been involved in nation-wide studies on educational effectiveness, as well as in experimental studies on effective pedagogy in language education and smaller-scale studies on writing and reading processes. He is a member of the Research Group in Language & Literature Education.
Elke Van Steendam, PhD, works at the University of Antwerp. Her research deals with effective methods to teach foreign language learners how to improve their revision and writing skills. More specifically, she focuses on collaborative revision, strategy instruction and observational learning. She teaches business communication in English and German.[Page xxi]
Paul Kei Matsuda is Associate Professor of English at Arizona State University, where he works with doctoral students in Rhetoric, Composition and Linguistics as well as Applied Linguistics. Founding Chair of the Symposium on Second Language Writing and editor of the Parlor Press Series on Second Language Writing, he has published widely on second language writing, history of composition and applied linguistics, and identity in written discourse. His publications appear in journals such as College English, College Composition and Communication, Composition Studies, English for Specific Purposes, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Journal of Basic Writing, Journal of Second Language Writing, and Written Communication.
Aya Matsuda is Assistant Professor of Language and Literacy at Arizona State University, where she teaches graduate courses in applied linguistics. She also teaches courses and gives workshops for K-12 teachers interested in learning how to work with English Language Learners. Her research interests include the use of English as an international language, linguistic and pedagogical implications of the global spread of English, and identity negotiation of bilingual writers. Her work has appeared in various books and journals including English Today, JALT Journal, TESOL Quarterly and World Englishes. She currently serves on the editorial advisory board for TESOL Quarterly.
Christina Ortmeier-Hooper is an Assistant Professor of Composition Studies at the University of New Hampshire in the United States. She conducts research on the writing development of immigrant second language students in secondary schools and higher education, with a focus on issues of writer identity, educational policy, and teacher education. Currently she is the co-chair of the CCCC Committee on Second Language Writing, and she served as the founding chair of the Second Language Writing Section at TESOL. She has edited two collections on second language writing, and her work has been published in TESOL Journal and College Composition and Communication. Professor Ortmeier-Hooper teaches undergraduate courses on writing and graduate-level courses on literacy and identity, research methodology, English education, and second language writing.
Suresh Canagarajah is the Kirby Professor in Language Learning and Director of the Migration Studies Project at Pennsylvania State University. He teaches World Englishes, Teaching and Research in Second Language Writing, Postcolonial Studies, and Theories of Rhetoric and Composition in the departments of English and Applied Linguistics. He has taught in the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, and the City University of New York (Baruch College and the Graduate Center). He has published on bilingual communication, learning of writing, and English language teaching in professional journals. His book Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching (OUP, 1999) won Modern Language Association's Mina Shaughnessy Award for the best research publication on the teaching of language and literacy. His subsequent publication Geopolitics of Academic Writing, U. Pittsburgh Press, 2002, won the Gary Olson Award for the best book in social and rhetorical theory. His edited collection Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice, Erlbaum, 2005, examines linguistic and literacy constructs in the context of globalization. His study of World Englishes in Composition won the 2007 Braddock Award for the best article in the College Composition [Page xxii]and Communication journal. Suresh edits TESOL Quarterly. He is currently analyzing interview transcripts and survey data from South Asian immigrants in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom to consider questions of identity, community and heritage languages in diaspora communities.
Maria Jerskey is Assistant Professor of Education and Language Acquisition at LaGuardia Community College and the former Writing Center Director at Baruch College – both of the City University of New York. Her research and practice have focused on developing writing programs and creating teaching materials for multilingual writers from diverse linguistic and literacy backgrounds. Maria is the co-author, with Ann Raimes, of two writing handbooks, The Open Handbook (© 2007) and Universal Keys for Writers (© 2008). She is also a contributing author to Transformative Spaces: Designing Creative Sites for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education with Springer Publishing (© 2009). Her research interests include multilingual writers of English, rhetoric and composition, applied linguistics and education reform. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in writing and linguistics.
Julie Dockrell (AcSS, FRCSLT) is Professor of Psychology and Special Needs at the Institute of Education, London. She trained as a clinical and educational psychologist and has worked with children who have language and communication difficulties for over 25 years. She continues to do work in schools, collaborate with voluntary agencies and advice the government on ways supporting children with special educational needs. Her major research interests are in patterns of development and the ways in which developmental difficulties impact on children's learning, interaction and attainments. She has a special research interest in vocabulary learning and the ways in which vocabulary knowledge underpins educational attainments. A central theme in this research has been the application of evidence-based research and evaluating interventions to support children with language and communication. She has been Editor of the British Journal of Educational Psychology and the International Journal of Language and Communication Difficulties.
Doreen Starke-Meyerring is an Assistant Professor of Rhetoric and Writing Studies in the Department of Integrated Studies in Education at McGill University in Montréal, Canada, where she co-directs the Centre for the Study and Teaching of Writing. Focused on discourse studies and writing development in higher education, her research examines changes in writing practices in increasingly digital, globalizing, and knowledge-intensive settings and derives pedagogical models for writing development that address these changes. Currently, she is conducting a three-year collaborative research project on the state of writing development in doctoral education at Canadian research-intensive universities. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in academic writing, business communication, and critical internet studies. She is the co-editor of Designing Globally Networked Learning Environments, Sense Publishers, 2008; Research Communication in the Social and Human Sciences, Cambridge [Page xxiii]Scholars Press, 2008; and Writing (in) the Knowledge Society, Parlor Press/WAC Clearinghouse, forthcoming.
Christina Haas received her PhD From Carnegie Mellon University. She is currently Associate Professor of English and Faculty Associate for Undergraduate Research at Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, in the United States, where she teaches in the doctoral program in Literacy, Rhetoric, and Social Practice and directs the Writing Internship Program. She has published in the area of writing technologies in numerous venues in the last 20 years, including Research in the Teaching of English, Written Communication, Technical Communication, Journal of Business and Technical Communication, Computers and Composition, Works & Days, Publications of the ACM, and Human–Computer Interaction. Her book, Writing Technologies: Studies on the Materiality of Literacy was published in 1996 by Erlbaum. Her current research projects include a study of the language of IM, TM, and Facebook (with Pamela Takayoshi), an examination the human hand as a site of the interplay of body and technology in writing, and collaborations with undergraduates in the study of new literacies.
Chad Wickman is completing his doctorate in Rhetoric and Composition, with specialization in Literacy, Rhetoric, and Social Practice, at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, in the United States. His research, focusing on writing and visual representation in scientific practice, examines the distributed and technologically mediated processes whereby scientists transform their laboratory work into rhetorically persuasive texts. Chad has presented his research at national and international writing and physics conferences, and he has been involved in interdisciplinary collaborations that link writing studies with scholarship in the physical sciences.
Marian Sainsbury is Head of Literacy Assessment Research in the Department for Research in Assessment and Measurement at the National Foundation for Educational Research. She is currently directing the Foundation's research into formative uses of e-assessment, together with projects developing single-level tests in reading and assessments of communication skills for Wales. She is international reading co-ordinator for PIRLS. Her assessment research experience with NFER since 1989 has focused mainly on the assessment of literacy in primary schools. Her higher degrees are in philosophy of education, and her recent publications include Assessing Reading: From theories to classrooms (NFER, 2006).
Beverly J. Moss is Associate Professor of English in the rhetoric, composition, and literacy program at the Ohio State University iin the United States. She teaches undergraduate writing and literacy courses as well as graduate courses in composition theory, literacy and race, and qualitative research methods. Her scholarly interests include examining literacy in community [Page xxiv]settings, and the teaching of writing. Currently, Beverly is conducting an ethnographic study of literacy in an African-American woman's service club.
Robert Gundlach is founding Director of the Writing Program and Professor in the Department of Linguistics at Northwestern University in the United States. Combining his interest in writing instruction and his interest in children's language development, he has long been engaged with questions related to how children learn to write and how people continue to develop writing ability through childhood, adolescence and adulthood. He has been a consultant or advisory board member for many organizations, including the National Institute of Education, the National Assessment of Educational Progress, The College Board, the New York State Board of Education, the Illinois State Board of Education, the Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy at the University of California-Berkeley, and the Center for English Learning and Achievement at the University of Wisconsin. He has also served on the editorial boards of Written Communication and Discourse Processes.