Handbook of World Families


Edited by: Bert N. Adams & Jan Trost

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    To Diane and Irene


    Bert N.Adams, JanTrost

    We often speak of the family, but there are many types of families. One can look upon the term family as a very complex word, with a great variety of meanings. Families can be studied from the perspective of a society and its organization. In many countries the law uses the term family to mean either the nuclear family of parents and minor children, or else blood relatives. Companies use various definitions of family to give discounts or bargains; they often advertise themselves as “family friendly.” Also, the term family is used with various boundaries for employees' right to a leave of absence to grieve a deceased relative or following the birth of a child.

    One can also look upon the term family from a small-group perspective and classify a specific group as family or not. For example, a single parent with a child may or may not be considered a family. Two parents living apart with a child alternatively living with each can be classified as a family or not. A married couple without any children can be called a family or not (for example, this couple may be asked, “When are you going to start your family?”). A cohabiting couple with a child may or may not be called a family. A family may be seen to include a large number of individuals related by blood or marriage. Such a group may be called the family, or the extended family, or the kin group. And so on.

    One can also look at the term family from the perspective of the individual. Some persons see as members of their family only those related to them as parents, children, or siblings. Others see pets as family. Some include relatives such as uncles, aunts, and cousins. Still others consider (and label) close friends as family (Aunt Maurine and Uncle Roald may simply be close and long-term friends). The variety is enormous.

    Organization of the Book

    Another way of looking at family or families is to see how the study of family is divided into subfields of related topics. The formation of relatively long-lasting relationships of same- or opposite-gender couples is one of the fields related to families. Some such relationships will be nonlegalized cohab-iters, some will marry, and some will marry but be in a LAT (living apart together) relationship. Another field has to do with children being born (fertility) to a couple or a single person. The process of socialization is also a field to which family is related, as is the separation or divorce of cohabiting or married couples.

    We know of books that are cross-cultural, but not necessarily comparative. At the outset of this project, we determined that to make it comparative, the format or outline of the chapters should be identical, or almost so. That way, the reader or student can look up a section and compare, for example, Chinese family formation with Indian, or Indian divorce with divorce in the United States. The major sections of each chapter follow this order: 1. Introduction; 2. Family Formation (or Pairing Up/Mate Selection); 3. Fertility and Socialization; 4. Gender; 5. Marriage; 6. Stresses and Violence; 7. Divorce and Remarriage; 8. Kinship; 9. Aging and Death; 10. Family and Other Institutions; and 11. Special Topics.

    The 25 countries included in the volume are organized by world region. We have alphabetized the regions in the following order: Africa, Asia and the South Pacific, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America. Then, within these six regions, the countries included are also alphabetized.

    Style and Expertise

    As you begin to read a specific chapter, some variation from our outline may be found. Topics may be omitted. If the author has neither expertise nor available literature on, for example, violence or aging, they may leave it out. If the author sees his or her society's families as having no special or unique issue that deserves discussion, the Special Topics section will simply be left out. If the country's politics and economics have been covered in the Introduction, then Other Institutions may be omitted. Also, topics may be combined. Several authors see Gender and Marriage as a single set of issues. If so, they are allowed to deal with them as 4 & 5, or together. Likewise, 6 & 7 have been combined (Stresses and Divorce) in a few cases, if the author chose to. Also, a topic or subtopic may be added. For example, the chapter on Cuba includes in its introductory section lengthy information on the revolution. Likewise, Kwang-Kyu Lee has included a lengthy treatment of South Korean history. Quite a few authors wrote a Conclusion (or Conclusions) as a way to end their chapter.

    For some countries (and authors) there may be much information available for some topics, while for some others information may be very limited. For example, LAT relationships exist in many countries, but no information or data are available in some of these countries. In addition, the authors themselves may be experts on a certain issue—perhaps fertility or divorce—and in such cases the discussion of that issue may be more intensive. Our authors have written as comprehensively as possible, but there may be a certain internal unevenness in a chapter. Also, the authors have been allowed to change the heading of one of the eleven subsections, if they prefer.

    The purpose is thus to utilize a set structure, but without forcing the author(s) to a rigid adherence. Their expertise is allowed to show through, as is the information available in a given society. We have also, while editing the English for readability, tried to avoid abandoning the style or “voice” of the author. It is our intent for both the author's expertise and style to be evident within the comparative outline.


    You will in all likelihood find themes that run through many, if not all, the chapters. It is not our intention in this Introduction to extract all the important ones, but for your benefit we will note a few, distinguishing between (1) uniform themes; (2) variations on a theme; and (3) unusual but important ideas.


    Two of the most consistent cross-cultural themes are the rise in divorce rates and the decline in fertility. While the divorce rate may not have risen as much, nor the fertility rate declined as much in India as it has in many Western societies, the trend still holds. Another consistent set of findings concerns gender roles. Women's education and job opportunities are increasing, but women are still paid less and do more housework than men. While these trends have moved further toward gender equality in some societies than in others, the general trend holds. A fourth finding, often discussed under socialization, is the lessened respect shown by children toward their parents and other adults. While this may be less troublesome to certain Western societies than to those in Africa, the trend is close to universal.

    Variations on a Theme

    If you look at the Introduction (1) and section on Family and Institutions (10) of various chapters, you will find many discussions of family policy. The dramatic differences between Scandinavia, with its parental leave, and the United States can be compared with the policy of other societies. A second variation is on the theme of cohabitation. There are at least four situations in which nonmarital cohabitation occurs. There are the young premarried, the never married, the postdivorce, and the very poor. Each of these categories of cohabitors has a different set of reasons for living together without marrying.

    A third set of variations has to do with family violence. You will find some societies in this volume in which family violence is ignored, if not denied. There are others where certain types of violence, especially against women and children, are still close to being normative, or at least expected. Then there are societies that expect it to occur, but frown upon it—at least publicly. Finally, some societies do not expect it, and have even passed laws against it, but still find it occurring.

    Not just in the Special Topics sections, but also in various other places, you will find intriguing or unusual issues that you will want to pursue further—both inside and outside this volume. For example, Kwang-Kyu Lee speaks of urban “neighborhoods without neighboring.” By this he means that people may live close to each other without developing any sense of community. This is the sort of issue that may deserve further cross-cultural attention.


    This book includes chapters on 25 nations from around the world. That means, of course, that your favorite country—or the one you were most anxious to learn about—may not be included. There are several reasons why a particular country may be missing. First, it may simply be that we could not find an expert to write about families in that society. A second reason for omission is that we may have found an author (or authors), but were unable to get them to agree to write the chapter on their society. The third, and most disappointing, reason why a society may be missing is that a scholar agreed to write, but did not come through with his or her contribution. At some point we simply had to move ahead with completion of the project.

    A good scholar can learn to understand another culture, but it is usually better to have authors who were brought up in the countries they are writing about. From the short biographies in the About the Contributors and About the Editors sections, you will see how successful we were at finding such authors. In fact, you will enjoy reading about the 34 authors of our 25 chapters. We cannot express enough appreciation to the scholars who have written the manuscripts now included in this Handbook.

    This project has been 2 years in the making, and many more years as an idea. We believe the Handbook of World Families will be found useful by scholars and colleagues all over the world, by students in relevant and related fields, by professionals who work with families, whether as social workers or politicians, and by laypeople interested in family matters in societies other than their own, such as even by travelers who want to learn about the country to which they are going.


    The editors wish to thank James Brace-Thompson of Sage for his encouragement on this project. We also appreciate the hard work of our 34 authors, from many cultures and societies, whose efforts and scholarship have filled the chapters with information and insights. Finally, Karen Ehrmann and others at Sage have helped to make the finished product what it is.

  • Epilogue

    The world in which families exist today is a world of economic globalization. It is a world of religious, racial, and economic violence. It is a world of the Internet and CNN, of mass communication, and—as Kerry Daly and Anna Dienhart remind us—of accelerated time demands (1998, p. 113). The effects of these factors are described by Michael Wallace in the following negative terms:

    The restructuring of the global economy has unleashed a tremendous torrent of technological and organization changes that are leaving in their wake broken careers, disheveled families, and shattered dreams. The affluent society is being divided into winners and losers, haves and have-nots, the jobbed and the dejobbed. (1998, p. 36)

    Despite the changing world, Lynda Walters and her coauthors remind us that in many respects,

    the experience of living in a family is the same in all cultures. For example, relationships between spouses and between parents and children are negotiated; most relationships within families are still hierarchical; the work of the home is still primarily the responsibility of the wife;

    financial support is the responsibility of both, but the wife's is seen as supplementary; conflict is damaging to children; and

    individuals and families change, or develop, in predictable ways. (Walters, Warzywoda-Kruszynska, & Gurko, 2002, p. 448)

    While these may be constants in family experience, they obscure many broad and minute differences. An important cross-cultural change, described throughout this volume, is the increase in women's education and employment outside the home. This change, however, has hardly resulted in gender equality. The support mechanisms, such as childcare, have not materialized, equal opportunities are not available, and men may not see the necessity of taking an equal domestic role. An edited volume by Judith Mirsky and Marty Radlett describes the continuing struggles women face: In most of the world, marriage, divorce, and child custody still favor men; abuse against women still occurs; access to land, inheritance, and financial security is unavailable to most women; sexual harassment and discrimination occur in work and educational settings; and men's response to these issues and to their domestic responsibilities lag far behind (Mirsky & Radlett, 2000).

    In addition to this incomplete revolution in gender roles, there are other changes occurring not just in the industrialized nations but in many others as well. Miller and Browning note that the patterns include “decreases in household size and fertility rates overall and increases in divorce and non-traditional living arrangements” (2000, p. 302).

    Incidentally, it is most interesting that one can start with either increased women's employment, increased divorce, or decreased fertility, and explain the other two.

    Lest we become overwhelmed with the language of change, it is a good idea to note that our view of history is often static or oversimplified. A good example is found in D'Cruz and Bharat's discussion of the joint family in India, explicated by Singh in this volume. D'Cruz and Bharat state that a

    systematic and comprehensive perusal of family literature in India at once breaks the deep-seated notion that the Indian family was basically joint and that the nuclear family has replaced it, following industrialization and urbanization. On the contrary, it has been demonstrated that a multiplicity of family patterns including joint families, nuclear families, single parent families, dual earner families, and adoptive families have always coexisted. (2001, p. 185)

    In other words, plural or multiple family forms are found historically in India, China, Cuba, Israel, and many other societies in this volume. They are not new today.

    As you have seen in the foregoing chapters, while comparisons can be made and similarities can be found, not all societies and cultures are changing at the same rate of speed or in exactly the same direction. One reason for the differences in change results from different family policies. For example, Chinese governmental intervention has affected not just fertility but also late marriage and household size (Yi, 2002, p. 31). Likewise, Sweden's parental-leave policy makes a difference in the fathering role. However, behavior lags behind government policy (Seward, Yeatts, & Zottarelli, 2002, p. 397). Lest one overstate the directive importance of public policy, one must note Kamerman and Kahn's (1997) important book on family change and policy in four English-speaking nations, none of which, they say, has a coherent family policy.

    Change and lack of change, similarities and differences, and, as Walters et al. (2002) remind us, internal (often hidden) differences within societies are the essence of cross-cultural and cross-societal comparisons. Thus, we come to the end of this cross-cultural journey through families in 25 nations in the 21st century. We hope you have found the book as interesting and insightful as we did in putting it together.

    Daly, K., & Dienhart, A. (1998). Negotiating parental involvement: Finding time for children. In D.Vannoy & P. J.Dubeck (Eds.), Challenges for work and family in the 21st century (pp. 111–122). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    D'Cruz, P., Bharat, S.Beyond joint and nuclear: The Indian family revisited. Journal of Comparative Family Studies32 (2001). 167–194.
    Kamerman, S., & Kahn, A. J. (1997). Family change and family policies in Great Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Miller, R. R., Browning, S. L.How constructions of ethnicity and gender contribute to shaping non-traditional family patterns. Journal of Comparative Family Studies31 (2000). 301–307.
    Mirsky, J., & Radlett, M. (2000). No paradise yet: The world's women face the new century. London: The Panos Insitute and Zed Books.
    Seward, R. R., Yeatts, D. E., Zottarelli, L. K.Parental leave and father involvement in child care: Sweden and the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies33 (2002). 387–399.
    Wallace, M. (1998). Downsizing the American dream: Work and family at century's end. In D.Vannoy & P. J.Dubeck (Eds.), Challenges for work and family in the 21st century (pp. 23–38). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Walters, L. H., Warzywoda-Kruszynska, W., Gurko, T.Cross-cultural studies of families: Hidden differences. Journal of Comparative Family Studies33 (2002). 433–449.
    Yi, Zeng.A demographic analysis of family households in China, 1982–1995. Journal of Comparative Family Studies33 (2002). 15–34.

    Author Index

    About the Editors

    Bert N. Adams is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States. He has published The Family: A Sociological Interpretation (5 editions) and Sociological Theory. He is a past president of the National Council on Family Relations, and still teaches 500 students in his Marriage and Family course. Jan Trost is Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, Sweden. He has published extensively in the fields of family studies and symbolic interaction. Dr. Trost is very active internationally and has been president of the Committee on Family Research (CFR) of the International Sociological Association (ISA), and has been president of the Nordic Family Research Network (NFRN) for 10 years. Since 1996 he has been honorary president of the CFR.

    About the Contributors

    Fausto Amaro, PhD, is Professor and Director of the Family Studies Centre at the Higher Institute of Social and Political Sciences, Technical University of Lisbon. His research has focused on family policy, child abuse, adoption, sexual behavior, and mental health. He is the author and coauthor of several books and articles on these subjects.

    Taghi Azadarmaki, PhD, graduated from Maryland University in 1991 with a dissertation on Ibn-Khalduan's social theory. After returning to Iran, he has taught several courses on social theory, social and cultural changes in Iran, and cultural studies. He has conducted some survey research on values in Muslim countries and worked on some social and cultural issues in Iran. He has run the Social Science faculty at the University of Tehran since 1996 and was promoted to professor in sociology in 2003. During the last 10 years he has published 14 books on social theory, cultural and social changes, Iranian modernity, and family and culture in Iran, and has published 34 papers on different issues in academic journals.

    Yu-Hua Chen is Assistant Professor of Rural Sociology at the National Taiwan University. She recently served as executive editor for the Journal of Population Studies, a leading demographic publication in Taiwan. Emphasizing the influence of demographic processes, her research focuses on women's well-being and their families over the life course. She is also interested in comparing the consequences of socioeconomic change for families and households among Chinese societies. Her most recent publication is a chapter titled “The Impact of Co-residence on Marital Power: An Interplay Between Resources and Norms” (with Chin-Chun Yi) in Murray Rubenstein and Scott Simon (Eds.), Engendering Formosa (M. E. Sharpe, forthcoming).

    Wilfried Dumon is Professor Emeritus at Katholijke Univeristeit Leuven, Department of Sociology, Belgium. He was secretary/ treasurer of the Committee on Family Research (CFR) of the International Sociological Association (ISA) for many years. He was also awarded an honorary doctorate from Uppsala University, Sweden.

    Elisa Facio is Associate Professor in Ethnic Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Her research and teaching focus on racial-ethnic women and aging. She has been taking students to Cuba for over a decade. She also conducts research on gender inequality in Cuba during the Special Period.

    Hannele Forsberg, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Social Work and vice-chair of the Childhood and Family Research Unit, University of Tampere. She has studied and written extensively about families, children, and the social construction of emotions in social problems work.

    Carol D. H. Harvey, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Family Social Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. She is a family researcher and teacher, with interest in family problem-solving among immigrant, refugee, and native families and among family caregivers with frail elderly members. She has worked in universities in the United States and Canada for 34 years; she has also had the opportunity to take sabbatical leaves in Finland, Scotland, and Australia.

    Elizabeth Jelin is Senior Researcher at the National Council of Scientific Research, Argentina, Research Director at Instituto de Desarrollo Económico y Social, and Director of the Doctoral Program in the Social Sciences developed jointly at the Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento and IDES. She is the author of numerous publications, including State Repression and the Labors of Memory, and editor of several volumes in the series “Memorias de la represión.” She is also the author and editor of Más allá de la nación: Las escalas múltiples de los movimientos sociales and of Pan y afectos: La transformación de las familias. Her research interests are in human rights, the family, citizenship, and social movements.

    Tomáš Katrnák is a research assistant in the Department of Sociology at the Faculty of Social Studies in Brno. His research concerns the sociology of family, demography, social inequality, and social stratification.

    Ruth Katz received her PhD in sociology from Tel Aviv University. She is at the Department of Human Services, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Studies, University of Haifa, and a senior researcher at the Center for Research and Study of the Family and at the Center for Research and Study of Aging. Her main fields of interest include family relations, gendered division of labor, alternative lifestyles, intergenerational relations, immigrant families, and family theory.

    Daniela Klaus is employed as a scientific researcher at the Department of Sociology at the Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany. Her fields of interest are sociology of family and quantitative methods of empirical research. Currently, she is working in a cross-cultural study examining the value of children to their parents in Turkey, where she is doing her doctoral thesis on the subject of the demographic transition.

    Thomas Klein is Professor of Sociology at Heidelberg University, Germany. His research interests are family and population sociology, comparative social stratification, and life course research. He has authored many publications on various topics in these fields.

    Sandra Kytir received her MA in sociology at the University of Vienna and is currently undertaking a PhD at Lancaster University. She tutors in statistics and works in social indicator research with a special focus on family issues. Her current research interest is in transition processes from state socialism to a market economy, focusing on uneven development in Eastern European countries.

    Yoav Lavee received his PhD in family studies from the University of Minnesota. He is at the School of Social Work, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Studies, University of Haifa, and a senior researcher at the Center for Research and Study of the Family. His main fields of interest include family stress and coping, marital dynamics under stress, marital quality in a multicultural context, and family theory and methodology.

    Kwang-Kyu Lee received a BA in history in 1960 from Seoul National University and a PhD in Cultural Anthropology in 1966 from the University of Vienna. From 1967 to 1998 Dr. Lee was a professor at Seoul National University, and became Professor Emeritus in 1998 at the same university. In 2003 Dr. Lee was president of the Overseas Koreans Foundation.

    Irene Levin is a professor at Oslo University College, Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research. Her publications include books and articles on stepfamilies (including Stepfamilies—Variations and Manifold [Aventura, Oslo] and Stepfamilies—History, Research and Policy [The Howarth Press]), living apart together relationships (LAT—One Couple Two Homes [N. W. Damm, Oslo]), and symbolic interaction (To Understand Everyday Life From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective [TANO, Oslo]).

    Edward K. Mburugu is currently Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Dean in the Faculty of Arts of the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Recent articles have focused on development and fertility in Africa and the changing family and kinship in African development. He is also a coeditor of African Perspectives on Development (James Currey Ltd. 1994).

    Innocent Victor Ogo Modo is Nigerian. He holds a PhD in social anthropology. Currently, he is an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. He is a member of the committee of Family Research (RCO6) of the International Sociological Association.

    Ivo Mozný is Professor of Sociology and Social Philosophy and a senior researcher at the School for Social Studies, Masaryk University Brno Czech Republic. Dr. Mozny's scholarly interests include sociology of the family, poverty, social policy, social conflict and change, and higher education. Dr. Mozny has also published four books on family and social change and many papers in sociological journals, and is engaged in governmental advisory committees on the family and social policy.

    Fahad Al Naser obtained his PhD in sociology of family from Michigan State University in 1986. Since his return to Kuwait, he has been teaching at Kuwait University. He has published many articles and has also authored textbooks related to marriage, family, divorce, mate selection, and the like, in both Arabic and English. While writing his contribution to this volume, he was just ending his term as chair of the Department of Sociology & Social Work, Kuwait University. After the liberation of Kuwait in 1991 (from the Iraqi occupation), Dr. Fahad was deeply involved with humanitarian projects that were related to rehabilitating the people of Kuwait who were affected by the crisis. He also serves on the board of several educational committees and institutions.

    Bernhard Nauck is the founding Professor of the Department of Sociology at Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany. He received his PhD in 1977 from the University of Cologne, and habilitation in 1983 and 1987 (University of Bonn and Augsburg). His research interests include comparative family sociology, life course, and migration, and he has published some 150 scholarly pieces in German, English, French, Turkish, and Italian. Currently, he is president of the Committee on Family Research of the International Sociological Association.

    Rudolf Richter, PhD, is University Professor of Sociology at the Institute of Sociology at the University of Vienna. He has been a member of the coordination team of the European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and the Family since 2000. He was a visiting professor at the University of Minnesota in 1985 and at Arizona State University in 1996. He is a member of several international sociological scientific organizations and is a past president of the Austrian Association of Sociology and a past vice president of the Committee of Family Research of the International Sociological Association. His main areas of research include sociology of family, sociology of the life course, political sociology, Eastern European studies, cultural sociology, and interpretative sociology.

    Anne R. Roschelle is Associate Professor and Chair of Sociology at the State University of New York at New Paltz. Her teaching and research focus on the intersection of race, class, and gender, with a specialty in family poverty. She also conducts research on gender inequality in Cuba during the Special Period.

    Barbara H. Settles, PhD, is Professor of Individual and Family Studies, University of Delaware, Newark. Her recent writings have focused on futures of families in the United States and internationally, immigration, migration and the concepts of home and society, prevention and family life and sexuality education, comparisons of the United States to China in family formation and intergenerational caregiving, and the scholarship of teaching and learning.

    Xuewen Sheng worked as a research professor in the Department of Marriage and Family Studies, Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China, from 1982 to 1997, with major research areas of comparative family studies and gender and aging issues. He received his MA on Human Development and Family Studies in 1999, and he is currently a PhD candidate on Human Development of Family Studies at the University of Delaware. His interest areas include comparative family studies, human development, and research methodology.

    J. P. Singh is Professor in the Postgraduate Department of Sociology, Patna University, India. Earlier he was Reader in Research Methodology at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. He obtained a PhD in demography from the Australian National University, Canberra. He held a UNDP Fellowship at the Institute of Social Studies, the Hague, and was a Professional Associate of the Institute of Population Studies, East-West Center, Hawaii. During the last three decades of his academic career, he has published eight books and over 50 research papers in books and leading professional journals from India and abroad.

    Peter Somlai is Professor and Head of the Department of History of Social Theory in the Institute of Sociology at the Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary. He taught on family and society in several universities in the United States, Germany, and Romania. His current research interest is theories of deviance. Recent publications include a chapter titled “Global Citizenship: An Essay on Its Ambiguities” in J. A. Myers-Walls & P. Somlai, with R. N. Rapoport (Eds.), Families as Educators for Global Citizenship (London: Avebury Press, 2001).

    Maura I. Toro-Morn is Associate Professor of Sociology at Illinois State University. Her research and teaching focus on the intersection of race, class, and gender with a specialty in global migrations from a gendered perspective. She also conducts research on gender inequality in Cuba during the Special Period.

    Olga Tóth is a senior researcher at the Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. She conducted a series of empirical studies on family and gender in recent decades. Her main research topics are family formations, violence in the family, and connections between generations. She also teaches courses for undergraduate students in different universities. She has published in Hungarian and in English.

    David de Vaus is Professor of Sociology at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. He has also worked as the director of research at the Australian Institute of Family Studies, where he has conducted research on cohabitation, intergenerational relationships, family values, mental health and families, and family disruptions as experienced by children. He is the author of many books including Letting Go: Relationships Between Adults and Their Parents (1994); Australian Family Profiles: Social and Demographic Patterns (1997) (with Ilene Wolcott); and Diversity and Change in Australian Families (2004).

    Chin-Chun Yi is a research fellow at the Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. She is also teaching at the Department of Sociology, National Taiwan University. Her research interests include changing females' domestic status, youth study, and the transformation of private universities in Taiwan. Her recent publications are “Taiwan's Modernization Women's Changing Roles” (in Peter Chow [Ed.], Taiwan's Modernization in Global Perspective [Praeger, 2002]), “The Linkage Between Work and Family: Females' Employment Patterns in Three Chinese Societies” (in Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 2002), and “The Intergenerational Transmission of Family Values: Teenagers and Their Parents in Taiwan” (in Journal of Comparative Family Studies, in press).

    Susan C. Ziehl is Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Industrial Sociology at Rhodes University, Grahams-town, South Africa. She holds an M.ECON degree from the University of Stellenbosch and a PhD from Rhodes University. She also spent 2 years at the University of Neuchatel, Switzerland. Her main research and teaching area is family sociology, with specific emphasis on household structures, marital status, and family law. She also teaches in industrial sociology, in particular, a course on gender and work. Her other areas of interest are infertility and modern reproductive technology, demography, affirmative action, and sexual harassment. Recent publications include Population Studies (Oxford University Press, 2002) and “Forging the Links—Globalization and Family Patterns” (in Society in Transition, 34[2], 2003).

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